Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Cystotomy: Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Meningism: A condition characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and other symptoms suggestive of meningeal irritation, but without actual inflammation of the meninges (MENINGITIS). Spinal fluid pressure may be elevated but spinal fluid is normal. (DeJong, The Neurologic Examination, 4th ed, p673)Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Sex Reassignment Surgery: Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein: An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Perinatal nephropathies. (1/384)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases. (2/384)

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

Utility of ultrasound of the upper urinary tract in elderly men with indicators of obstructive symptoms or abnormal flow: how often can silent hydronephrosis be detected in general practice? (3/384)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While the prevalence of hydronephrosis is very low in obduction studies, a prevalence of 3-13% is reported for patients with an obstruction who are listed for prostatectomy. In order to evaluate the usefulness of transabdominal ultrasound in primary care, we determined the occurrence of hydronephrosis in males with symptoms of urinary obstruction in a general practice setting. METHOD: A micturition questionnaire (a modified Boyarsky) was sent to all men of 55 years or more who were registered in 10 general practices in Maastricht, and was followed by an examination at their general practice. Men with obstructive symptoms and/or with a free-flow abnormality were examined in the hospital with transabdominal ultrasound in order to detect dilatation of the upper urinary tract. This ultrasound was repeated approximately 15 months later. RESULTS: At the first measurement, none of the examined men (n = 178) had hydronephrosis, and this was still the case for 94 men 15 months later. CONCLUSION: Renal ultrasound is not necessary in general practice for men with uncomplicated obstructive complaints.  (+info)

Systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. (4/384)

We describe a case of hydronephrosis as a result of retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient who had previous sclerosing lobulitis of the breast. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported association between these two conditions in the english literature. We presume these conditions are linked and unify them under the general heading of systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis.  (+info)

Resistive indices in the evaluation of infants with obstructive and nonobstructive pyelocaliectasis. (5/384)

Diagnosing obstructive uropathy by renal resistive indices calculated from duplex Doppler sonographic waveforms has been supported as well as challenged in the radiology literature relating to adults. Despite reports of normally higher resistive indices in children as compared to adults, two studies have documented high sensitivity and specificity of renal Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy in children, using the same discriminatory criterion of a resistive index of 0.7 or greater as used in adults. We evaluated 43 infants with significant or bilateral pyelocaliectasis secondary to both obstructive and unobstructive uropathy and found no significant difference in the mean resistive indices or the mean difference in resistive indices of two kidneys in one patient. We conclude that Doppler sonography in infants has no value in differentiating obstructive from nonobstructive pyelocaliectasis.  (+info)

Gastroschisis associated with bladder evisceration complicated by hydronephrosis presenting antenatally. (6/384)

We report here a case of gastroschisis associated with bladder evisceration and complicated by rapidly developing hydronephrosis diagnosed antenatally. The timing of delivery was determined by the hydronephrosis, associated bowel dilatation and polyhydramnios. The case highlights the need for continuing ultrasonographic surveillance of fetuses with gastroschisis to identify further associated complications which were hitherto absent but whose presence may influence the timing of delivery and neonatal care.  (+info)

Two cases of metastatic bladder cancers showing diffuse thickening of the bladder wall. (7/384)

Metastatic bladder cancer showing diffuse thickening of the bladder wall is very rare. We report two cases of metastatic bladder cancer arising from a stomach cancer and acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hydronephrosis and diffuse thickening of the bladder wall were revealed by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Transurethral biopsy and percutaneous whole wall needle biopsy of the bladder were useful for diagnosis. The possibility of metastasis or recurrence of prior and other malignancies should therefore be considered when the clinical features described here are encountered.  (+info)

Sonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors. (8/384)

We present our experience with transabdominal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors. During the years 1989 to 1998, 16 patients were diagnosed as having ureteral tumors. These patients were referred for sonographic examination for evaluation of hematuria (seven patients) or flank pain (four patients) or for follow-up screening in patients who were asymptomatic but at high risk for transitional cell carcinoma because of known past bladder tumor (five patients). Ten of these patients underwent intravenous urography examination, three patients had retrograde pyelography, and 11 patients underwent CT scanning. Ultrasonography revealed the ureteral tumors in all 16 patients, which appeared as hypoechoic intraluminal soft tissue. Three tumors were localized in the upper ureter, four in the middle ureter, and nine in the distal ureter. The degree of ureterohydronephrosis was minimal (two cases), mild (five cases), moderate (eight cases), or severe (one case). Eleven tumors caused local widening of the ureteral diameter. On intravenous urography, four patients had a nonfunctioning kidney, three patients had unexplained ureterohydronephrosis, and three patients showed ureteral filling defects, of which only two had irregular contours. On retrograde pyelography, two patients had filling defects (one of which with smooth margins), and one had a truncated ureter. On CT the tumor was clearly demonstrated in only seven patients. We found that ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool in the workup of ureteral tumors.  (+info)

  • Available at: http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/urology/downloads/kurzrock%5Fhandouts%5FPDF/Hydronephrosis.pdf. (largomedical.com)
  • Urology: Kidney stones with hydronephrosis. (bookinghealth.com)
  • While most women with fibroids don't get hydronephrosis, a small percentage of women with very large fibroids develop the condition," explains Dr. Alex Shteynshlyuger, Board-Certified Urologist, Urological Surgeon, and Director of Urology at New York Urology Specialists in New York City, NY, who was not involved in the study. (ask4ufe.com)
  • Structural abnormalities of the junctions between the kidney , ureter and bladder that lead to hydronephrosis can occur during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of hydronephrosis is a kidney stone lodged in the ureter. (reference.com)
  • Hydronephrosis due to a Migrated Intrauterine Device into the Ureter: A Very Rare Case. (gu.se)
  • In this paper, we present the case of a woman who experienced hydronephrosis due to the migration of IUD into the ureter after 30 years of insertion. (gu.se)
  • It was reported a postnatal infant had hypoplastic left heart with hydronephrosis, indicating that there may be a relationship between hydronephrosis and heart disease. (cvia-journal.org)
  • It is not uncommon to develope mild to moderate hydronephrosis after about 20-24 weeks of pregnancy . (healthtap.com)
  • Mild grade hydronephrosis can be safely managed non-operatively with a meticulous follow-up and undergoing surgery only when signs of deterioration occur. (minervamedica.it)
  • If a person has a creatinine of 2.4, mild hydronephrosis, and is given a monitored single dialysis treatment that brings the creatinine to 0.0 or within range, how long would this creatinine level hold? (wordpress.com)
  • and would it knock out the mild hydronephrosis? (wordpress.com)
  • Low-grade hydronephrosis typically refers to an SFU grade of I or II, and high-grade hydronephrosis refers to an SFU grade of III or IV. (uspharmacist.com)
  • If the hydronephrosis is causing painful symptoms, there are signs of kidney damage, and there is a correctable lesion that will not get better on its own surgery may need to be done to allow urine to flow properly. (largomedical.com)
  • Fifty-seven (21%) cases of hydronephrosis underwent surgery: 49 (86%) showing obstructive pattern at functional tests, 40 (70%) presenting a differential renal function less than 40%, 5 (8%) because recurrent urinary tract infections, 40 (70%) affected by grade IV hydronephrosis. (minervamedica.it)
  • This case illustrates an iatrogenic right hydronephrosis classified as severe due the gross dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces, which appear ballooned, ​and significant cortical thinning. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In comparison to those in the group without hydronephrosis, kidney function was similar except for blood urea levels (a type of waste that's passed from the body in the urine) were significantly worse in women with fibroid-related hydronephrosis. (ask4ufe.com)
  • This article gives an overview of hydronephrosis and discusses the role of pharmacists in optimizing the management of ANH, especially in patients at increased risk for complications. (uspharmacist.com)