Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.GuanineIodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Allyl CompoundsDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Uracil Mustard: Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.Quinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.EstersKetonesChemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acronine: A pyrano-acridone alkaloid found in RUTACEAE plants.Nitrosourea CompoundsSulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Hydrolysis with hot water leads to propylene glycol. Alkylation with C2H5MgI in diethyl ether leads to 2-pentanol. Between 60 ... Reaction with Ag2O leads to acetic acid. Reaction with sodium-mercury amalgam (NaHg) and water leads to isopropyl alcohol. ...
... the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method. MeI is used to prepare the Grignard ... With methyl iodide, C-alkylation nearly always predominates. In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ from the reaction of ...
Acetylation Aldol condensation Alkylation Amination Dehydration Esterification Etherification Hydrolysis Isomerization ... Oligomerization Transesterification Hydrodesulfurization of light oil fractions The esterification of acetic acid with alcohols ... This technique can be useful for equilibrium-limited reactions such as esterification and ester hydrolysis reactions. ...
The oxime group is hydrogenated to the amine 11 with platinum in acetic acid and alkylation with iodomethane gives the ... The S-enantiomer is converted back to the S-lactone in two steps by hydrolysis with potassium hydroxide and ethylene glycol ... A second hydrogenation takes place with Adams catalyst in acetic acid to tetrahydroisoquinoline 6. Further hydrogenation does ... This process is accompanied by hydrolysis of both the ester and the amide group but it is not the free amine that is isolated ...
To achieve this hydrolysis, aqueous acids are often employed. RR'C(ONa)C≡CR" + CH3COOH → RR'C(OH)C≡CR" + CH3COONa Common ... Acetic acid is added to remove lithium and liberate the free alcohol. Several modifications of alkynylation reactions are known ... Alkylation Methylation Organolithium reagent Organosodium chemistry Glaser coupling Cadiot-Chodkiewicz coupling Castro-Stephens ...
A real example is the hydrolysis of an ester such as aspirin to a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. In the absence of added acid ... Petroleum refining makes intensive use of catalysis for alkylation, catalytic cracking (breaking long-chain hydrocarbons into ... Most carbonylation processes require metal catalysts, examples include the Monsanto acetic acid process and hydroformylation. ... Illustrative is the base-catalysed hydrolysis of esters, where the produced carboxylic acid immediately reacts with the base ...
The area is one of intense research and many practical applications, e.g., the production of acetic acid. Enzymes are examples ... In an illustrative case, acids accelerate (catalyze) the hydrolysis of esters: CH3CO2CH3 + H2O ⇌ CH3CO2H + CH3OH In the absence ... One example of heterogeneous catalysis is the petrochemical alkylation process, where the liquid reactants are immiscible with ... as well as the Monsanto process and the Cativa process for the conversion of MeOH and CO to acetic acid. Many non- ...
Ring A was synthesised starting from geraniol 1 and involved acylation (acetic anhydride, DMAP, Et3N) to 2, epoxidation (N- ... Cyclisation of 27 took place by alkylation (LiN(TMS)2, dioxane, microwave irradiation) to tricycle 28. Subsequent steps were ... acetate hydrolysis (NaOH) and Ley oxidation to aldehyde 19. Ring A (12) and ring C (19) reacted together to alcohol 20 in a ... cyanohydrin hydrolysis (camphorsulfonic acid), TMS deprotection (KOH) and allylic oxidation (SeO2, tBuO2H, salicylic acid) to ...
... was brought about by hydrogen bromide in acetic acid followed by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. In the final step to (−)- ... double bond isomerization (sodium / iPrOH), Boc group deprotection (triflic acid) and amine alkylation with (Z)-BrCH2CICH= ... acetic anhydride, pyridine) and then the veratryl group was then ring-opened with ozone in aquaeous acetic acid to muconic ... Alkaline ester hydrolysis to carboxylic acid 20 was accompanied by epimerization at C14. This particular compound was already ...
CH3COOCH2CH3 Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by the alkylation of acetic acid by ethylene: C2H4 + ... The use of an acid catalyst accelerates the hydrolysis, which is subject to the Fischer equilibrium mentioned above. In the ... Ethyl acetate is the most common ester in wine, being the product of the most common volatile organic acid - acetic acid, and ... Ethyl acetate is rarely selected as a reaction solvent because it is prone to hydrolysis and transesterification. Ethyl acetate ...
Alkylation by methyl magnesium bromide to alcohol 12 and another Swern oxidation gave ketone 13. This group was converted to ... The ring-closing reaction was a Reformatskii reaction with Samarium(II) iodide and acetic acid to acetate 18. The ... and hydrolysis removes the thioether group in 62. In the final synthetic steps (scheme 8) the amide tail 62 was added to ABCD ... Then, acylation of the C4 hydroxyl group (acetic anhydride, DMAP, pyridine) resulted in acetate 49. In the final steps ...
... the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method. ... With methyl iodide, C-alkylation nearly always predominates. Other reactions[edit]. In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ ...
... s undergo hydrolysis under acid and basic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the reaction is the reverse reaction of the ... Another variation is the Fráter-Seebach alkylation. Phenyl esters react to hydroxyarylketones in the Fries rearrangement. ... For example, butyl acetate (systematically butyl ethanoate), derived from butanol and acetic acid (systematically ethanoic acid ... "acetic ether". Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or ...
The hydrolysis takes place by the action of amidases. It is excreted primarily in the urine. Secretory routes of less ... Sulfacetamide is synthesized either by direct alkylation of acetamide with 4-aminobenzenesulfonyl chloride, or by reacting 4- ... aminobenzenesulfonamide with acetic anhydride and subsequent selective, reductive deacylation of the resultant acetamide using ...
Reactions of this type are hampered by alkylation of the heterocycle by incipient alkyl chloride. (6) Silylated heterocyclic ... acetic acid:H2O (5:1:4) and whose 1H NMR spectrum at 400 MHz in D2O showed only traces of the undesired N7-anomer of guanosine ... bases are susceptible to hydrolysis and somewhat difficult to handle as a result; thus, the development of a one-pot, one-step ... 5) The most nucleophilic nitrogen can be blocked through alkylation prior to nucleoside synthesis. Heating the blocked ...
The original method entailed its conversion to diethyl sulfate, followed by hydrolysis. The main method practiced since the mid ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ... Major chemical intermediates from the alkylation with ethylene is ethylbenzene, precursor to styrene. Styrene is used ... alkylation, 5) hydration, 6) oligomerization, and 7) hydroformylation. In the United States and Europe, approximately 90% of ...
... ester hydrolysis and protein denaturation. Proteins (chemically composed of amide bonds) are destroyed via amide hydrolysis ... For instance, catalytic sulfuric acid is used in the alkylation process in an oil refinery: the activity of carbocations, the ... for example formic acid and acetic acid Strong Lewis acids such as anhydrous aluminum chloride and boron trifluoride Lewis ... Their action on living tissue (e.g. skin, flesh and cornea) is mainly based on acid-base reactions of amide hydrolysis, ...
Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by the alkylation of acetic acid by ethylene: C2H4 + CH3CO2H → CH3CO2C ... Hydrolysis and saponificationEdit. Esterification is a reversible reaction. Esters undergo hydrolysis under acid and basic ... In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid, and oxygen react to give vinyl acetate: C2H4 + CH3CO2H + ​ ... Alkylation of carboxylate saltsEdit. Although not widely employed for esterifications, salts of carboxylate anions can be ...
Wamser, C. A. (1948). "Hydrolysis of Fluoboric Acid in Aqueous Solution". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (3): ... HBF4 is used as a catalyst for alkylations and polymerizations. In carbohydrate protection reactions, ethereal fluoroboric acid ... 2 H2O Anhydrous solutions can be prepared by treatment of aqueous fluoroboric acid with acetic anhydride. The acidity of ...
Switching to an N-tosyl protecting group inhibited the hydrolysis reaction and allowed both 2- and 3-substituted indoles to be ... Sequential alkylation and asymmetric hydrogenation of 2-substituted indoles A promising organocatalytic method for the ... and I2 and acetic acid system with ee values usually above 90% and potentially as high as 99.9%. A similar system using iridium ... A similar process, where sequential Friedel-Crafts alkylation and asymmetric hydrogenation occur in one pot, allow asymmetric 2 ...
The trisubstituted benzotrichloride is used for the hydrolysis of the synthesis of benzoyl chloride: P h − C C l 3 + H 2 O ⟶ {\ ... In Friedel-Crafts alkylations, chloroalkanes are used to prepare alkylaromatics. By photochlorination chloroparaffins can be ... The French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas already investigated the substitution of hydrogen for chlorine by acetic acid in candle ... It is converted via hydrolysis into benzyl alcohol, which is used as an intermediate for the production of plasticizers. Benzyl ...
On small scale (less than 0.01-0.02 mmol), the treatment with 80% aqueous acetic acid for 15-30 min at room temperature is ... Under the strong basic conditions required for the removal of N-acyl protection, acrylonitrile is capable of alkylation of ... OPS are substantially more stable towards hydrolysis by nucleases, the class of enzymes that destroy nucleic acids by breaking ... On the other hand, if the capping step is performed prior to sulfurization, the solid support may contain the residual acetic ...
Data from animal studies indicate two possible pathways for the metabolism of ethylene oxide: hydrolysis to ethylene glycol and ... Exposure to ethylene oxide gas causes alkylation to microorganisms at a nuclear level. The disinfectant effect of ethylene ... The reduction catalysts include mixtures of zinc dust and acetic acid, of lithium aluminium hydride with titanium trichloride ( ... yielding ethylene carbonate and its subsequent hydrolysis with decarboxylation: ( CH 2 CH 2 ) O + CO 2 ⟶ ( O − CH 2 CH 2 − O ) ...
Alkylation. Major chemical intermediates from the alkylation with ethylene is ethylbenzene, precursor to styrene. Styrene is ... The original method entailed its conversion to diethyl sulfate, followed by hydrolysis. The main method practiced since the mid ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. ... alkylation, 5) hydration, 6) oligomerization, and 7) hydroformylation. In the United States and Europe, approximately 90% of ...
Friedel-Crafts alkylation involves the alkylation of an aromatic ring with an alkyl halide using a strong Lewis acid, such as ... Reaction of bromobenzene with acetic anhydride Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 1, p. 109 (1941); Vol. 5, p. 17 (1925). Article ... Friedel-Crafts alkylation has been hypothesized to be reversible. In a retro-Friedel-Crafts reaction or Friedel-Crafts ... Reaction conditions are similar to the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. This reaction has several advantages over the alkylation ...
Silicotungstic acid is used to manufacture ethyl acetate by the alkylation of acetic acid by ethylene: C2H4 + CH3CO2H → CH3CO2C ... Hydrolysis and saponification[edit]. Esterification is a reversible reaction. Esters undergo hydrolysis under acid and basic ... In the presence of palladium-based catalysts, ethylene, acetic acid, and oxygen react to give vinyl acetate: C2H4 + CH3CO2H + ​ ... Alkylation of carboxylate salts[edit]. Although not widely employed for esterifications, salts of carboxylate anions can be ...
Results obtained from two-step hydrolysis runs shows (table 3) that the optimum condition for two-step hydrolysis processes ... Related to sulfuric acid: acetic acid See: disapprobation. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a ... sulfuric acid alkylation. *Sulfuric Acid Concentrate. *sulfuric acid poisoning. *sulfuric acid poisoning ...
Hydrolysis with hot water leads to propylene glycol. Alkylation with C2H5MgI in diethyl ether leads to 2-pentanol. Between 60 ... Reaction with Ag2O leads to acetic acid. Reaction with sodium-mercury amalgam (NaHg) and water leads to isopropyl alcohol. ...
... the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method. MeI is used to prepare the Grignard ... With methyl iodide, C-alkylation nearly always predominates. In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ from the reaction of ...
The N7 of the purine then is spontaneously alkylated, making it labile to hydrolysis. Hydrolysis and multimer cleavage is then ... An example of an activating reagent for the mercaptan is acetic anhydride. This forms the acetylmercapto group, which is a good ... Chemical Cleavage of Linear Multimers by Catalytic Alkylation of N7 of an Extra Purine. This procedure requires no ... Hydrolysis and multimer cleavage is carried out by the Maxam-Gilbert method: the activated multimer is dissolved in 10% aqueous ...
For O-alkylation with sodium bromoacetate, and acid hydrolysis to O-carboxymethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride, see: Org. Synth. ... ketones can be converted to their oximes in high yield by an exchange process involving heating with acetone oxime in acetic ...
Alkylation 48 ------- FORM OF /$/*//*$/// /i/h/m/M///WA//W /f/i/ /i/s///*.//$/ /s/jfM/ /if / //?/ / a/imf/ / wM/MfmWmwm Vv/W ... ACETIC ACID (DDA) IN HUMAN URINE CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES IN HUMAN TISSUE CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES AND ... 8 ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE METABOLITES OR HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS IN HUMAN URINE PARA-NITROPHENOL (PNP) IN URINE P ... Alkylation F-17 49 ------- G. OIL AND GREASE METHODS ------- DETECTION OR MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES /// //*/$/ //A OILS AND ...
3-adamantane di-acetic acid. 1-adamantanol can have Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction acetanilide in the 98% sulfuric acid ... adamantane which can undergo alkaline hydrolysis for synthesis of 1, 3 bis (4-aniline) adamantane. The synthetic route has many ... Hydrochloric acidMethanolAcetic acid glacialN,N-DimethylformamideBromineSodium thiosulfateOxygenCobalt ... It can react with vinylidene chloride to generate 1-adamantane acetic acid. 1-adamantyl acetate can further undergo bromination ...
The alkylation is advantageously carried out in the presence of an acid-binding agent, such as, for example, alkali metal ... In the case where R.sup.2 .noteq.OH, the reaction is followed by hydrolysis to give the free carboxylic acids. ... 50 mmol of 5-amino-1-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene are stirred in a solution of 200 mmol of acetic anhydride and 200 ... VII can be obtained in a manner analogous to that already described for III -,II, by alkylation of the OH group of the phenols ...
This reaction makes use of acetic anhydride as a catalyst. The other industrial production takes place through hydrolysis of ... Dimethoate which is an important chemical used in the preparation of herbicide is obtained through alkylation of mono ... MCA is obtained in a much pure form through hydrolysis method.. Many leading companies are investing in the manufacturing and ... is globally manufactured with the help of two methods where the most popular preparation involves chlorination of acetic acid. ...
This underwent alkylation with a variety of halides and tosylates (eq 10) and subsequent hydrolysis allowed isolation of the ... Treatment of the starting bis(ethylthio)acetic acid with KN(TMS)2 proceeded to give the corresponding soluble dianionic species ... In a general method for the formation of 14- and 16-membered lactones via intramolecular alkylation,20 potassium bis( ...
Alkylation of 84 with activated alcohol 80. in triethylamine followed by cyclization in acetic acid afforded difluoropyridone ... Acidic hydrolysis. of the ester proceeded with concomitant removal of the Boc protecting group, and was followed by. ... To 212.1 g of the compound obtained from the above Example 12 was added acetic acid (4000 ml) followed by addition of 20 wt% Pd ... Upon completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was distilled under reduced pressure to remove acetic acid, diluted with ...
The reaction of 1-deoxynojirimycin with 9 and anhydrous K2CO3 in DMF at 80 °C for 4 h gave the pure alkylation product 6 in 48 ... Perchloric acid hydrolysis in refluxing aqueous ether gave the aldehyde 14 in 78% yield, which was then coupled with 1- ... Then NaBH3CN (7.5 mg, 0.120 mmol, 2 equiv.) and acetic acid (0.007 mL, 0.120 mmol, 2 equiv.) were added. The reaction mixture ... 1), which is quite similar to the TS of acidic or spontaneous glycoside hydrolysis.10 The Withers group addressed the mimicry ...
Step 3 is a hydrolysis reaction using sodium acetate in acetic acid. Step 4 is a hydrolysis reaction and suitable reagents ... Step 4a of Scheme B involves an alkylation reaction. The alkylation reagent is R4 X, where R4 is as defined above and X is any ... Step 4a is a hydrolysis reaction and suitable hydrolysis reagents include, without limitation, sodium acetate, sodium acetate ... Step 3a involves a hydrolysis reaction. Suitable hydrolysis reagents include, without limitation, lithium hydroxide, sodium ...
... or by cleavage with HBr in acetic acid. Subsequent ester hydrolysis in concentrated HCl provides, after treating with propylene ... A similar intermediate 8 can be prepared by alkylation of the protected aminoalkylphosphonous acid with substituted 2- ... The white solid was added to 150 ml of glacial acetic acid and 150 ml of 48% aqueous HBr added. Dissolution occurred over a ... Incubation is continued for 10 minutes, at 37 C. and hydrolysis of GDP is measured by the change in optical density with time ...
The alkylation reaction was stopped by adding 1 μL of 10 mM dithiothreitol. Samples were used for MS analysis or enzymatic ... quenched with concentrated acetic acid (final concentration 3%) and stored at -20°C until further analysis. ... were confirmed with high sensitivity amino acid analysis using gas hydrolysis (Australian Proteome Analysis Facility, Sydney, ... C) The presence of the six cysteines, typical for cyclotides was confirmed via reduction and alkylation (red.+alk.) followed by ...
7. "Selective Amide and Nitrile Hydrolysis in the Absence of Bulk Water," J.T. Eaton and G.W. Gribble, 4th Northeast Regional ... "A Facile Reduction of Indoles by Diborane in Glacial Acetic Acid," J.T. Eaton and G.W. Gribble, 6th Northeast Regional American ... 8. "A New Reduction of Indoles and Reductive-Alkylation of Amines," G.W. Gribble, 167th American Chemical Society Meeting, Los ...
of 48% hydrobromic acid and 1 liter of glacial acetic acid. The resultant mixture is then heated to reflux and maintained at ... with 0.5 equivalents of the tri-dibromo-p-xylene-protected acyclic alkylation of the amine obtained form four non-cyclic dimers ... 3) hydrolysis to remove the six trifluoroacetyl compound group; 4) acylation of the compound toluenesulfonic bridged tetraamine ... 0078] The intermediate obtained above (5g, 3.5mmol) was added to glacial acetic acid (25ml) and concentrated hydrochloric acid ...
... and oxazoline hydrolysis affords the 2-substituted butyric acid in 61% yield (eq 3).3 Since hydrolysis of the N-methylated ... a-Alkylations.. Lithiation of the C-2 methyl group of the title compound occurs with n-Butyllithium. Treatment of the resulting ... Preparative Method: can be prepared by the thermal condensation (98-110 °C) of acetic acid and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol in ... Acidic hydrolysis of the oxazoline gives a mixture of the a,b- and b,g-unsaturated acids or esters (eqs 4 and 5).3,5,11 When ...
... alkylation - OH O OCH3 Base CH3 1 2 3 c-alkylation - O O O CH3 Base CH3 H3C H3C H3C COOEt COOEt COOEt 6 4 5 ... After the reaction the hydrolysis needs only the weak aq. acid used for acetal. The secret is that the weak acetal bond (b in 5 ... Amine are more Nucleophilic than phenol so reaction with acetic anhydride gives the amide we want without any of ester 3. The ... In between c & d , c appears to be the better choicebecause the next disconnection after d will have to be an alkylation of O ...
Diethyl malonate Propionic acid Dimethyl ester of malonic acid ACETIC ACID ASCORBICACID Malonic acid, acetamido-, diethyl ester ... It has a typical reactive of dibasic acids, such as that its methylene is active, and it can be an addition, alkylation, ... Malonate can prepare various monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, keto acids and other compounds by hydrolysis reaction to ... The relative density is 1.631 (15 ℃). Melting point is 135.6℃. It decomposes to acetic acid and carbon dioxide at 140℃. It does ...
CH9751031Heterocyclic ambident nucleophiles: The alkylation of sodium N6-acyladenides. M Rasmussen and JHS Chan ... Use of bromomalononitrile in the synthesis of 4-Aminothiazoline-5-carbonitriles and their subsequent hydrolysis ... CH9750991Redox reactions in acetic anhydride. KC Malhotra and DS Katoch pp. 991-998 ...
Basic hydrolysis of compound 20 afforded compound 21 and following reaction with hydroxylamine yielded hydroxamic acid 22. [ ... 0063]To a solution of Propolin D (compound 32, 124 mg, 0.29 mmol) in pyridine (4 mL) acetic anhydride (2 mL) was added and the ... Alkylation of compound 10b with corresponding alkyl iodides such as methyl, ethyl, benzyl and isopropyl iodide afforded ... Reaction of compound 1 with trimethyl orthoformate under acidic conditions gave acetonide 23 and the ensuing alkylation with ...
... the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method. ... With methyl iodide, C-alkylation nearly always predominates. Other reactions[edit]. In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ ...
Ester hydrolysis of X provides acrylic acid XI.. The analogue of XI where R1 is F can be prepared by the methods illustrated in ... The O-alkylation procedure described for 10 (Example 5, step 2) was followed using 9 (339 mg, 1 mmol), K2CO3 (414 mg, 3 mmol), ... Non-limiting examples of suitable solvents include, but are not limited to water, methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid. ... An O-alkylation procedure described for 9 (example 5, step 2) employed using 32 (800 mg, 2.50 mmol), K2CO3 (1.04 g, 7.49 mmol ...
The hydrolysis of the ester group of (XI) with NaOH yields the free acetic acid derivative (XII), which is finally ... The N-alkylation of (VIII) with ethyl bromoacetate (IX) by means of KOH and tetrabutylammonium bromide in THF gives the N- ... which is treated with sodium acetate and reduced with H2 over Pd/C in acetic acid yielding 3-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1) ... by means of sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol acetic acid.. ...
  • As a result, the phase properties of amphiphilic, perfluorinated species for solvophobic perfluorinated head groups and solvophilic hydrocarbon tail groups ("bilayer assemblies")[61and the separation behavior of high-boiling, reactant-immiscible Fluorinert solvents['' for etherifications, alkylations, and other reactions were described later, but clearly independent of Vogt. (docme.ru)
  • Alkylation reactions. (indianchemicalcouncil.com)
  • Hydrogen bond assisted alkylation of phenols is compared with the classical base assisted reactions. (brocku.ca)
  • Acylation does not suffer from R-group rearrangement to a more stable carbocation species suffered by R groups Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions, a major disadvantage, because electrophilic attack in acylation is via an acylium ion (an acyl cation, RC≡O+). (thermofisher.com)
  • 9 Nojirimycins could be reasonably expected to be transition state (TS) analogue inhibitors, as 1 , when protonated, clearly resembles the glucosylium ion 4 ( Fig. 1 ), which is quite similar to the TS of acidic or spontaneous glycoside hydrolysis. (rsc.org)
  • 10. "A Facile Reduction of Indoles by Diborane in Glacial Acetic Acid," J.T. Eaton and G.W. Gribble, 6th Northeast Regional American Chemical Society Meeting, Burlington, Vermont, August 18-21, 1974. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The slightly yellow solution is cooled in an ice bath and 60 mL of glacial acetic acid (ca. 1 mol) and 50 mL of water are added. (orgsyn.org)
  • The solution is cooled and the now deep red solution is neutralized with glacial acetic acid (ca. 4.5 mL) until the color turns yellow. (orgsyn.org)
  • Finally, this compound is condensed with ethyl 3-benzylpyruvate (IX) by means of sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol acetic acid. (blogspot.in)
  • 3-chloro-4 fluoronitrobenzene reacted with two thiol phenylthiazole 5 under basic conditions to provide 39, which then with iron and acetic Acid in methanol was reduced to aniline to give the 40th A synthetic analogue sequence was the conversion of 3-chloro-4-fluoro-nitrobenzene with phenols, alcohols and amines. (proteinkinaseinhibitor.com)
  • Another disadvantage of the Friedel-Crafts alkylation is that unlike for the Friedel-Crafts acylation, the product is more nucleophilic than the starting material. (sciencesnail.com)
  • Influence of Catalyst Acidity on Dealkylation, Isomerization and Alkylation in MTA Process [J]. Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Catalytic enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylations of indoles and nitroalkenes were carried out by using a new heterotrimetallic Cu/Eu/Cu complex catalyst based on the simple chiral ligand, reduced Schiff base 1 , to give the Friedel-Crafts adducts with up to 88% yield and 80% ee. (chemweb.com)
  • 3 Since hydrolysis of the N -methylated heterocycle can be carried out under basic conditions, acid-labile groups such as the 1,3-dioxolane can be incorporated into the carboxylic acid product. (paperplane.io)
  • We present a strategy to synthesize three types of renewable lubricant base oils with up to 90% yield using 2-alkylfurans, derived from nonfood biomass, and aldehydes, produced from natural oils or biomass through three chemistries: hydroxyalkylation/alkylation (HAA), HAA followed by hydrogenation, and HAA followed by hydrodeoxygenation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally the results concerning the alkylation of α-aldehydes, using visible light and dyes as catalysts without transition metal are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Optically active cyclopropanes(4) were obtained by using 2 hydroxypinan 3 one 1 as a chiral auxiliary, condensed with aminoacetonitrile to form a chiral ketimine 2 followed by Pd(0) catalyzed tandem alkylation and S N cyclisation of 1,4 dichlorobut 2 ene 3 with chiral ketimine 2. (cnki.net)
  • The N-alkylation of (VIII) with ethyl bromoacetate (IX) by means of KOH and tetrabutylammonium bromide in THF gives the N-alkylated azide (X), which is reduced by catalytic hydrogenation to the corresponding amine (XI). (blogspot.in)
  • Treatment of the monoanion of the pyrrolidine enamine of methyl acetoacetate with cis-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decen-1-yl mesylate (42) followed by addition of one equivalent of lithium diisopropylamide and then hydrolysis yielded the desired intermediate 36. (ubc.ca)
  • Alkylation with trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decen-1-yl mesylate (67) produced the intermediate with the unnatural stereochemistry. (ubc.ca)
  • In addition, as already emphasized by Zhu,Ithey are stable to hydrolysis but nevertheless have a measurable solubilizing capability for nonpolar reactants (for example the feed olefins of hydroformylations), especially at elevated temperatures. (docme.ru)
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PRELIMINERIES Due to highly development of chemical and biochemical industries, acetic acid has largely produced to fulfil the needs of world demand in production of daily used products and for pharmaceutical needs. (9b0i.com)
  • Lab 12: Titration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar Abstract: To lesarn how to titrate chemicals in a lab. (9b0i.com)