Syndecan-2: A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Syndecan-3: A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Glypicans: A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred ICRExtremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Mice, Inbred BALB CTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
All syndecans have an N-terminal signal peptide, an ectodomain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short C- ... All syndecans are anchored to plasma membrane via a 24-25 amino acid long hydrophobic transmembrane domain, in contrast to ... The syndecans are known to form homologous oligomers that may be important for their functions. Functions of syndecan can be ... Syndecan-4 is upregulated in osteoarthritis and inhibition of syndecan-4 reduces cartilage destruction in mouse models of OA. ...
The heparanase-exposed hydrophobic sequence GAGAL that promotes the alpha helicity of lacritin's C-terminal amphipathic alpha ... The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for ... Asundi VK, Carey DJ (Nov 1995). "Self-association of N-syndecan (syndecan-3) core protein is mediated by a novel structural ... cleaves off heparan sulfate to expose a binding site in the N-terminal region of syndecan-1's core protein. Three SDC1 elements ...
Structural heterogeneity of the core proteins of the hydrophobic cell-associated forms". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (2): 854-9. PMID ... The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for ... syndecan-2) during mouse embryonic development". Development. 119 (3): 841-54. PMID 8187643. "Entrez Gene: SDC2 syndecan 2". ... Syndecan-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDC2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane (type I ...
Syndecans 1 and 4 have been implicated in a variety of cancer types including cervical, breast, lung, and colon cancer, and ... where the Phe-43 ball fits into the conserved hydrophobic α2 and β2 domain residues. During binding with MHC-II, CD4 maintains ... HIV-1 and HIV-2 can both use the CCR8 co-receptor. The crossover of co-receptor targets for different strains and the ability ... 9 (1): S2. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-9-S1-S2. PMID 21284901. Evans, M.J., von Hahn, T., Tscherne, D.M., Syder, A.J., Panis, M., ...
To allow for the addition of the GPI anchor, glypicans have a hydrophobic domain at the C-terminus of the protein. Within 50 ... Therefore, unlike syndecans the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains attached to glypicans are located rather close to the ... with the other major family being syndecans. Six glypicans have been identified in mammals, and are referred to as GPC1 through ... In humans, glypican-1 is overexpressed in breast and brain cancers (gliomas), while glypican-3 is overexpressed in liver ...
It is stabilized by a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic surface since it is often found inside cell cytoplasm in the formation ... doi:10.1007/s00534-009-0046-1. ISSN 0944-1166. PMID 19259612. Li A, Morton JP, Ma Y, Karim SA, Zhou Y, Faller WJ, Woodham EF, ... 162 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63799-6. ISSN 0002-9440. PMC 1851132 . PMID 12507891. Vignjevic D, Schoumacher M, ... 32 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1002/cm.970320102. ISSN 0886-1544. PMID 8674129. Yamashiro-Matsumura S, Matsumura F (April 1985). " ...
Although some mucins are membrane-bound due to the presence of a hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain that favors retention in ... 7 (1): 29759. doi:10.3402/jom.v7.29759. ISSN 2000-2297.. *^ Li Y, Martin LD, Spizz G, Adler KB (November 2001). "MARCKS protein ... 44 Suppl 1 (1): 5-9. doi:10.1080/713713622. PMID 12952166.. *^ Midura RJ, Hascall VC (October 1996). "Bone sialoprotein--a ... Mucins are secreted as massive aggregates of proteins with molecular masses of roughly 1 to 10 million Da. Within these ...
Kida Y، Sakaguchi M، Fukuda M، Mikoshiba K، Mihara K (November 2001). "Amino acid residues before the hydrophobic region which ... inositol 1,3,4,5 tetrakisphosphate binding. • clathrin binding. • syntaxin binding. • ربط بروتيني. • calcium-dependent ... SYT2‏ (Synaptotagmin 2) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SYT2 في الإنسان.[1][2] ... Jones JM، Popma SJ، Mizuta M، Seino S، Meisler MH (March 1995). "Synaptotagmin genes on mouse chromosomes 1, 7, and 10 and ...
All syndecans have an N-terminal signal peptide, an ectodomain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short C- ... All syndecans are anchored to plasma membrane via a 24-25 amino acid long hydrophobic transmembrane domain, in contrast to ... The syndecans are known to form homologous oligomers that may be important for their functions. Functions of syndecan can be ... Syndecan-4 is upregulated in osteoarthritis and inhibition of syndecan-4 reduces cartilage destruction in mouse models of OA. ...
The heparanase-exposed hydrophobic sequence GAGAL that promotes the alpha helicity of lacritins C-terminal amphipathic alpha ... The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for ... Asundi VK, Carey DJ (Nov 1995). "Self-association of N-syndecan (syndecan-3) core protein is mediated by a novel structural ... cleaves off heparan sulfate to expose a binding site in the N-terminal region of syndecan-1s core protein. Three SDC1 elements ...
... and the syndecan interaction as class II (-phi-X-phi). These results, in conjunction with other emerging structural data on PDZ ... with affinities for hydrophobic side chains, function in a combinatorial way: S(-1) and S(-2) act together to bind syndecan, ... and syndecan, reveal the molecular roots of syntenins degenerate specificity. Three distinct binding sites (S(0), S(-1), and S ... and syndecan, reveal the molecular roots of syntenins degenerate specificity. ... ...
... a transmembrane hydrophobic region between said cytoplasmic and extracellular regions, a protease susceptible cleavage sequence ... and Z represents from 1 to 10 amino acid residues. Additional peptides having this glycosylation site and genetic information ... Hu-Syndecan-4: Rt-Syndecan-4: Ch-Syndecan-3: Hu-Syndecan-2: Rt-Syndecan-2: Mu-Syndecan-2: Fr-Syndecan-2; Dr-Syndecan; ##STR6## ... portions of syndecan-2, syndecan-3, and syndecan-4, as well as any other syndecan homolog, can be used to generate the chimeric ...
Syndecans are involved in many important cellular processes. Our recent publications have demonstrated that syndecan-1 ... One way in which membrane proteins can modulate their structures and functions is by direct and specific contact of hydrophobic ... In vivo models demonstrate the importance of syndecan-4 signaling, as syndecan-4-knockout mice exhibit healing retardation due ... Syndecans are proteoglycans whose core proteins have a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain and a large N-terminal ...
In vivo models demonstrate the importance of syndecan-4 signaling, as syndecan-4-knockout mice exhibit healing retardation due ... The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic ... Syndecan-1 and FGF-2, but not FGF receptor-1, share a common transport route and co-localize with heparanase in the nuclei of ... We conclude that syndecan-1 and FGF-2, but not FGFR-1 share a common transport route and co-localize with heparanase in the ...
... cells were transfected with wild-type and cytoplasmic deletion mutants of mouse syndecan-1 to study the requirements for ... what mechanisms are in place to deal with the unwanted consequences of exposing hydrophobic residues upon force-induced protein ... The structures of Cl(-)-(Methanol)1,2 clusters have been unraveled combining Infrared Predissociation (IR-PD) experiments and ... Diabetes control and pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes treated during pregnancy with continuous subcutaneous ...
Syndecan 4 is also known to adhere to integrin. Syndecans can also inhibit the spread of tumors by the ability of the syndecan ... This minor change places a small hydrophobic patch of amino acids on the surface of the β-globin chains. ... The role of syndecans in cell-cell adhesion is shown in mutant cells lacking syndecan I that do not adhere well to each other. ... Syndecans. Syndecans are transmembrane proteins that make a single pass with a long amino acid chain (24-25 residues) through ...
Proteoglycans include, but are not limited to, versican, decorin, betaglycan, syndecan and aggrecan. "Glucosaminoglycans" are ... hydrophobic and/or lipophilic properties to enhance penetration into the skin. For example, glucose can be modified to octyl ... 1. 5. . . Tn. *. (. n. -. 1. ). 6. [0057] where D.I. is the desquamation index, A is the percent area covered by comeocytes, ... hydrophobic and/or lipophilic properties to the compounds. The term also includes derivative, analogs, isoforms, precursors and ...
The hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, are required for achieving the optimal surface tension reducing properties ... Within the lung, syndecan-1 and -4 are expressed as transmembrane proteins on epithelial cells and released in the ... Syndecans are cell surface proteoglycans that bind and modulate various proinflammatory mediators and can be proteolytically ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) mediates inflammation-induced shedding of syndecan-1 and ... ...
2001) possibly a syndecan (Ritty et al. 2003). Fibrillins also have a major role in binding and sequestering growth factors ... Hydrophobic domains are rich in glycine, proline, alanine, leucine and valine. These amino acids occur in characteristic short ... Emilin-1 polymer EFEMP1 Emilin-2 polymer FBLN5 MFAP1 EFEMP2 MFAP5 ITGB1 Fibrillin-1 TGFB3 LTBP3 EFEMP1 FBN2 ITGB5 TGFB3(21-300 ... Emilin-1 polymer ITGB6 MFAP2 TGFB3(21-300) ITGB3 ITGB5 ITGB6 Fibrillin-2 FBLN1 FBLN2 FBLN1 FBLN1 MFAP5 Fibrillin-3 TGFB2(20-302 ...
2001) possibly a syndecan (Ritty et al. 2003). Fibrillins also have a major role in binding and sequestering growth factors ... Hydrophobic domains are rich in glycine, proline, alanine, leucine and valine. These amino acids occur in characteristic short ... Fibrillin-1 LTBP3 ITGA5(42-894) LTBP4 FURIN. ITGB6 FBLN1 FBLN2 LTBP1 ITGA8(39-1063) ITGB1 LTBP1 ITGAV(31-1048) TGFB3(21-300) ... LTBPs:Fibrillin-1. ITGB6 TGFB2(20-302) ITGB3 ITGAV(31-1048) Fibrillin-3 TGFB3 Fibrillin-3 FBLN2 ELN LTBP1 FBLN5 ITGAV(31-1048) ...
T. Pap and J. Bertrand, "Syndecans in cartilage breakdown and synovial inflammation," Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 9, no. ... the hydrophobic binding cleft is preserved and YKL-40 has been shown to bind not only to chitin, which is a polymer of N- ... Interestingly, YKL-40 concentrations in OA SF correlated positively with MMP-1 (. , ), MMP-3 (. , ), IL-6 (. , ), and IL-17 (. ... Moreover, YKL-40 released from the cultured OA cartilage correlated positively with MMP-1 (. , , Figure 3(a)) and MMP-3 (. , , ...
2001) possibly a syndecan (Ritty et al. 2003). Fibrillins also have a major role in binding and sequestering growth factors ... Hydrophobic domains are rich in glycine, proline, alanine, leucine and valine. These amino acids occur in characteristic short ... Elastin is synthesized as a 70kDa monomer called tropoelastin, a highly hydrophobic protein composed largely of two types of ... In addition to their role in self-assembly, hydrophobic domains provide elastin with its elastomeric properties, with initial ...
Syndecan-1 and -3 GAG oxidation channels do in two mitochondrial ligands, one near the N-terminus and the key near the synapse ... Syndecan-1 and -3 target a type. DCC and UNC-5 have directly enhanced as download Jean motors. protein acids exert infectious ... 1( PDZ) light culture, which regulates COPI-coated on all volumes except SALM4 and SALM5( Ko et al. proteins are addition ... hyperphosphatemia apoptosis( I(1,4,5)P3), is caused when the DNA complex acid( PI(4,5)P2) segregates degraded by a Noncanonical ...
Hydrophobic amino acids exposed by this structural change insert into the host cell membrane and form a pore, which can be used ... A CD138/syndecan-1-specific antibody (clone B = B4) was obtained from Chemicon, Ltd. The 33L2-445/467-specific rabbit ... 5A). These data suggested that the N-terminal hydrophobic stretch of amino acids and the cluster of basic amino acids of the ... 6A). We found that GFP2-33L2-445/467 partially colocalized with syndecan-1 and EEA-1, markers of the plasma membrane and early ...
Syndecan-2 stimulates own almost in cationic, acid and large function receptors. Syndecan-3 consists the neurological today of ... inhibitable and hydrophobic books, and gene mechanisms. The system targets here followed Many for biological cytokine and ... Syndecan year is production changes( Choi et al. 2007) and at least receptor and -4 homology genes( Asundi & Carey 1995, Shin ... Syndecan-1 and -3 download Mehrseitige Sicherheit in offenen Netzen: Grundlagen, praktische Umsetzung und in a platelet. ...
RESULTS: During reperfusion, syndecan-1 levels were higher in graft caval effluent [3118 (934-6141) ng/ml, P = 0.005] than in ... A predominantly hydrophobic aglycone site facilitates accommodation of a variety of 2-linked sialosides; a versatility that ... Syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, and HA are the main components whose shedding has been claimed to represent the endothelial ... After reperfusion arterial syndecan-1 levels increased 17-fold (P < 0.001) and heparan sulfate decreased to a third (P < 0.001 ...
In humans, the principal AMPs are hydrophobic molecules composed of ∼10 to 50 amino acid residues with a net positive charge, ... 1 , 2 ). Whereas prokaryotic AMPs are produced as a competitive strategy to facilitate the acquisition of nutrients and promote ... Syndecan-1 shedding is enhanced by LasA, a secreted virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . J Biol Chem 275 : 3057-3064.[ ... Effect of hydrophobic modifications in antimicrobial peptides. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 205 : 265-274.[PubMed] [CrossRef] ...
Quantitation of repetitive epitopes in glycosaminoglycans immobilized on hydrophobic membranes treated with cationic detergents ... of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites is mediated by the interaction between VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulfate A on Syndecan ... 1: Soluble and protein bound ofCS detected by dot blot.. a Different concentrations of CSA were dissolved in PBS and ... Score: 1-less than 2 cm; 2-2 cm to 4 cm; 3-more than 4 cm). d Comparison of urinary ofCS expression in Spain cohort patients ...
2004) Identification of a PKB/Akt hydrophobic motif Ser-473 kinase as DNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 279: 41189- ... Rong, J., Simons, M. (2012) Syndecan 4 regulation of PDK1-dependent Akt activation. Cellular Signaling 25: 101-105. ... 700256) at 0.5 µg-1 µg/ml in 2.5 % skim milk at 4°C overnight on a rocking platform. To confirm specificity, competition was ... 701052) at a dilution of 1:500 in 1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 ...
However, restricting the repertoire to a single DH gene segment that enriches for the use of hydrophobic reading frame 2, in ... Syndecan-1+), which were sorted from mice 7 d postimmunization with DEX-expressing E. cloacae. Cells were sorted into RPMI 1640 ... or hydrophobic (ΔD-DμFS) amino acids does not dramatically impair the magnitude of the DEX-specific Ab response per se. We ... FIGURE 1. Anti-DEX Ab responses elicited by D-limited mice. Adult WT, ΔD-DμFS, ΔD-DiD, and ΔD-DFL mice were immunized i.v. with ...
Syndecans. Each syndecan has a short cytoplasmic domain, a highly conserved single spanning transmembrane domain, and a large ... Due to their hydrophobic nature, these proteins tend to aggregate and precipitate in aqueous solutions. For this reason these ... Syndecan-1 was shown to be highly overexpressed on the cell surface in aggressive tumor cells and is associated with poor ... Syndecan-1 is used clinically as a blood plasma tumor marker, through solution NMR spectroscopy. It is thought that the ...
... syndecans, and so on. Because of the requirement of intramembrane proteolysis for a plethora of signaling pathways and cellular ... We previously identified Retrieval to ER protein 1 (Rer1p) as the first negative regulator of the stepwise assembly of γ- ... and anterior-pharynx defective-1 (APH1) subunits. Proper assembly into functional complexes requires quality control mechanisms ... domains of mostly type I integral membrane proteins and thus manages to proteolyse peptide bonds within the hydrophobic lipid ...
These moleculeswere designed by a hybrid approach, which incorporatedthe hydrophobic tail and the addresssequence of deltorphin ... mahogany and syndecan-3). Recent pharmacologicaland genetic studies have confirmed the roleof melanocortins in pigmentation, ... mahogany and syndecan-3). Recent pharmacologicaland genetic studies have confirmed the roleof melanocortins in pigmentation, ... At the time of the review, 4 geneticvariants of HPS were known to exist (HPS-1, HPS-2,HPS-3, and HPS-4). All are associated ...
  • While evidence is mounting that cells exploit protein unfolding for mechanochemical signal conversion (mechanotransduction), what mechanisms are in place to deal with the unwanted consequences of exposing hydrophobic residues upon force-induced protein unfolding? (termsreign.tk)
  • Upon amino into the cytosol, Ran-GTP residues with senescence entry coding in in the beta-catenin of the terminology increase syntenin-1 and the effector of Rev domain. (familie-walther.eu)
  • Neprilysin is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin. (ipscell.com)
  • All syndecans have an N-terminal signal peptide, an ectodomain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of the structural requirements on phosphatidylethanolamine necessary for interaction with the peptide indicates that Ro09-0198 recognizes strictly a particular chemical structure of phosphatidylethanolamine: dialkylphosphoethanolamine as well as 1-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine showed the same inhibitory effect on hemolysis induced by Ro09-0198 as diacylphosphatidylethanolamine, whereas phosphoethanolamine gave no inhibitory effect. (termsreign.tk)
  • Andersen GN, Hagglund M, Nagaeva O, Frangsmyr L, Petrovska R, Mincheva-Nilsson L et al (2005) Quantitative measurement of the levels of melanocortin receptor subtype 1, 2, 3 and 5 and pro-opio-melanocortin peptide gene expression in subsets of human peripheral blood leucocytes. (springer.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an important mitogenic and antiapoptotic peptide that affects the proliferation of normal and malignant cells. (finasteride2020.site)
  • Crystal structures of the PDZ2 domain of the scaffolding protein syntenin, both unbound and in complexes with peptides derived from C termini of IL5 receptor (alpha chain) and syndecan, reveal the molecular roots of syntenin's degenerate specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • Direct interaction between PIP2 and a subset of class II PDZ domains (syntenin, CASK, Tiam-1) has been demonstrated. (embl.de)
  • We conclude that syndecan-1 and FGF-2, but not FGFR-1 share a common transport route and co-localize with heparanase in the nucleus, and this transport is mediated by the RMKKK motif in syndecan-1. (jove.com)
  • 1) Purple indicates nuclear localization signals 2) blue is motif 1 for GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation 3) green is motif 2 for GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation 4) yellow is the PAK1 phosphorylation site and 5) gray denotes the zinc-finger region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For several substrates the liberated cytoplasmic domain has been shown to translocate to the nucleus where it is involved in nuclear signaling (Notch ErbB4, Delta-1 Jagged, APLP1/2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The integrin-mediated and syndecan-4-mediated components of fibronectin-dependent signaling can be separated by stimulating cells with recombinant fibronectin fragments. (jove.com)
  • Although integrin engagement is essential for cell adhesion, certain fibronectin-dependent signals are regulated by syndecan-4. (jove.com)
  • Syndecan-4 activates the Rac1 protrusive signal 3 , causes integrin redistribution 1 , triggers recruitment of cytoskeletal molecules, such as vinculin, to focal adhesions 4 , and thereby induces directional migration 3 . (jove.com)
  • The method uses recombinant fibronectin fragments to engage α 5 β 1 -integrin, without engagement of syndecan-4, and requires inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide to block deposition of additional matrix by the fibroblasts. (jove.com)
  • The most predominant beta 2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2), expressed on all leukocytes, is essential for many adhesive functions of the immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION Tumour Stroma Extracellular Components of the Tumour Stroma Molecules making up the Basement Membrane Associated Tumour Stroma. (docplayer.net)
  • Three molecules possess been recognized as the primary cellular factors required for binding and access of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), heparan sulfate (HS), and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1). (markterest.com)
  • Since 2003, data from several independent groups have shed light on the identity of the molecules that appear to be directly involved in the process of HTLV-1 entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans attached to the syndecan help binding of the various growth factors for activation of important cellular signaling mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syndecans are involved in many important cellular processes. (jove.com)
  • Here we investigate the sub-cellular distribution of syndecan-1, FGF-2, FGFR-1 and heparanase in malignant mesenchymal tumor cells, and explore the possibility of their coordinated translocation to the nucleus. (jove.com)
  • This study highlights the importance of post-translational modifications of host cellular factors in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. (medworm.com)
  • In addition to a variety of extracellular matrix components, the stroma contains a rich cellular population, which includes fibroblasts that provide the connective tissue framework for adipose, vasculature, resident immune cells, and a milieu of cytokines and growth factors (Figure 1) (Pupa et al. (docplayer.net)
  • Lipids are structurally diverse, generally hydrophobic, and have three general functions: to store energy, to act as 1st or 2nd messengers, and to form cellular membranes from polar lipids28. (joshuawelsh.co.uk)
  • Nearly 50 years ago, Page 8 summarized the extant theories in his Connor lecture: lipoproteins infiltrate the artery wall, the lipid is altered to a toxic form, and this promotes an inflammatory response ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, at the site of tissue injury, the soluble syndecan-1 ectodomains are cleaved by heparanases, producing heparin-like fragments that activate bFGF . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most obvious differences between syndecans include (together with differences in distribution) the subclassification of the family depending on the existence of GAG binding sites either at both ends of the ectodomain (syndecan-1 and - 3) or at the distal part only (syndecan-2 and -4) and a relatively long Thr-Ser-Pro-rich area in the middle of syndecan- 3's ectodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this protocol we describe the method by which 30 mW/cm 2 , 1.5 MHz ultrasound, pulsed at 1 kHz ( Fig. 1 ) can be applied to fibroblasts in culture ( Fig. 2 ) to induce Rac1 activation and focal adhesion formation. (jove.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycan chains, a member of the heparan sulfate group, are an important component of syndecan and are responsible for a diverse set of syndecan functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ID NO:. 2 ranging between a fragment represented by Gln23Gly50 to a fragment represented by Gln23-Gln210, and a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain covalently linked thereto which syndecan is isolated free of any biological macromolecules which are present in a natural source of the proteolglycan. (google.es)
  • HTLV-1 infection of target cells is believed to require the two virally encoded envelope glycoproteins (Env), the surface subunit (SU) gp46 and the transmembrane subunit (TM) gp21, generated from the cleavage of a polyprecursor (gp61) in the Golgi apparatus [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To elucidate a structural requirement for this nuclear transport, we have transfected cells with a syndecan-1/EGFP construct or with a short truncated version containing only the tubulin binding RMKKK sequence. (jove.com)
  • MAGP-1, for example, binds strongly to an N-terminal sequence of fibrillin-1. (wikipathways.org)
  • Three distinct binding sites (S(0), S(-1), and S(-2)), with affinities for hydrophobic side chains, function in a combinatorial way: S(-1) and S(-2) act together to bind syndecan, while S(0) and S(-1) are involved in the binding of IL5Ralpha. (rcsb.org)
  • Phospholipase C recruits the emergency hydroxyl in PIP2 to bind 1,2 living( DAG) and major activity( IP3). (erik-mill.de)
  • 1 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the exact role of lncRNA taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) and its possible molecular mechanism in atherosclerosis remain unidentified. (pubfacts.com)
  • This binding causes Akt to locate to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 ( PDK1 ) on Thr308 in the activation loop of the catalytic domain. (thermofisher.com)
  • For example, in mouse cells and tissues, syndecan 1 is highly expressed in fibroblastic and epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syndecan 2 is highly expressed in endothelial, neural, and fibroblastic cells, whereas it has low expression levels in epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syndecan 3 is highly expressed in neural cells, but has low or undetectable amount in epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to classic stimuli produced by inflammatory agents, infections or microbial endotoxins, a dramatic increase in the production of IL-1 by macrophages and various other cells is seen. (rndsystems.com)
  • Prior to lymphocytic infiltration, physiological islet abnormalities have been described in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, including upregulation of inflammatory cytokines ( 1 ) and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in β-cells ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We discovered that treatment of syndecan 1-transduced cells (conveying improved HS) with heparinase, a heparin-degradative enzyme, decreased HTLV-1 susceptibility without influencing the manifestation amounts of HS stores. (markterest.com)
  • Earlier research exposed that HTLV-1 infects not really just human being Capital t lymphocytes and central anxious program cells but also cells of additional cells (6, 17, 21, 34, 51, 69). (markterest.com)
  • 1). Later in the disease's progression, the slightly longer and more hydrophobic form, Ab42, accumulates in cells. (clontech.com)
  • 1. A method for non-surgical lung volume reduction, the method comprising applying an amount of energy with a catheter to a diseased alveolar region of the lung of a patient having emphysema, wherein the amount of energy is sufficient to damage the epithelial cells and the epithelial barrier within the diseased alveolar region of the lung and collapse at least a portion of said region thereby reducing the lung volume. (google.com)
  • It is widely believed that HTLV-1 enters cells in a manner similar to that of other retroviruses including the well-studied HIV-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. What is CD 24 "Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24gene. (ipscell.com)