Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.DextrinsHydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.beta-Amylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides so as to remove successive beta-maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. EC 3.2.1.2.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Glycoside HydrolasesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Isomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.ChymotrypsinogenTrehaloseDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PolysaccharidesMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Hyperamylasemia: A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.GlucosidesBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Bethanechol CompoundsIntegrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.SucraseCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

*Exoenzyme

Amylases are a group of extracellular enzymes (glycoside hydrolases) that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into maltose. These ... Organisms can either by alpha-hemolytic, beta-hemolytic, or gamma-hemolytic (non-hemolytic). ... The different classes of amylases are α-amylases, β-amylases, and glucoamylases. The α-amylases hydrolyze starch by randomly ... amylases are secreted by both the pancreas and salivary glands with both sources of the enzyme required for complete starch ...

*B-amylase

... in polysaccharides so as to remove successive maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains This enzyme acts on starch ... Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. ... During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. β-amylase is ...

*Hydrolysis

Other amylase enzymes may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides. Cellulose is first hydrolyzed to cellobiose by ... Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by ... cellulase and then cellobiose is further hydrolyzed to glucose by beta-glucosidase. Animals such as cows (ruminants) are able ... Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their hydrolysis occurs when ...

*Maltose

When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is ... Maltose can be broken down to glucose by the maltase enzyme, which catalyses the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. Maltose in ... resulting in either α-maltose or β-maltose. An isomer of maltose is isomaltose. This is similar to maltose but instead of a ... corn syrup and acid-thinned starch. In humans, maltose is broken down by various maltase enzymes, providing two glucose ...

*Sugar

It is formed in the body during the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase and is itself broken down during digestion by the ... It can be manufactured from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars, ... It is a biennial plant, a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris in the family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which contains ... Children have this enzyme but some adults no longer form it and they are unable to digest lactose. Maltose is formed during the ...

*Starch

Beta-amylase cuts starch into maltose units. This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, ... prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch. High fructose syrup, made by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme glucose ... Acrylamide, which is present in fried and baked foods Amylase, an enzyme that helps break down starch into sugars Starch ... beta-amylase (BAM) can attack the glucose chain at its non-reducing end. Maltose is released as the main product of starch ...

*Digestive enzyme

Pancreatic amylase that breaks down starch and glycogen which are alpha-linked glucose polymers. Humans lack the cellulases to ... Maltase: converts maltose into glucose.. *Lactase: This is a significant enzyme that converts lactose into glucose and ... Acidic lipases make up 30% of lipid hydrolysis occurring during digestion in the human adult, with gastric lipase contributing ... digest the carbohydrate cellulose which is a beta-linked glucose polymer.. Pancreas's exocrine function owes part of its ...

*Hydrolysis

Other amylase enzymes may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides. Cellulose is first hydrolyzed to cellobiose by ... Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by ... cellulase and then cellobiose is further hydrolyzed to glucose by beta-glucosidase. Ruminants such as cows are able to ... Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their hydrolysis occurs when ...

*Alpha-amylase

α-Amylase is a protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1 that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and ... In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21 (see AMY1A). Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch into maltose ... Several alpha-amylases contain an all-beta domain, usually at the C terminus. Digestive enzyme Ramasubbu, N.; Paloth, V.; Luo, ... especially dishwashing and starch-removing detergents. See amylase for more uses of the amylase family in general. α-Amylase ...

*Polysaccharide

Humans and many animals lack an enzyme to break the beta-linkages, so they do not digest cellulose. Certain animals such as ... Starch[edit]. Starch is a glucose polymer in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is made up of a mixture ... They can be digested by breaking the alpha-linkages (glycosidic bonds). Both humans and animals have amylases, so they can ... On hydrolysis, it yields glucose. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. ...

*Brewing

Mashing allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars, typically maltose to create a malty ... but also as a rich source of amylase, a digestive enzyme that facilitates conversion of starch into sugars. Other malted and ... 2008). "Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes" (PDF). Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 114 ( ... The preservative in hops comes from the lupulin glands which contain soft resins with alpha and beta acids. Though much studied ...

*Dietary fiber

Fiber may affect amylase activity and hence the rate of hydrolysis of starch. The more viscous polysaccharides extend the mouth ... resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.[1][2] ... Dietary fiber interacts with pancreatic and enteric enzymes and their substrates. Human pancreatic enzyme activity is reduced ... Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1), granular starch (type RS2) or retrograded starch (type ...

*Sugar

It can be manufactured from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis.[47]. DisaccharidesEdit. Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all ... in the body during the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase and is itself broken down during digestion by the enzyme ... It is a biennial plant,[54] a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris in the family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which ... It is broken down when consumed into its constituent parts by the enzyme lactase during digestion. Children have this enzyme ...
Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminalStreptococcus bovis strains was investigated. Two strains Amy+ and Amy− were obtained. Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. The presence of the gene responible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the α-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA ofS. bovis andBacillus subtilis after a complete restriction withEcoRI.
The role of routine isoamylase determinations in differentiating acute pancreatitis from other causes of an acute abdomen with hyperamylasemia and/or hyperamylasuria was evaluated. Values were analyzed from a control group of 21 patients with acute pancreatitis (group I) and from 100 consecutive patients diagnosed in our emergency department as having an acute abdomen (group II). In group I, 100% of patients had hyperamylasemia, hyperamylasuria, and a P isoamylase fraction greater than 0.75 of the total amylase value. In group II, 50% of patients had hyperamylasemia and/or hyperamylasuria. Of these patients, 44% had a P isoamylase fraction less than 0.75 of the total amylase value, a finding apparently incompatible with a diagnosis of acute ...
In Diabetic ketoacidosis when pain abdomen is one of the major clinical finding, serum amylase levels are obtained, to rule out the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (since the latter too can present with acute pain abdomen). If the serum amylase levels are found high in patients with Diabetic ketoacidosis, it may not be due…
We examined the clinical utility of urine trypsinogen-2 as a marker of acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients with AP, 42 with acute abdominal diseases of extrapancreatic origin, and 63 without evidence of acute abdominal disease were studied. Urine trypsinogen-2 was determined by a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. As reference methods we used serum trypsinogen-2, urine amylase, and serum amylase. The diagnostic accuracy of the markers was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. At admission, urine trypsinogen-2 differentiated patients with AP from controls with high accuracy. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.978, which was equal to that of serum trypsinogen-2 (0.998) and serum amylase (0.969) and significantly larger than that of urine amylase. For differentiation between severe and mild AP, urine trypsinogen-2 (0.730) was equal ...
The major sources of amylase are the pancreas and the salivary glands. The most common cause of elevation of serum amylase is inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). In acute pancreatitis, serum amylase begins to rise within 6-24 hours, remains elevated for a few days and returns to normal in 3-7 days. Other causes of elevated serum amylase are inflammation of salivary glands (mumps), biliary tract disease and bowel obstruction. Elevated serum amylase can also be seen with drugs (e.g., morphine) which constrict the pancreatic duct sphincter preventing excretion of amylase into the intestine ...
Introduction. Kiu Yi, IP 13M The effect of temperature on amylase activity Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate if temperature will affect the amount of starch broken down as enzyme activity can change by different temperature. This is because as temperature rises the rate of chemical reactions increases due to the temperature increases the rate of the molecules motion. More interactions will be existed between an enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme used in this lab exercise is amylase, which is commonly found in saliva and germinating seeds, catalyzes the breakdown of starch. It also reacts quickly when heat is present during the process of it reaction. However, if the temperature is higher than the optimum point, enzymes can be denatured and they can no longer bind to a substrate and catalyze reactions. My ...
The polymorphic patterns of human salivary amylase of a large number of individuals of Caucasian origin were determined by using isoelectric focusing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine diffe
Bacterial binding protein-dependent transport systems are the best characterized members of a superfamily of transporters which are structurally, functionally, and evolutionary related to each other.
Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities occurring in trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest were investigated. Trifoliate yam tubers were harvested and stored under tropical ambient (28°C) and cold room conditions (4°C) for 12, 24 and 36 h. The D. dumetorum starches were extracted from the tubers under study and samples were evaluated for changes in their rheological properties (paste characteristics) during storage and to study the action of amylases on D. dumetorum starch after harvesting. The post-harvest activities of α and β-amylases were also studied to evaluate their rate of action on D. dumetorum starch. Storage caused decreases in the rheological properties (paste characteristics) of the tubers within 36 h of harvest. Similarly, α and β-amylase activities in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of a family of rat amylase genes. AU - MacDonald, Raymond J.. AU - Crerar, Michael M.. AU - Swain, William F.. AU - Pictet, Raymond L.. AU - Thomas, Gilles. AU - Rutter, William J.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by at least seven intervening sequences.. AB - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related ...
This is one of the Enzymology protocol on Effect of Temperature on Amylase activity (Enzymology Protocol). Download Salivary amylase activity assay Protocol
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, ...
How to Use It Depending on the potency of the amylase inhibitors , typical intake is 1,500 to 6,000 mg before meals. Where to Find It Amylase inhibitors can be extracted from several types of plants, especially those in the legume family. Currently available Amylase inhibitors are extracted from either white kidney bean...
Amylase test, 5x100 tablets [P1302] - Equl Amylase Test The amylase assay Equl Amylase Test is used in a variety of fields for precise determination of α-amylase activity. The presence of the α-amylase enzyme in for instance saliva, food and honey makes Equl tablets useful for forensic saliva tests, diastase tests in honey or amylase tests in
Part of the ABC transporter complex MalEFGK involved in maltose/maltodextrin import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system.
Salivary α-amylase activity is an increasingly investigated biomarker for the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic imbalance is associated to several diseases, one of which is heart failure, and the aim of the present study was to test if salivary α-amylase activity might be a new biomarker in patients with chronic heart failure.. Methods: In this pilot study, 48 elderly men (range 59-89 years), 24 patients with established chronic heart failure in NYHA class I to III, and 24 controls were included. In all participants, saliva was collected for three consecutive days at three time points (at awakening, 30 minutes later and in the late afternoon), and blood was sampled for analysis of NT-proBNP.. Results: Within the whole group of participants, a statistically significant positive correlation between morning salivary α-amylase activity levels and serum NT-proBNP could be found, which was ...
Background. Serum lipase and amylase are biochemical analyses used to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Despite lipase having been shown internationally to be a more sensitive and specific test, amylase remains a popular first-line test. Objective. To provide a local basis for the recommendation of the best first-line laboratory test, an assessment of their performance in our local setting was undertaken. Methods. From a prospective dataset on patients with acute abdominal pain and raised serum lipase and/or amylase values, the sensitivity and specificity of serum lipase, amylase and the two in combination was calculated for the diagnosis of AP, as defined by the Atlanta criteria. Results. During the study period, 476 patients presented with acute upper or generalised abdominal pain and raised serum amylase and/or lipase ...
Allcosmeticsource.com Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping [EP170508011]- Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping What is Fungal amylase 1000000u/g? Fungal amylase, also known as fungal alpha amylase (1, 4- alpha -D- glucan hydrolase), is refined by Aspergillus oryzae Wahl deep culture, extraction and other processes. The enzyme is endo amylase, which can rapidly hydrolyze the starch, amylose and amylopectin aqueous solution of alpha -1,
Enhancement of the CAMP reaction by heated milk whey and maltose when incorporated into a selective agar medium, the thallium crystal violet toxin medium (TKT), is described. Milk whey was prepared by enzyme coagulation of milk at room temperature or by acid coagulation followed by neutralization with sodium hydroxide. Concentrations of whey from 1-14% (v/v) were examined. The CAMP reaction increased with increasing whey concentration. A similar increase in the CAMP reaction was also observed with increasing concentration of maltose up to 1% (w/v), beyond which it decreased with increasing concentration of maltose. A combination of heated milk whey with maltose produced a CAMP reaction in excess of that produced by whey or maltose alone ...
Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®), Injectafer(®)) is an intravenous iron preparation approved in numerous countries for the treatment of iron deficiency. A single high dose of ferric carboxymaltose (up to 750 mg of iron in the US and 1,000 mg of iron in the EU) can be infused in a short time frame (15 min). Consequently, fewer doses of ferric carboxymaltose may be needed to replenish iron stores compared with some other intravenous iron preparations (e.g. iron sucrose). Ferric carboxymaltose improved self-reported patient global assessment, New York Heart Association functional class and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials (FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF ...
To the Editors: Hyperamylasemia has been described in association with numerous solid malignant tumors (1, 2), but its association with hematologic malignancies has not been extensively studied. In a preliminary study, we found that 32% of patients with hematologic malignancies had hyperamylasemia (2). To gain more information regarding the incidence and significance of hyperamylasemia in patients with hematologic malignancies, we studied serum amylase activity in 35 patients and followed them over time (3, 4).. Forty-one consecutive patients with various hematologic malignancies were evaluated in our hematology clinic. Six patients were excluded because of concurrent illness or misdiagnosis of a hematologic ...
A CCK-deficient mouse model was successfully generated by gene targeting in ES cells. The RIA data presented here confirm that this new mutant mouse strain does not produce CCK. CCK-deficient mice are viable and grow at a normal rate. Aging mice (1 yr and older) continued to thrive, with no obviously abnormal pathologies. The body weight, rate of weight gain (Fig. 1 B), and total daily food intake (data not shown) of CCK-deficient mice do not differ from wild-type mice, suggesting that CCK is not essential for maintaining normal energy balance (intake vs. expenditure).. Analysis of pancreatic enzyme content in CCK-deficient mice fed the basal diet revealed an increase in amylase enzyme activity (Table 3). Because chymotrypsinogen content remained unaltered in the mutant, we concluded that the increase in amylase is not due to a general reduction in enzyme secretion but a specific increase in ...
In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by two genetic loci: the artPIQM-artJ and argT-hisJQMP gene clusters. The transcription of the artJ, artPIQM and hisJQMP genes and operons is repressed by liganded ArgR, whereas argT, encoding the LAO (lysine, arginine, ornithine) periplasmic binding protein, is insensitive to the repressor. Here we characterize the repressible Eσ 70 P artJ, P artP and P hisJ promoters and demonstrate that the cognate operators consist of two 18 bp ARG boxes separated by 3 bp. Determination of the energy landscape of the ArgR-operator contacts by missing contact probing and mutant studies indicated that each box of a pair contributes to complex formation in vitro and to the repressibility in vivo, but to a different extent. The organization of the ARG boxes and promoter elements in the control regions of the uptake genes is distinct from that of the arginine biosynthetic genes. The hisJQMP operon
Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (α)-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI) questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS) Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary α-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for α amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%), they ...
Introduction: Minimally invasive approches in treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and/or infected pancreatic necrosis gain a notable advantage compared with open surgery.. Aim: We present our experience in treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis by an original minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy technique, evaluate feasibility and safety of this method, compare our results to other studies.. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 22 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and large fluid collections in retroperitoneal space was performed. All patients underwent retroperitoneal necrosectomy as an initial interventional procedure in treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.. Results: Sixteen males and six females aged between 24 and 60 with an average age of 42.59 ±7.3 years were included. Alcohol abuse was an etiologic factor of acute necrotizing pancreatitis for 18 patients (81.8%). Average time between diagnosis and performance of necrosectomy was 28.6 ...
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Hyperamylasemia (High Blood Amylase Level) chemotherapy side effect, causes, symptom management and when to contact your healthcare provider during cancer treatment.
High maltose corn syrup is a food additive designed to sweeten the taste of food and increase its shelf life.The majority sugar is maltose, it contains 40-50% maltose, though some have as high as 70%. High-maltose glucose syrup is used as a substitute for normal glucose syrup in the production of hard candy. Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so the candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.. ...
Objective To investigate the effects of microbial enteral nutrition on serum amylase,hs-CRP and gastrointestinal function in children with acute pancreatitis at different stages. Methods A total of 120 children with acute pancreatitis who received treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to June 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study. All the children were randomly divided into the super-early group and the early group. The super-early group was treated with microbial enteral nutrition support after 24 hours of admission.In the early group,the microbial enteral nutrition support intervention was performed at 72 hours after admission. After treatment,the serum amylase,hs-CRP and gastrointestinal function were compared and analyzed. Results The rate of good nutrition tolerance in the early group was significantly lower than that in the super-early group( P 0. 05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the ...
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work for substrate translocation. They function by alternating between two states, exposing the substrate-binding site to either side of the membrane. A key question that remains to be addressed is how substrates initiate the transport cycle. Using x-ray crystallography, we have captured the maltose transporter in an intermediate step between the inward- and outward-facing states. We show that interactions with maltose-bound MBP in the periplasm induce a partial closure of the MalK dimer in the cytoplasm. ATP binding to this conformation then promotes progression to the outward-facing state. These results, interpreted in light of biochemical and functional studies, provide a structural basis to understand allosteric communication in ABC transporters.. ...
In vitro studies of α-amylase degradation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins and 2-hydroxypropyl-β- and -γ-cyclodextrins were investigated spectrophotometrically by measuring the formation of reducing sugars, the reaction products of α-amylase degradation. This was done to evaluate potential degradation and thereby biological conversion of the cyclodextrins if dosed orally, as the intestinal tract contains α-amylase for digestive purposes. The results demonstrated that only γ- and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrins can be degraded by α-amylase to a relevant extent, that is, γ- and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrins have different biopharmaceutical behaviours than the other evaluated cyclodextrins. The rate of degradation was affected by the addition of the inclusion complex forming additives flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and benzo[a]pyrene. This effect between the degradation dynamics and ...
Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains and CH1 domains. The antigen-binding fragment of such heavy chain antibodies is therefore comprised in one single domain, the camelid heavy chain antibody VH (VHH). Here we report on the structures of three dromedary VHH domains in complex with porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Two VHHs bound outside the catalytic site and did not inhibit or inhibited only partially the amylase activity. The third one, AMD9, interacted with the active site crevice and was a strong amylase inhibitor (K(i) = 10 nm). In contrast with complexes of other proteinaceous amylase inhibitors, amylase kept its native structure. The water-accessible surface areas of VHHs covered by amylase ranged between 850 and 1150 A(2), values similar to or even larger than those observed ...
Salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylases hydrolyze starch. Copy number of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) was reported to be higher in populations with a high-starch diet and reduced in obese people. These results based on quantitative PCR have been challenged recently. We aimed to re-assess the relationship between amylase and adiposity using a systems biology approach. We assessed the association between plasma enzymatic activity of AMY1 or AMY2, and several metabolic traits in almost 4000 French individuals from D.E.S.I.R. longitudinal study. The effect of the number of copies of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) or AMY2A (encoding AMY2) measured through droplet digital PCR was then analyzed on the same parameters in the same study. A Mendelian randomization analysis was also performed. We subsequently assessed the association between AMY1A copy number and obesity risk in two case-control studies (5000 samples in total). ...
Background: Salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylases hydrolyze starch. Copy number of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) was reported to be higher in populations with a high-starch diet and reduced in obese people. These results based on quantitative PCR have been challenged recently. We aimed to re-assess the relationship between amylase and adiposity using a systems biology approach. Methods: We assessed the association between plasma enzymatic activity of AMY1 or AMY2, and several metabolic traits in almost 4000 French individuals from D.E.S.I.R. longitudinal study. The effect of the number of copies of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) or AMY2A (encoding AMY2) measured through droplet digital PCR was then analyzed on the same parameters in the same study. A Mendelian randomization analysis was also performed. We subsequently assessed the association between AMY1A copy number and obesity risk in two case-control studies ...
The pancreas and the glands that produce saliva also produce amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest food, notes MedlinePlus. Amylase enters the bloodstream when the pancreas becomes inflamed...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cerulein hyperstimulation on the paracellular barrier of rat exocrine pancreas. AU - Fallon, Michael B.. AU - Gorelick, Fred S.. AU - Anderson, James M.. AU - Mennone, Albert. AU - Saluja, Ashok. AU - Steer, Michael L.. PY - 1995/6. Y1 - 1995/6. N2 - Background/Aims: Cerulein-induced pancreatitis causes a rapid increase in pancreatic enzyme levels in serum and decreases in pancreatic duct secretion and interstitial edema. One mechanism to explain these early events is disruption of the actin tight junction paracellular seal of acinar and intralobular pancreatic duct cells. Methods: To examine the paracellular barrier of the proximal exocrine pancreas, rats were hyperstimulated with 5.0 μg · kg-1 · h-1 of cerulein. Actin was visualized with rhodamine phalloidin and by electron microscopy and tight junctions were visualized with antibodies to the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Paracellular permeability was measured by movement of horseradish peroxidase from interstitium ...
Semin Gastrointest Dis ; Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis: Is CT guided fine needle aspiration helpful in patients with infected necrosis. Acute pancreatitis dietary management MD, Mittal A, van den Heever M, et al, for the Pancreas Network of New Zealand. MRI may also identify early duct disruption that Acute pancreatitis dietary management not seen on CT. The serum amylase level is IU per liter, the serum lipase level is IU per liter, the serum alanine aminotransferase level is Acute pancreatitis dietary management per liter, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level Acute pancreatitis dietary management IU per liter. For patients with mild acute pancreatitis, nasojejunal feedings can be avoided unless patients are unable to tolerate oral intake for over 1 week. Most of these collections resolve Acute pancreatitis dietary management. Evaluation of severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Radiol Clin North Am. Generally, however, pancreatic stents are ...
For the first time, we have shown that transient obstruction of the SO produced by carbachol administration resulted in hyperamylasaemia and histological changes consistent with acute pancreatitis. These changes were comparable with those induced in possums with combined pancreatic duct ligation and CCK-8/secretin administration, a well established method on inducing hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in other species. In both the carbachol induced and pancreatic duct ligation with secretin/CCK-8 models, the concurrent increase in pancreatic duct pressure with a combination of pancreatic exocrine stimulation was necessary to produce hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis.. The increase in pressure in the pancreatic duct was similar whether it followed pancreatic duct ligation or was induced by carbachol administration. The increase in plasma amylase in all cases corresponded with the increase in pancreatic duct pressure following pancreatic duct ligation or stimulated ...
Introduction. The effects of copper ions on the reaction between amylase and starch Introduction I am going to investigate the effects of copper ions on the reaction between starch and amylase. This is to determine what effects detrimental or otherwise copper compounds could have on the starch and amylase reaction. My independent variable will be concentration of copper sulphate and my dependant variable will be rate of reaction. Hypothesis I believe the copper sulphate will act as an inhibitor and will decrease the rate of reaction. Because the copper sulphate will provide Cu ions which will prevent the enzymes from breaking down the starch. Risk Assessment I believe this experiment will be safe to perform in the laboratory providing the following precautions are taken. * Safety glasses should be worn at all times and be ...
An acidophilic α-amylase from Aspergillus niger RBP7 was purified after solid state fermentation on potato peel substrate. Molecular mass of the purified α-amylase was 37.5 kDa and it exhibited 1.4 mg/ml and 0.992 μ/mol/min Km and Vmax values, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the pH range from 2.0 to 6.0, at high NaCl concentration (3 M) and at temperatures between 40 °C and 70 °C. The enzyme showed an optimal activity at pH 3.0 and at 45 °C. The enzyme was inhibited by Hg2+ and was stable in the presence of different surfactants (Tween 60, Tween 80, and SDS at 1% level) and different inhibitory reagents (β-mercaptoethanol, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and sodium azide). This acidophilic amylase enzyme can digest heterogeneous food materials, i.e. the mixture of rice, fish, bread and curry with comparable activity to the commercial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in a rat parotid gland cell line. T2 - Comparison with native parotid gland. AU - Bockman, Charles. AU - Bradley, Michael E.. AU - Dang, Herbert K.. AU - Zeng, Wanyun. AU - Scofield, Margaret A.. AU - Dowd, Frank J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The molecular and pharmacological characteristics of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat parotid acinar cell line, PAR-C5, were determined and compared with native rat parotid glands to evaluate the PAR-C5 cell line as a model to study receptor-mediated secretion. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified mRNAs for M3, M4, and M5 receptor subtypes in both PAR-C5 cells and parotid glands. Specific [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine binding in PAR-C5 and parotid membranes was to a single class of sites with mean KD values of 0.38 and 0.64 nM, respectively. Binding affinities (KI values) of muscarinic receptor subtype-selective drugs were ...
Hypersomnia is defined as a reduced ability to remain awake during the day. There are basically two types of central hypersomnia: narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Currently, the diagnosis of these sleep disorders is based on polysomnographic recordings which is difficult to access. Tests of sleepiness (Epworth, Karolinska) are subjective.. A biological marker of sleepiness, easily accessible and measurable, would be very useful for the diagnosis and therapeutic follow up of excessive diurnal sleepiness. Salivary secretions appear as good physiological markers. Studies have shown for healthy subjects, that the expression and activity of salivary amylase are increased when subjects are deprived of sleep.. The investigators propose to explore the usefulness of salivary biomarkers (including amylase) as a new non-invasive and simple technique for the assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness. ...
Secretin stimulation test - MedHelps Secretin stimulation test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Secretin stimulation test. Find Secretin stimulation test information, treatments for Secretin stimulation test and Secretin stimulation test symptoms.
ERV can be put to physiological use by their hosts, either at the gene regulatory level or as proteins. Tissue-specific enhancers in the ERV LTR are an example of transcriptional control. All mammals express amylase in the pancreas, but rodents and Old World primates also express amylase in salivary glands. In both the cases, ERV elements play a role in salivary expression in remarkably convergent evolution. The activation of salivary amylase in the human parotid gland is controlled by a retroviral insertion, which occurred during Old World primate evolution [54]. Then gene triplication of the amylase gene and its LTR enhancer to further enhance amylase secretion occurred after hominids split from chimpanzees. It may have provided selective advantage to the hominid lineage when, like rodents, they adopted a diet containing complex ...
The effects of extracellular ATP on ion fluxes and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Although ATP and carbachol both rapidly increased [Ca2+]i about threefold above the resting level (200-250 nM), the effect of ATP was due primarily to an influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, while the initial response to carbachol was due to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Within 10 s, ATP (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM) reduced the cellular Cl- content by 39-50% and cell volume by 15-25%. Both stimuli reduced the cytosolic K+ content by 57-65%, but there were marked differences in the rate and pattern of net K+ movement as well as the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on the effluxes initiated by the two stimuli. The maximum rate of the ATP-stimulated K+ efflux (approximately 2,200 nmol K+/mg protein per min) was about two-thirds that of the ...
In rat parotid acinar cells prelabelled with [3H]inositol, substance P (100 nM) induced the formation of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. Ins(1,4,5)P3 reached a maximum 7 s after substance P stimulation, and thereafter decreased and reached a stable value at 60 s. When the cells were exposed to substance P for 10, 30, 60, or 300 s, washed, and re-exposed to this peptide, the formation of [3H]inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) was attenuated in a time-dependent manner. In the cells pretreated as described above, the number of [3H]substance-P-binding sites (Bmax) was also decreased. Possible role(s) of Ca2+ and protein kinase (protein kinase C) control mechanisms in regulating substance P responses were investigated. Desensitization of substance P-induced InsP3 was not affected by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, nor was it dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. On the other hand, in the presence of 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-4 beta-phorbol ...
Abstract: Melatonin, an antioxidant, protects the pancreas against acute inflammation but, although this indole is released mainly at night, no study has been undertaken to determine circadian changes of plasma melatonin levels and the severity of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) produced in the rat during the day and at the night, and (b) to assess the changes of plasma melatonin level and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme; superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the pancreas subjected to CIP during the day time and at night without or with administration of exogenous melatonin or its precursor; l-tryptophan. Rats were kept in 12 hr light/dark cycle. CIP was induced by subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (5 μg/kg/hr for 5 hr). Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) or l-tryptophan (50 or 250 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the start of CIP. CIP induced during the day time was confirmed by histological ...
Bakker, O. J., Van Santvoort, H. C., Van Brunschot, S., Geskus, R. B., Besselink, M. G., Bollen, T. L., … Timmer, R. (2012). Endoscopic Transgastric vs Surgical Necrosectomy for Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis: A Randomized Trial. JAMA, 307(10), 1053-1061. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.276. Baron, T.H., & Morgan, D.E. (1999). Acute necrotizing pancreatitis The New England journal of medicine, 340 (18), 1412-1417. Beger, H.G. (1986). Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis. A prospective clinical study. Gastroenterology, 91 (2), 433-438. Bradley, E. L. (1993). A Clinically Based Classification System for Acute Pancreatitis: Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis. Archive Surgery, 128(5), 586590. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420170122019. Chiu, C. H., Lin, T.Y., & Wu, J. L. (1996). Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 22(4), 724-726. doi:/10.1093/clinids/22.4.724. Cusack, T. P., Ashley, E. A., Ling, C. L., ...
About 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a severe course, and 10-15% of those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) die. Despite improvements in intensive care treatment during past few decades, effective therapies for acute pancreatitis are still limited.. Early deaths (within the first week) due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory processes are not completely understood, it is generally accepted that autodigestion and activated leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of digestive enzymes causes pancreatic injury and results in an inflammatory response that is out of proportion to the response of other organs to a similar insult. The acute inflammatory response itself causes substantial tissue damage and may progress beyond the pancreas to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multi ...
A novel maltose-forming α-amylase (PSMA) was recently found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04. This enzyme shows ,13% amino-acid sequence identity to other known α-amylases and displays a unique enzymatic property in that it hydrolyzes both α-1,4-glucosidic and α-1,6-glucosidic linkages of substrates, recognizing only maltose units, in an exo-type manner. Here, the crystal structure of PSMA at a resolution of 1.8 Å is reported, showing a tight ring-shaped tetramer with monomers composed of two domains: an N-domain (amino acids 1-341) with a typical GH57 family (β/α)7-barrel fold and a C-domain (amino acids 342-597) composed of α-helical bundles. A small closed cavity observed in proximity to the catalytic residues Glu153 and Asp253 at the domain interface has the appropriate volume and geometry to bind a maltose unit, accounting for the selective exo-type ...
The etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatitis remains unclear. In the presence of pancreatic inflammation, metabolite abnormalities appear before transformation of tissue structure and changes in functions occur. Detection of abnormalities in metabolite levels facilitates a greater understanding of the pathophysiological events and aids in the early diagnosis of the disease. In this study, metabolic profiles from the pancreas of Wistar rats were examined using high-resolution proton magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the metabolite indicator(s) of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The animals were divided into three groups: those with histologically confirmed ANP (n=7), those with CP (n=6) and a control group (n=9). The processed NMR spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to extract characteristic metabolites of ANP and CP. Levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine were increased in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in enzymatic activity of α-Amylase, pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase during ripening in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis VAR. Flavicarpa degener). AU - Aguirre, Orquídea Menéndez. AU - Lozano, Silvia Evangelista. AU - Ocampo, Martha Arenas. AU - Torres, Kalina Bermúdez. AU - Martínez, Alma Del Villar. AU - Aparicio, Antonio Jiménez. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. Flavicarpa Degener) is a tropical fruit well known for its distinctive flavor. The responsible components for this flavor are developed during ripening as a result of the increase in metabolic activity. In this work, CO2 production and color development were evaluated as markers of ripening. Also the activities of α-amylase, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) were determinated, in relation to the presence of different responsible components (like soluble solids, sugar, organic ...
To the editor: The problems in the clinical interpretation of hyperamylasemia are well summarized in a recent editorial (1); however, this editorial does not give an adequate picture of the situations in which the serum amylase may be clinically valuable.. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis can reliably separate serum or urine samples into their constituent isoamylases, and when this is done the pancreatic isoamylases are separated from the isoamylases of salivary gland origin (2). The isoamylases can then be analyzed either qualitatively, by examination of zymograms (3), or quantitatively, by fractionating the gel and assaying the amylase content of each slice (4). ...
Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO), a very rare disorder in which an extremely rapid bone turnover occurs and results in osteosclerosis, was acknowledged in 1990s as a new clinical entity with the unique bone disorder and definite link to chronic type C hepatitis, although the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Affected patients suffer from excruciating deep bone pains. We report the 19th case of HCAO with diagnosis confirmed by bone biopsy, and treated initially with a bisphosphonate, next with corticosteroids and finally with direct acting antivirals (DAA: sofosbuvir and ribavirin) for HCV infection. Risedronate, 17.5 mg/day for 38 days, did not improve the patients symptoms or extremely elevated levels of bone markers, which indicated hyper-bone-formation and coexisting hyper-bone-resorption in the patient. Next, intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by high-dose oral administration of prednisolone evidently improved them. DAA therapy initiated after steroid ...
Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO), a very rare disorder in which an extremely rapid bone turnover occurs and results in osteosclerosis, was acknowledged in 1990s as a new clinical entity with the unique bone disorder and definite link to chronic type C hepatitis, although the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Affected patients suffer from excruciating deep bone pains. We report the 19th case of HCAO with diagnosis confirmed by bone biopsy, and treated initially with a bisphosphonate, next with corticosteroids and finally with direct acting antivirals (DAA: sofosbuvir and ribavirin) for HCV infection. Risedronate, 17.5 mg/day for 38 days, did not improve the patients symptoms or extremely elevated levels of bone markers, which indicated hyper-bone-formation and coexisting hyper-bone-resorption in the patient. Next, intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by high-dose oral administration of prednisolone evidently improved them. DAA therapy initiated after steroid ...
Injury to pancreatic acinar cells is thought to be the initiating point for the progression of acute pancreatitis, and, therefore, they represent an ideal experimental system to study the mechanisms of experimental acute pancreatitis (Bhatia et al., 2005). In experimental acute pancreatitis models, SP has been shown to be up-regulated and plays a proinflammatory role (Lau and Bhatia, 2006). The use of PPT-A gene knockout models and pharmacological antagonism of NK1R reduced the severity of AP and its associated lung injury, showing the importance of SP-NK1R interaction in AP (Bhatia et al., 1998; Lau et al., 2005). SP and NK1R are expressed in the pancreatic acinar cells, and this expression could contribute to the overall outcome of caerulein-induced AP.. Our results showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with caerulein up-regulated gene expression of PPT-A and NK1R and also peptide levels of SP. At a physiological concentration of caerulein (10−10 M), the expression of PPT-A, NK1R, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of cytokines, nitric oxide, and apoptosis in the pathological process of necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. AU - Leindler, László. AU - Morschl, E.. AU - László, F.. AU - Mándi, Y.. AU - Takács, T.. AU - Jármai, Katalin. AU - Farkas, Gyula. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Objectives: Ischemia-reperfusion injury can be involved in the pathophysiology of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The aim of our study was to determine the production of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the development of apoptosis during this pathologic process. Methods: Acute pancreatitis was produced in male Wistar rats by injection of 200 μL of 6% taurocholic acid into the main pancreatic duct in combination with the temporary (15 minutes) occlusion of the inferior splenic artery. Six and 24 hours later, the histologic damage was evaluated, and serum amylase, TNF, IL-6 levels, and ...
Early on the first to third postoperative morning, fluid from abdominal discharge was collected for determination of amylase content. We evaluated the short-term outcomes and pancreatic fistula. ?Results?Mean age is 67 (range 36-81). 67 cases were men and 19 cases were women. According to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma, 67 were stage?A, 10 were stage?B, 9 were stage?. The operation was undertaken with curative intent in all the patients.The standard D1 lymphadenectomy was performed in 74 cases, with D2 dissection in 12. Mean operating time was 205 (range 138-460) min. Mean blood loss was 90 (range 5-2450)ml. Blood. Reconstruction was by Billroth-?(n =36) or by Roux-en-Y (n =50). No patients had undergone splenectomy, Pancreatic fistula developed in 7 patients (LADG; 3, LATG: 4). No patients developed pancreatic fistula with fibrin glue and polyglycol acid felt. The patients without fibrin glue and polyglycol acid felt whose drainage fluid ...
The two main enzymes active during the mash are alpha and beta amylase. Alpha amylase, which is most active in the 154-167F/68-75C range, creates longer sugar chains that are less fermentable, resulting in a beer with more body. Beta amylase, which is most active between 130-150F/54-65 C trims off single maltose sugar units that are more fermentable. This results in a more complete fermentation (higher attenuation) and a cleaner beer with a thinner body.. A low step temperature (146-150F/63-66 C) emphasizing beta amylase will therefore result in a more complete conversion to simple sugars, but will take longer to complete. These simple sugars will ferment more readily, producing a highly attenuated beer that has higher alcohol content but less body and mouth-feel.. Conversely, a high ...
IIIDr Khan is head of surgery at Stanger Hospital and was involved with following up the patient along with Dr Arif. He is particularly interested in upper gastro-intestinal tract surgery. Correspondence. Acute pancreatitis in HIV-positive patients is less common than alcohol-related pancreatitis. Haemorrhagic pancreatitis is very rare.. A 23-year-old HIV-positive woman presented with vague upper abdominal pain of 3 days duration, pain radiating to the back, and vomiting. There was no history of trauma, alcohol use, recent viral illness or drug treatment. She had a tender epigastrium on deep palpation but no rebound, mass or ascites. A chest radiograph was normal and an abdominal radiograph showed dilated loops of small bowel with air in the rectum. Laboratory results were as follows: full blood count: white cell count 10.7x109/l (neutrophils 85.5%), haemoglobin concentration 12.9 g/dl, platelet count 146x109/l; urea and electrolytes: sodium 130 mmol/l, potassium 3.0 mmol/l, chloride 110 ...
Alcoholic pancreatitis continues to stir up controversy. One of the most debated points is whether from onset it is a chronic disease or whether it progresses to a chronic form after repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. Histological studies on patients with alcoholic pancreatitis have shown that the disease is chronic from onset and that alcoholic acute pancreatitis occurs in a pancreas already damaged by chronic lesions. Genetic factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic disease. The incidence of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis seems to have decreased in the last twenty years. Finally, recent therapeutic studies which have shown medical or surgical approaches capable of reducing the pain episodes in chronic pancreatitis patients will be described.
The bioinsecticidal effects of methanolic extracts of the leaves of castor bean, Ricinus communis, and papaya, Carica papaya, on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were studied. More specifically, larval weight, larval mortality, perce...
This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000-10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for ...
We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis in a 50-year-old man with amoebic liver abscess. He had a right lobe liver abscess along with markedly elevated serum lipase and amylase levels and edematous pancreas. Liver abscess was aspirated. The patient was managed conservatively with antibiotics and improved without any complications. Acute pancreatitis associated with ALA is not reported in the literature till date.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppressive effect of locally produced interleukin-10 on respiratory syncytial virus infection. AU - Ruan, Yan. AU - Okamoto, Yoshitaka. AU - Matsuzaki, Zensei. AU - Endo, Shuichiro. AU - Matsuoka, Tomokazu. AU - Kohno, Tadashi. AU - Chazono, Hideaki. AU - Eiko, Ito. AU - Tsubota, Kazuo. AU - Saito, Ichiro. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Interleukin (IL)-10 is known to be a multifunctional cytokine. This study was designed to evaluate the role of IL-10 during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using a C57BL/6 transgenic (TG) mouse model in which the expression of murine IL-10 cDNA was regulated by a human salivary amylase promoter (IL-10 TG mice). These mice expressed a large amount of IL-10 in the nasal mucosa and in salivary glands. Viral replication in the respiratory tract after intranasal infection with RSV was suppressed significantly in IL-10 TG mice compared to non-transgenic controls. This suppression was IL-10 specific, because it was prevented ...
The two types of pancreatitis are mild pancreatitis and severe pancreatitis, which are separated based on whether their predominant response to cell injury is inflammation or necrosis, respectively. In mild pancreatitis there is inflammation and edema of the pancreas. In severe pancreatitis there are additional features of necrosis and secondary injury to extrapancreatic organs. Both types share a common mechanism of abnormal inhibition of secretion of zymogens and inappropriate activation of pancreatic zymogens inside the pancreas, most notably trypsinogen. Normally, trypsinogen is activated to trypsin in the duodenum where it assists in the digestion of proteins. During an acute pancreatitis episode there is colocalization of lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin, with trypsinogen. Cathepsin activates trypsinogen to trypsin leading to further activation of other molecules of trypsinogen and immediate pancreatic cell death according to either the necrosis or apoptosis mechanism (or a ...
You should not use this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to pork protein, amylase, cellulase, hyoscyamine, lipase, phenyltoloxamine, or protease. You should not use this medicine if you have glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, an inflamed pancreas, or trouble urinating because of a blockage. Tell your doctor about all digestive problems you have, including colitis, ileus, or a blockage (such as achalasia or pyloric stenosis ...
Background,br /,Mental stress reliably induces increases in salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a suggested surrogate marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity. While stress-induced sAA increases correlate with norepinephrine (NE) secretion, a potential mediating role of noradrenergic mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, we investigated for the first time in humans whether a NE-stress-reactivity mimicking NE-infusion with and without alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine would induce changes in sAA.,br /,,br /,Methods,br /,In a single-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design, 21 healthy men (29-66 years) took part in three different experimental trials varying in terms of substance infusion with a 1-min first infusion followed by a 15-min second infusion: saline-infusion (trial-1), NE-infusion (5 μg/min) without alpha-adrenergic blockade (trial-2), and with phentolamine-induced non-selective blockade of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors ...
Background,br /,Mental stress reliably induces increases in salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a suggested surrogate marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity. While stress-induced sAA increases correlate with norepinephrine (NE) secretion, a potential mediating role of noradrenergic mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, we investigated for the first time in humans whether a NE-stress-reactivity mimicking NE-infusion with and without alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine would induce changes in sAA.,br /,,br /,Methods,br /,In a single-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design, 21 healthy men (29-66 years) took part in three different experimental trials varying in terms of substance infusion with a 1-min first infusion followed by a 15-min second infusion: saline-infusion (trial-1), NE-infusion (5 μg/min) without alpha-adrenergic blockade (trial-2), and with phentolamine-induced non-selective blockade of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is pancreatitis a complication of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of the pancreas?. AU - Gress, F.. AU - Ikenberry, S.. AU - Ciaccia, D.. AU - Kiel, J.. AU - Lehman, Glen. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the pancreas is increasingly being utilized to diagnose pancreatic masses. We have previously reported 2 cases of clinical pancreatitis following EUS guided FNA of the pancreas. Aim of Study: To determine the frequency of chemical and clinical pancreatitis following EUS guided FNA of the pancreas. Methods: All patients having EUS guided FNA biopsy of the pancreas were eligible. Exclusion criteria included: All patients with acute pancreatitis or having ERCP within 48 hours of the EUS FNA. Serum amylase and lipase levels were measured immediately prior to and 2 hours post EUS FNA. Patients were called 24-72 hours after FNA to follow up for increased pain, nausea, or ...
Regulated secretion from pancreatic acinar cells occurs by exocytosis of zymogen granules (ZG) at the apical plasmalemma. ZGs originate from the TGN and undergo prolonged maturation and condensation. After exocytosis, the zymogen granule membrane (ZGM) is retrieved from the plasma membrane and ultimately reaches the TGN. In this study, we analyzed the fate of a low M(r) GTP-binding protein during induced exocytosis and membrane retrieval using immunoblots as well as light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. This 27-kD protein, identified by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes rab3A and B, may be a novel rab3 isoform. In resting acinar cells, the rab3-like protein was detected primarily on the cytoplasmic face of ZGs, with little labeling of the Golgi complex and no significant labeling of the apical plasmalemma or any other intracellular membranes. Stimulation of pancreatic lobules in vitro by carbamylcholine for 15 min, resulted in massive exocytosis that led to a near doubling of ...
Whole cell immobilization of thermostable ?-amylase from phosphate solubilizing Bacillus thuringiensis A5-BRSC-IJMR-Print ISSN No:-2394-546X Online ISSN No:-2394-5478Article DOI No:-10.18231/2394-5478.2018.0055,Indian Journal of Microbiology Research-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication
The high-level expression of RAmy1A occurred in endosperm without treatment of uniconazol, whereas such high-level expression was not observed in endosperm treated with uniconazol or in the embryo (Fig. 1A). The fact that the uniconazol treatment had no effect on theRAmy1A expression in the embryo (Fig. 1A) indicates that α-amylase expression in the embryo does not depend on de novo-synthesized GAs but may depend on pre-existing GAs synthesized during seed maturation, as occurs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds (Lenton et al., 1994). In contrast to this situation, the induction of RAmy1A expression in endosperm was caused by the de novo-synthesized active GA (Fig. 1A). Based on the following evidence, we have concluded that the GA 3β-hydroxylase encoded by OsGA3ox2 mainly catalyzes the active GA synthesis to induce the RAmy1A expression in endosperm. First, the dramatic increase in RAmy1A expression in endosperm occurred after the rapid induction of the OsGA3ox2 expression ...
Stimulation of enzyme secretion in the pancreas on injection of a single dose of the cholinergic drug, pilocarpine, was associated with an increased incorporation of [2-3H]myoinositol into a lipid, which was previously characterized as phosphatidylinositol. Stimulation of enzyme secretion by hourly injection of the pancreozymin congener, caerulein, led to more increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis than with a single injection of pilocarpine. The amylase level of the pancreas remained at a low level as long as caerulein was injected, indicating continued stimulation of enzyme secretion even though increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis ceased after 6 h. Feeding gave the same stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis as caerulein. The major synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in controls and the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis by pilocarpine was entirely confined to the microsome fraction throughout the ...
Preparation of the Pancreatic Lobules. After an overnight fast with free access to water, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the pancreatic lobules were obtained. The pancreatic lobules were prepared according to a method previously described [17]. In brief, the pancreas was quickly removed and immersed in modified calcium-free HEPES (25 mmol/L)-buffered Ringer solution with the following composition (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA): NaCl 113 mmol/L, HEPES 25 mmol/L, KCl 4.7 mmol/L, MgCl2 1.2 mmol/L, D-glucose 5.6 mmol/L, sodium pyruvate 5 mmol/L, sodium fumarate 5 mmol/L, sodium glutamate 5 mmol/L, and L-glutamine 2 mmol/L. The medium also contained 2% (v/v) essential amino acids, 1% (w/v) BSA, and 0.1% (w/v) soybean trypsin inhibitor. The solution was maintained at pH 7.4, while being continuously gassed with 100% O2 at 37 C. Whole pancreatic lobules were spread out by injecting calcium-free HEPES-Ringer solution gassed with 100% O2 into the loose connective tissue. The ...
2. Martinez J, Sanchez-Paya J, Palazon JM, Suazo-Barahona J, Robles-Diaz G, Perez-Mateo M. Is obesity a risk factor in acute pancreatitis? A meta-analysis. Pancreatology. 2004;4(1):42-48.. 3. Banks PA, Freeman ML, for the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(10):2379-2400.. 4. Papachristou GI, Papachristou DJ, Avula H, Slivka A, Whitcomb DC. Obesity increases the severity of acute pancreatitis: performance of APACHE-O score and correlation with the inflammatory response. Pancreatology. 2006;6(4):279-285.. 5. De Bernardinis M, Violi V, Roncoroni L, Boselli AS, Giunta A, Peracchia A. Discriminant power and information content of Ransons prognostic signs in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analytic study. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(10):2272-2283.. 6. Johnson CD, Abu-Hilal M. Persistent organ failure during the first week as a marker of fatal outcome in acute pancreatitis. Gut. 2004;53(9):1340-1344. ...
Objective: The composition of the salivary interface (pellicle) between dental restorations and oral mucosa may be critical to the biocompatibility of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular composition of the salivary pellicle on nickel-chromium alloy in vivo. Method and materials: The molecular components of nickel-chromium pellicle was examined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses. Results: Only limited numbers of salivary proteins were found to participate in the formation of nickel-chromium pellicle in vivo. Salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A were among the proteins identified in the pellicle. Conclusion: In vivo, nickel-chromium pellicle consists of selectively adsorbed salivary proteins. Because both salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A are antimicrobial proteins, it is possible that they play a role in modulating the microbial ...
A Swiss study in 1998 (Friess H. Int. J. Pancreatology 23:115) demonstrated no changes in human pancreatic enzyme secretion after 4 wks of oral pancreatic enzyme therapy at conventional doses. In 1997, a German study (Dominguez-Munoz JE, Aliment Pharmacol. 11:403) indicated a small decrease in pancreatic elastase in human males with a preparation of enteric-coated pancreatic enzyme microtablets, but not with enteric-coated enzyme tablets, indicating that the enzyme preparation or excipients present may have an effect on the study results. The same study showed that the pancreatic effect was not due to inhibition of GI hormones. Another earlier study (Mossner J, Pancreas 6:637, 1991) showed that an extract of pig pancreas placed in the lower small intestine actually increased pancreatic enzyme production, but if pure trypsin protease was used (a pancreatic enzyme) instead, a decrease in ...
CONTEXT: Acute pancreatitis in ectopic pancreatic tissue is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and can be difficult to diagnose on imaging. Our aim is to raise awareness and aid in the diagnosis of this entity by highlighting helpful dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We report a 51-year-old man with acute onset epigastric pain presented to ER. With the presence of elevated serum lipase, the clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. Contrast enhanced CT demonstrated normal pancreas and a focal mass at the duodenojejunal flexure, mimicked a neoplasm. Subsequent dynamic contrast enhanced MR images demonstrated enhancement pattern of the lesion similar to the native pancreatic tissue enhancement, a finding raised the possibility of acute pancreatitis in ectopic pancreatic tissue, but tumor was not excluded. Finally, patient undergone surgical bowel resection including the suspected mass that was proved as an ectopic pancreatic tissue on microscopic examination.
To realize the full potential of waxy wheat flours in food applications, six advanced hard waxy wheat lines were studied. Pasting properties of waxy wheat flours as well as factors governing the pasting properties were investigated. Waxy wheat starch granules swelled more extensively and were more prone to α-amylase degradation than normal wheat starch. A combination of endogenous α-amylase activity and protein matrix contributed to a large variation of pasting properties of waxy wheat flours. Bi-axial extension properties classified dough from waxy wheat as in-elastic. Waxy wheat flour had higher water absorption and lower mixing time than normal wheat flour. Waxy wheat starch affected protein hydration but not protein extractability after optimum dough mixing. Presence of some non-protein free thiol contents and some gliadins acting as chain terminators could be the underlying reasons for ...
Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. ...
... as a sparse episode and studied sporadically in the literature. progressed to GIF. Only occurrence of infected pancreatic and extra-pancreatic necrosis (IPN) (P?=?0.004, OR?=?3.012) and modified CT severity index Felbamate (MCTSI) (P?=?0.033, OR?=?1.183) were proved to be independent risk factors for GIF in individuals with SAP, and blood type B (P?=?0.048, OR?=?2.096, 95% CI: 0.748C3.562) indicated weaker association of risk element for GIF. The early (48C72 h after admission) enteral nourishment (EEN) (P?=?0.016, OR?=?0.267) acted like a protective element. Conclusions Event of IPN and high MCTSI are self-employed risk factors for the development of GIF in individuals with SAP, blood type B reveals a potential correlation with GIF in individuals with SAP. EEN is helpful to prevent the progression of GIF secondary to SAP. Keywords: Felbamate Severe acute pancreatitis, Gastrointestinal fistula, Risk ...
Limiting factors of starch hydrolysis. Influence of sterilization, drying and oat bran enrichment of pasta on glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and on the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion
Pancreatitis is among the most variable diseases known to us, and is the number 1 benign disorder leading to hospital admission.1 Its natural history ranges from complete recovery after a single episode, to chronic debilitating disease over decades, to rapid death. In acute pancreatitis, the problem of unpredictability is compounded because 80% of patients with mild pancreatitis require only short hospital admissions and little in terms of resources. The remaining 20% with severe pancreatitis will have to be triaged to either aggressive early treatment, transfer to intensive care, or referral to tertiary specialist centres. When evidence emerged that certain clinical and diagnostic imaging characteristics allow to distinguish mild from severe pancreatitis on hospital admission, severity classifications of pancreatitis were introduced. The earliest such efforts date back half a century,2 but a better understanding of the natural history and refinements in diagnostic tools required updates roughly ...
Context The regeneration protein family (Reg), which includes Reg I and PAPII, is expressed in pancreas acinar cells, and increases in acute pancreatitis. at induced pancreatitis and sham operated subgroups of 6 rats each. Main outcome measure Serum and pancreata were harvested 24 and/or 48 hours later and assessed for pancreatitis severity by pancreatic Momelotinib wet weight, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), amylase, PAPII levels, and histopathology. Results Animals induced with pancreatitis with administration Momelotinib of anti-Reg/PAP antibodies had significantly higher wet weights compared with taurocholate and histopathological analysis revealed that anti-Reg/PAP treated animals had worse tissue inflammation and necrosis compared with controls. Serum CRP, amylase, and Reg levels did not significantly differ between experimental and sham control groups. Conclusions Administration of anti-Reg/PAP antibody worsened taurocholate-induced ...
In rodents and humans, alcohol exposure has been shown to predispose the pancreas to cholinergic or viral induction of pancreatitis. We previously developed a rodent model in which exposure to an ethanol (EtOH) diet, followed by carbachol (Cch) stimulation, redirects exocytosis from the apical to the basolateral plasma membrane of acinar cells, resulting in ectopic zymogen enzyme activation and pancreatitis. This redirection of exocytosis involves a soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) complex consisting of syntaxin-4 and synapse-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP-23). Here, we investigated the role of the zymogen granule (ZG) SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) in mediating basolateral exocytosis. In WT mice, in vitro EtOH exposure or EtOH diet reduced Cch-stimulated amylase release by redirecting apical exocytosis to the basolateral membrane, leading to alcoholic pancreatitis. Further reduction of zymogen secretion, caused by blockade of ...
Lets discuss Ibuprofen for pancreatitis. I take it for acute pancreatitis, only acute pancreatitis. If you have chronic pancreatitis you may want to try taking Ibuprofen for pancreatitis daily but ask your doctor if it is safe to take with your current drug regimen. Ibuprofen for pancreatitis is simply common sense but it is NOT a safe drug. Actually there are no safe drugs. A Big Pharma company could take something…. ...
Effect of Octreotide Administration in the Prophylaxis of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis and Hyperamylasemia: A Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Li, Zhao-Shen; Pan, Xue; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Gong, Biao; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Guo, Xue-Gang; Li, Pei-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Ning; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Zhi; Ma, Shu-Ren; Xie, Wei-Fen; Chen, Min-Hu; Li, Yan-Qing // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Jan2007, Vol. 102 Issue 1, p46 OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatology (ERCP) in clinical use, pancreatitis has become a common complication of ERCP. Octreotide is an inhibitor of pancreatic enzyme secretions. Several studies have evaluated the effect of octreotide on the incidence... ...
in Gastroenterology (2000), 119(1), 230-233. Two patients experienced episodes of acute pancreatitis shortly after starting treatment with interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha) for a chronic hepatitis C infection. The first patient was a 40-year-old man ... [more ▼]. Two patients experienced episodes of acute pancreatitis shortly after starting treatment with interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha) for a chronic hepatitis C infection. The first patient was a 40-year-old man who developed acute pancreatitis after 15 weeks of treatment with 3 MU IFN-alpha subcutaneously (SC) 3 times weekly and 1200 mg ribavirin. After disappearance of symptoms and normalization of laboratory values, oral intake of solid foods and IFN-alpha therapy were restarted. Within hours, a relapse of acute pancreatitis occurred. A rechallenge with IFN-alpha 4 days later was followed by a prompt increase in serum lipase level, and IFN-alpha therapy was discontinued. The second patient was a 38-year-old man who developed acute pancreatitis ...
Canine pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur in two very different forms. Acute pancreatitis is sudden while chronic pancreatitis is characterized by recurring or persistent form of pancreatic inflammation. Cases of both can be considered mild or severe. The pancreas is composed of two sections: the smaller endocrine portion, which is responsible for producing hormones such as insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon, and the larger, exocrine portion, which produces enzymes needed for the digestion of food. Acinar cells make up 82% of the total pancreas; these cells are responsible for the production of the digestive enzymes. Pancreatitis is caused by autodigestion of the pancreas thought to begin with an increase in secretion of pancreatic enzymes in response to a stimulus, which can be anything from table scraps to getting into the garbage to drugs, toxins, and trauma. The digestive enzymes are released too quickly and ...
Looking for chymotrypsinogen? Find out information about chymotrypsinogen. An inactive proteolytic enzyme of pancreatic juice; converted to the active form, chymotrypsin, by trypsin Explanation of chymotrypsinogen
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreas Transplant pathology. T2 - A morphologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic comparison of allogeneic grafts with rejection, syngeneic grafts, and chronic pancreatitis. AU - Nakhleh, R. E.. AU - Gruessner, Rainer W G. AU - Swanson, P. E.. AU - Tzardis, P. J.. AU - Brayman, K.. AU - Dunn, D. L.. AU - Sutherland, D. E R. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - In an effort to establish diagnostic criteria for rejection and recurrent disease in transplanted pancreases, a comparative study was performed based on clinical diagnosis. Clinical rejection was diagnosed in patients who had decreased urinary amylase or increased blood glucose; they were treated for rejection and improved. A clinical diagnosis of recurrent diabetes was made in syngeneic transplant recipients with islet dysfunction. In addition, two control groups were used-nontransplant, nondiabetic pancreatitis patients and pretransplant normal biopsies from patients in the study. ...
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common, potentially fatal, inflammatory disease in dogs. Miniature Schnauzers and several Terrier and non-sporting breeds are predisposed to develop AP. The spectrum of clinical signs greatly varies, from transient inappetence in mild cases, to intractable gastro-intestinal signs and jaundice in severe ones. The result of aberrant activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes, the ensuing inflammatory reaction within the pancreas and its surrounding tissues induces edema formation and tissue necrosis. In severe cases, inflammation spreads to other organs, leading to hemostatic disturbances, multi-organ dysfunction and ultimately, to death. Several measurable inflammation markers increase in canine pancreatitis. Recently, studies of human and murine AP have demonstrated significant increases in extracellular serum histones. Histones are evolutionally conserved nuclear proteins, constituting the basic structure with which DNA interacts. Histones exert proinflammatory ...
The study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity and α-amylase activity inhibitory potential of Sarotherodon galillaeus muscle protein hydrolysates. Sarotherodon galillaeus muscle protein isolate was hydrolysed with three digestive proteases namely trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin. Degree of hydrolysis was determined. The antioxidative potential of the hydrolysates was investigated using DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activity. The ability of the hydrolysates to inhibit the activity of sugar-hydrolysing enzyme was also evaluated. Highest degree of hydrolysis was obtained with pepsin (55.86%) followed by trypsin (47.11%) and chymotrypsin (42.36%) after 6 hrs of hydrolysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of hydrolysates produced by trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin for DPPH radical scavenging activity were 1.26 ± ...
protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lipid binding; INVOLVED IN: lipid transport; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Bifunctional inhibitor/plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage (InterPro:IPR016140), Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein and hydrophobic protein, helical (InterPro:IPR013770); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein (TAIR:AT4G12510.1); Has 534 Blast hits to 530 proteins in 51 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 534; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and |i|β|/i|-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Pain. Pancreatitis. Abstract. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is complicated by acute pancreatitis in up to. Digestion. 1993;54(2):105-11. Prospective randomized trial of the effect of nifedipine on pancreatic irritation after endoscopic retrograde. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was is zoloft a generic xanax determine whether the calcium channel blocker nifedipine prevents post-ERCP pancreatitis.. We excluded other causes of acute pancreatitis by clinical history, serum Keywords: Pancreatitis • Nifedipine • Acetaminophen • Poisoning • Hemofiltration. ...
Who is a pancreatitis juice diet for? A pancreatitis juice diet is for anyone who suffers with recurrent acute pancreatitis and or chronic pancreatitis. As you know, since you are reading this article on pancreatitis and juicing, pancreatitis is not easy to heal and can cause long-term complications if not healed quickly. Juicing is one way you can help your pancreas to heal even if you have chronic pancreatitis due to damage…. ...

GlossaryGlossary

Beta-amylase. In brewing, a malt enzyme that hydrolyses alpha-1,4 bonds in starch. Largely responsible for maltose production ... Alpha Amylase. In brewing, a malt enzyme that hydrolyses alpha-1,4 bonds in starch. Largely responsible for mash viscosity ... More thermostable than beta-amylase. The brewer controls the relative activities of alpha and beta amylase using mash ... "exo" activity) Less thermostable than alpha-amylase. The brewer controls the relative activities of alpha and beta amylase ...
more infohttps://www.summitbrewing.com/glossary/

Exoenzyme - WikipediaExoenzyme - Wikipedia

Amylases are a group of extracellular enzymes (glycoside hydrolases) that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into maltose. These ... Organisms can either by alpha-hemolytic, beta-hemolytic, or gamma-hemolytic (non-hemolytic). ... The different classes of amylases are α-amylases, β-amylases, and glucoamylases. The α-amylases hydrolyze starch by randomly ... amylases are secreted by both the pancreas and salivary glands with both sources of the enzyme required for complete starch ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exoenzyme

Anti-beta Amylase antibody (HRP) | AbcamAnti-beta Amylase antibody (HRP) | Abcam

Anti-beta Amylase antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, Dot, EM. Immunogen corresponding to full length native ... Beta Amylase is an enzyme found in the seeds of higher plants and in sweet potatoes. It hydrolyses 1,4 alpha D glucosidic ... linkages in polysaccharides to remove successive maltose units from the non reducing ends of the chains. Used in the structural ... Anti-beta Amylase antibody (HRP) - Azide free. See all beta Amylase primary antibodies. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/beta-amylase-antibody-hrp-azide-free-ab34582.html

Starch - Biology-OnlineStarch - Biology-Online

Breakdown of starch by fuctional enzymes is done by α-amylase and β-amylase. Breakdown by alpha one yields maltose and dextrine ... its an acid catalyzed starch hydrolysis. Just imagine that, 10 mL starch solution, added with 3 mL HCl 3M and heated about 70- ... while breakdown by the beta yields maltose. And yes, this enzyme catalyzed breakdown cant be done in 100 ºC due to ... maltose and glucose share the same result of that test, so I cant say thats a complete hydrolysis of starch). ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?p=54314

B-amylase - WikipediaB-amylase - Wikipedia

... in polysaccharides so as to remove successive maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains This enzyme acts on starch ... Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. ... During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. β-amylase is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-amylase

Molecules & Cells - A-Level Science - Marked by Teachers.comMolecules & Cells - A-Level Science - Marked by Teachers.com

... amylase, which is an enzyme present in biological washing powders that breaks down starch deposits in food stains into maltose ... Amylase, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (splitting of a compound by addition of a water molecule ... Two categories of Amylases, denoted alpha and beta, differ in the way they attack the bonds of the starch molecules. Alpha- ... How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in biological washing powders? 4 star(s) ...
more infohttp://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/science/biology/molecules-cells/?essay_length=297&four_star_plus=287

Digestion facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about DigestionDigestion facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Digestion

Amylase, the starch-digesting enzyme of the small intestine, can only hydrolyze alpha links. The non-digestible carbohydrates ... The resulting disaccharides (e.g., maltose) are further hydrolyzed into monosaccharides (e.g., glucose) by enzymes (e.g., ... further increasing the surface area for enzyme attack. Pepsin (a protease) begins the hydrolysis of proteins into smaller ... The most abundant polysaccharide in plant tissue is cellulose, which is a glucose polymer with beta one to four links between ...
more infohttp://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/digestion

BREWING TOPICSBREWING TOPICS

... beta-amylase is an exo-amylase which hydrolysis starch chains from the non-reducing ends producing successive maltose units on ... Most of the enzymes which are available on the market are natural products as malt enzymes are. Commercial enzymes are mainly ... and maltogenic amylases alpha (Maltosylase) or beta.Amyloglucosidase (Glucosylase) is an exo-amylase which catalyses starch ... Maltogenic alpha-amylase (Maltosylase) is an endo-amylase that hydrolyses at random alpha-1,4 bonds located in the inner ...
more infohttp://www.cbsbrew.com/blog/

HOMEBREW Digest #4750		             Wed 30 March 2005HOMEBREW Digest #4750 Wed 30 March 2005

3/ cool to 62C and add beta amylase for a BA rest. 4/ separate & boil wort to sanitize & stop enzymes hydrolysis. And this ... BA only hydrolyses maltose(M2) units from the NON-reducing ends. In a bucketful of fully gelatinized grain starch, the BA ... beta-amylase rest actually has more alpha-amylase activity than beta-amylase activity so its a misnomer. The alpha-amylase ... common grain&malt carbohydrates and the two major amylase enzymes, alpha-amylase(AA) and beta-amylase(BA). Wed better describe ...
more infohttp://hbd.org/hbd/archive/4750.html

A-amylase | definition of A-amylase by Medical dictionaryA-amylase | definition of A-amylase by Medical dictionary

A-amylase explanation free. What is A-amylase? Meaning of A-amylase medical term. What does A-amylase mean? ... Looking for online definition of A-amylase in the Medical Dictionary? ... amylase. a digestive enzyme which enables starch to be split by hydrolysis into smaller subunits of MALTOSE, usually in ... Beta-amylase, found in grains, vegetables, malt, and bacteria, is involved in the hydrolysis of starch to maltose. Normal blood ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/A-amylase

iMaQPress - 
        Human and Bacterial Amylases: Computational BioinformaticsiMaQPress - Human and Bacterial Amylases: Computational Bioinformatics

Amylase is a hydrolysis enzyme of glycoside hydrolase family that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into maltose and glucose ( ... which is known as alpha-amylase and beta-amylase. Alpha-amylase is produced in salivary glands, but beta-amylase is produced ... Amylase is an enzyme with broad hydrolysis activities that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into glucose and other small ... Beta-amylase and bacterial amylases are mainly involved in hydrolysis of polysaccharide chains such as starch and glycogen from ...
more infohttp://imaqpress.com/article/Human-and-Bacterial-Amylases:-Computational-Bioinformatics

Brewing Terms - A Glossary of Brewing Related Definitions | The Stout PalaceBrewing Terms - A Glossary of Brewing Related Definitions | The Stout Palace

Beta Amylase: Degrades starch to maltose and beta limit dextrin.. Amylodextrin. The first hydrolysis product of starch with ... Amylases. Are starch degrading enzymes.Alpha Amylase: Degrades starch to a mixture of dextrins and sugars.. ... Beta. Is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of Glucanase randomly placed internal links in the beta glucan chain.. ... Maltose. A crystalline sugar C12H22O11 formed from starch by the action of amylase. It is dextrorotatory and the main source of ...
more infohttp://www.thestoutpalace.com/brewing-terms-a-glossary-of-brewing-related-definitions/

beta Amylase抗体(HRP) - Azide free| Abcam中国beta Amylase抗体(HRP) - Azide free| Abcam中国

... beta Amylase抗体经WB,ELISA,Dot,EM验证,产品出库一年 ... 购买beta Amylase兔多克隆抗体(ab34582), ... Beta Amylase is an enzyme found in the seeds of higher plants and in sweet potatoes. It hydrolyses 1,4 alpha D glucosidic ... linkages in polysaccharides to remove successive maltose units from the non reducing ends of the chains. Used in the structural ... Anti-beta Amylase抗体(HRP) - Azide free. 参阅全
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/beta-amylase-antibody-hrp-azide-free-ab34582.html

Industrial Enzymes Manufacturer Hyderabad - KaryoticaIndustrial Enzymes Manufacturer Hyderabad - Karyotica

Ltd is the supreme Industrial Enzymes Manufacturer Hyderabad. we produce a wide range of enzymes which uses fermentation ... Beta Amylase. Beta amylase is a form of amylase working from the non-reducing end, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 ... alpha-linked polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose. ... Enzymes used in Industry. Alpha Amylase. α-Amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, ...
more infohttp://www.karyotica.com/industrial-enzymes/industrial-enzymes-manufacturer-hyderabad.html

Microbial Enzymes For textile Processing - Karyotica BiologicalsMicrobial Enzymes For textile Processing - Karyotica Biologicals

Ltd is one of the prime manufacturers of Microbial Enzymes For textile Processing in Hyderabad. Mail to [email protected] for ... Beta amylase. Beta amylase is a form of amylase working from the non-reducing end, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 ... alpha-linked polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen finally yields glucose and maltose. ... Alkaline protease and Beta amylase. Alpha amylase. α-Amylase is an enzyme which hydrolyses Alpha bonds of large, ...
more infohttp://www.karyotica.com/microbial-enzymes/microbial-enzymes-for-textile-processing.html

CBS BREW | BREWING ENZYMES | colloidal stability, beer attenuation, foam stabilizer | BELGIUMCBS BREW | BREWING ENZYMES | colloidal stability, beer attenuation, foam stabilizer | BELGIUM

A team of brewing experts producing natural flavors and special brewing enzymes to help the brewers to produce new brands and ... Starch liquefaction by endo-hydrolysis of alpha -1,4 bonds. Maltosylase. AMaltogenic amylase. or ß-amylase. Starch ... Reaching high levels of maltose for high attenuation. Glucanylase. Mixture of beta-glucanases, pentosanases and thermostable ... ENZYME TYPE. FUNCTION. Liquamyl T. Thermostable alpha-amylase. Starch liquefaction by endo-hydrolysis of alpha - 1,4 bonds at ...
more infohttp://www.cbsbrew.com/portfolio-item/brewing-enzymes/

B-amylase | Article about B-amylase by The Free DictionaryB-amylase | Article about B-amylase by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about B-amylase. enzyme enzyme, biological catalyst. The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word ... for fermentation, a process accomplished by yeast cells and long... Explanation of B-amylase ... Amylase. any of the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of starches, glycogen, and related polysaccharides by splitting the ... Beta-amylase, typical in higher plants, catalyzes the formation of maltoses and macromolecular dextrins. Glucoamylase is found ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/B-amylase

Biological Molecules - Carbohydrates | Polysaccharide | CarbohydratesBiological Molecules - Carbohydrates | Polysaccharide | Carbohydrates

... incubate starch with dilute acid @ 100*C -enzymatic method: incubate starch with enzymes at room temp Glycogen: A highly ... the alpha and beta forms of glucose Both alpha and beta forms exist in equilibrium, but beta forms more commonly as it is ... Glucose Functions Respiratory substrate Production of starch digestion by amylase Respiratory substrate Found exclusively in ... Some disaccharides are reducing (maltose and lactose) while others arent (sucrose) -Disaccharides can be hydrolysed into ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/48333321/Biological-Molecules-Carbohydrates

Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and...Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and...

We also performed enzymatic hydrolysis of wood samples from the different treatments, and the results indicated higher sugar ... starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. ... Starch synthase (SS) was up-regulated as well, as were enzymes involved in the degradation of starch into maltose (beta-amylase ... Eucalyptus hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was performed as described by [72] with the following modifications: enzymatic hydrolysis was ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-014-0301-8

Process and composition for the preservation of vegetables - Patent # 4292331 - PatentGeniusProcess and composition for the preservation of vegetables - Patent # 4292331 - PatentGenius

The bacteria composition may comprise a mixture of fungic amylases, amylases of bacterial origin, amyloglucosidase, and ... and enzymes having a complementary action capable of degrading the complex carbohydrates into fermentable sugars which may be ... The acidity results from the significant degradation of starch, complex carbohydrates and fermentable carbohydrates. A mixture ... and .beta. amylases of fungic origin hydrolyze the (1-4)-.alpha. bonds of the starches to form principally maltose but also ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/4292331.html

Digestion and Lactose Intolerance - Revision Cards in A Level and IB BiologyDigestion and Lactose Intolerance - Revision Cards in A Level and IB Biology

Maltose is a product of starch digestion, broken down by the enzyme amylase) ... Lactase hydrolyses Lactose into its monosaccharides - glucose and galactose. *Undigested lactose is fermented by bacteria in ... The diagram for the alpha-glucose has the -OH group on the wrong side of the carbon-1 atom, it shows beta-glucose, but really ... Starch-, Salivary Amylase and Pancreatic Amylase break it down into maltose. Maltase (from the intestinal epithelium) then ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/revision-cards/digestion_and_lactose_intolerance

SMART: Pfam domain Alpha-amylaseSMART: Pfam domain Alpha-amylase

The maltogenic alpha-amylase is an enzyme which catalyses hydrolysis of (1-4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides so ... as to remove successive alpha-maltose residues from the non-reducing ends of the chains in the conversion of starch to maltose ... 70 amino acid calcium-binding domain protruding between beta strand 3 and alpha helix 3, and a carboxyl-terminal Greek key beta ... Other enzymes include neopullulanase, which hydrolyses pullulan to panose, and cyclomaltodextrinase, which hydrolyses ...
more infohttp://smart.embl.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?DOMAIN=Pfam:Alpha-amylase&START=36&END=271&E_VALUE=1.4e-21&TYPE=PFAM&BLAST=WVDIAKECERYLAPNGFAGVQVSPPNENIVVHSPSRPWWERYQPISYKICSRSGNEDEFRDMVNRCNNVGVRIYVDAVINHMCGVGAQAGQSSTCGSYFNPNNRDFPGVPYSGFDFNDGKCRTASGGIENYQDAAQVRDCRLSGLLDLALEKDYVRTKVADYMNHLIDIGVAGFRLDASKHMWPGDIKAILDKLHNLNTKWFSQGSRPFIFQEVIDLGGEAVSSNEYFGNGRVTEF

Natural Enzymes Probiotics | For Dogs | Cats | Benefits of Enzymes | NWCnaturals.comNatural Enzymes Probiotics | For Dogs | Cats | Benefits of Enzymes | NWCnaturals.com

... best digestive enzymes for pets and probiotics. Treat Your Pet Like A Champion. Top show dogs and Vets use Total-Zymes® and ... Beta-Glucanase; This enzyme is used to breakdown carbohydrates, specifically starches. Diastase; Sometimes called maltase is an ... enzyme that is the catalyst in the hydrolysis of disaccharide maltose to the simple sugar form - glucose. ... Amylase; An enzyme that breaks down sugars and starches. Good for those hidden sugars in pet treats. And helps digest corn, ...
more infohttps://nwcnaturals.com/pet/pet-enzymes/total-digestion-mini-twin-pack-for-pets.html

Biochemistry/Carbohydrates - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldBiochemistry/Carbohydrates - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Maltose is present in sprouting barley. It is the major product of hydrolysis of starch. ... by hydrolysis and then used for energy. It is hydrolysed by enzyme Amylase.It is non reducinh sugar. It gives blue,purple ... beta - maltose. Sucrose[edit]. 3Occurrence- It is the costituent of sugarcane. it is also found in Beet,carrot,etc. Nectar of ... Maltose[edit]. *Chemistry-. Maltose is a white crystal sugar, also known as malt sugar and a reducing disaccharide made from ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Biochemistry/Carbohydrates

Dog Digestion | Total Digest for Dogs and Cats SupplementDog Digestion | Total Digest for Dogs and Cats Supplement

The best digestive enzyme product for dogs and cats ... the amount of enzyme which hydrolyses one micromole of maltose ... aContains a source of alpha-amylase which can hydrolyze starch 1 USP unit of amylase activity = amount of pancreatin that ... eContains a source of beta-glucanase which = 1 unit (BGU) is defined as the amount of beta-glucanase that will degrade barley ... Because digestive enzymes are so important for your pets overall health, we recommend the addition of digestive enzymes that ...
more infohttps://www.thomaslabs.com/product/total-digest/new-products
  • Gene expression was analysed through mRNA-sequencing, and notably, compared to control trees, the treated trees display differential down-regulation of cell wall formation pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as differential expression of genes involved in sucrose, starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7. Process of claim 6 wherein said enzyme is disposed on a cereal substrate. (patentgenius.com)
  • More particularly, the invention concerns a novel ensilaging process for preserving vegetables by using a mixture of specificbacterial strains and specified enzymes placed on an appropriate substrate or support. (patentgenius.com)
  • In addition, it was shown that similar domain with several repeated di- or tri-peptide sequences existed in almost all amylases indicating that these residues may have valuable functional, structural and evolutional information. (imaqpress.com)
  • Majority enzymes will get denaturated in high temperature but certain enzymes like taq-polymerase and cellulase can stand that heat. (biology-online.org)
  • When a dog or cat is lacking certain enzymes and nutrients, they can have bad breath, loose and/or foul-smelling stool, gas, bloating, excessive shedding, weight concerns, and more. (thomaslabs.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to characterize the most critical structural and catalytic domains of amylase using bioinformatics tools. (imaqpress.com)
  • That's why we at NWC Naturals® Pet Products formulated Total-Zymes® with a special blend of SIXTEEN powerful vegetarian enzymes to completely digest and deliver all the nutrients of today's modern pet diet, with just one scoop of Total-Zymes® per cup of any pet food. (nwcnaturals.com)
  • Find out if enzymes work faster or slower at different temperatures. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Small starch granules gelatinise at higher temperatures than normal size granules of a given cereal. (cbsbrew.com)
  • Bacterial and fungal species such as Bacillus and Actinomycetes that are stable in various conditions such as high temperatures and acidic environment are suitable for amylase production ( 7 ). (imaqpress.com)
  • The enzymes are quite simply proteins which have, in addition to their catalytic activity, structures and biochemical properties similar to other commonly known proteins. (cbsbrew.com)
  • The increase of productivity and of raw materials extract yield has to allow to save money including enzyme cost. (cbsbrew.com)
  • These three enzymes increase brewhouse extract yield and agree with first criterion. (cbsbrew.com)
  • Improvement of extract yield and wort and beer filtration rate and control of starch haze in beer. (cbsbrew.com)
  • 8. Process of claim 7 wherein the enzyme is disposed on the cereal in a ratio of approximately 1 kg. (patentgenius.com)