The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly branched glucan in starch.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A vesicular transport protein that was originally characterized as an inositol polyphosphate binding protein. Synaptotagmin II helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.

Allosteric activation mechanism of the alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor revealed by mutation of the conserved M2 leucine. (1/4501)

A conserved leucine residue in the midpoint of the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the ligand-activated ion channel family has been proposed to play an important role in receptor activation. In this study, we assessed the importance of this leucine in the activation of rat alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by site-directed mutagenesis and two-electrode voltage clamp. The hydrophobic conserved M2 leucines in alpha1(L263), beta2(L259), and gamma 2(L274) subunits were mutated to the hydrophilic amino acid residue serine and coexpressed in all possible combinations with their wild-type and/or mutant counterparts. The mutation in any one subunit decreased the EC(50) and created spontaneous openings that were blocked by picrotoxin and, surprisingly, by the competitive antagonist bicuculline. The magnitudes of the shifts in GABA EC(50) and picrotoxin IC(50) as well as the degree of spontaneous openings were all correlated with the number of subunits carrying the leucine mutation. Simultaneous mutation of the GABA binding site (beta 2Y157S; increased the EC(50)) and the conserved M2 leucine (beta 2L259S; decreased the EC(50)) produced receptors with the predicted intermediate agonist sensitivity, indicating the two mutations affect binding and gating independently. The results are discussed in light of a proposed allosteric activation mechanism.  (+info)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid increases the water accessibility of M3 membrane-spanning segment residues in gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (2/4501)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are members of the ligand-gated ion channel gene superfamily. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we investigated whether residues in the alpha(1)M3 membrane-spanning segment are water-accessible. Cysteine was substituted, one at a time, for each M3 residue from alpha(1)Ala(291) to alpha(1)Val(307). The ability of these mutants to react with the water-soluble, sulfhydryl-specific reagent pCMBS(-) was assayed electrophysiologically. Cysteines substituted for alpha(1)Ala(291) and alpha(1)Tyr(294) reacted with pCMBS(-) applied both in the presence and in the absence of GABA. Cysteines substituted for alpha(1)Phe(298), alpha(1)Ala(300), alpha(1)Leu(301), and alpha(1)Glu(303) only reacted with pCMBS(-) applied in the presence of GABA. We infer that the pCMBS(-) reactive residues are on the water-accessible surface of the protein and that GABA induces a conformational change that increases the water accessibility of the four M3 residues, possibly by inducing the formation of water-filled crevices that extend into the interior of the protein. Others have shown that mutations of alpha(1)Ala(291), a water-accessible residue, alter volatile anesthetic and ethanol potentiation of GABA-induced currents. Water-filled crevices penetrating into the interior of the membrane-spanning domain may allow anesthetics and alcohol to reach their binding sites and thus may have implications for the mechanisms of action of these agents.  (+info)

A numerical measure of amino acid residues similarity based on the analysis of their surroundings in natural protein sequences. (3/4501)

A measure of similarity between amino acid residues based on the analysis of the surroundings of each residue in primary structures of native proteins is proposed. The statistical data used for this purpose were obtained from the analysis of 168,808 protein sequences, which comprise the Protein Identification Research database (release 63). Using various threshold values of the proposed measure, amino acid residues were classified into several groups. The classification elaborated differs essentially from groupings previously used. The numerical measure of amino acid residues similarity can be used in site-directed mutagenesis studies for the prediction of probability of local spatial rearrangements in proteins.  (+info)

Sterically stabilized cationic liposomes improve the uptake and immunostimulatory activity of CpG oligonucleotides. (4/4501)

Immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) show promise as immune adjuvants, anti-allergens, and immunoprotective agents. Increasing the bioavailability and duration of action of CpG ODN should improve their therapeutic utility. Encapsulating ODN in sterically stabilized cationic liposomes provides protection from serum nucleases while facilitating uptake by B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. In a pathogen challenge model, sterically stabilized cationic liposomes encapsulation doubled the duration of CpG ODN-induced immune protection. In an immunization model, coencapsulation of CpG ODN with protein Ag (OVA) magnified the resultant Ag-specific IFN-gamma and IgG responses by 15- to 40-fold compared with Ag plus CpG ODN alone. These findings support the use of sterically stabilized cationic liposomes to significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CpG ODN.  (+info)

Role of interfacial hydrophobic residues in the stabilization of the leucine zipper structures of the transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun. (5/4501)

This study documents a new and versatile experimental approach to study the relative stabilization energetics of recombinant polypeptide and protein mutants. In particular, the effect of temperature change over the range of T = 278-338 K on the thermodynamics of interaction of several leucine zipper coiled-coil polypeptides related to the transcription factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, following binding to immobilized n-octyl ligands has been determined. Plots of the change in heat capacity, DeltaC(p)0, versus T, in combination with the corresponding van't Hoff plots, allow the energetics of the interaction of polypeptides with n-octyl ligands to be rationalized and the respective mid-point transition temperatures, T(m) values, determined for the melting of their supramolecular structures. The derived experimental data correlated well with information available from other procedures, confirming that this new approach provides complementary insight into the interaction thermodynamics and the molecular nature of the thermal stability of recombinant polypeptides in non-polar or other types of chemical environments.  (+info)

Bile-salt hydrophobicity is a key factor regulating rat liver plasma-membrane communication: relation to bilayer structure, fluidity and transporter expression and function. (6/4501)

Bile-salt hydrophobicity regulates biliary phospholipid secretion and subselection. The aim of this study was to determine whether bile salts can influence liver plasma membrane phospholipids and fluidity in relation to the ATP-dependent transporter. Rats were depleted of bile salts by overnight biliary diversion and then sodium taurocholate was infused intravenously at a constant rate (200 nmol/min per 100 g of body weight), followed by infusion of bile salts with various hydrophobicities (taurochenodeoxycholate, tauroursodeoxycholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, tauro-alpha-muricholate at 200 nmol/min per 100 g of body weight). The hydrophobicity of the infused bile salts correlated with that of biliary phospholipids, but was inversely related to that of the canalicular membrane bilayer. Canalicular membrane fluidity (estimated by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence depolarization) and expression of multidrug-resistance proteins (Mrp2, Mrp3) and apical Na(+)-dependent bile-salt transporter (ASBT) were increased by hydrophilic bile salts, although there was no marked change in the expression of P-glycoprotein subfamilies (Mdr2). Bile-salt export pump (Bsep) expression was increased along with increasing bile-salt hydrophobicity. Bile salts modulate canalicular membrane phospholipids and membrane fluidity, as well as the ATP-dependent transporter expression and function, and these actions are associated with their hydrophobicity. The cytoprotective effect of hydrophilic bile salts seems to be associated with induction of Mrp2, Mrp3 and ASBT.  (+info)

Structure-function analysis of the heat shock factor-binding protein reveals a protein composed solely of a highly conserved and dynamic coiled-coil trimerization domain. (7/4501)

Heat shock factor-binding protein (HSBP) 1 is a small, evolutionarily conserved protein originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using the trimerization domain of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 as the bait. Similar in size to HSF1 trimerization domain, human HSBP1 contains two arrays of hydrophobic heptad repeats (designated HR-N and HR-C) characteristic of coiled-coil proteins. Proteins of the HSBP family are relatively small (<100 residues), comprising solely a putative coiled-coil oligomerization domain without any other readily recognizable structural or functional motif. Our biophysical and biochemical characterization of human HSBP1 reveals a cooperatively folded protein with high alpha-helical content and moderate stability. NMR analyses reveal a single continuous helix encompassing both HR-N and HR-C in the highly conserved central region, whereas the less conserved carboxyl terminus is unstructured and accessible to proteases. Unlike previously characterized coiled-coils, backbone 15N relaxation measurements implicate motional processes on the millisecond time scale in the coiled-coil region. Analytical ultracentrifugation and native PAGE studies indicate that HSBP1 is predominantly trimeric over a wide concentration range. NMR analyses suggest a rotationally symmetric trimer. Because the highly conserved hydrophobic heptad repeats extend over 60% of HSBP1, we propose that HSBP most likely regulates the function of other proteins through coiled-coil interactions.  (+info)

Optimization of microbial specificity in cyclic peptides by modulation of hydrophobicity within a defined structural framework. (8/4501)

In the present study we have utilized the structural framework of the analog GS14K4 (cyclo(VKLd-KVd-YPL KVKLd-YP, where d denotes a d-amino acid)), to examine the role of hydrophobicity in microbial activity and specificity. The hydrophobicity of GS14K4 was systematically altered by residue replacements in the hydrophobic sites of the molecule to produce a series of analogs that were either less or more hydrophobic than the parent compound. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the molecules were structurally similar and only differed in overall hydrophobicity. The hydrophobicity of GS14K4 was found to be the midpoint for hemolytic activity, with more hydrophobic analogs exhibiting increased hemolytic activity and less hydrophobic analogs showing decreased hemolytic activity. For antimicrobial activity there were differences between the hydrophobicity requirements against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The hydrophobicity of GS14K4 was sufficient for maximum activity against Gram-negative microorganisms and yeast, with no further increases in activity occurring with increasing hydrophobicity. With Gram-positive microorganisms significant increases in activity with increasing hydrophobicity were seen in three of the six microorganisms tested. A therapeutic index (calculated as a measure of specificity of the peptides for the microorganisms over human erythrocytes) served to define the boundaries of a therapeutic window within which lay the optimum peptide hydrophobicity for each microorganism. The therapeutic window was found to be at a lower hydrophobicity level for Gram-negative microorganisms than for Gram-positive microorganisms, although the limits were more variable for the latter. Our results show that the balance between activity and specificity in the present cyclic peptides can be optimized for each microorganism by systematic modulation of hydrophobicity.  (+info)

286578264 - EP 1258560 A1 2002-11-20 - Use of hydrophobically modified polyaminamides with polyethylene glycol esters in paper products - The present invention uses hydrophobically modified polyaminamide with standard wet strength agent to produce a softer and more absorbent paper material. The hydrophobically modified polyaminamide is substantive to cellulosic fibers, thus is able to carry polyethylene glycol esters or ethers, a non-substantive material to cellulosic fiber as stable complexes, into the paper product.[origin: EP1258560A1] The present invention uses hydrophobically modified polyaminamide with standard wet strength agent to produce a softer and more absorbent paper material. The hydrophobically modified polyaminamide is substantive to cellulosic fibers, thus is able to carry polyethylene glycol esters or ethers, a non-substantive material to cellulosic fiber as stable complexes, into the paper product.
Glycosylations range among the most common posttranslational modifications with an estimated 50% of all proteins supposed to be glycosylated. These modifications are required for essential cellular processes including cell-cell recognition, protein structure and activity, e.g., of surface receptors, as well as subcellular localization of proteins. Beside the elucidation of the carbohydrate structures, the annotation of glycosylation sites is of primary interest as a basis for subsequent functional characterization. Although mass spectrometry is the method of choice for large-scale analysis of glycosylation sites, it requires initial enrichment of glycopeptides prior mass spectrometric detection in most cases. In this paper, we present a novel approach for glycopeptide enrichment by electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC). Glycopeptides were separated from the bulk of non-modified peptides and gradually eluted from the stationary phase with potential for isoform resolution.
The present invention relates to a cement slurry set in a wellbore. The slurry comprises cement, at least one mineral filler, water and a determined amount of at least one hydrophobically modified acrylamide or acrylate derivative. The present invention also relates to an additive specific to a cement slurry and acting as a filtrate reducer and as a rheological control agent, the additive comprising mainly a hydrophobically modified acrylamide or acrylate derivative.
Reversed phase retention mechanism of the C8 elute allows for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds from aqueous matrices that are too strongly retained on C18 sorbent. Provides for the quick release of hydrophobic molecules using weaker organic solvents. Typical applications includes peptide extraction from biological matrices (serum, plasma, urine), nutraceutical extractions from food and beverages ...
Reversed phase retention mechanism of the C8 elute allows for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds from aqueous matrices that are too strongly retained on C18 sorbent. Provides for the quick release of hydrophobic molecules using weaker organic solvents. Typical applications includes peptide extraction from biological matrices (serum, plasma, urine), nutraceutical extractions from food and beverages ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Methods and reagents are disclosed for pretreating a sample suspected of containing a hydrophobic drug for conducting an assay method for detecting the hydrophobic drug. A combination is provided in a medium. The combination comprises (i) the sample, (ii) a releasing agent for releasing the hydrophobic drug and the metabolites from endogenous binding moieties, and (iii) a selective solubility agent that provides for substantially equal solubility of the hydrophobic drug and the metabolites in the medium. The selective solubility agent comprises a water miscible, non-volatile organic solvent and is present in the medium in a concentration sufficient to provide for substantially equal solubility of the hydrophobic drug and the metabolites in the medium. The medium, which may further comprise a hemolytic agent, is incubated under conditions for releasing the hydrophobic drug and the metabolites from endogenous binding moieties. For conducting an assay for the hydrophobic drug, the above pretreatment is
The protein encoded by this gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1 (GSTT1), is a member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione to a variety of electrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Human GSTs can be divided into five main classes: alpha, mu, pi, theta, and zeta. The theta class includes GSTT1, GSTT2, and GSTT2B. GSTT1 and GSTT2/GSTT2B share 55% amino acid sequence identity and may play a role in human carcinogenesis. The GSTT1 gene is haplotype-specific and is absent from 38% of the population. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015 ...
HPLC Part: 00B-4251-AF Luna® 3 µm C18(2) 100 Å, LC Column 50 x 0.5 mm, Capillary, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of hydrophobic compounds Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Silica Format: Capillary Column USP Designation: L1
HPLC Part: 00D-4248-Y0 Luna® 3 µm C8(2) 100 Å, LC Column 100 x 3 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of very hydrophobic compounds Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Silica Format: Column USP Designation: L7
HPLC Part: 00D-4114-Y0 Luna® 3 µm C18 100 Å, LC Column 100 x 3 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of hydrophobic compounds Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Silica Format: Column USP Designation: L1
HPLC Part: 00D-4114-E0 Luna® 3 µm C18 100 Å, LC Column 100 x 4.6 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of hydrophobic compounds Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Fully Porous Silica Format: Column USP Designation: L1
The structural and energetic consequences of modifications to the hydrophobic cavity of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta) are described. Previous reports demonstrated that the entirely hydrophobic cavity of IL-1beta contains positionally disordered water. To gain a better understanding of the nature of this cavity and the water therein, a number of mutant proteins were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, designed to result in altered hydrophobicity of the cavity. These mutations involve the replacement of specific phenylalanine residues, which circumscribe the cavity, with tyrosine, tryptophan, leucine and isoleucine. Using differential scanning calorimetry to determine the relative stabilities of the wild-type and mutant proteins, we found all of the mutants to be destabilizing. X-ray crystallography was used to identify the structural consequences of the mutations. No clear correlation between the hydrophobicities of the specific side-chains introduced and the resulting stabilities was found ...
Progesterone, also known as gesterol or crinone, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure based on a hydroxylated prostane moiety. Thus, progesterone is considered to be a steroid lipid molecule. Progesterone is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Progesterone is a potentially toxic compound ...
நீர் விலக்கு விளைவு (Hydrophobic effect) என்பது முனைவுறும் தன்மையற்ற பொருட்களை நீர்க்கரைசலில் திரட்டுவதற்கும் மற்றும் நீரின் மூலக்கூறுகளை நீக்குவதற்கும் வேதியியல் பொருள்களால் வெளிப்படுத்தப்படும் ஒரு போக்கு ஆகும்.[1][2] இது நீர் மற்றும் முனைவற்ற தன்மை கொண்ட பொருட்களைத் தனியாகப் பிரித்தலை விவரிக்கிறது. இப்பண்பானது, தண்ணீரின் மூலக்கூறுகளுக்கிடையில் ஐதரசன் பிணைப்புகளை அதிகரித்து, ...
Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has been associated with numerous potential health benefits. Factors such as fermentation methods, geographical origin and season can affect the primary and secondary metabolite composition of tea. In this study, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ionisation modes was developed and optimised. The method when combined with principal component analysis to analyse three different types of tea, successfully distinguished samples into different categories, and provided evidence of the metabolites which differed between them. The accurate mass and high resolution attributes of the mass spectrometric data were utilised and relative quantification data were extracted post-data acquisition on 18 amino acids, showing significant differences in amino acid concentrations between tea types and countries. This study highlights the ...
A method for the analysis of dextran-1 has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with charged corona aerosol detection (CCAD) as a potential alternative to the size exclusion chromatography method described in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). Click to read more...
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The present invention provides a method of cementing in a subterranean formation that includes providing a cement composition that includes water, cement, and a fluid loss control additive that includes a water-soluble hydrophobically modified polymer or a hydrophilically modified water-soluble polymer; placing the cement composition into the subterranean formation; and allowing the cement composition to set therein. In certain embodiments, the water-soluble hydrophobically modified polymer or the hydrophilically modified water-soluble polymer may include a polymer backbone that comprises polar heteroatoms. In another embodiment, the water-soluble hydrophobically modified polymer may be a reaction product of a hydrophobic compound with a polyvinylamine, a poly(vinylamine/vinyl alcohol), or an alkyl acrylate polymer.
Aggregation of the yeast Kluyveromyces bulgaricus is mediated by the galactose-specific lectin KbCWL1. This lectin contains hydrophobic amino acids and its activity is calcium dependent. A specific fluorescent probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid in the free acid form (ANS; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri), was used to study the hydrophobic areas on the cellular surface of K. bulgaricus. Changes in surface hydrophobicity during the growth and aggregation of yeast cells were studied. Surface hydrophobicity increased during growth and depended on the amount of yeast cells in the culture medium. During growth, the size of the hydrophobic areas on the cell surface was measured using ANS and was found to increase with the percentage of flocculating yeasts. Our results strongly suggest that the hydrophobic areas of the cell walls of yeast cells are involved in the aggregation of K. bulgaricus.
The optimal concentration of tenofovir DF that needs to be delivered from an IVR to confer protection against HIV and HSV is unknown. Results from the CAPRISA 004 trial indicate that concentrations >1 μg/mL in CVL were associated with a significant reduction in HIV incidence compared with placebo [2.4 versus 9.1 per 100 person-years; incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.26, 95% CI 0.05-0.80, P=0.01].29 These data, combined with in vitro dose responses, suggest that delivery of 0.1-1 mg/day of tenofovir DF from an IVR will likely lead to substantially higher intracellular levels of TFV-DP than intermittent gel dosing. Both silicone and EVA have been used as IVR matrices for the delivery of hydrophobic compounds with logP values >3.30,31 However, drugs like tenofovir DF that are relatively hydrophilic do not have appreciable solubility in EVA or silicone and therefore the drug release is low.9 Earlier work in our laboratory has shown the capability to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds ...
article{0f55d48c-6744-4fed-8c52-9bc57e9a4281, abstract = {The thickening effect of a hydrophobically modified polymer in an aqueous solution is dependent on intermolecular hydrophobic associations, and if the polymer concentration is significantly above the overlap concentration also on chain entanglements. In this investigation we have added different cyclodextrins (CD) in order to decouple hydrophobic polymer-polymer associations via inclusion complex formation with the polymer hydrophobic tails. Both size and hydrophobicity of the cavity of the CD-molecules were found to have an effect on the process. In addition, the influence of chemical structure of the polymer hydrophobic tails was investigated. Either a linear C-14-chain or a more bulky nonylphenol group was used. The viscosity as a function of CD-concentration first decreased strongly, and then attained a constant value. At excess CD the viscosity became virtually the same as in a solution of the unmodified parent polymer, provided that ...
Interest in chromatography using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has continued to build in recent years. Although HILIC chromatography is known to provide valuable retention and selectivity of polar compounds and provide highly compa...
The capability to separate and analyze a wide range of proteins in complex systems remains a prime requirement in the biochemical sciences. Intact protein separations are especially difficult as these large molecules can present different conformations, association states and amphoteric features with chromatographic surfaces. Combining high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be an effective approach for solving difficult problems involving protein analyses. Considerable effort has been made to develop columns for separating proteins with high efficiency for reversed-phase, ion-exchange, size-exclusion chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Even so, many situations still exist where insufficient resolution is available for accurate protein analysis even when high-resolution MS is available. This presentation provides ...
The association of a monodisperse model associative polymer, hydrophobically end-capped poly(ethylene oxide), denoted C(12)EO(460)C(12), in aqueous solution has been studied. The macroscopic properties have been investigated by theological methods and cor. ...
Aqueous dispersions of monoolein (MO) with a commercial hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose ether (HMEHEC) have been investigated with respect to the morphologies of the liquid crystalline nanoparticles. Only very low proportions of HMEHEC are accepted in the cubic and lamellar phases of the monoolein−water system. Due to the broad variation of composition and size of the commercial polymer, no other single-phase regions were found in the quasi-ternary system. Interactions of MO with different fractions of the HMEHEC sample induced the formation of lamellar and reversed hexagonal phases, identified from SAXD, polarization microscopy, and cryogenic TEM examinations. In excess water (more than 90 wt %) coarse dispersions are formed more or less spontaneously, containing particles of cubic phase from a size visible by the naked eye to small particles observed by cryoTEM. At high polymer/MO ratios, vesicles were frequently observed, often oligo-lamellar with inter-lamellar ...
Polysaccharides from Baizhu were separated by preparative hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on an XAmide column and its components were characterised as inulin-type polysaccharides with structures of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-[-(1 -> 2) -beta-D-fructofuranosyl-](n-1)-(1 -> 2) -beta-D-fructofuranoside (n=3-20) by a combinatory application of electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and IR, as well as the chemical analysis of monosaccharide composition. In addition, the contents of nystose and 1F-fructofranosylnystose in the crude and purified Baizhu polysaccharides were determined to be 5.81%, 4.92% and 0.70%, 0.84% (w/w), respectively. In addition, MTT assay indicated that the Baizhu polysaccharides could effectively promote spleen lymphocyte transformation for the enhancement of organism immunity. It is for the first time that inulin-type polysaccharides were discovered in Baizhu and its immuno-enhancing activity was reported, which is a vigorous evidence ...
Superhydrophobic coatings and compositions and methods for preparing superhydrophobic coatings and compositions are described herein whereby the coatings and compositions are prepared under mild conditions, yet the methods are amenable to chemical functionalization of the coatings and components therein. The methods are useful for tuning and optimizing the physical properties of the coatings. In an embodiment, the coatings comprise nanostructured fluorinated silica colloids.
In this research, bacterial cell attachments to hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide were investigated. The aim was to study the effects of these minerals hydrophobicity and pH-dependent surface charge on the extent of biofilm formation using six genetically diverse bacterial strains: Rhodococcus spp.
Theadsorption of hydrophobicallymodifiedpolyelectrolytes(HMPEs)athydrophobicsurfaceswasstudied by ellipsometry. Both the adsorbed amount of polymer Γ and the layer thickness d were measured as a function of time. The HMPEs are polyacrylates carrying various fractions of grafted dodecyl chains. Hydrophobic interactions are responsible for the adsorption (unmodified polyacrylate does not adsorb at the surface). The surface anchoring of grafted dodecyl groups is coupled with the repulsion of charged acrylate groups. This results in the formation of large loops at the interface, separated by very short trains, since the probability to have two or more successive alkyl groups grafted at the polymer chain is small. Asinthecase ofordinarypolyelectrolytes,themeanthickness oftheadsorbedlayerdecreaseswithincreasing solution ionic strength. Changesof theHMPEchemical composition (molar ratio,X, of alkyl units attached on the polyacrylate backbone) affect the adsorbed layer structure in a complex fashion. HMPEs
Capillary origami uses surface tension to fold and shape solid films and membranes into three-dimensional structures. It uses the fact that solid surfaces, no matter how hydrophobic, will tend to adhere to and wrap around the surface of a liquid. In this work, we report that a superhydrophobic coating can be created, which can completely suppress wrapping as a contacting water droplet evaporates. We also show that using a wetting azeotropic solution of allyl alcohol, which penetrates the surface features, can enhance liquid adhesion and create more powerful Capillary Origami. These findings create the possibility of selectively shaping membrane substrates.. ...
OprG is an outer membrane protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa whose function as an antibiotic-sensitive porin has been controversial and not well defined. Circumstantial evidence led to the proposal that OprG might transport hydrophobic compounds by using a lateral gate in the barrel wall thought to b …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrophobic forces and the length limit of foldable protein domains. AU - Lin, Milo M.. AU - Zewail, Ahmed H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/6/19. Y1 - 2012/6/19. N2 - To find the native conformation (fold), proteins sample a subspace that is typically hundreds of orders of magnitude smaller than their full conformational space. Whether such fast folding is intrinsic or the result of natural selection, and what is the longest foldable protein, are open questions. Here, we derive the average conformational degeneracy of a lattice polypeptide chain in water and quantitatively show that the constraints associated with hydrophobic forces are themselves sufficient to reduce the effective conformational space to a size compatible with the folding of proteins up to approximately 200 amino acids long within a biologically reasonable amount of time. This size range is in general agreement with the experimental protein domain length ...
This chapter discusses the aspects of bioremediation that are related to metabolism of recalcitrant chemicals by bacteria, leaving out also detoxification and immobilization of metal ions and metalloids. The most frequent types of sites amenable to bioremediation include soil, freshwater, seawater, and sediments. The chapter talks about the instances where recalcitrant and/or xenobiotic compounds are endowed with chemical properties that cause a deleterious effect on the catalytic microorganisms present in the site-regardless of whether they can be ultimately metabolized. The chemicals at stake include metals, chaotropic agents, aromatics, and hydrophobic compounds. These stressors can be grouped based on their effect on bacterial metabolism. Heat shock-like stress and oxidative damage are certainly the two more prevalent conditions endured by environmental bacteria during in situ biodegradation of chemical waste. This is true for singular stressors as well as for mixtures of them, the most frequent
The costs of academic publishing are absurd. The University of California is fighting back. https://t.co/4lZMxDAUPY via @voxdotcom, ...
Minimal Syntax: % pepplot PIR:kihua -Default Prompted Parameters: -BEGin=1/END=100 sets the range of interest -DENsity=87 sets the density in residues per 100 platen units -MENu=a sets the sequence display b charged-polar-hydrophobic residue cartoon c beta forming-breaking symbols d Chou-Fasman alpha-beta prediction curves e alpha forming-breaking symbols f Chou-Fasman NH2-Ends prediction curves g Chou-Fasman CO2-Ends prediction curves h Chou-Fasman turn prediction curve i helical hydrophobic moment for alpha and beta j hydropathy and hydrophilicity Local Data Files: -DATa1=pepplot.dat specifies amino acid attributes except for Garnier -DATa2=ges.dat specifies hydrophobicities for the GES curve -DATa3=garnier.dat specifies amino acid attributes for Garnier Optional Parameters: -CFFile[=kihua.cho] writes the Chou and Fasman predictions -GARnierfile[=kihua.gar] writes the Garnier predictions -MOMentfile[=kihua.mom] writes the Hydrophobic moment values -HWINdow=9 sets the window for hydropathy ...
Farnaud, S., Amini, M., Rapisarda, C., Cammack, R., Buic, T., Drake, A.F., Evans, R.W., Rahmanto, Y.S. and Richardson, D.R. 2008. Biochemical and spectroscopic studies of human melanotransferrin (MTf): electron-paramagnetic resonance evidence for a difference between the iron-binding site of MTf and other transferrins. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 40 (12), pp. 2739-2745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2008.07.003 Therapeutic exploitation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms: old and new leads ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DPD simulation of protein conformations. T2 - From α-helices to β-structures. AU - Vishnyakov, Aleksey. AU - Talaga, David S.. AU - Neimark, Alexander V.. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - We suggest a coarse-grained model for DPD simulations of polypeptides in solutions. The model mimics hydrogen bonding that stabilizes α-helical and β-structures using dissociable Morse bonds between quasiparticles representing the peptide groups amenable to hydrogen bonding. We demonstrate the capabilities of the model by simulating transitions between coil-like, globular, α-helical, and β-hairpin configurations of model peptides, varying Morse potential parameters, the hydrophobicities of residue side chains, and pH, which determines the charges of residue side chains. We construct a model triblock polypeptide mimicking the sequence of residues α-synuclein at two different pHs. The conformations of this model polypeptide depend on pH similarly to the behavior observed experimentally. ...
Disclosed are hydrophilic coatings covalently bound to hydrophobic surfaces as well as methods for their production. To form the coated surfaces, a compound is provided which comprises a hydrophobic domain including an unsaturated group and a hydrophilic domain. Also provided is a hydrophobic surface comprising unsaturated groups. Molecules of the compound are adsorbed onto the hydrophobic surface, and the unsaturated groups in the hydrophobic domains of molecules of the compound then are covalently crosslinked to the unsaturated groups on the hydrophobic surface by a free radical reaction. In one embodiment, hydrophilic coatings may be covalently attached to hydrophobic polymers such as divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene. Hydrophilic coatings covalently attached to hydrophobic surfaces are obtained which are stable, which may be readily derivatized, and which are useful in a wide range of chromatography applications.
Abstract - Coalescing drops spontaneously jump out of plane on a variety of biological and synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces, with potential applications ranging from self-cleaning materials to self-sustained condensers. To investigate the mechanism of the self-propelled jumping, we report three-dimensional phase-field simulations of two identical spherical drops coalescing on a flat surface with a contact angle of 180°. The numerical simulations capture the spontaneous jumping process which follows the capillary-inertial scaling. The out-of-plane directionality is shown to result from the counter action of the substrate to the impingement of the liquid bridge between the coalescing drops. A viscous cutoff to the capillary-inertial velocity scaling is identified when the Ohnesorge number of the initial drops is around 0.1, but the corresponding viscous cutoff radius is too small to be tested experimentally. Compared to experiments on both superhydrophobic and Leidenfrost surfaces, our ...
A direct comparison of two strategies for designing antimicrobial polymers is presented. Previously, we published several reports on the use of facially amphiphilic (FA) monomers which led to polynorbornenes with excellent antimicrobial activities and selectivities. Our polymers obtained by copolymerization of structurally similar segregated monomers, in which cationic and non-polar moieties reside on separate repeat units, led to polymers with less pronounced activities. A wide range of polymer amphiphilicities was surveyed by pairing a cationic oxanorbornene with eleven different non-polar monomers and varying the comonomer feed ratios. Their properties were tested using antimicrobial assays and copolymers possessing intermediate hydrophobicities were the most active. Polymer-induced leakage of dye-filled liposomes and microscopy of polymer-treated bacteria support a membrane-based mode of action. From these results there appears to be profound differences in how a polymer made from FA ...
Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. In this talk I shall describe two aspects of the localized photochemistry that is occurring in the confined membranes medium. Singlet oxygens intrinsic lifetime in the membrane is 15-35 µs, depending on the constituting lipids, while its lifetime in H2O is 3 µs. Therefore, any oxidative damage that singlet oxygen might cause to membrane proteins or lipids, must occur while it diffuses in the membrane, before escaping out of the lipid phase. Thus, the efficiency of photosensitization depends, among others, on the vertical location of the sensitizer in the membrane. We employed several classes of tetrapyrrole sensitizers (porphyrins, chlorins, phthalocyanines and porphyrazines), that were modified to alter their hydrophobicities and ...
A list of 16 letter words that begin with Hy in the mammoth uncensored word list. hydrodynamically hydrodynamicists hydroelectricity hydrofluosilicic hydroformylation hydrogenisations hydrogenizations hydromeningocele hydrometeorology hydrophilicities hydrophobicities hydroxylapatites hygroscopicities hyperawarenesses hypercatabolisms hypercellularity hypercompetitive hypercorrections hypercorrectness hypercortisolism etc.
Comparison of flotation performance between the flotation column and mechanical ... flotation cell and cyclonic microbubble flotation column in terms of separation ... The effect of hydrophobicity on the drainage of gangue minerals in flotation froths. ... characteristics with appli ion to centrifugal force field flotation cells. ...
We recently showed that vaccination with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) elicited antibody responses in 9 of 9 patients vaccinated in a clinical trial. In this study, we performed T cell immunomonitoring and analyzed tumor responses in thes …
This is amazing. I can see so much usage for this technique in the future in battling blood cancers, hemophilia, and other treatments beyond heart surgery and kidney dialysis. Coating dialysis tubes with a water-repellent material leaves red blood cells unscathed.
List of words make out of Hydrophilicity. Anagrams of word Hydrophilicity. Words made after scrabbling Hydrophilicity. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
In the compound interacts while using the Cys496, that is extremely exclusive on the Etk. Only eight kinases from the 491 kinases which were analyzed inside a previous review [29,30] present Threonine and Cysteine at these positions. Hence CTA095s conversation with the two Thr489 and Cys496 may possibly present it with exceptional kinase selectivity. We also employed LigPlot to forecast hydrogen bonding andor hydrophobic interactions in the binding pocket, and our results confirmed that many hydrophobic interactions are responsible for that CTA095-Etk binding (Determine S3A and S3B). Aspect chains that putatively interact with CTA095 are proven in Determine S3C. Examination on the molecular dynamics trajectories also demonstrate which the R3 team as well as three-ring main interact strongly and stably while using the facet chains during the binding pocket, while R1 and areas of R2 are solvent uncovered, and mayPLOS A person , www.plosone.orgserve as targets for further more improvement on the ...
We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating novel hydrophobic polymer blend networks based on polyamide,known as nylon, and polyethylcyanoacrylate.
Lipids are characterized by their amphipathic character. Because of this, they typically arrange in a bilayer configuration. The hydrophobic tails, however, also serve as a reservoir of metabolic energy, undergoing beta-oxidation in the Krebs cycle. In cells, lipids are stored in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LDs) after esterification of their polar head with an additional hydrophobic chain. Thus, LDs can be considered as the dispersed phase of oil-emulsions-in-water, with the cytosol as the continuous phase. Our understanding of the molecular properties of LDs is very limited, and we are currently investigating how their function and behaviour is modulated by their unique chemical properties.. ...
Lipids are characterized by their amphipathic character. Because of this, they typically arrange in a bilayer configuration. The hydrophobic tails, however, also serve as a reservoir of metabolic energy, undergoing beta-oxidation in the Krebs cycle. In cells, lipids are stored in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LDs) after esterification of their polar head with an additional hydrophobic chain. Thus, LDs can be considered as the dispersed phase of oil-emulsions-in-water, with the cytosol as the continuous phase. Our understanding of the molecular properties of LDs is very limited, and we are currently investigating how their function and behaviour is modulated by their unique chemical properties.. ...
The hydrophobic effect refers to the tendency of nonpolar molecules to cling together when placed in water. Oil floating on water and water beading on waxy surfaces are examples of the hydrophobic...
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Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence can significantly impact both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Sigmas ultrapure HyStem line of products is produced according to these guidelines, yielding a product that is suitable for demanding in vitro and in vivo experiments.
Wetting is an everyday phenomenon that represents how well liquid spreads on a surface. When water comes into contact with an extremely water-repellent, or superhydrophobic surface, droplets bead up and roll off easily. Researchers have developed a measurement technique called Scanning Droplet Adhesion Microscopy (SDAM) to understand and characterize the wetting properties of superhydrophobic materials ...
... which disrupts hydrophobic interactions), or changes in pH. In general, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) is ... Hydrophobic molecules in the mobile phase tend to adsorb to the relatively hydrophobic stationary phase. Hydrophilic molecules ... Hydrophobic interactions between proteins and the chromatographic matrix can be exploited to purify proteins. In hydrophobic ... It is distinguished from hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in that the retention mechanism is due to ...
As O-GlcNAc is highly hydrophilic, its presence may disrupt hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. For example, O-GlcNAc ... It has been suggested that O-GlcNAc plays a role in the interaction of α-catenin and β-catenin. Co-translational O-GlcNAc has ... This interaction is associated with H2B S112 O-GlcNAc, which in turn is associated with H2B K120 monoubiquitination. ... Mutagenesis to tryptophan has been used to mimic the steric bulk of O-GlcNAc, though tryptophan is much more hydrophobic than O ...
Thus, the exterior of a protein is typically hydrophilic, whereas the interior is typically hydrophobic. Protein structures are ... The non-covalent interactions include ionic interactions and weak van der Waals interactions. Ionic interactions form between ... Van der Waals interactions include nonpolar interactions (i.e. London dispersion force) and polar interactions (i.e. hydrogen ... This folding process is driven by the hydrophobic effect: a tendency for hydrophobic (water-fearing) portions of the protein to ...
The aggregates are hydrophobic and hydrophilic dimers, joined together by intermolecular interaction. Bridging of the ... Since both of these amino acids are also hydrophobic this mutation is thought to have little interference with the folding and ... This relationship will indicate an interaction between Ca2+ and the toxin molecule at the membrane level. The Ca2+ dependence ... Phenylalanine and leucine are both hydrophobic, however phenylalanine is large, aromatic and strand-preferring, while leucine ...
The phospholipid molecule is amphipathic; it contains a hydrophilic polar head and a hydrophobic nonpolar tail. The ... These latter interactions drive the bilayer structure that acts as a barrier for ions and molecules. There are various types of ... This interaction is possible thanks to the ribosome, which serves as the site for protein synthesis. The ribosome possesses ... 2001). Lipid bilayers : structure and interactions ; with 6 tables. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer. ISBN 978-3540675556. Stryer, ...
Physical crosslinks consist of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and chain entanglements (among others). Because of the ... A hydrogel is a network of crosslinked polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water ... Physical crosslinks consist of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and chain entanglements (among others). A hydrogel ... as different molecules will have different intermolecular interactions with each other and different interactions with the ...
... exterior heads and a hydrophobic interior where proteins can interact with hydrophilic heads through polar interactions, but ... Hydrophobic interactions (also known as the hydrophobic effect) are the major driving forces in the formation of lipid bilayers ... An increase in interactions between hydrophobic molecules (causing clustering of hydrophobic regions) allows water molecules to ... The arrangement of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails of the lipid bilayer prevent polar solutes (ex. amino acids, nucleic ...
Since the new interactions between the hydrophilic amino acids are stronger than hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions, this is ... In a hydrophobic environment, the hydrophilic amino acids will concentrate at the core of the protein, while the hydrophobic ... In a hydrophilic environment such as cytosol, the hydrophobic amino acids will concentrate at the core of the protein, while ... Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are important stabilizing forces in proteins. If the temperature rises and ...
Additionally, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions of the micelles are similar to that in the polar regions of a membrane. ... Micelles are composed of surfactant, or detergent, monomers with a hydrophobic moiety, or tail, on one end, and a hydrophilic ... Hydrophilic drugs are often unretained using conventional HPLC, are retained by MLC due to solubilization into the micelles. ... Too high a concentration of the organic may cause the micelle to disperse, as it relies on hydrophobic effects for its ...
... utilized to be conjugated with hydrophilic polymer chains to generate higher ordered structure through hydrophobic interactions ... At the critical aggregation concentration, they form nanoparticles due to the hydrophobic interactions. The resulting ... Metal-binding interactions, host-guest, and boronic acid-based chemistries are widely studied as non-covalent conjugation ... For example, conjugation of a single chain of the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) can increase the hydrodynamic radius of ...
Similarly, since the heads are hydrophilic, the head-water interaction is more favourable than air-water interaction. The ... Langmuir-Blodgett films are inherently 2D-structures and can be built up layer by layer, by dipping hydrophobic or hydrophilic ... Surfactants (or surface-acting agents) are molecules with hydrophobic 'tails' and hydrophilic 'heads'. When surfactant ... with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail (example: fatty acids) or nowadays commonly of nanoparticles. Langmuir-Blodgett ...
This bond may consist of an induced dipole interaction between a hydrophobic matrix and a hydrophobic anchor. As long as the ... reaction medium is hydrophilic (polar) in nature the anchor will remain on the solid phase. Switching to a nonpolar solvent ... In one experimental setup the hydrophobic matrix is RP silica gel (C18) and the anchor is acridone. Acridone is N-alkylated and ... synthesis whereby the organic substrate is bonded to the solid phase not by a covalent bond but by other chemical interactions ...
Electrostatic interaction is the primary initial interaction when the pH is lower, while the chelating and hydrophobic effects ... which is composed of hydrophilic heads and a hydrophobic tail. The hydrophilic heads form the inner and outer linings of the ... The secondary interaction, the hydrophobic effect, involves the accumulation of nonpolar compounds away from water. Nonpolar ... The chelating and hydrophobic effects are common secondary interactions of antimicrobial polymers with microbes. Cationically ...
The outer surface of the protein is hydrophilic allowing the complex to be soluble. The use of hydrophobic interactions, with ... The structure forms an internal hydrophobic cavity in which 1-2 lipids can be bound. ... very few charged interactions, allows the protein to have broad specificity for a range of lipids. PLTPs are pan-allergens, and ...
In this case, the hydrophilic groups are sequestered in the micelle core and the hydrophobic groups extend away from the center ... since hydrophilic sequestration would create highly unfavorable electrostatic interactions. Supermicelle is a hierarchical ... Moreover, thanks to the larger hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, block copolymers can have a much more pronounced amphiphilic ... In water, the hydrophilic "heads" of surfactant molecules are always in contact with the solvent, regardless of whether the ...
... aqueous solutions and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions. He is mainly concerned with theoretical and experimental aspects of ... 1974, ISBN 030630774X (out of print). Hydrophobic Interactions. 1980, ISBN 978-0-306-40222-7. Molecular Theory of Solutions. ...
... basic hydrolytic conditions typically produce a periodic structure because of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between ... The hydrophobic nature of the PMO walls allow for better control in drug release. In this respect, it is not just the ... The theory was that the π-π interaction between the aromatic analytes and the phenylene bridge of the PMO framework leads to ... interactions among solvent evaporation, micelle formation/packing and sol condensation". RSC Advances. 1 (3): 401-407. doi: ...
In more hydrophobic surfaces, surfactants may form a bilayer on the solid, causing it to become more hydrophilic. The dynamic ... As wetting interactions are of great importance in various applications, it is often desired to predict and compare the wetting ... For water, a wettable surface may also be termed hydrophilic and a nonwettable surface hydrophobic. Superhydrophobic surfaces ... Generally, the rougher the surface, the more hydrophobic it is. If a drop is placed on a smooth, horizontal surface, it is ...
... hydrophilic, or hydrophobic residues. Upon binding, the receptor often undergoes a conformational change and may bind further, ... This interaction causes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which triggers structural changes within the alpha subunit of the G ... This interaction allows the hormone receptor to produce second messengers within the cell to aid response. Second messengers ... The changes interrupts the interaction of the alpha subunit with the beta-gamma complex and which results in a single alpha ...
... hydrophobic interactions, hydrophilic interactions, van der Waals force etc. When two or more polypeptide chains (either of ... Another biological role is energy storage (e.g., triglycerides). Most lipids consist of a polar or hydrophilic head (typically ... For lipids present in biological membranes, the hydrophilic head is from one of three classes: Glycolipids, whose heads contain ... apparently because of both positive and negative interactions of the extra OH on the ribose. Structured RNA molecules can do ...
The stronger interactions between the hydrophilic AFM tip and the hydrophilic side of the Janus nanoparticles were reflected by ... The hydrophobic hemisphere of the Janus particles was exposed when a hydrophilic substrate surface was used, resulting in ... For example, a Janus particle may have one-half of its surface composed of hydrophilic groups and the other half hydrophobic ... The first type are particles which are truly amphiphilic and possess one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic side. The second type ...
One face of the beta sheet and one side of the helix array are exposed to solvent and are therefore dominated by hydrophilic ... It is composed of repeating 20-30 amino acid stretches that are unusually rich in the hydrophobic amino acid leucine. These ... They are themselves not involved in protein-protein-interactions but help to present the adjacent LRR-domain for this purpose. ... The region between the helices and sheets is the protein's hydrophobic core and is tightly sterically packed with leucine ...
... a hydrophobic membrane anchor ("M"). The B repeats (36kD) were found to be responsible for the interaction with Ig light chains ... a hydrophilic, proline-rich putative cell wall-spanning region ("W") after the C repeats; ... Since no part of the heavy chain is involved in the binding interaction, Protein L binds a wider range of antibody classes than ... Protein L binds antibodies through light chain interactions. ... was found to bind immunoglobulins through L chain interaction, ...
This move, to the air/water interface, by the proteins is also aided by their hydrophobic and hydrophilic part. The hydrophobic ... Many interactions between the proteins and the interface are possible, including hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions, ... This lack of interaction causes the air molecules to have excess energy, resulting in surface tension. The presence of egg ... disulfate bonds, and Van der Waals interactions. A cake made with egg yolks would not be as light and airy because they have a ...
Whether or not the pan is hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the heat conductivity and capacity, surface roughness, and more all ... This eliminates the interactions between the denatured proteins on meat and the oil. In deep frying, the interactions are ... The value of each individual interaction may be small but when there are millions of interactions the overall force can be ... Thus there should be no interaction between the food and the container holding the oil. All the interactions will be between ...
... phospholipids are driven by hydrophobic interactions that result in the fatty acid tails aggregating to minimize interactions ... The hydrophilic end usually contains a negatively charged phosphate group, and the hydrophobic end usually consists of two " ... Lipid bilayers occur when hydrophobic tails line up against one another, forming a membrane of hydrophilic heads on both sides ... Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipids whose molecule has a hydrophilic "head" containing a phosphate ...
The hydrophobic surface of the membrane proteins is bound to the apposed lipid fatty acid chains of the membrane bilayer. For ... Polar headgroups of these lipids bind to the hydrophilic part of the membrane protein(s) at the inner and outer surfaces of ... which arises from extended influence of protein-lipid interaction. Membrane areas away from protein molecules contain lamellar ... of lipids which are partially immobilized due to the existence of lipid-protein interactions. ...
Therefore, although Rhamnolipids may play a part in interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with hydrophobic carbon sources, they ... production of rhamnolipids promotes uptake of hexadecane by overcoming the inhibitory effect of the hydrophilic interactions ... Uptake of these hydrophobic substrates is speculated to rely on the production of rhamnolipids. It is thought that rhamnolipids ... either cause the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell surface to become hydrophobic, promoting an interaction between the substrate and ...
... which converts the hydrophilic sodium alginate into hydrophobic calcium alginate (Ma). Guluronic acid residues that are linked ... Due to a mixture of these interactions, a gel-like structure is formed rather than a true gel structure. About 0.05-0.5% weight ... which converts the hydrophilic sodium alginate into hydrophobic calcium alginate. Guluronic acid residues that are linked ... The hydrophilic portion of sodium phosphate removes calcium from the calcium paracaseinate from ion exchange reactions. This ...
For instance, the Kyte-Doolittle scale indicates hydrophobic amino acids, whereas the Hopp-Woods scale measures hydrophilic ... There are a number of methods to measure the degree of interaction of polar solvents such as water with specific amino acids. ... which is composed of hydrophobic fatty acids. On the converse, amino acids with high hydrophilicity indicate that these ...
As amphipathic molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, conjugated bile salts sit at the lipid/water interface and, ... Other interactionsEdit. Bile acids bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their ...
Toc34 is an integral protein in the outer chloroplast membrane that's anchored into it by its hydrophobic[48] C-terminal tail.[ ... Sandelius AS (2009). The Chloroplast: Interactions with the Environment. Springer. p. 18. ISBN 978-3-540-68696-5. .. ... At the C-terminal end is the hydrophilic M-domain,[38] which anchors the protein to the outer chloroplast membrane.[48] ...
NCN yields amino acid residues that are small in size and moderate in hydropathy; NAN encodes average size hydrophilic residues ... tends to code for hydrophobic amino acids. ... Interaction. *Help. *About Wikipedia. *Community portal. * ...
The hydrophilic regions of the cell are mainly on the inside and outside of the cell, while the hydrophobic regions are within ... chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular ... This environment of the cell is made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions which allows for the exchange of the above- ...
An amphiphilic molecule is one that contains both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic domain (e.g. soaps and detergents). The LB ... Kuhn, H. (1971). Interaction of chromophores in monolayer assembles. Pure and Appl. Chem, 27, 421-438. ... "active or most hydrophilic portion of the surface molecules are in contact with the liquid below whereas the hydrophobic ... These barriers are typically made from hydrophilic POM to form a meniscus on them that will aid in keeping the molecules inside ...
One common form of polar interaction is the hydrogen bond, which is also known as the H-bond. For example, water forms H-bonds ... This amphiphilic molecule has several polar groups (hydrophilic, water-loving) on the right side and a long nonpolar chain ( ... Therefore, most nonpolar molecules are water-insoluble (hydrophobic) at room temperature. Many nonpolar organic solvents, such ... A micelle - the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain ...
This makes them amphiphilic molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol, the polar ... chemical bonds and interaction forces, quantum mechanics and reaction kinetics, biopolymer science, colloidal interactions, ... Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods.[1] ... Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with polar solvents like ...
... the solid surface is considered hydrophobic. Many polymers exhibit hydrophobic surfaces. Highly hydrophobic surfaces made of ... Generally, if the water contact angle is smaller than 90°, the solid surface is considered hydrophilic[12] and if the water ... The equilibrium contact angle reflects the relative strength of the liquid, solid, and vapor molecular interaction. ...
Hydrophobic, electrostatic, and Van Der Waals Interactions) and protein-solvent interactions.[8] As a result, this process is ... curling up on itself so that hydrophobic elements of the protein are buried deep inside the structure and hydrophilic elements ... The non-covalent interactions between antiparallel strands in DNA can be broken in order to "open" the double helix when ... Covalent interactions between amino acid side-chains (such as disulfide bridges between cysteine groups) ...
He asked John Griffith to try to calculate attractive interactions between the DNA bases from chemical principles and quantum ... which indicated that the hydrophilic phosphate-containing backbones of the nucleotide chains of DNA should be positioned so as ... to interact with water molecules on the outside of the molecule while the hydrophobic bases should be packed into the core. ... Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick had little direct interaction with Franklin herself. They ...
Among the weak bonds, there is a distinction between polar bonds or hydrophilic bonds (hydrogen bonds and van der Waals bonds) ... Weak nonpolar bonds or hydrophobic bonds are formed by repulsion. In a polar liquid, the molecules try to establish a maximum ... and nonpolar or hydrophobic bonds. From these properties will come the spatial form of the associated atoms and the molecules ...
Such exchangers form hydrophobic interactions with proteins which can be irreversible. Due to this property, polystyrene ion ... Polystyrene ion exchangers with large pores can be used for the separation of protein but must be coated with a hydrophilic ... Protein binding in this medium is high and has low hydrophobic character. DEAE is an anion exchange matrix that is produced ... One of the primary advantages for the use of ion chromatography is only one interaction involved during the separation as ...
... their hydrophobic regions are exposed and the formation of intermolecular protein-protein interactions is promoted. These ... Sugar is hydrophilic, extracting water out of the egg whites. This will lighten the protein network, allowing the foam to be ... Compound interactionsEdit. There are three main ingredients in a meringue recipe that interact to form the foam structure, egg ... protein-protein interactions, usually disulfide bridges, create networks responsible for the structure of the foam and this ...
Binding of ATP is stabilized by the following interactions: (1) ring-stacking interaction of a conserved aromatic residue ... and other molecules that are mostly hydrophilic. The membrane-spanning region of the ABC transporter protects hydrophilic ... This allows hydrophobic molecules to enter the binding site directly from the inner leaflet of the phospholipid bilayer. After ... This allows hydrophilic molecules to enter the binding site directly from the inner leaflet of the phospholipid bilayer. In ...
A long range interaction is an interaction in which the spatial interaction falls off no faster than r. −. d. {\displaystyle r ... Hydrophobic effects are mostly of entropic nature at room temperature. *^ Myers, J. K.; Pace, C. N. (1996). "Hydrogen bonding ... Cruz, F.J.A.L.; Mota, J.P.B. (2016), "Conformational Thermodynamics of DNA Strands in Hydrophilic Nanopores", J. Phys. Chem. C ... Because of the non-local nature of non-bonded interactions, they involve at least weak interactions between all particles in ...
... hydrophobic or hydrophilic) on soiling or snow losses.[31] (Although in heavy snow environments with severe ground interference ...
... which rank amino acids from most hydrophobic to most hydrophilic, consistently place cysteine towards the hydrophobic end of ... Hydrophobic interactions of the cystein side chain in micelles". Eur. J. Biochem. 3 (3): 346-50. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1968. ... However, the cysteine side chain has been shown to stabilize hydrophobic interactions in micelles to a greater degree than the ... free cysteine residues were found to associate with hydrophobic regions of proteins. Their hydrophobic tendency was equivalent ...
The protein consists of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, which are encoded by separate exons, so that the ... Tropoelastin aggregates at physiological temperature due to interactions between hydrophobic domains in a process called ... The encoded protein is rich in hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline, which form mobile hydrophobic regions ... The hydrophilic domains contain Lys-Ala (KA) and Lys-Pro (KP) motifs that are involved in crosslinking during the formation of ...
The transitions that occur in these systems depend on the polymer composition (molecular weight and hydrophilic/hydrophobic ... The interactions with salts are related to their ability to act as water structure makers (salting-out) or water structure ... The aggregation of several unimers occurs to minimize the interactions of the PPO blocks with the solvent. Thus, the core of ... Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide ...
... s, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their ... dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, ... The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. Two different varieties have been ... Cationic detergents that are similar to the anionic ones, with a hydrophilic component, but, instead of the anionic sulfonate ...
R. Oliveira; et al., "Hydrophobicity in Bacterial Adhesion", Biofilm community interactions: chance or necessity? (PDF), ... The second class of non-toxic anti-fouling coatings are hydrophilic coatings. They rely on high amounts of hydration in order ... These coatings are also low-friction, but are considered by some to be superior to hydrophobic surfaces because they prevent ... Within the first minute the van der Waals interaction causes the submerged surface to be covered with a conditioning film of ...
The cell membrane of nearly all organisms is primarily made up of a phospholipid bilayer, a micelle of hydrophobic fatty acid ... esters with polar, hydrophilic phosphate "head" groups. Membranes contain additional components, some of which can participate ...
Luzzati, V.; Masson, F.; Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Interaction of DNA and proflavine: A small-angle x-ray scattering study". ... From this position, the ligand diffuses along the surface of the DNA and may slide into the hydrophobic environment found ... allowing the ethidium to move away from the hydrophilic (aqueous) environment surrounding the DNA and into the intercalation ... Intercalation as a mechanism of interaction between cationic, planar, polycyclic aromatic systems of the correct size (on the ...
Phases may also be differentiated based on solubility as in polar (hydrophilic) or non-polar (hydrophobic). A mixture of water ... hydrophobic organic solvents, perfluorocarbons (fluorous phase), silicones, several different metals, and also from molten ...
In addition, strong hydrophobic phospholipid-peptide interactions have been discovered in both models.[24][25] In the two ... hydrophilic on one side, and hydrophobic residues on the other side of the helix. The attachment of fluorescent group on one ... A third class of CPPs are the hydrophobic peptides, containing only apolar residues, with low net charge or have hydrophobic ... This peptide is able to self-assemble in a helical shape with hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues on different side of the ...
4O)n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and ... an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group. The hydrocarbon group is a 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl group. ... Thus Triton X-100 is slightly more hydrophilic than Igepal CA-630; these two detergents may not be considered to be ... owing to the hydrogen bonding of its hydrophilic polyethylene oxide parts. Undiluted Triton X-100 has a viscosity of about 270 ...
... exterior heads and a hydrophobic interior where proteins can interact with hydrophilic heads through polar interactions, but ... Hydrophobic interactions (also known as the hydrophobic effect) are the major driving forces in the formation of lipid bilayers ... An increase in interactions between hydrophobic molecules (causing clustering of hydrophobic regions) allows water molecules to ... The arrangement of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails of the lipid bilayer prevent polar solutes (ex. amino acids, nucleic ...
Contrary to the common misconception, water and hydrophobic substances do not "repel", and the hydration of a hydrophobic ... Irving Langmuir observed a strong repulsive force between hydrophilic surfaces. To dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces-to remove the ... more favorable for the water molecules to hydrogen bond to each other than to engage in van der Waals interactions with non- ... In biological cells and organelles, water is in contact with membrane and protein surfaces that are hydrophilic; that is, ...
The plasma membranes of cells contain phospholipids, which are composed of a hydrophilic phosphate head and two hydrophobic ... are best characterized by their interactions; they cannot be understood separately. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a 20-carbon ω-6 ...
Hydrophobic, hydrophilic and other interactions in epitope-paratope binding.. Van Oss CJ1. ... It has been shown that hydrophobic (AB) interactions are as often enthalpic as entropic. Upon expulsion of interstitial water ... Macroscopic, non-covalent, aspecific interactions between hydrophilic biopolymers, particles and cells in aqueous media tend to ... Microscopic scale specific interactions, e.g. between epitopes and paratopes, are also non-covalent and caused by attractive LW ...
... ... "Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in aqueous mixtures of alcohols at a hydrophobic surface." The Journal of Chemical ... The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For ... Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using ...
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in proteins.The procedure is so robust that fibrinogen can be purified from human ... Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in proteins. Hydrophobic Interactions 2019-03-03. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic ... Is protein hydrophilic or hydrophobic. This analysis suggests that both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions make large ... Interactions that occur between hydrophobic molecules are Van Der Waal interactions since they are nonpolar molecules. However ...
... of Water with Cellulose and Cellulose Acetates as Influenced by the Hydrogen Bond System and Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Balance of ... Interaction of Water with Cellulose and Cellulose Acetates as Influenced by the Hydrogen Bond System and Hydrophilic- ... Interaction of Water with Cellulose and Cellulose Acetates as Influenced by the Hydrogen Bond System and Hydrophilic- ... Hydrophobic Balance of the Macromolecules. Interaction of Water with Cellulose and Cellulose Acetates as Influenced by the ...
Sketch of some important forces involved in surface interactions.. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces[edit]. *Wetablility ...
... mechanistic understanding of these interactions is poorly constrained. Dynamic force spectroscopy can probe the free energy ... Higher organisms as well as medical and technological materials exploit mineral-polymer interactions, however, ... Specific Ion Effects on the Interaction of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Self-Assembled Monolayers *T. Rios-Carvajal ... 2d). (d-f) f r vs r for the EPS-mineral interactions. (g) Free energy landscape. ...
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. Infant Behavior Inhalant Abuse International Classification of Diseases Livestock. ...
Strong and Weak Interactions. Hydrogen Bonding. Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Forces. Charge-Charge Interactions. Covalent Bonding/ ... Chapters dedicated to the elementary physical interactions and molecular building blocks, from simple sugars to complex, folded ...
Water-Mediated Interactions between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces. Kanduč, Matej and Schlaich, Alexander and Schneck, ... Interfacial Water at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces: Depletion versus Adsorption. Janeček, Jiří and Netz, Roland R ... Interfacial Water at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces: Slip, Viscosity, and Diffusion. Sendner, Christian and Horinek, ... Polypeptide Friction and Adhesion on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces: A Molecular Dynamics Case Study. Serr, Andreas and ...
Amphiphilic Helix; Helix-Helix Interaction; Hydrophobic; Hydrophilic; 2D Diagram; Wenxiang Diagram; Helical Wheel Diagram ... The disposition of the LZCC protein residues in wenxiang diagram provides new insights into the protein-protein interaction ... determinations of the leucine zipper coiled-coil domains of the cGMP-Dependent protein kinase I alpha and its interaction with ...
... thereby resulting in discrete hydrophilic regions separated from each other by hydrophobic regions. The degree of ... To increase the signal from a given reaction site, the interaction area between the fluid (usually aqueous) and the substrate ... or hydrophobic) inks, with hydrophilic (or hydrophobic) patterns being generated as a result of transferring the ink onto a ... or hydrophilic) molecules to preselected regions defined by photoresists in a hydrophilic (or hydrophobic) matrix. (See, for ...
... hydrogen bonds and metal interactions; green line, hydrophobic interactions). (c) Interactive 3D visualization using Ligand ... hydrophobic; blue, hydrophilic). ... b) 2D Ligand interaction diagram generated by PoseView () ( ... optimal hydrophobic interaction distances, green; longer distances, blue). The red regions (close contacts) at the top of the ... View Interactions section provides access to 2D and 3D ligand-binding site views. ( ...
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions * Isomerism * Ligands * Models, Molecular * Phosphates / chemistry * Phosphates / ... This well-conserved pocket with mostly hydrophobic nature contributes to the low selectivity of the first-generation compounds ...
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions * Immunohistochemistry * Interferon-gamma / metabolism * Male * Membrane Proteins / ...
Modified polystyrene has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics. Modified polystyrene has hydrophobic & hydrophilic ... This general purpose surface immobilizes via passive adsorption through hydrophobic and ionic interactions and is capable of ... This general purpose surface immobilizes via passive adsorption through hydrophobic and ionic interactions and is capable of ... Corning high binding surface is primarily hydrophobic with intermittent carboxyl groups capable of ionic interactions with ...
... chemical interaction: hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic / hydrophilic forces, ,, dipole forces, van der Waals forces, ionic ...
... hydrophilic residues, green; and hydrophobic/neutral residues, yellow. The same color scheme is applied to the drawing of the ... 2). Because increasing concentrations of NaCl disrupt electrostatic interactions but stabilize hydrophobic interactions, they ... even though hydrophobic interactions are then required for efficient binding.. The dual mode of the Ca2+-dependent interaction ... suggesting an essential role for electrostatic interactions. However, we find that hydrophobic interactions mediated by exposed ...
3). The factor 2 is loaded mainly with parameters related to hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions, as well as the pH of the ... Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. The retention coefficients and selectivity factors of the separations governed by ... Dinh NP, Jonsso T, Irgum K (2011) Probing the interaction mode in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1218: ... Therefore, the domination of hydrophilic interactions or similar contribution of hydrophilic and -phobic phenomena for the ...
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions • Markov Chains • Mathematical Computing • Microscopy, Atomic Force • Models, Chemical ...
... hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions; extraction; emulsions); made a fresh cheese (protein structure); and baked a traditional ... I really enjoyed my science classes and my environmental studies classes and I was very interested in the interaction between ... interactions of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, and developing a peptide derived vaccine against hookworm. ... students worked on a range of projects from real time PCR of cancer related genes to developing protein-protein interactions to ...
Hydrophobic interaction chromatography[edit]. Hydrophobic interactions between proteins and the chromatographic matrix can be ... Hydrophobic molecules in the mobile phase tend to adsorb to the relatively hydrophobic stationary phase. Hydrophilic molecules ... which disrupts hydrophobic interactions), or changes in pH. In general, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) is ... In hydrophobic interaction chromatography the matrix material is lightly substituted with hydrophobic groups. These groups can ...
Hydrophobic= "water hating" in Greek; does not dissolve in water.. Hydrophobic interactions= interactions between nonpolar ... Hydrophobic bonds= bonds between nonpolar molecules.. Amphipathic=substances or molecules that have both hydrophilic (polar) ... Has weak interactions with non-polar molecules; these interactions are weaker than dipole-dipole interactions. ... Will have favorable ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions with ionic and polar compounds; meaning that ionic compounds with ...
Hydrophobic colloids: These are opposite in nature to hydrophilic colloids. The colloid particles are repelled by water. They ... Interaction between particles. The following forces play an important role in the interaction of colloid particles:[10][11][12] ... Aggregation is due to the sum of the interaction forces between particles.[14][15] If attractive forces (such as van der Waals ... Belloni, Luc (2000). "Colloidal interactions". J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 12 (46): R549-R587. Bibcode:2000JPCM...12R.549B. doi: ...
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions can also contribute to conservative forces; however, these forces are relevant only ... More precisely, it is the dominant short-range interaction between the tip and the sample (typically the elastic interactions) ... dissipation into the sample E ts by nonconservative interactions or through a third energy flow channel. During interaction ... 1 B). During interaction with the sample, some amount of energy E 1−2 is transferred from the first to the second eigenmode. ...
The interactions also offered simple and straightforward answers to the problems of protein folding, and protein-protein ... along with a host of new hydrophilic (,i,HφI,/i,) effects. The ,i,HφO,/i, effects lost much of its power - which it never ... The void created was immediately filled by Kauzmanns idea of hydrophobic (,i,HφO,/i,) effect which reigned supreme in ... Hydrophobic-hydrophilic forces in protein folding. Biopolymers, 2017. DOI:10.1002/bip.23020 ...
Solubility in water (hydrophobic or hydrophilic). *Interactions of the drug in the body like membrane permeability, bacterial ... ligand-coated nanocarriers that store the target drugs in a hydrophobic or hydrophilic capsule. Micelles and Dendrimers: These ... Drug delivery in oncology offers a localized, prolonged and protected drug interaction with the cancer cells and reduces the ...
hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions 32 What are the categories of proteins?. * Globular (DE: globulaere Proteine): roll up ...
Interactions occur between R-groups:. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Hydrogen bonds. Ionic bonds - form between ... They fold so that hydrophilic R-groups are on the outside of the protein and the hydrophobic R-groups are on the inside, away ... A long insoluble molecule due to the presence of a high proportion of amino acids with hydrophobic R-groups in their primary ... Same kind of interactions as tertiary structure just between different proteins. Identical or different subunits ...
Hydrophobic And Hydrophilic Interactions. The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER. ...
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Kinetics. Lipid Bilayers / chemistry*, ... which will likely also alter the interactions between monolayers important to the adhesion of the myelin sheath.. ...
  • Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. (rice.edu)
  • While hydrophobic membrane filters are ideal for air and gas filtration, they are not suitable for filtering aqueous solutions. (gallery49.com)
  • Cell membranes are made of a bilayer of amphiphilic phospholipids, where the lipophilic portions of the molecules face toward each other, and the hydrophilic portions face outwards towards the cytoplasm or the external cellular environment which is aqueous and therefore orients those phosopholipid molecules. (physicsforums.com)
  • Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. (google.com.au)
  • By hydration, and in order to reduce thermodynamically unfavorable interactions with the aqueous medium, the hydrophobic chains form lipid bilayers (lamellae). (anton-paar.com)
  • Thanks to their special structure, liposomes can be used as drug delivery vehicles for both hydrophilic compounds, which can be dissolved into the aqueous core, and hydrophobic (lipophilic) compounds, which may be entrapped into the lipid bilayers. (anton-paar.com)
  • In an aqueous environment, the hydrophobic amino acids are unable to participate in hydrogen bonding. (wikibooks.org)
  • On the other hand, hydrophilic amino acids tend to interact in the aqueous environment due to polarity. (wikibooks.org)
  • Influence of molecular dipole orientations on long-range exponential interaction forces at hydrophobic contacts in aqueous solutions. (mpie.de)
  • Exploiting favorable interactions between biopolymers and mineral surfaces is a vital strategy used by organisms to enhance the strength of skeletal structures and control mineral growth processes. (nature.com)
  • Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) is an essential experimental tool for the study of conservative and dissipative forces on surfaces at nanometer length scales, which has major implications for the physics of biomolecular interactions, chemical bond kinetics, adhesion, wetting and capillary action, friction and elasticity on material surfaces ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, how do the nanoparticles orient themselves on hydrophobic versus hydrophilic surfaces? (eurekalert.org)
  • This renders it especially important for interactions with surfaces composed of adjacent nano-scale chemical domains. (rsc.org)
  • Arg is also capable of forming close contacts with homogeneous hydrophobic and hydrophilic ligand surfaces. (rsc.org)
  • Early osseointegration to hydrophilic and hydrophobic implant surfaces in humans. (straumann.com)
  • Spider silk consists of polypeptides with highly repetitive motives and readily adsorbs on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. (mpg.de)
  • Single molecule AFM studies yield adsorption energies and point to an extremely high mobility on hydrophobic surfaces. (mpg.de)
  • NP surfaces may also contain local hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns that cause protein adsorption [ 24 , 25 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, we find that hydrophobic interactions mediated by exposed residues in the Ca 2+ -binding loops of the C 2 A-domain, in particular methionine 173, are also essential for tight phospholipid binding. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • for example, two hydrophobic residues (methionine 173 and phenylalanine 234) are similarly exposed at the top of the C 2 A-domain next to the Ca 2+ -binding sites in the same positions in the Ca 2+ -bound and Ca 2+ -free structures ( Fig. 1 B ) ( 9 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The first gate is formed by two layers of hydrophobic residues, Val-23 and Leu-19 from the periplasmic to cytoplasmic side, on the inner surface of the M1 helices and was suggested to act like a tension sensor. (pnas.org)
  • The second gate is formed by three layers of hydrophobic residues, Phe-10, Phe-7, and Ile-3, on the highly conserved N-terminal amphipathic S1 helices and was proposed to be the activation gate. (pnas.org)
  • The hydrophobic core is stabilized by interactions among a number of conserved hydrophobic residues. (uniprot.org)
  • Structural and biochemical data together demonstrate that the PAM14 binding site is consisted of residues Ile160, Leu168, Val169, Trp172, Tyr235, Val268, and Arg269 of MRG15, which form a shallow hydrophobic pocket to interact with the N-terminal 50 residues of PAM14 through primarily hydrophobic interactions. (uniprot.org)
  • Hydrophobic amino-acid residues engage in van der Waals interactions only. (scribd.com)
  • Independent of their localization in protein the hydrophobic amino acid residues have no effect on the molten globule state of apomyoglobin and the disulfide bond on the surface of apomyoglobin stabilizes this intermediate state. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we have investigated the effect of substitutions of hydrophobic amino acid residues in the hydrophobic core of protein and on its surface on a molten globule type intermediate state of apomyoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • It has been found that independent of their localization in protein, substitutions of hydrophobic amino acid residues do not affect the stability of the molten globule state of apomyoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • The residues Ser154, Asp251, and His281 form the catalytic triad motif commonly found in other alpha/beta hydrolases.In contrast, the intermolecular salt bridges contribute less significantly to the dimerization and thermostability of EstE1.Our results suggest that intermolecular hydrophobic interactions are essential for the hyperthermostability of EstE1. (nih.gov)
  • Circular dichroism spectroscopy and heat inactivation kinetic analysis of EstE1 mutants, which were generated by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues participating in EstE1 dimerization, revealed that hydrophobic interactions through Val274 and Phe276 on the beta8 strand of each monomer play a major role in the dimerization of EstE1. (nih.gov)
  • To maintain this defined three-dimensional structure, proteins rely on various types of interactions between their amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules? (viddy.com)
  • Interactions that occur between hydrophobic molecules are Van Der Waal interactions since they are nonpolar molecules. (viddy.com)
  • The different molecules stay longer or shorter on the stationary phase, depending on their interactions with its surface sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic interactions= interactions between nonpolar molecules. (hubpages.com)
  • Amphipathic= substances or molecules that have both hydrophilic (polar) and hydrophobic (nonpolar) parts. (hubpages.com)
  • As a polar solute it can be both a donor or an acceptor of hydrogen bonds meaning that it can form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules or it can be involved with non-specific dipole-dipole interactions. (hubpages.com)
  • These organic molecules (alcohols, amines, carboxylic acids) are hydrophilic. (hubpages.com)
  • There are two major types of signaling molecules, hydrophilic and hydrophobic. (gallery49.com)
  • Glucose isomerization turnovers were not limited by intrazeolitic reactant diffusion, irrespective of whether or not intrazeolitic void spaces were filled with solvent molecules, indicating that the higher initial turnover rates on hydrophobic than on hydrophilic … When selecting the right membrane for a microfiltration application, one of the most important factors to consider is membrane wettability. (gallery49.com)
  • Hydrophobic molecules are generally non-polar in nature. (gallery49.com)
  • Glucose - Many amino acids - Salt ions (Na+ and Cl-, for example) Because they are hydrophobic, the molecules must be transported in the blood bound to transport molecules or packaged into water soluble sacs - Cholesterol - Fats (Both packages into sacs with hydrophobic interiors and hydrophilic interiors) MD. 3 (B)]. ... HELPP - PGOD Assays and Glucose Meters? (gallery49.com)
  • What do hydrophilic molecules do? (indiana.edu)
  • Hydrophilic molecules are polar, and can join the Hydrogen Bond network that polar water molecules form. (indiana.edu)
  • By mutating the sites involved in the hydrophobic interaction between two molecules of EstE1, EstE1F276E and EstE1V274A/F276A dramatically lost their enzyme activities after incubation for 1 h at 80°C. The estimated half-life values of EstE1F276E and EstE1V274A/F276A were 6.5 and 29 min, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The phospholipids are amphiphilic molecules, with a hydrophilic head group and a hydrophobic tail. (anton-paar.com)
  • The role of nanostructures and hydrophilicity in osseointegration: In-vitro protein-adsorption and blood-interaction studies. (straumann.com)
  • How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions. (mpie.de)
  • Chapters dedicated to the elementary physical interactions and molecular building blocks, from simple sugars to complex, folded protein structures, provide the knowledge base for such advanced topics as the self-assembly of biological materials, the tuning of their properties and their processing. (wiley.com)
  • Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. (mdpi.com)
  • The molecular surface is largely hydrophobic, but contains a few hydrophilic patches. (uniprot.org)
  • These results provide the molecular basis for the interaction between the MRG domain and PAM14, and reveal insights into the potential biological function of MRG15 in transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling. (uniprot.org)
  • The molecular details of these interactions were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling. (rcsb.org)
  • With molecular simulation for water and a tunable hydrophobic substrate, we apply the instantaneous interface construction [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, "Instantaneous liquid interfaces," J. Phys. (mit.edu)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the hydrophobic-hydrophilic behavior of carbon nanotubes in water. (nsti.org)
  • Computational methods were reported to explain the interaction changes outcome on moving from a molecular to an ionic liquid solvent [ 18 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Unraveling Hydrophobic Interactions at the Molecular Scale Using Force Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. (mpie.de)
  • Soft matter interactions at the molecular scale: interaction forces and energies between single hydrophobic model peptides. (mpie.de)
  • Resolving Non-Specific and Specific Adhesive Interactions of Catechols at Solid/Liquid Interfaces at the Molecular Scale. (mpie.de)
  • Interestingly, a completely different morphological pattern of the micro/nano particles is observed on a hydrophobic substrate ( θ ∼ 110°): contact line pinning is no longer observed and particles form a centralized deposition pattern. (rsc.org)
  • Initially, the interaction between the active site and the substrate is non-covalent and transient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the intrinsic interface of liquid water and a hydrophobic substrate differs little from that of water and its vapor. (mit.edu)
  • The same is not true, we show, for an interface between water and a hydrophilic substrate. (mit.edu)
  • In that case, strong directional substrate-water interactions disrupt the liquid-vapor-like interfacial hydrogen bonding network. (mit.edu)
  • The friction coefficient of bound polymers is very low on hydrophobic substrates, which is traced back to the presence of a vacuum layer between substrate and water, which forms a lubricating cushion on which a polymer can glide. (mpg.de)
  • In the case of HILIC mode, the characterization was performed in terms of the degree of hydrophilicity, selectivity for hydrophilic-hydrophobic compounds, selectivity for the regio and configurational substituents, anion and cation exchange properties, and acidic or basic nature of the stationary phase surface. (springer.com)
  • Our results confirm previous data showing that Ca 2+ -dependent phospholipid binding by the synaptotagmin C 2 A-domain is exquisitely sensitive to ionic strength, suggesting an essential role for electrostatic interactions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apparent Ca 2+ affinity of the C 2 A-domain is determined not only by electrostatic interactions as shown previously, but also by hydrophobic interactions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Under RP HPLC conditions, following features were elucidated: hydrophobicity, hydrophobic selectivity, shape selectivity, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions at pH values 2.7 and 7.6. (springer.com)
  • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in proteins. (viddy.com)
  • The function and properties of these proteins are highly distinct ranging from structural proteins involved in cell integrity, including hydrophobic cell membrane proteins, to soluble signal proteins that are responsible for passing cellular messages from the cell membrane to the nucleus. (viddy.com)
  • The distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids determines the tertiary structure of the protein, and their physical location on the outside structure of the proteins influences their quaternary structure. (viddy.com)
  • This analysis suggests that both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions make large contributions to the conformational stability of globular proteins. (viddy.com)
  • Ca 2+ -dependent and Ca 2+ -independent interactions of these C 2 -domains with phospholipids and potential target proteins have been examined in detail ( 5 , 16 - 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At present it is unclear which interactions in proteins reveal the presence of intermediate states, their stability and formation rate. (nih.gov)
  • Dimers and oligomers may have been evolutionally selected in thermophiles because intersubunit interactions can confer thermostability on the proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins can have interactions with other proteins and biomolecules to form more complex structures and have either rigid or flexible structures for different functions. (wikibooks.org)
  • A subset of membrane proteins is farnesylated, making the C terminus more hydrophobic, facilitating their membrane binding. (rupress.org)
  • Because many proteins are charged, repulsive interaction between proteins and NPs (for like-charged NPs and proteins) or electrostatic attraction (for oppositely charged NPs and proteins) can occur [ 22 , 23 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Continuing our aforementioned argument, the formation of the protein corona (i.e. interaction between NPs and proteins [ 28 ]) affects both, the NPs, as well as their local environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Dr. van Oss describes the nature of the various manifestations of hydrophobic interactions as well as of hydration pressure and analyzes the measurement of the contact angles that result when liquid droplets are deposited on flat solids. (google.com.au)
  • Furthermore, we investigate the interaction between two carbon nanotubes immersed in water and we extract a the hydration acting between the tubes. (nsti.org)
  • Microscopic scale specific interactions, e.g. between epitopes and paratopes, are also non-covalent and caused by attractive LW, AB and EL forces, which locally must be able to overcome the long- to medium-range macroscopic aspecific repulsive forces. (nih.gov)
  • Sketch of some important forces involved in surface interactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • To explain the underlying mechanisms of various particle distribution patterns, we propose a phenomenological model that accounts for the drag force, van der Waals and electrostatic interaction forces, and surface tension force acting on the particles. (rsc.org)
  • In the case of the hydrophilic surface ( θ ∼ 27°), there is a competition between the frictional force arising due to the van der Waals (∼10 −8 N) and electrostatic interaction forces (∼10 −10 N) and the surface tension force (∼10 −7 N) that depends on the particle size. (rsc.org)
  • Conversely, friction forces on hydrophilic substrates are large and make determining the equilibrium binding constant in computer simulations impossible. (mpg.de)
  • I know for reverse phase and hilic there is hydrophobic subtraction model. (viddy.com)
  • The comparison between 9 home-made amino acid- and peptide-silica stationary phases in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) systems has been presented. (springer.com)
  • Trump campaign called out for mocking Biden Hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between colloids in general are related to the interactions between the particles (emulsion droplets) and the surrounding solvent (e.g., water). (gallery49.com)
  • Nevertheless, the quality of the extracted bitumen is important to evaluate the process performance which is affected by the solvent-bitumen interaction. (onepetro.org)
  • This work investigates the fundamental aspects of the solvent-bitumen interaction during solvent-steam injection processes. (onepetro.org)
  • One of the puzzling questions in the realm of protein-ligand recognition is how a solvent-inaccessible hydrophobic cavity of a protein gets recognized by a ligand. (aps.org)
  • Hydrophobicity can be categorised based on apparent contact angle into super-hydrophilic, hydrophilic contact angle 90deg and super-hydrohpobic high contact angle + low contact angle hysteresis. (viddy.com)
  • The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. (rice.edu)
  • In theory, membrane with smooth surface, made of material providing hydrophilic and neutrally charged surface is a good choice for water application. (viddy.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 6 , the mask including opaque portions that shield certain regions of the surface from the reactive species so that said certain regions remain hydrophobic. (google.co.uk)
  • 18. The method of claim 17 , wherein less hydrophilic regions on the surface correspond to opaque portions of the mask. (google.co.uk)
  • Binding capacity is increased to approximately 400 to 500 ng IgG/cm 2 , as compared to our medium binding surface, because ionic interactions require that a smaller portion of the molecule be in contact with the surface to obtain stable immobilization. (corning.com)
  • Corning high binding surface is primarily hydrophobic with intermittent carboxyl groups capable of ionic interactions with positively charged groups on biomolecules. (corning.com)
  • While it is premature to generalize these results to myelin bilayers, our results show that the domain distribution in myelin may be an equilibrium effect and that subtle changes in surface pressure and composition can alter the distribution of material in the monolayer, which will likely also alter the interactions between monolayers important to the adhesion of the myelin sheath. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Future research will explore how the interaction between the ink and the surface being printed on might be conducive to the production of specific types of devices. (eurekalert.org)
  • How can we formulate the ink and exploit its interaction with a surface to enable self-assembly of the particles? (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, it has a hydrophilic surface chemistry which promotes initial healing and osseointegraton with excellent survival and success rates of 97% or higher. (straumann.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) resembles a classic endocrine hormone in that it exerts its effect on target cells in bone marrow through interactions with specific cell-surface receptors. (kenyon.edu)
  • B114, 1954-1958 (2010)] to examine the similarity between a water-vapor interface and a water-hydrophobic surface interface. (mit.edu)
  • We show that attractive interactions between a hydrophobic surface and water affect capillary wave fluctuations of the instantaneous liquid interface, but these attractive interactions have essentially no effect on the intrinsic interface. (mit.edu)
  • In other words, the local environment around NPs has a profound impact on the NPs, and it is different from bulk due to interaction with the NP surface. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this way, there is a subtle interaction between the surface of NPs and their local environment, which affects the physico-chemical properties of both. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Solid lipid nanoparticles are lipid-based, ligand-coated nanocarriers that store the target drugs in a hydrophobic or hydrophilic capsule. (medindia.net)
  • FXR ligand-binding domain of hydrophobic face binds to hydrophilic face of BAs. (gallery49.com)
  • The 20 Amino Acids: hydrophobic, hydrophilic, polar and charged amino acids. (viddy.com)
  • Eventually, the hydrophobic and nonpolar regions of the protein will become clustered together and the hydrophilic polar regions will be exposed to the environment. (viddy.com)
  • The reactive species reacts with the material to form a polar oxidation product such as -OH, thereby resulting in discrete hydrophilic regions separated from each other by hydrophobic regions. (google.co.uk)
  • 20. The method of claim 13 , comprising forming a polar oxidation product in said discrete regions to impart hydrophilic functionality to said discrete regions. (google.co.uk)
  • Polar interactions. (scribd.com)
  • The non-polar side chain amino acids are called hydrophobic and the amino acid with uncharged polar side chain is called hydrophilic. (scribd.com)
  • The amino acids which have positive charge on the 'R' group are placed in this category.Hydrophilic (Polar Amino Acids with Positive Charge) Polar amino acids with positive charge have more amino groups as compared to carboxyl groups making it basic. (scribd.com)
  • They are called as dicarboxylic mono-amino acids.Name briefly the possible secondary structure that occur in a given protein.Hydrophilic (Polar Amino Acids with no Charge) These amino acids do not have any charge on the 'R' group.serine. (scribd.com)
  • The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions , as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. (google.com.au)
  • Based on high-purity NUCLEODUR silica gel, a polar group was embedded in a hydrophobic C18. (mn-net.com)
  • Separation mechanism based on hydrophobic (van der Waals) and polar interactions. (mn-net.com)
  • This well-conserved pocket with mostly hydrophobic nature contributes to the low selectivity of the first-generation compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Numerous functional roles for O-GlcNAcylation have been reported including crosstalking with serine/threonine phosphorylation, regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular localization, and modulating protein stability and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphipathic combines the characteristics of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic capabilities, having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. (gallery49.com)
  • We show that the baseplate is composed of rods of repeated dimers of the strongly amphipathic CsmA with pigments sandwiched within the dimer at the hydrophobic side of the helix. (nature.com)
  • The opening of the inner hydrophobic pore on a higher tension load takes place after the major expansion of the outer channel dimension. (pnas.org)
  • Such dynamics should be a multiscale process involving an interplay between vicinal interaction with the pore wall and constrained dynamics inside the restricted geometry of the cylindrical pore. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Bioinspired approaches to materials design and synthesis utilized such interactions to advance medical and technological applications, such as nanoparticles for ingestion, bone implants, and responsive materials. (nature.com)
  • Even aquatic plants protect their leaves with hydrophobic substances, which insures nutrients are pulled from the roots and water flows in one direction through the plant. (viddy.com)
  • Tosoh Bioscience is the sole sponsor of the conference on Hydrophobic Interaction and Reversed Phase Chromatography (HIC/RPC Bioseparation Conference). (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • Tosoh Bioscience offers a comprehensive line of media and pre-packed columns for all common modes of liquid chromatography, including ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, reversed phase, size exclusion and affinity. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • The insoluble, hydrophobic amino acids cannot be pushed out of the water altogether the way oil is, because they are attached to the soluble, hydrophilic amino acids. (indiana.edu)
  • hydrogen bonds , van der Waals interactions , hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic force interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both water structural effects and dispersion interactions contribute to this solvation attraction. (mpg.de)
  • Well, the underlying property that differentiates a material into hydrophobic or hydrophilic is its behavior to water.Take, for instance: salt can be said to be hydrophilic since they attract moisture when exposed to the atmosphere. (gallery49.com)
  • But such behavior of energy levels in a definite protein means that the native state N and the intermediate states I are stabilized by different interactions independent of each other. (nih.gov)
  • Cell membrane is composed by lipid bilayer, which is hydrophobic. (gallery49.com)
  • All of a sudden, you no longer have a hydrophilic external environment to the cell membrane. (physicsforums.com)
  • One of the key questions is whether phospholipid binding by C 2 -domains is primarily governed by electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interactions at site 2 are less extensive, and primarily involve αC of EPO and loop L3 of the EPObp. (kenyon.edu)
  • 10kDa) and large biomolecules that possess ionic groups and/or hydrophobic regions. (corning.com)
  • Modified polystyrene has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics. (corning.com)
  • these interactions are weaker than dipole-dipole interactions. (hubpages.com)
  • EstE1F276A, which did not exist in a monomeric form, lost approximately 50% of its activity after incubation for 2 h at 80°C, suggesting that weaker hydrophobic interactions can be disrupted during heat denaturation. (nih.gov)
  • The dominant hydrophobic attraction can be quantitatively explained with classical MD simulations including explicit water. (mpg.de)
  • Step 2: jiggling and sorting until the hydrophobic side chains are packed together in the most stable way (i.e. the lowest energy conformation). (indiana.edu)
  • Step 3: more jiggling and sorting, as other kinds of interactions occur. (indiana.edu)
  • 4.Briefly explain how hydrophobic amino acids (and the rest) are distributed in the tertiary structure of protein? (scribd.com)
  • Together these data indicate that phospholipid binding by the C 2 A-domain, although triggered by an electrostatic Ca 2+ -dependent switch, is stabilized by a hydrophobic mechanism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The MRG domain is predominantly hydrophobic, and consists of mainly alpha-helices that are arranged in a three-layer sandwich topology. (uniprot.org)
  • 18) Here is the structure of the molecule glycine: a) Is this molecule hydrophilic or hydrophobic? (gallery49.com)
  • To achieve better separation, a salt may be added higher concentrations of salt increase the hydrophobic effect and its concentration decreased as the separation progresses. (viddy.com)
  • Amino acids can be broadly hydrophobic and hydrophilic , depending on the chemical properties of the R group side chain. (wikibooks.org)