Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.EstersEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Glycoside HydrolasesChromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.AmidohydrolasesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.EsterasesPhospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.DiglyceridesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.NitrophenolsCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.EsculinGlucosidesPhosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Phospholipases A1: A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.PolysaccharidesEdetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Hymecromone: A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Guanine NucleotidesTrisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Arachidonic AcidsLysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Sugar PhosphatesPeptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.TritiumCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.ChitinaseRNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Adenine NucleotidesRec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.

A review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of procaine in thoroughbred horses. (1/15486)

Since procaine has both local anaesthetic and central stimulant actions its presence in the blood or urine of racing horses is forbidden. After rapid intravenous injection of procaine HC1 (2.5 mg/Kg) in thoroughbred mares plasma levels of this drug fell rapidly (t 1/2 alpha = 5 min) and then more slowly (t 1/2 beta = 50.2 min). These kinetics were well fitted by a two compartment open model (Model I). This model gave an apparent Vdbeta for procaine in the horse of about 3,500 litres. Since procaine was about 45% bound to equine plasma protein this gives a true Vdbeta for procaine of about 6,500 litres. After subcutaneous injection of procaine HC1 (3.3 mg/Kg) plasma levels peaked at about 400 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 75 minutes. These data were well fitted by Model I when this was modified to include simple first order absorption (K = 0.048 min-1) from the subcutaneous injection site (Model II). After intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin (33,000 I.U./Kg) plasma levels reached a peak at about 270 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 9 hours. These data were approximately fitted by Model II assuming a first order rate constant for absorption of procaine of 0.0024 min-1. After intramuscular injection of procaine HC1 (10 mg/Kg) plasma levels of procaine peaked rapidly at about 600 ng/ml but thereafter declined slowly (+ 1/2 = 2 hours). A satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic model for this intramuscular data could not be developed. An approximation of these data was obtained by assuming the existence of two intramuscular drug compartments, one containing readily absorbable drug and the other poorly absorbable drug (Model III). After intra-articular administration of procaine (0.33 mg/Kg) plasma levels of this drug reached a peak at about 17 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 2 hours. These data were not modelled.  (+info)

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (2/15486)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (3/15486)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction and GC-ECD of benzophenones for detection of benzodiazepines in urine. (4/15486)

Benzodiazepines are common drugs that cause intoxication. Benzodiazepines and their metabolites can be converted by hydrolysis in acid to the corresponding benzophenones, which are easier to be separated from matrices because of their hydrophobic properties. In this study, a new separation technique called solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which can integrate extraction, concentration, sampling and sample introduction into one single procedure, has been employed to extract the products of benzodiazepines from urine after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by a statistic orthogonal design. Factors influencing direct-immersion (DI)-SPME process were also checked and chosen experimentally. The method was evaluated with spiked human urine samples. The recoveries of nine benzodiazepines ranged from 1 to 25%, with the highest for oxazolam and the lowest for bromazepam. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL for oxazolam, haloxazolam, flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and clonazepam and from 20 to 1000 ng/mL for the others except bromazepam. The detection limits were 2-20 ng/mL for most drugs tested. The intraday and interday coefficients of variation of the developed method were within 10 and 17%, respectively. In addition, the utility of the method was confirmed by determining two ingested benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam and oxazolam) in a volunteer's urine; urine flunitrazepam was still detectable 32 h after a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg) of the drug. Finally, the DI-SPME was compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction with regard to detection limits and extraction efficiency of the analytes. By DI-SPME, more amounts of analytes could be introduced into GC column than by conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and thus lower detection limits of the analytes were reached, although benzophenone recoveries by DI-SPME were rather low.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (5/15486)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells. (6/15486)

The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Single cell studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of a tetramethylrhodamine labeled triglucoside in yeast. (7/15486)

Several hundred molecules of enzyme reaction products were detected in a single spheroplast from yeast cells incubated with a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled triglucoside, alpha-d-Glc(1-->2)alpha-d-Glc(1-->3)alpha-d-Glc-O(CH2)8CONHCH2- CH2NH- COTMR. Product detection was accomplished using capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence following the introduction of a single spheroplast into the separation capillary. The in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the TMR-trisaccharide involves at least two enzymes, limited by processing alpha-glucosidase I, producing TMR-disaccharide, TMR-monosaccharide, and the free TMR-linking arm. Hydrolysis was reduced by preincubation of the cells with the processing enzyme inhibitor castanospermine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the uptake and internalization of fluorescent substrate. This single cell analysis methodology can be applied for the in vivo assay of any enzyme with a fluorescent substrate.  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (8/15486)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

In organic chemistry, hydrolysis can be considered as the reverse or opposite of condensation, a reaction in which two molecular fragments are joined for each water molecule produced. As hydrolysis may be a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time, with the position of equilibrium determining the amount of each product. In inorganic chemistry, the word is often applied to solutions of salts and the reactions by which they are converted to new ionic species or to precipitates (oxides, hydroxides, or salts). The addition of a molecule of water to a chemical compound, without forming any other products is usually known as hydration, rather than hydrolysis. In biochemistry, hydrolysis is considered the reverse or opposite of dehydration synthesis. In hydrolysis, a water molecule (H2O), is added, whereas in dehydration synthesis, a molecule of water is removed. In electrochemistry, hydrolysis can also refer to the electrolysis of water. In hydrolysis, a voltage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of bark-rich biomass mixture into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. AU - Kim, Kyoung Heon. AU - Tucker, Melvin. AU - Nguyen, Quang. PY - 2005/7/1. Y1 - 2005/7/1. N2 - Despite high availability and low cost, bark has not actively been considered as a biomass feedstock for producing bio-based products due to its high content of extractives and lignin. In this study, to investigate the feasibility of utilizing bark-rich sawmill residues for producing value-added materials, the mixed Hemlock hog fuel/pin chips (85:15 by dry weight) from a local sawmill were converted into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Combining the sugar yields from the first-stage (190°C for 150 s with 1.1% acid) and second-stage (210°C for 115 s with 2.5% acid) hydrolyses, which aimed to maximize the recovery of mannose/galactose and glucose, respectively, 13.6 g of glucose (46% theoretical maximum), 10.5 g of mannose and ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural was
A. C. Hengge, T. Humphry*, M. Forconi, and N. H. Williams "Altered Hydrolysis Mechanisms for a Metal-Complexed Phosphate Monoester and Diester." International Isotope Effects Conference, Uppsala. Sweden, June 22-27, 2003.. ...
[236 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Market by Sources (Microorganisms, Animals, Plants), Applications (Detergent Industry, Pharmaceuticals, Food Industry and Others), & Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific & ROW) - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019 report by MarketsandMarkets. The enzymes which are very specific to protein hydrolysis are...
There are three general methods to hydrolyze protein into its composition, amino acids. Those methods are acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Strong acid is ordinarily the method of choice, and constant boiling hydrochloric acid, 6 M, is most frequently used. The reaction is usually carried out in evacuated sealed tubes or under N2 (Nitrogen) at110 Celcius degree for 18 to 96 hours. Under these conditions, peptide bonds are quantitatively hydrolyzed (although relatively long periods are required for the complete hydrolysis of bonds to valine, leucine, and isoleucine ...
Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins is used to improve nutritional and functional properties of many foods. The desired degree of hydrolysis (DH) depends on food application. Effective hydrolysis requires optimal hydrolysis conditions for both the enzyme and the substrate protein. This study aimed to hydrolyze the oat globulins (OG) effectively under different conditions. Our first goal was to maximise the OG solubility and then to hydrolyze OG under optimised conditions. The solubility of isolated OG in Na-phosphate solutions containing 0 1 M NaCl was determined. Globulins were subjected to single-enzyme hydrolysis with either subtilisin, thermolysin or pepsin. In addition, OG were degraded in two-stage hydrolysis first with pepsin and then either with subtilisin or thermolysin. The hydrolysates were analysed by SDS-PAGE and DH was quantified with the OPA method. The solubility of OG increased when NaCl was added at pH 5 10. Under more acidic conditions the solubility, however, decreased with ...
Most drugs and metabolites, both licit and illicit, are conjugated prior to excretion in urine or feces. Hydrolysis using beta-glucuronidase converts the glucuronide metabolites back to their free, or non-conjugated form, improving detection and increasing sensitivity for clinical of forensic assays. Evaluation of four beta-glucuronidase enzymes from abalone, red abalone, and two recombinant enzymes were evaluated to determine the most efficient hydrolysis of glucuronide metabolites and maximum recovery of non-conjugated compounds.. Hydrolysis experiments were performed using the new EVOLUTE® HYDRO solid phase extraction plate.The plate contains the Hydro frit technology system, which efficiently holds up aqueous sample and hydrolysis enzyme during incubation. This replaces the need for off-line hydrolysis, traditionally performed in a separate vial or well, and streamlines sample preparation by permitting hydrolysis on the SPE extraction plate.. This webinar presents results of the hydrolysis ...
Protein hydrolysis enzymes market will grow at 5% to reach $2,767 million by 2019, thanks to rising applications and global demand, especially the emerging
or. A‾ + H2O ---, HA + OH‾. In this case the anion reacts with water to give basic solution. This is called acidic hydrolysis.. Salt hydrolysis may be defined as the reaction of the cation or the anion of the salt with water to produce acidic or basic solution.. Depending upon the relative strength of the acid and the base produced, the resulting solution is acidic, basic or neutral.. (1) Salts of strong acid and strong base. NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KCl, KNO3 , K2SO4. NaCl + H2O ---, NaOH + HCl. Na+ + Cl‾ + H2O ---, Na+ + OH‾ + H+ + Cl‾. H2O ---,OH‾ + H+. It involves only ionization of water and no hydrolysis.So the solution is neutral. ...
BioAssay record AID 23384 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic stability at 37 degrees Celsius in 50 mM phosphate buffer (2 % v/v MeCN as solubilising vehicle) at pH 7.4.
article{2d942e55-021e-4f27-8f05-baeea4cf247e, abstract = {ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood, either as a stand-alone process or as pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis, is considered to result in higher sugar yields than one-step acid hydrolysis. However, this requires removal of the liquid between the two steps. In an industrial process, filtration and washing of the material between the two steps is difficult, as it should be performed at high pressure to reduce energy demand. Moreover, the application of pressure leads to more compact solids, which may affect subsequent processing steps. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of pressing the biomass, in combination with the effects of not washing the material, on the sugar yield obtained from two-step dilute acid hydrolysis, with and without subsequent enzymatic digestion of the solids. RESULTS: Washing the material between the two acid hydrolysis steps, followed by enzymatic digestion, ...
phdthesis{667f98f0-e724-48e5-b10e-aa1e10440fcc, abstract = {Ethanol produced from cellulose is a promising future alternative fuel. The production process has three main steps: (i) pretreatment of raw material to increase degradability; (ii) enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose; (iii) fermentation of glucose into bioethanol. This thesis contains studies with the aim to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from steam pretreated spruce. Improvements have been made by additions of surface active additives such as non-ionic surfactants or poly(ethylene glycol) polymers (PEG). It was found that that these surface active additives increased the enzymatic hydrolysis by reduction of non-productive adsorption of cellulases on the lignin part of the substrate. As a result the enzyme consumption could be significantly lowered with retained cellulose conversion. With addition of PEG a higher hydrolysis temperature (50 C) could be used; reduced deactivation of enzymes is due to PEG ...
The kit assay will only measure free, non-covalently linked monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides or polysaccharides can be measured after hydrolysis to monosaccharides. Generally acid hydrolysis can be achieved by boiling the oligo/polysaccharide in 1.3 M HCl for 1 h. It is recommended that scientific literature is consulted for information on hydrolysis conditions for the particular oligo/polysaccharide that is being measured.. ...
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Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press....
Heteropolyacids (H3PW12O40, H4SiW12O40) and salts of metal cations (Mn+) and PW12O403− (M3/nPW12O40) act as effective homogeneous catalysts for selective hydrolysis of cellobiose and cellulose to glucose and total reducing sugars (TRS), respectively, in an aqueous phase. For Brønsted acid catalysts,
Hydrolysis : weight of evidence approach The fluoroboric anion is stable in concentrated solutions, and hydrolyses slowly in aqueous solution to hydroxyfluoroborates. Wamser described the hydrolysis reaction of fluoroboric acid (HBF4 + H2O ↔ HBF3OH + HF) and determined the equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis at 25°C. The hydrolysis of aqueous fluoroboric acid solutions (at equilibrium) was measured over the concentration range 0.001M to 5.41M, the % hydrolysis at equilibrium ranged from 77.7% to 5.47% respectively and the equilibrium constant between 2.75E-3 to 17.6E-3 respectively. At 0.01M HBF4 the hydrolysis was about 35% and the equilibrium constant 1.98E-3 (Wamser, 1948). The equilibrium quotient Q in 1 molal NaCl at 25°C shows the strong affinitiy of boron for fluoride (Papcun, 2000). B(OH)3 + 4 F− + 3 H+ ↔ BF4− + 3 H2O logQ = 19.0 ± 0.1 (Mesmer, Palen, & Baes Jr., 1973) The hydrolysis of BF4− occurs stepwise to BF3OH− , BF2(OH)2− , and BF(OH)3− and ultimately ...
FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: subunit exchange with and without nucleotide hydrolysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Chapter 13 - ATP Hydrolysis as a source of energy The molecular details of ATP hydrolysis - ΔG when ATP is split into ADP and P - Motors move along a ΔG gradient - Motors move faster with higher [ATP] - Structure of ATP and the hydrolysis reaction - At least 8 distinct states are involved in motor stepping - Case study: the complete ATP hydrolysis cycle of Myosin II ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
BioAssay record AID 309555 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of partially purified Sprague-Dawley rat FAAH assessed as substrate hydrolysis.
Why do hydrolysis reaction rates typically increase at higher pH? From a database of frequently asked questions from the Reaction rates section of General Chemistry Online.
Hydrolysis, in chemistry and physiology, a double decomposition reaction with water as one of the reactants. Thus, if a compound is represented by the formula AB in which A and B are atoms or groups and water is represented by the formula HOH, the hydrolysis reaction may be represented by the
Notes: Sample opacity or turbidity presents no problem since the sensor system is electrochemical rather than spectrophotometric. Endogenous glucose, if present, should be determined as a sample blank, i.e. extract diluted pro-rata in water instead of ß-galactosidase. Incomplete hydrolysis may take place for lactose concentrations greater than 10 %W/V. For greater accuracy at these levels repeat hydrolysis using a 5µl sample and scale results as detailed in kit instructions.. ...
The reaction time of the Plantrose supercritical hydrolysis process is measured in seconds. On the other hand, older acid based processes take minutes to hours for each step of their reaction. In turn, enzymatic hydrolysis technologies require approximately 5 days. This means tanks filled with biomass will sit for about 5 days, during which efforts must be made to ensure that nothing that likes to eat sugar (contaminants) gets into those tanks. Its not a trivial process. At the end of the day what these older methods accomplish much more slowly, we do in a matter of seconds. Our reaction is that fast!. These fast reactions dramatically reduce the size and complexity of reactor design. This reduced complexity allows the Renmatix process to be more easily designed and economically scaled for commercial processing than historical technologies. When bringing a new technology to market, there is always talk of scaling-up processes. Doing that for commercial iterations of the Plantrose platform is ...
The hydrolyses of the isomeric 2,3-OO-benzylidene-norbornane-exo-2,exo-3-diols occur at similar rates to their interconversion: interconversion of the corresponding p-methoxybenzylidene compounds is much faster than their hydrolysis and interconversion of the p-nitrobenzylidene compounds is slower than their hydrolysis; the hydrolyses may proceed through a bimolecular attack of water on the conjugate acid. ...
Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Ficks work, energetics were revised by Joules experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.
COS Hydrolysis Catalyst for sale, new 98% Purity COS Hydrolysis Catalyst Component Part Al2O3 And Special Additives of Hubei Hatel Purification Technology Co., Ltd from China.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one. The hydrolysis of water is the separation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms using electricity
Though both hydrolysis as well as hydration involve chemical reaction of given compound with water, the phenomenon of hydrolysis is totally different from that of hydration!
Brett If you just want to destroy the RNA - adjust to 0.1N with KOH, put at 65o for 15, neutralise with 0.1N HCl + Tris and it will be gone. John ...
Ask a Mortician on YouTube creates an enlightening and education video about liquefying bodies, a process known as alkaline hydrolysis
A specific acid-catalyzed reaction in water is accelerated by the binding of a proton to a functional group of the substrate. A familiar example is the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a peptide. The amide functional group is hardly reactive toward water, which makes it well suited to serve as the basic structural unit in proteins. Its stability is due to delocalization of the nonbonding electron pair, as illustrated in structures 1-1 and 1-2, shown in resonance notation. The charge separated.... ...
4-Chloro-L-kynurenine (3-(4-chloroanthraniloyl)-L-alanine, L-4-ClKyn), an amino acid known as a prospective antidepressant, was recently for the first time found in nature in the lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin. Here, we report another instance of its identification in a natural product: 4-chloro-L-kynurenine was isolated from acidic hydrolysis of a new complex peptide antibiotic INA-5812. L-4-Cl ...
see article for more examples. Abstract. Diethyl N-Boc-iminomalonate, prepared on multi-gram scale, served as a stable and highly reactive electrophilic glycine equivalent which reacted with organomagnesium compounds affording substituted aryl N-Boc-aminomalonates. Subsequent hydrolysis produced arylglycines.. ...
Enzymes can solubilize gluten, making it a possible replacement for whey proteins in, for example, calf milk replacers and sports drinks," says Trine. "By carefully selecting the correct proteases, it is possible to reduce the bitter taste often associated with protein hydrolysis. Novozymes strong protease portfolio combined with competent, local technical support is vital to help our partners excel in value-added protein ingredients ...
Researchers led by professor Ananikov highlighted that Ni-NHC complexes do undergo a hydrolysis with a breakage of metal-ligand bond.
Article Cambi thermal hydrolysis - getting the bugs out of digestion and dewatering. Summary This paper reviews the research some of the work done over the last twenty years on the thermal pre-treatment of sludge and particularly activated sludge. I...
Synthesis and hydrolysis of AL776, the lead K1-K2 prototype targetingEGFR and c-Src.The synthesis of AL776 was carried out in our laboratory according to theste
Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
Interaction of H+ ions and OH" ions of ${{H}_{2}}$0 with anions and cations of the salt respectively to give an acidic or a basic solutoin is called hydrolysis. For example: [image] Hydration, on other hand, means additi…
Essays: Varying rates of hydrolysis of the different isomers of Carbon, Hydrogen and Bromobutane. . Chemistry coursework Aim: To investigate and discover the va
Hydrolyzed is the past tense of the word hydrolysis, therefore a hydrolyzed object is one that has undergone hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which bonds are broken in a molecule due...
Glucodry® Dried Glucose Syrup is obtained by the spray-drying of concentrated carbohydrate syrups derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch. This pr...
DONG Energy and Inbicon has a long history of collaboration with enzyme suppliers. The three largest international enzyme producers, Novozymes, DuPont Genencor and DSM, are all qualified to supply enzymes for the Inbicon technology to avoid risk of supplier dependency for our partners and customers ...
i have had enough,and got no hair left,i need to find the structural formula for ill try my best to explain CH2=CH-CH-OH WITH A CH3 UNDER THE SECOND CH.+CH3-CH-C WITH A CH3 UNDER THE FIRST CH ,A DOUBLE BOND FROM THE C TO O AND A SINGLE ...
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water. ...
Hydrolysis and saponification[edit]. Esterification is a reversible reaction. Esters undergo hydrolysis under acid and basic ... Williams, Roger J.; Gabriel, Alton; Andrews, Roy C. (1928). "The Relation Between the Hydrolysis Equilibrium Constant of Esters ...
Hydrolysis and related reactions[edit]. Like other chlorosilanes, silicon tetrachloride reacts readily with water: SiCl4 + 2 H2 ...
Hydrolysis[edit]. Hydrolysis breaks the glycosidic bond converting sucrose into glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis is, however, ... If the enzyme sucrase is added, however, the reaction will proceed rapidly.[12] Hydrolysis can also be accelerated with acids, ... Given (higher) heats of combustion of 1349.6 kcal/mol for sucrose, 673.0 for glucose, and 675.6 for fructose,[13] hydrolysis ...
P-P-bond hydrolysis-driven transporters[edit]. *P-type calcium ATPase (five different conformations) ...
Hydrolysis of silicates and carbonates. Hydrolysis is a chemical weathering process affecting silicate and carbonate minerals. ... This hydrolysis reaction is much more common. Carbonic acid is consumed by silicate weathering, resulting in more alkaline ... In this the processes of oxidation and hydrolysis are most important. Chemical weathering is enhanced by such geological agents ... Aluminosilicates when subjected to the hydrolysis reaction produce a secondary mineral rather than simply releasing cations. ...
Hydrolysis and related reactions[edit]. The most noteworthy reaction of TiCl4 is its easy hydrolysis, signaled by the release ... Around 90% of the TiCl4 production is used to make the pigment titanium dioxide (TiO2). The conversion involves hydrolysis of ... "Stability of Aqueous Dispersions of the Hydrated Titanium Dioxide Prepared by Titanium Tetrachloride Hydrolysis". Colloid ...
This is because drying the material in less than 4 hours would require a temperature above 160 °C, at which level hydrolysis ... Total glycolysis, methanolysis, and hydrolysis. The treatment of polyester waste through total glycolysis to fully convert the ... The ester bonds in polyethylene terephthalate may be cleaved by hydrolysis, or by transesterification. The reactions are simply ... These processes allow the conversion of undried PET flakes without substantial viscosity decrease caused by hydrolysis. ...
... hydrolysis test[edit]. Aesculin is incorporated into agar with ferric citrate and bile salts (bile aesculin agar).[4] ... Aesculin will fluoresce under long wave ultraviolet light (360 nm) and hydrolysis of aesculin results in loss of this ... National Standard Methods MSOP 48 (Bile aesculin agar) and BSOPTP 2 (Aesculin hydrolysis test (UK)) ... Hydrolysis of aesculin forms aesculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and glucose. Aesculetin forms dark brown or black complexes ...
A simple reaction, such as ester hydrolysis. A. B. +. H. 2. O. ⇋. A. H. +. B. (. O. H. ). {\displaystyle AB+H_{2}O\ ... Hydrolysis constants are usually reported in the β* form and therefore often have values much less than 1. For example, if log ... In general when the hydrolysis product contains n hydroxide groups log β* = log K + n log KW ... Hydrolysis constants[edit]. In aqueous solution the concentration of the hydroxide ion is related to the concentration of the ...
Hydrolysis: Ce2O3 + H2O → 2CeO2 + H2 ...
hydrolysis Solubility in other solvents reacts with alcohols. soluble in chlorocarbons Refractive index (nD) ...
Hydrolysis Magnetic susceptibility (χ). −49.4·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index (nD) ...
The CaC2 content of the product is assayed by measuring the amount of acetylene produced on hydrolysis. As an example, the ...
Gelatin Hydrolysis (22oC) Negative References[edit]. *^ Tindall, B. J.; Sutton, G.; Garrity, G. M. (2017). "Enterobacter ...
The hydrolysis reaction with water is violent and exposure results in a thermal burn. The products of hydrolysis are mainly ... Exothermic hydrolysis[4] Solubility Reacts with benzene, toluene, ether, alcohol, acetic acid, selenium tetrafluoride, nitric ...
This prepares the starch for hydrolysis. Hydrolysis[edit]. Glucose syrup can be produced by acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis ... Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize ( ... After hydrolysis, the dilute syrup can be passed through columns[clarification needed] to remove impurities, improving its ... "Enzymatic starch hydrolysis: background". Retrieved January 2010.. Check date values in: ,accessdate=. (help). ...
... , an ester anesthetic, is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para- ...
Extremely corrosive, Violent hydrolysis. GHS hazard statements. H300, H310, H314, H330, H411. ...
Hydrolysis to inactive metabolites. Elimination half-life. 1.5 ± 0.8 hours. Excretion. Renal (IV: 5.8-21.3%). ...
Toxic, hydrolysis to phosphine Safety data sheet External MSDS Related compounds Other anions ...
Baes, C.F.; Mesmer, R.E. (1986) [1976]. The Hydrolysis of Cations. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger. ISBN 978-0-89874-892-5. .. ... Aluminium hydrolysis as a function of pH. Coordinated water molecules are omitted. (Data from Baes and Mesmer)[33] ... Aluminium cyanide, acetate, and carbonate exist in aqueous solution but are unstable as such; only incomplete hydrolysis takes ...
Compositional analysis following acid hydrolysis Identifies sugars that the glycoprotein contains and their stoichiometry. ...
On hydrolysis, it yields glucose. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. ... and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly ...
Hydrolysis, reduction and acetylation yielded 136. Formation of a thiolactam followed by condensation with ethyl bromoacetate ...
... diacetate hydrolysis, a biochemistry laboratory test. *Other dyes: *Methylene blue. *Laser dyes ...
... welcome to wholesale cheap esculin hydrolysis from our factory. ... Rainbow Bio-Tech is one of the leading China esculin hydrolysis ...
Results obtained from two-step hydrolysis runs shows (table 3) that the optimum condition for two-step hydrolysis processes ...
... the hydrolysis reaction may be represented by the ... Hydrolysis, in chemistry and physiology, a double decomposition ... This is termed hydrolysis, and the explanation of hydrolysis reactions in classical acid-base terms was somewhat involved. In ... The reactants other than water, and the products of hydrolysis, may be neutral molecules-as in most hydrolyses involving ... Western Oregon University - Hydration and Hydrolysis of Metal Cations. *University of Waterloo - Hydrolysis - Acidic, Basic, ...
... The reverse of imine formation is called imine hydrolysis, yielding the corresponding amine and carbonyl ... Schiff base (imine) formation and hydrolysis are highly important in biological chemistry. Many enzymes employ imines as part ... Imine Hydrolysis. News-Medical, viewed 07 April 2020, https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Imine-Hydrolysis.aspx. ... This allows for regeneration of the imine and subsequent release of the adduct following hydrolysis. ...
... provided simple model substances which could be used for a more precise study of the mechanism of hydrolysis. The overall ... CONSIDERABLE attention has been paid in recent years to the hydrolysis of ribonucleic acids to mononucleotides. It was shown1,2 ... CONSIDERABLE attention has been paid in recent years to the hydrolysis of ribonucleic acids to mononucleotides. It was shown1,2 ... provided simple model substances which could be used for a more precise study of the mechanism of hydrolysis. The overall ...
Hydrolysis definition, chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water. See ... hydrolysis. in Science. hydrolysis. [hī-drŏl′ĭ-sĭs]. *The reaction of water with another chemical compound to form two or more ... hydrolysis. in Medicine. hydrolysis. (hī-drŏl′ĭ-sĭs). n.. *Decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water, such as ... On hydrolysis, it yields glucose, arabinose, and d-mandelo nitrile.. The Chemistry of Plant Life. Roscoe Wilfred Thatcher ...
This article discusses alkaline hydrolysis and its status in Georgia. ... Georgia legalized alkaline hydrolysis in 2012, but the procedure is not yet available for human remains within the state. ... How Does Alkaline Hydrolysis Work?. Alkaline hydrolysis is a chemical process that uses a solution of 95% water and 5% ... Alkaline Hydrolysis in Georgia. In 2012, Georgia opened the door to alkaline hydrolysis when it changed the states definition ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... john brennand john.brennand at gbapr.zeneca.com Thu Feb 15 04:29:54 EST 1996 *Previous message: RNA hydrolysis ...
... Patrick Bradshaw bradshaw.23 at postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu Tue Sep 28 00:33:17 EST 1999 ...
Hydrolysis of amide links. In the hydrolysis of an amide link into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia, the carboxylic ... As hydrolysis may be a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time, with the position of ... In electrochemistry, hydrolysis can also refer to the electrolysis of water. In hydrolysis, a voltage is applied across an ... In biochemistry, hydrolysis is considered the reverse or opposite of dehydration synthesis. In hydrolysis, a water molecule (H2 ...
Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their hydrolysis occurs when ... Strong acids also undergo hydrolysis. For example, dissolving sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in water is accompanied by hydrolysis to ... Hydrolysis (/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning water, and lysis, meaning to unbind) is a term used for both ... Generic mechanism for a hydrolysis reaction. (The 2-way yield symbol indicates an equilibrium in which hydrolysis and ...
Hydrolysis involves the breaking of bonds in both water and the molecule, e.g., the hydrolysis of an ester to form the ... What is the difference between hydration & hydrolysis? I know that hydration involves the additon of water but these two terms ... Hydrolysis separates water extraordinarily into hydrogen and oxygen. The opposite is merely permitting them to react lower back ... Best Answer: What is the difference between hydration & hydrolysis? I know that hydration involves the [addition] of water ...
Hydrolysis Waste Water Explosive Water Management Water Pollution These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ...
Hydrolyses definition, chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water. See ... hydrolyses. in Science. hydrolysis. [hī-drŏl′ĭ-sĭs]. *The reaction of water with another chemical compound to form two or more ... hydrolyses. in Medicine. hydrolysis. (hī-drŏl′ĭ-sĭs). n.. *Decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water, such as ... The proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates in food are broken down in the body by hydrolysis that is catalyzed by enzymes in ...
Hydrolysis - A chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of ... Hydrolysis - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ... Medical Word - Hydrolysis. Ans : A chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound. ...
Number 7 from the link you gave is important with KF: If the acid is strong , no hydrolysis occurs, but if the acid is weak ... HF is a weak acid, so hydrolysis occurs.. ghostanime2001 said: I still do not understand why one ion would become a spectator ... tex]F^{-} + H_{2}O \rightleftharpoons HF + OH^{-}[/tex](The solution is basic - Hydrolysis). If the answer is basic that would ... The answer in your worksheet said, basic; so does this tell you something about the hydrolysis of KF ? Fluoride compounds are ...
How much energy ATP hydrolysis producesEdit. Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphoanhydridic bond is a highly exergonic process. ... ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy ... "Standard Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis - Generic - BNID 101989". bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-25.. ... As noted below, energy is released by the hydrolysis of ATP when these weak bonds are broken - requiring a small input of ...
Hydrolysis-stable and polymerizable acrylophosphonic acid with the general formula (I) which is particularly suitable as a ... Hydrolysis stable self-etching, self-priming adhesive. US20080237907 *. Jun 4, 2008. Oct 2, 2008. Klee Joachim E. Process for ... Hydrolysis stable self-etching,self-priming adhesive. US20050175965 *. Aug 11, 2004. Aug 11, 2005. Craig Bradley D.. Self- ... Hydrolysis stable one-part self-etching, self-priming dental adhesive. US20040167296 *. Mar 2, 2004. Aug 26, 2004. Klee Joachim ...
Endocannabinoid hydrolysis generates brain prostaglandins that promote neuroinflammation.. Nomura DK1, Morrison BE, Blankman JL ...
Write the hydrolysis reactions for each of the following weak acids and bases then identify the conjugate acid/base pairsa. ... 3. Write the hydrolysis reactions for each of the following weak acids and bases then identify the conjugate acid/base pairs. a ... 3. Write the hydrolysis reactions for each of the following weak acids and bases then identify the conjugate acid/base pairsa. ... ChemistryQ&A Library3. Write the hydrolysis reactions for each of the following weak acids and bases then identify the ...
... the phenomenon of hydrolysis is totally different from that of hydration! ... Though both hydrolysis as well as hydration involve chemical reaction of given compound with water, ... 1/E) Some Examples of Salt Hydrolysis. (A) Hydrolysis of acidic salt:. Consider the hydrolysis of a salt like ammonium chloride ... B) Hydrolysis of basic salt:. Consider the hydrolysis of a salt like sodium acetate (CH3COONa). During this two compounds are ...
It is difficult to predict the outcome of such process, i.e. the extent of protein hydrolysis/digestion. In this thesis, we ... This method will enable a better understanding and comparison of the data of protein hydrolysis/digestion reported in ... developed a method to define expectations of the extent of protein hydrolysis, based on the properties of the proteins, the ...
Hydrolysis and homemade wallpaper remover are two ways to remove wallpaper. Learn about hydrolysis and homemade wallpaper ... An acid or base in the remover works as a catalyst for a chemical reaction with the water called hydrolysis, which breaks down ... Hydrolysis occurs when either acidic or basic wallpaper remover interacts with adhesive glue. Heres how it happens: Water is ... Acetic acid in the vinegar allows hydrolysis to take place. The adhesive that once glued the wallpaper to the wall no longer ...
  • New Rochelle, NY, November 19, 2015--The sugar obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFBs increased from 17% to 24% when supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) pretreatment of the EFBs was used, according to a new study. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the article " Investigation of the Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Pretreatment on Sugar Yield Prior to Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches " they show that glucose yields increased with higher pretreatment temperature, pressure, and time. (eurekalert.org)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis products of Laminaria. (europa.eu)
  • It is suggested that the disappearance of the mucoid capsule of group A hemolytic streptococci is due to enzymatic hydrolysis of the acid polysaccharide. (rupress.org)
  • A. Himonides, A. Taylor and A. Morris, "A Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Frames Using Model Systems," Food and Nutrition Sciences , Vol. 2 No. 6, 2011, pp. 575-585. (scirp.org)
  • Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as the substrate, the optima of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis and its inhibition were detected through SDS-PAGE with image scanning and quantitative analysis of the products of enzymatic reaction. (scirp.org)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis procedures can be time-consuming, with hydrolysis incubation times ranging from 15 minutes to more than 24 hours. (aacc.org)
  • Although chemical hydrolysis is faster than enzymatic hydrolysis, acid can degrade benzodiazepine and opioid drugs, too, which may hinder accurate drug identification. (aacc.org)
  • Lastly, hydrolysis procedures may not produce 100% cleavage of the conjugated metabolites and the efficiency of various enzymatic and acid protocols varies between different drugs. (aacc.org)
  • We also showcase examples of our own work in this area, discussing both the non-enzymatic reaction in aqueous solution, as well as insights obtained from the computational modeling of organophosphate hydrolysis and catalytic promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer. (rsc.org)
  • Inhibitor formation and polysaccharide selectivity were found to be the major bottlenecks influencing the efficiency of dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Ahmed Mahdy , Lara Mendez , Elia Tomás-Pejó , Maria del Mar Morales , Mercedes Ballesteros , Cristina González-Fernández , Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the biochemical methane potential ofChlorella vulgarisandScenedesmussp. (wiley.com)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond to release d-amphetamine has previously been shown to occur in human red blood cells but not in several other tissues. (dovepress.com)
  • 80 %. These results suggested that anhydrous ammonia pretreatment would be an effective method for preparation of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis to recover xylooligosaccharides. (go.jp)
  • In addition to improved hydrolysis resistance, there is an emerging need for PBT with improved electrical performance for use in automotive connectors for electric hybrid vehicles. (sae.org)
  • However, this reference does not specifically disclose in any of the examples the use of both an epoxy resin and epoxy compound, does not disclose the relative ratios of epoxy resin to epoxy compound, if both are to be used, and does not disclose improved hydrolysis resistance when using both. (google.co.uk)
  • Biological hydrolysis is the cleavage of biomolecules where a water molecule is consumed to affect the separation of a larger molecule into component parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of protein solubilisation was plotted against the degree of hydrolysis (DH). (scirp.org)
  • V. Klompong, S. Benjakul, D. Kantachote and F. Shahidi, "Antioxidative Activity and Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysate of Yellow Stripe Trevally (Selaroides leptolepis) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis and Enzyme Type," Food Chemistry, Vol. 102, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1317-1327. (scirp.org)
  • This cloud-point temperature depends primarily on thehardness level of the brine and the degree of hydrolysis of the polymer, withlesser dependency on polymer molecular weight and polymer concentration.Indications are that these cloudy solutions cause pluging of porous media.Therefore, a polymer solution is potentially useful only below its cloud-pointtemperature. (onepetro.org)
  • 3. PCA 270-29 was shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of both the carbonate ester substrate 4-nitrophenyl 4′-(3-aza-2-oxoheptyl)phenyl carbonate (I) and the amide substrate (III). (biochemj.org)
  • The catalytic characteristics of PCA 270-29, the first example of a polyclonal catalytic antibody preparation shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of an amide and the first example of an antibody preparation (monoclonal or polyclonal) with such catalytic character to be produced by use of a phosphate immunogen, are compared with those of the small number of other antibody-mediated hydrolyses of amides in the literature. (biochemj.org)
  • J. Salampessy, M. Phillips, S. Seneweera and K. Kailasapathy, "Release of Antimicrobial Peptides through Bromelain Hydrolysis of Leatherjacket (Meuchenia Sp. (scirp.org)
  • Hydrolysis involving ionic compounds may be illustrated by the chemical changes occurring in an aqueous solution of the salt sodium acetate. (britannica.com)
  • In hydrolysis, a voltage is applied across an aqueous medium, which produces a current and breaks the water into its constituents, hydrogen and oxygen . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is the hydrolysis of a triglyceride (fat) with an aqueous base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we study the microwave heating influence on the hydrolysis of the triglyceride (sunflower oil) in aqueous emulsion catalyzed by using 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA). (scirp.org)
  • The point of this review is to define, within limits of current understanding, transition-state structures for enzymic hydrolysis of glycosyl compounds. (springer.com)
  • V. Mohr, "Fish Protein Concentrate Production by Enzymic Hydrolysis," In: J. Adler-Nissen, B. O. Eggum, L. Munlic and H. S. Olsen, Eds. (scirp.org)
  • Enzymic hydrolysis of ß-casein: foaming and emulsifying properties of the fractionated hydrolysate. (wur.nl)
  • In the hydrolysis of an amide link into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia , the carboxylic acid has an hydroxyl group derived from a water molecule and the amine (or ammonia) gains the hydrogen ion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Their hydrolysis occurs when the nucleophile (a nucleus-seeking agent, e.g., water or hydroxyl ion) attacks the carbon of the carbonyl group of the ester or amide . (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The finding that PCA 270-29 is almost equally effective as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of the amide (III) as for that of the carbonate ester (I) when allowance is made for the different intrinsic reactivities of the two types of substrate is discussed. (biochemj.org)
  • The hydrolysis involves several steps, of which the slowest is the formation of a covalent bond between the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the carbon atom of the ester. (britannica.com)
  • The term hydrolysis is also applied to the electrolysis of water (that is, breaking up of water molecules by an electric current) to produce hydrogen and oxygen . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, hydrolysis is said to occur when a salt reacts with water to produce new ions or precipitates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In electrochemistry , hydrolysis can also refer to the electrolysis of water. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hydrolysis of water is the separation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms ( water splitting ) using electricity ( electrolysis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water and any other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common kind of hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, dissolving sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) in water is accompanied by hydrolysis to give hydronium and bisulfate , the sulfuric acid's conjugate base . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis involves the breaking of bonds in both water and the molecule, e.g., the hydrolysis of an ester to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol. (yahoo.com)
  • Hydrolysis separates water extraordinarily into hydrogen and oxygen. (yahoo.com)
  • It's formation from the KF dissolved in water produces hydroxide by hydrolysis, therefore making the solution alkaline, or basic. (physicsforums.com)
  • I am looking for anode sheet material supplier for building small hydrolysis cells to make O2 by submerging the anodes in water. (eng-tips.com)
  • In hydrolysis, water is added to the molecules in order to dissolve those bonds. (reference.com)
  • Alsi S.p.A has awarded a EUR6.5m (GBP5.8m) contract to Siba S.p.A (part of Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies) for a Biothelys thermal hydrolysis plant. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Similar to oxidation , hydrolysis is the degradation of the base oil's molecules as a result of water. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • By being proactive and preventing water ingression into your oils, you can mitigate the process of hydrolysis. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Vigilance in monitoring the oil's water content and acid number along with FTIR will serve as the best weapons for determining if hydrolysis is occurring. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • The equilibrium constant for the basic hydrolysis K b can be calculated from the the equilibrium constant for the acid dissociation K a as K b = K w /K a , where K w is the equilibrium constant for dissociation of water into H+ and OH - (aq) (equal to 1.0x10 -14 . (frostburg.edu)
  • The hydrolysis of substrates, BSA (Sigma-Aldrich B-4287), bovine hemoglobin, and actin from adductor muscle of Argopecten circularis, was done to evaluate the capability of peptidases from American lobster gastric fluid to hydrolyze the proteinaceous substrates and, at the same time, to determinate how long it takes to reach total hydrolysis of each substrate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The findings distinguish three sequential conformational states that show how ATP binding, hydrolysis, and phosphate release are coordinated between the six subunits of the motor to cause the conformational changes that translocate the substrate through the proteasome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Structures of related homohexameric AAA+ motors, in which bound substrates were stabilized with ATP analogs or hydrolysis-eliminating mutations, revealed snapshots of ATPase subunits in different nucleotide states and spiral-staircase arrangements of pore loops around the substrate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Almost complete protein solubilisation (75 g soluble protein per kg hydrolysis solution) could be achieved within an hour, at 40 o C, at 1% enzyme/substrate ratio (w/w) with papain and bromelain. (scirp.org)
  • After the hydrolysis by trypsin to substrate bovine serum albulnin (BSA) under different temperatures and pH, the hydrolysis degree of BSA was conducted using SDS-PAGE. (scirp.org)
  • Kinetic modeling analysis of maleic acid-catalyzed hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Model analysis suggest that increasing maleic acid concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 M facilitate improvement in xylose yields from 40% to 85%, while the extent of improvement flattens to near-quantitative by increasing catalyst loading from 0.2 to 1 M. The model was confirmed for the hydrolysis of corn stover at 1 M maleic acid concentrations at 150 degrees C, resulting in a xylose yield of 96% of theoretical. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stanley M. Roberts is the editor of Hydrolysis, Oxidation and Reduction, Volume 1, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Geraldine Poignant is the editor of Hydrolysis, Oxidation and Reduction, Volume 1, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • In polymer chemistry, hydrolysis of polymers can occur during high-temperature processing such as injection moulding leading to chain degradation and loss of product integrity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In light of the latter results and in continuation of our interest in the chemistry of isatin-based azines 4 and 5 , we hope to report herein the unexpected results of hydrolysis and hydrazinolysis of isatin aldazines 4a-d and isatin ketazines 5 . (hindawi.com)
  • Definition of hydrolysis_constant - Chemistry Dictionary Research and Education Association. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the acid is strong , no hydrolysis occurs, but if the acid is weak hydrolysis does occur. (physicsforums.com)
  • HF is a weak acid, so hydrolysis occurs. (physicsforums.com)
  • As noted below, energy is released by the hydrolysis of ATP when these weak bonds are broken - requiring a small input of energy , followed by the formation of new bonds and the release of a larger amount of energy as the total energy of the system is lowered and becomes more stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • When determining pH of a titration (weak acid strong base) using equilibrium constants, what purpose does hydrolysis serve and how is the pH determined using it? (frostburg.edu)
  • Hydrolysis equilibria must be accounted for if you want to accurately estimate the pH of any solution that contains appreciable quantities of the anion of a weak acid. (frostburg.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hydrolysis" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Hydrolysis" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Kinetic constants for Saeman and biphasic hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type expansion which include activation energy and catalyst concentration factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hydrolysis of the phosphate groups in ATP is especially exergonic , because the resulting orthophosphate group is greatly stabilized by multiple resonance structures , making the products (ADP and P i ) much lower in energy than the reactant (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate ester hydrolysis is fundamental to many life processes, and has been the topic of substantial experimental and computational research effort. (rsc.org)
  • Hydrolysis relieves some of these electrostatic repulsions, liberating useful energy in the process by causing conformational changes in enzyme structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis is usually effected by a hydrolytic ENZYME . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The influence of chewing time and steaming time on glucoraphanin hydrolysis as well as sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile formation in broccoli was studied. (wur.nl)
  • ADP can be further hydrolyzed to give energy, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another orthophosphate (P i ). ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the energy derived from food or sunlight and useful work such as muscle contraction , the establishment of electrochemical gradients across membranes, and biosynthetic processes necessary to maintain life. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ketazines are important intermediates in the production of hydrazine hydrate when subjected to hydrolysis processes [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hydrolysis and redox processes. (worldcat.org)