The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

A review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of procaine in thoroughbred horses. (1/15486)

Since procaine has both local anaesthetic and central stimulant actions its presence in the blood or urine of racing horses is forbidden. After rapid intravenous injection of procaine HC1 (2.5 mg/Kg) in thoroughbred mares plasma levels of this drug fell rapidly (t 1/2 alpha = 5 min) and then more slowly (t 1/2 beta = 50.2 min). These kinetics were well fitted by a two compartment open model (Model I). This model gave an apparent Vdbeta for procaine in the horse of about 3,500 litres. Since procaine was about 45% bound to equine plasma protein this gives a true Vdbeta for procaine of about 6,500 litres. After subcutaneous injection of procaine HC1 (3.3 mg/Kg) plasma levels peaked at about 400 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 75 minutes. These data were well fitted by Model I when this was modified to include simple first order absorption (K = 0.048 min-1) from the subcutaneous injection site (Model II). After intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin (33,000 I.U./Kg) plasma levels reached a peak at about 270 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 9 hours. These data were approximately fitted by Model II assuming a first order rate constant for absorption of procaine of 0.0024 min-1. After intramuscular injection of procaine HC1 (10 mg/Kg) plasma levels of procaine peaked rapidly at about 600 ng/ml but thereafter declined slowly (+ 1/2 = 2 hours). A satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic model for this intramuscular data could not be developed. An approximation of these data was obtained by assuming the existence of two intramuscular drug compartments, one containing readily absorbable drug and the other poorly absorbable drug (Model III). After intra-articular administration of procaine (0.33 mg/Kg) plasma levels of this drug reached a peak at about 17 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 2 hours. These data were not modelled.  (+info)

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (2/15486)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (3/15486)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction and GC-ECD of benzophenones for detection of benzodiazepines in urine. (4/15486)

Benzodiazepines are common drugs that cause intoxication. Benzodiazepines and their metabolites can be converted by hydrolysis in acid to the corresponding benzophenones, which are easier to be separated from matrices because of their hydrophobic properties. In this study, a new separation technique called solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which can integrate extraction, concentration, sampling and sample introduction into one single procedure, has been employed to extract the products of benzodiazepines from urine after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by a statistic orthogonal design. Factors influencing direct-immersion (DI)-SPME process were also checked and chosen experimentally. The method was evaluated with spiked human urine samples. The recoveries of nine benzodiazepines ranged from 1 to 25%, with the highest for oxazolam and the lowest for bromazepam. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL for oxazolam, haloxazolam, flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and clonazepam and from 20 to 1000 ng/mL for the others except bromazepam. The detection limits were 2-20 ng/mL for most drugs tested. The intraday and interday coefficients of variation of the developed method were within 10 and 17%, respectively. In addition, the utility of the method was confirmed by determining two ingested benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam and oxazolam) in a volunteer's urine; urine flunitrazepam was still detectable 32 h after a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg) of the drug. Finally, the DI-SPME was compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction with regard to detection limits and extraction efficiency of the analytes. By DI-SPME, more amounts of analytes could be introduced into GC column than by conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and thus lower detection limits of the analytes were reached, although benzophenone recoveries by DI-SPME were rather low.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (5/15486)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells. (6/15486)

The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Single cell studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of a tetramethylrhodamine labeled triglucoside in yeast. (7/15486)

Several hundred molecules of enzyme reaction products were detected in a single spheroplast from yeast cells incubated with a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled triglucoside, alpha-d-Glc(1-->2)alpha-d-Glc(1-->3)alpha-d-Glc-O(CH2)8CONHCH2- CH2NH- COTMR. Product detection was accomplished using capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence following the introduction of a single spheroplast into the separation capillary. The in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the TMR-trisaccharide involves at least two enzymes, limited by processing alpha-glucosidase I, producing TMR-disaccharide, TMR-monosaccharide, and the free TMR-linking arm. Hydrolysis was reduced by preincubation of the cells with the processing enzyme inhibitor castanospermine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the uptake and internalization of fluorescent substrate. This single cell analysis methodology can be applied for the in vivo assay of any enzyme with a fluorescent substrate.  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (8/15486)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

In organic chemistry, hydrolysis can be considered as the reverse or opposite of condensation, a reaction in which two molecular fragments are joined for each water molecule produced. As hydrolysis may be a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time, with the position of equilibrium determining the amount of each product. In inorganic chemistry, the word is often applied to solutions of salts and the reactions by which they are converted to new ionic species or to precipitates (oxides, hydroxides, or salts). The addition of a molecule of water to a chemical compound, without forming any other products is usually known as hydration, rather than hydrolysis. In biochemistry, hydrolysis is considered the reverse or opposite of dehydration synthesis. In hydrolysis, a water molecule (H2O), is added, whereas in dehydration synthesis, a molecule of water is removed. In electrochemistry, hydrolysis can also refer to the electrolysis of water. In hydrolysis, a voltage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of bark-rich biomass mixture into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. AU - Kim, Kyoung Heon. AU - Tucker, Melvin. AU - Nguyen, Quang. PY - 2005/7/1. Y1 - 2005/7/1. N2 - Despite high availability and low cost, bark has not actively been considered as a biomass feedstock for producing bio-based products due to its high content of extractives and lignin. In this study, to investigate the feasibility of utilizing bark-rich sawmill residues for producing value-added materials, the mixed Hemlock hog fuel/pin chips (85:15 by dry weight) from a local sawmill were converted into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Combining the sugar yields from the first-stage (190°C for 150 s with 1.1% acid) and second-stage (210°C for 115 s with 2.5% acid) hydrolyses, which aimed to maximize the recovery of mannose/galactose and glucose, respectively, 13.6 g of glucose (46% theoretical maximum), 10.5 g of mannose and ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural was
A. C. Hengge, T. Humphry*, M. Forconi, and N. H. Williams Altered Hydrolysis Mechanisms for a Metal-Complexed Phosphate Monoester and Diester. International Isotope Effects Conference, Uppsala. Sweden, June 22-27, 2003.. ...
[236 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Market by Sources (Microorganisms, Animals, Plants), Applications (Detergent Industry, Pharmaceuticals, Food Industry and Others), & Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific & ROW) - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019 report by MarketsandMarkets. The enzymes which are very specific to protein hydrolysis are...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of hydrolysis rates on the morphology of sol-gel derived SrFeCo 0.5Ox powder. AU - Abothu, I. R.. AU - Jin, W.. AU - Wang, R.. AU - Chung, T. S.. PY - 2004/1/15. Y1 - 2004/1/15. N2 - The sub-micron size SrFeCo0.5Ox (SFC) powders were synthesized via sol-gel processing from metal alkoxides. The hydrolysis rates influenced the morphology of the SFC powders. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the SFC powders synthesized at three different hydrolysis rates were shown. The results indicates that the slow or fast hydrolysis fast rate is beneficial to form SFC powders of 300 nm average particle size with different regular morphology.. AB - The sub-micron size SrFeCo0.5Ox (SFC) powders were synthesized via sol-gel processing from metal alkoxides. The hydrolysis rates influenced the morphology of the SFC powders. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the SFC powders synthesized at three different hydrolysis rates were shown. The results indicates that the slow or fast hydrolysis fast ...
There are three general methods to hydrolyze protein into its composition, amino acids. Those methods are acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Strong acid is ordinarily the method of choice, and constant boiling hydrochloric acid, 6 M, is most frequently used. The reaction is usually carried out in evacuated sealed tubes or under N2 (Nitrogen) at110 Celcius degree for 18 to 96 hours. Under these conditions, peptide bonds are quantitatively hydrolyzed (although relatively long periods are required for the complete hydrolysis of bonds to valine, leucine, and isoleucine ...
Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins is used to improve nutritional and functional properties of many foods. The desired degree of hydrolysis (DH) depends on food application. Effective hydrolysis requires optimal hydrolysis conditions for both the enzyme and the substrate protein. This study aimed to hydrolyze the oat globulins (OG) effectively under different conditions. Our first goal was to maximise the OG solubility and then to hydrolyze OG under optimised conditions. The solubility of isolated OG in Na-phosphate solutions containing 0 1 M NaCl was determined. Globulins were subjected to single-enzyme hydrolysis with either subtilisin, thermolysin or pepsin. In addition, OG were degraded in two-stage hydrolysis first with pepsin and then either with subtilisin or thermolysin. The hydrolysates were analysed by SDS-PAGE and DH was quantified with the OPA method. The solubility of OG increased when NaCl was added at pH 5 10. Under more acidic conditions the solubility, however, decreased with ...
Most drugs and metabolites, both licit and illicit, are conjugated prior to excretion in urine or feces. Hydrolysis using beta-glucuronidase converts the glucuronide metabolites back to their free, or non-conjugated form, improving detection and increasing sensitivity for clinical of forensic assays. Evaluation of four beta-glucuronidase enzymes from abalone, red abalone, and two recombinant enzymes were evaluated to determine the most efficient hydrolysis of glucuronide metabolites and maximum recovery of non-conjugated compounds.. Hydrolysis experiments were performed using the new EVOLUTE® HYDRO solid phase extraction plate.The plate contains the Hydro frit technology system, which efficiently holds up aqueous sample and hydrolysis enzyme during incubation. This replaces the need for off-line hydrolysis, traditionally performed in a separate vial or well, and streamlines sample preparation by permitting hydrolysis on the SPE extraction plate.. This webinar presents results of the hydrolysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 31P NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis and Hydrolysis Kinetics in the Intact Myocardium. AU - Kingsley-Hickman, P. B.. AU - Mohanakrishnan, P.. AU - Robitaille, P. M.L.. AU - Ugurbil, Kamil. AU - Sako, E. Y.. AU - Foker, John E. AU - From, Arthur H. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - The origin of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-measurable ATP ⇄ Pi exchange and whether it can be used to determine net oxidative ATP synthesis rates in the intact myocardium were examined by detailed measurements of ATP⇄ Pi exchange rates in both directions as a function of the myocardial oxygen consumption rate (MV02) in (1) glucose-perfused, isovolumic rat hearts with normal glycolytic activity and (2) pyruvate-perfused hearts where glycolytic activity was reduced or eliminated either by depletion of their endogenous glycogen or by use of the inhibitor iodoacetate. In glucose-perfused hearts, the Pi → ATP rate measured by the conventional two-site saturation transfer (CST) technique remained constant ...
Crickard JB, Moevus CJ, Kwon Y, Sung P, Greene EC. Rad54 Drives ATP Hydrolysis-Dependent DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination. Cell. 2020.
Protein hydrolysis enzymes market will grow at 5% to reach $2,767 million by 2019, thanks to rising applications and global demand, especially the emerging
or. A‾ + H2O ---, HA + OH‾. In this case the anion reacts with water to give basic solution. This is called acidic hydrolysis.. Salt hydrolysis may be defined as the reaction of the cation or the anion of the salt with water to produce acidic or basic solution.. Depending upon the relative strength of the acid and the base produced, the resulting solution is acidic, basic or neutral.. (1) Salts of strong acid and strong base. NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KCl, KNO3 , K2SO4. NaCl + H2O ---, NaOH + HCl. Na+ + Cl‾ + H2O ---, Na+ + OH‾ + H+ + Cl‾. H2O ---,OH‾ + H+. It involves only ionization of water and no hydrolysis.So the solution is neutral. ...
BioAssay record AID 23384 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic stability at 37 degrees Celsius in 50 mM phosphate buffer (2 % v/v MeCN as solubilising vehicle) at pH 7.4.
article{2d942e55-021e-4f27-8f05-baeea4cf247e, abstract = {ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood, either as a stand-alone process or as pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis, is considered to result in higher sugar yields than one-step acid hydrolysis. However, this requires removal of the liquid between the two steps. In an industrial process, filtration and washing of the material between the two steps is difficult, as it should be performed at high pressure to reduce energy demand. Moreover, the application of pressure leads to more compact solids, which may affect subsequent processing steps. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of pressing the biomass, in combination with the effects of not washing the material, on the sugar yield obtained from two-step dilute acid hydrolysis, with and without subsequent enzymatic digestion of the solids. RESULTS: Washing the material between the two acid hydrolysis steps, followed by enzymatic digestion, ...
phdthesis{667f98f0-e724-48e5-b10e-aa1e10440fcc, abstract = {Ethanol produced from cellulose is a promising future alternative fuel. The production process has three main steps: (i) pretreatment of raw material to increase degradability; (ii) enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose; (iii) fermentation of glucose into bioethanol. This thesis contains studies with the aim to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from steam pretreated spruce. Improvements have been made by additions of surface active additives such as non-ionic surfactants or poly(ethylene glycol) polymers (PEG). It was found that that these surface active additives increased the enzymatic hydrolysis by reduction of non-productive adsorption of cellulases on the lignin part of the substrate. As a result the enzyme consumption could be significantly lowered with retained cellulose conversion. With addition of PEG a higher hydrolysis temperature (50 C) could be used; reduced deactivation of enzymes is due to PEG ...
Author: Guo, K. K. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-09-14; Title: Polymerization of actin filaments coupled with adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis: Brownian dynamics and theoretical analysis
The kit assay will only measure free, non-covalently linked monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides or polysaccharides can be measured after hydrolysis to monosaccharides. Generally acid hydrolysis can be achieved by boiling the oligo/polysaccharide in 1.3 M HCl for 1 h. It is recommended that scientific literature is consulted for information on hydrolysis conditions for the particular oligo/polysaccharide that is being measured.. ...
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Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic hydrolysis of weat straw: Studies on a Column Reactor with Enzyme Recycle for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw. AU - González, G.. AU - Caminal, G.. AU - de Mas, C.. AU - López-Santín, J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 24. SP - 62. EP - 67. IS - 2. ER - ...
Tampere University of Technology is at the leading edge of technology development and a sought-after collaboration partner among the scientific and business communities. The University produces competent graduates who enter careers in the different sectors of society.. ...
Heteropolyacids (H3PW12O40, H4SiW12O40) and salts of metal cations (Mn+) and PW12O403− (M3/nPW12O40) act as effective homogeneous catalysts for selective hydrolysis of cellobiose and cellulose to glucose and total reducing sugars (TRS), respectively, in an aqueous phase. For Brønsted acid catalysts,
Author: Kienle, A. et al.; Genre: Poster; Title: Analysis of Ester Hydrolysis Reactions in a Chromatographic Reactor Using Equilibrium Theory
Esters can be hydrolyzed under acidic or basic conditions. These hydrolyses are nucleophilic substitution reactions that proceed by the addition-elimination mechanism.. The hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is a reversible equilibrium reaction that is driven to the right by using an excess of water. Thus, esters are cleaved to carboxylic acids and alcohols.. The mechanism of ester hydrolysis in acid consists of the addition of the nucleophile and the elimination of the leaving group:. The first part of the mechanism is the addition of water. The first step in acid-catalyzed ester hydrolysis is protonation of oxygen. This protonation makes the carbonyl group more electrophilic and ready for the nucleophilic attack by water. The positive charge is removed via deprotonation and formed a tetrahedral intermediate as a neutral addition product.. ...
Hydrolysis : weight of evidence approach The fluoroboric anion is stable in concentrated solutions, and hydrolyses slowly in aqueous solution to hydroxyfluoroborates. Wamser described the hydrolysis reaction of fluoroboric acid (HBF4 + H2O ↔ HBF3OH + HF) and determined the equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis at 25°C. The hydrolysis of aqueous fluoroboric acid solutions (at equilibrium) was measured over the concentration range 0.001M to 5.41M, the % hydrolysis at equilibrium ranged from 77.7% to 5.47% respectively and the equilibrium constant between 2.75E-3 to 17.6E-3 respectively. At 0.01M HBF4 the hydrolysis was about 35% and the equilibrium constant 1.98E-3 (Wamser, 1948). The equilibrium quotient Q in 1 molal NaCl at 25°C shows the strong affinitiy of boron for fluoride (Papcun, 2000). B(OH)3 + 4 F− + 3 H+ ↔ BF4− + 3 H2O logQ = 19.0 ± 0.1 (Mesmer, Palen, & Baes Jr., 1973) The hydrolysis of BF4− occurs stepwise to BF3OH− , BF2(OH)2− , and BF(OH)3− and ultimately ...
FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: subunit exchange with and without nucleotide hydrolysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Chapter 13 - ATP Hydrolysis as a source of energy The molecular details of ATP hydrolysis - ΔG when ATP is split into ADP and P - Motors move along a ΔG gradient - Motors move faster with higher [ATP] - Structure of ATP and the hydrolysis reaction - At least 8 distinct states are involved in motor stepping - Case study: the complete ATP hydrolysis cycle of Myosin II ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
BioAssay record AID 309555 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of partially purified Sprague-Dawley rat FAAH assessed as substrate hydrolysis.
Why do hydrolysis reaction rates typically increase at higher pH? From a database of frequently asked questions from the Reaction rates section of General Chemistry Online.
Protein hydrolysis in the liquid or gas phase is a well-established procedure for sample preparation and structure analysis. Microwave protocols reduce the overall process time to less than one hour, compared to several hours of heating with classical thermal methods.The sequencing of peptides, checking their purity, and the quantitative analysis of amino acids in a matrix are highly important fields in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Gathering structural knowledge of enzymes or active sites of proteins is the first step in successful drug development.. ...
Hydrolysis, in chemistry and physiology, a double decomposition reaction with water as one of the reactants. Thus, if a compound is represented by the formula AB in which A and B are atoms or groups and water is represented by the formula HOH, the hydrolysis reaction may be represented by the
Notes: Sample opacity or turbidity presents no problem since the sensor system is electrochemical rather than spectrophotometric. Endogenous glucose, if present, should be determined as a sample blank, i.e. extract diluted pro-rata in water instead of ß-galactosidase. Incomplete hydrolysis may take place for lactose concentrations greater than 10 %W/V. For greater accuracy at these levels repeat hydrolysis using a 5µl sample and scale results as detailed in kit instructions.. ...
The reaction time of the Plantrose supercritical hydrolysis process is measured in seconds. On the other hand, older acid based processes take minutes to hours for each step of their reaction. In turn, enzymatic hydrolysis technologies require approximately 5 days. This means tanks filled with biomass will sit for about 5 days, during which efforts must be made to ensure that nothing that likes to eat sugar (contaminants) gets into those tanks. Its not a trivial process. At the end of the day what these older methods accomplish much more slowly, we do in a matter of seconds. Our reaction is that fast!. These fast reactions dramatically reduce the size and complexity of reactor design. This reduced complexity allows the Renmatix process to be more easily designed and economically scaled for commercial processing than historical technologies. When bringing a new technology to market, there is always talk of scaling-up processes. Doing that for commercial iterations of the Plantrose platform is ...
Hydrolysis half-lives of ,12 seconds (,0.2 minutes) at pH 4, pH 7 and pH 9 and 25°C were determined for the substance in a study conducted according to OECD 111, but not in compliance with GLP (Dow Corning Corporation 2001a). In all the experiments, the test substance was observed to be completely hydrolysed by the first time the 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired and remained unchanged thereafter. The initial spectrum was acquired after 77-100 seconds and 7-8 spectra were acquired subsequently after an interval of 15 seconds. Due to very rapid hydrolysis, rate constants and half-lives could not be quantitatively determined, although the result is considered adequate to estimate the upper limit of hydrolysis half-life. The result is considered to be reliable and is selected as key study. In another reliable supporting study conducted according to generally accepted scientific principles, the test substance was found to be hydrolytically unstable under conditions designed to simulate the human stomach ...
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a commercial protease (Novo-Pro D (NPD)), both in soluble and immobilized forms, in the hydrolysis of proteins (using casein as model protein). Immobilization of the protease NPD on 6% agarose activated with glyoxyl groups for 24 h at 20 °C and pH 10.0 allowed preparing immobilized biocatalyst with around 90% immobilization yield, 92% recovered activity versus small substrate, and a thermal stability 5.3-fold higher than the dialyzed soluble enzyme at 50 °C and pH 8.0. Immobilization times longer than 24 h lead to a decrease in the recovered activity and did not improve the biocatalyst stability. At 50 °C and pH 6.5, the immobilized NPD was around 20-fold more stable than the dialyzed soluble protease. Versus casein, the immobilized NDP presented a 10% level of activity, but it allowed hydrolyzing casein (26 g/L) at 50 °C and pH 6.5 up to a 40% degree of hydrolysis (DH) after 2 h reaction, while under the same conditions, only a 34% DH was ...
IV-1 protease (PR) is a retroviral aspartyl protease (retropepsin), a compound associated with peptide bond hydrolysis in retroviruses, that is basic ..
The hydrolyses of the isomeric 2,3-OO-benzylidene-norbornane-exo-2,exo-3-diols occur at similar rates to their interconversion: interconversion of the corresponding p-methoxybenzylidene compounds is much faster than their hydrolysis and interconversion of the p-nitrobenzylidene compounds is slower than their hydrolysis; the hydrolyses may proceed through a bimolecular attack of water on the conjugate acid. ...
The Eldex Hydrolysis/Derivatization WorkStation provides a convenient and easy to use system for the hydrolysis and derivatization of samples prior to amino acid composition analysis.
Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Ficks work, energetics were revised by Joules experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.
COS Hydrolysis Catalyst for sale, new 98% Purity COS Hydrolysis Catalyst Component Part Al2O3 And Special Additives of Hubei Hatel Purification Technology Co., Ltd from China.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one. The hydrolysis of water is the separation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms using electricity
Though both hydrolysis as well as hydration involve chemical reaction of given compound with water, the phenomenon of hydrolysis is totally different from that of hydration!
Enzymatic Hydrolysis Kit Learners can observe the biochemical reactions in cells through investigatins of the reactin rates of enzymes when temperature, pH and enzyme concentrations are varied. Enough materials are included for 30 students to perform these experiments, working in pairs. Includes: reproducible student worksheets and complete instructins. Includes MSDS. Grades 7-12.
Brett If you just want to destroy the RNA - adjust to 0.1N with KOH, put at 65o for 15, neutralise with 0.1N HCl + Tris and it will be gone. John ...
Ask a Mortician on YouTube creates an enlightening and education video about liquefying bodies, a process known as alkaline hydrolysis
A specific acid-catalyzed reaction in water is accelerated by the binding of a proton to a functional group of the substrate. A familiar example is the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a peptide. The amide functional group is hardly reactive toward water, which makes it well suited to serve as the basic structural unit in proteins. Its stability is due to delocalization of the nonbonding electron pair, as illustrated in structures 1-1 and 1-2, shown in resonance notation. The charge separated.... ...
Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their hydrolysis occurs when ... Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water. Usually hydrolysis is a chemical ... The aqua ions undergo hydrolysis, to a greater or lesser extent. The first hydrolysis step is given generically as M ( H 2 O ) ... Strong acids also undergo hydrolysis. For example, dissolving sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in water is accompanied by hydrolysis to ...
Baes, C.F.; Messmer, R.E. (1976). The Hydrolysis of Cations. New York: Wiley. p. 95. Brown, P.L.; Ekberg, C. (2016). Hydrolysis ... Brown, P.L.; Ekberg, C. (2016). Hydrolysis of Metal Ions. Wiley. pp. 284-287. Baes, C.F.; Messmer, R.E. (1976). The Hydrolysis ... Baes, C.F.; Messmer, R.E. (1976). The Hydrolysis of Cations. New York: Wiley. p. 86. Brown, P.L.; Ekberg, C. (2016). Hydrolysis ... Baes, C.F.; Messmer, R.E. (1976). The Hydrolysis of Cations. New York: Wiley. p. 89. Brown, P.L.; Ekberg, C. (2016). Hydrolysis ...
Acid hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis Saponification McMurry, John (1996). Organic Chemistry (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: ... In the alkaline hydrolysis of esters and amides the hydroxide ion nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon in a nucleophilic ... Alkaline hydrolysis, in organic chemistry, usually refers to types of nucleophilic substitution reactions in which the ...
... is a process used for treating industrial waste, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Thermal hydrolysis ... A thermal hydrolysis system produces biogas from the food waste, which provides fuel for the city bus system and is also used ... Sewage treatment plants, such as Blue Plains in Washington, D.C., USA, have adopted thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge in ... The full-scale commercial application of thermal hydrolysis enables the plant to utilize the solids portion of the wastewater ...
Alkaline hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis Acid catalysis Speight, James G. (2 November 2016). Hydrolysis. pp. 143-144. ISBN ... In organic chemistry, acid hydrolysis is a hydrolysis process in which a protic acid is used to catalyze the cleavage of a ... Acid hydrolysis does not usually refer to the acid catalyzed addition of the elements of water to double or triple bonds by ... Acid hydrolysis is used to prepare monosaccharide with the help of acids, such as: Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid ...
OH group and thus is not susceptible to base-catalyzed hydrolysis. RNA hydrolysis occurs when the deprotonated 2' OH of the ... RNA hydrolysis is a reaction in which a phosphodiester bond in the sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA is broken, cleaving the RNA ... Auto-hydrolysis or self-cleavage reactions take place in basic solutions, where free hydroxide ions in solution can easily ... This process is known as an auto-hydrolysis or a self-cleavage reaction. Spontaneous cleavage in an RNA molecule is much more ...
Acid hydrolysis Alkaline hydrolysis Digestion enzyme Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San Francisco: ... In biochemistry, enzymatic hydrolysis is a process in which enzymes facilitate the cleavage of bonds in molecules with the ... Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis - JD Wright - Chemical Engineering Progress, 1988 - v t e v t e (Articles ... addition of the elements of water (i.e. hydrolysis). It plays an important role in the digestion of food. It may be used to ...
Under certain conditions, high levels of ATP hydrolysis can contribute to lactic acidosis. Hydrolysis of the terminal ... ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy ... As noted below, energy is released by the hydrolysis of ATP. However, when the P-O bonds are broken, input of energy is ... Hydrolysis of the phosphate groups in ATP is especially exergonic, because the resulting inorganic phosphate molecular ion is ...
... is a chemical engineering process in which water in the supercritical state can be employed to achieve ... Supercritical hydrolysis can be considered a broadly applicable green chemistry process that utilizes water simultaneously as a ... Application of the process to biomass provides simple sugars in near quantitative yield by supercritical hydrolysis of the ... has developed a supercritical hydrolysis technology to convert a range of non-food biomass feedstocks into cellulosic sugars ...
FDA hydrolysis is often used to measure activity in soil and compost samples; however, it may not give an accurate reading if ... Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis assays can be used to measure the enzyme activity of microbes in a sample. A bright ... Fontvieille, D.A.; Outaguerouine, A.; Thevenot, D.R. (1992). "Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of microbial ... 3. "Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay" ...
... is an organic reaction. The reactants are geminal dihalides with a water molecule or a hydroxide ion ... Further hydrolysis yields carboxylic acids. Stephen aldehyde synthesis Marvel, C. S.; Sperry, W. M. (1928). "Benzophenone". ... HCl Other functional groups can undergo similar hydrolysis reactions. For instance, geminal trihalides (e.g. benzotrichloride) ...
The Field Deployable Hydrolysis System (FDHS) is a transportable, high throughput neutralization system developed by the U.S. ... "The Field Deployable Hydrolysis System" (PDF). CBIRR News. Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. 1 (8 (Special Edition)). August ...
The Council proposed a framework to assess alkaline hydrolysis. It concluded that alkaline hydrolysis is safe, dignified and ... Alkaline hydrolysis has been used for cadavers donated for research at the University of Florida since the mid-1990s and at the ... Alkaline hydrolysis has also been adopted by the pet and animal industry. A handful of companies in North America offer the ... Alkaline hydrolysis is also used in the agricultural industry to sterilize animal carcasses that may pose a health hazard, ...
PLE hydrolyses are typically carried out with a phosphate buffer to maintain the pH between 7 and 8. As solubility of the ... Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig liver esterase is the enantioselective conversion of an ester to a carboxylic acid through ... 10) Enantioselective hydrolysis of a conjugated diester followed by ozonolysis affords the skeleton of ribose. The resulting ... A key serine residue in the active site promotes hydrolysis, but the substrate must present an ester group to this residue ...
"Hydrolysis". Geological Society of London. Retrieved 10 July 2014. Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2012). Physical ... alter feldspar in a process called hydrolysis. As demonstrated in the following reaction, this causes potassium feldspar to ...
Quinn DM, Medhekar R, Baker NR (1999). "Ester Hydrolysis". Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry. pp. 101-137. doi:10.1016/ ... and ATGL predominantly acts as the enzyme for triglyceride hydrolysis in the adipocyte. HSL is also known as triglyceride ... acylglycerol and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis". Journal of Lipid Research. 43 (10): 1585-94. doi:10.1194/jlr.R200009-JLR200. ... acylglycerol and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis". Journal of Lipid Research. 43 (10): 1585-94. doi:10.1194/jlr.R200009-JLR200. ...
PROTEIN-x1-x2-x3-x4-x5-x6-x7-x8-x9-x10-x11-...-xn The mechanism is an enzymatic hydrolysis that requires two critical molecules ... Piszkiewicz, D; Bruice, T.C. (10 April 1968). "Glycoside hydrolysis. II. Intramolecular carboxyl and acetamido group catalysis ... in 13-glycoside hydrolysis". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 90 (8): 2156-63. doi:10.1021/ja01010a038. PMID 5644189. ...
Gelatin Hydrolysis =negative , Relationship to Oxygen =microaerophile , Cell shape = coccobacillus Trujillo, ME; Dedysh, S; ...
"Hydrolysis - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". Retrieved 2022-10-20. "Research Report" (PDF). Ludwig ...
Ammonia Hydrolysis" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 40 (2): 415-424. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)87254-4. National Academy of Sciences ...
"28: Starch Hydrolysis". Biology LibreTexts. 2016-04-12. Retrieved 2022-04-29. Annor, George (13 January 2014). "Unit and ...
DNA hydrolysis is tested by growing an organism on a DNase Test Agar plate (providing nutrients and DNA) and then checking the ... The Hippurate hydrolysis pathway, capable by organisms with the necessary enzymes, produces glycine as a byproduct. Using the ... "Gelatin Hydrolysis Test". Retrieved 2017-04-03. "Enzyme Substrate Test - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC ... an enzyme capable to digesting urea in carbon dioxide and ammonia through hydrolysis. Because ammonia is alkaline, the media ...
Linda P, Stener A, Cipiciani A, Savelli G (January-February 1983). "Hydrolysis of amides. Kinetics and mechanism of the basic ... hydrolysis of N-acylpyrroles, N-acylindoles and N-acylcarbazoles". Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 20 (1): 247-248. doi: ...
... can be prepared by the hydrolysis of scopolamine. It can also be prepared in three steps from N-methoxycarbonylpyrrole ... Meinwald, J.; Chapman, O. L. (1957). "Alkaline hydrolysis of scopolamine methoxymethochloride: a new route to scopine". Journal ... Willstatter, Richard; Berner, Endre (1923). "Hydrolysis of scopolamine". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft B. 56 ( ...
This prepares the starch for hydrolysis. Glucose syrup can be produced by acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination ... Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to ... Higher DE syrups made by acid hydrolysis tend to have a bitter taste and a dark colour, due to the production of ... After hydrolysis, the dilute syrup can be passed through columns[clarification needed] to remove impurities, improving its ...
The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi proceeds as follows: ATP + H 2 O ⟶ ADP + Pi {\displaystyle {\ce {ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi}}} ... "Overview of ATP Hydrolysis". Khan Academy. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-11. "GPCR". Scitable. ... Dittrich M, Hayashi S, Schulten K (October 2003). "On the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis in F1-ATPase". Biophysical Journal. 85 (4 ... "Modeling the mechanisms of biological GTP hydrolysis". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Special issue in computational ...
Hydrolysis gives trifluoromethyl methanols. The reagent also converts esters to trifluoromethyl ketones. A typical initiator is ...
... the latter being completely inert toward hydrolysis until high temperatures. SeF6 also resists hydrolysis. The gas can be ...
Baes, C. F.; Mesmer, R. E. (1986) [1976]. The Hydrolysis of Cations. Robert E. Krieger. ISBN 978-0-89874-892-5. Greenwood & ... and only incomplete hydrolysis takes place for salts with strong acids, such as the halides, nitrate, and sulfate. For similar ...
Her thesis was entitled "The alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl p-alkybenzoates." For a year she worked at the Fulmer Research ... Caserio, Marjorie C.; Glusker, Donald L.; Roberts, John D. (1959-01-01). "Hydrolysis of Diaryliodonium Salts". Journal of the ... the hydrolysis of diaryliodonium salts, the deamination of nitrous acid, and benzyne reaction intermediates in nucleophilic ...
So BASF has further developed its range of hydrolysis-resistant thermoplastic polyesters. The expanded range of Ultradur® HR ... So BASF has further developed its range of hydrolysis-resistant thermoplastic polyesters. The expanded range of Ultradur® HR ... So BASF has further developed its range of hydrolysis-resistant thermoplastic polyesters. The expanded range of Ultradur® HR ( ... The newly developed material combines hydrolysis resistance with flame retardancy, high tracking resistance and low smoke ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
Hydrolysis. view full-size image. Goal: Break down cellulose into its component sugars using enzyme preparations. Enzymes such ...
MWHs wastewater treatment project in the United Kingdom becomes one of the first European plants to be energy self-sufficient.
Learn about the alkaline hydrolysis process and the benefits this form of body disposition offers. ... Once alkaline hydrolysis is complete, the remaining bone fragments are rinsed and then pulverized to dust or "ash" (this also ... Alkaline hydrolysis, a relatively new form of body disposition, offers some distinct "green" advantages over both of these ... Alkaline hydrolysis uses water, potassium hydroxide (a common ingredient in liquid soap), relatively low heat (177 C, 350 F) ...
... and concentration of enzyme conditions for the rate of hydrolysis of five isoflavone conjugates (daidzein, O- ... Hydrolysis at pH 6 proved to be detrimental to hydrolysis of phytoestrogen conjugates, especially those in plasma. Other enzyme ... In plasma, a 16-h hydrolysis was required to ensure complete hydrolysis of all conjugates. As with urine, the use of increased ... Optimization of conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytoestrogen conjugates in urine and plasma Anal Biochem. 2005 Jun ...
Renewable cellulosic fuels and chemicals startup Hyrax Energy has licensed an ionic liquids hydrolysis technology developed in ... Hyrax licenses ionic liquids hydrolysis technology from WARF 22 October 2012 Renewable cellulosic fuels and chemicals startup ... Hyrax platform combines the hydrolysis chemistry developed at UW-Madison with a separations technology developed by the ... Hyrax Energy has licensed an ionic liquids hydrolysis technology developed in the laboratory of Ron Raines, a University of ...
... [ ... Epoxide Hydrolase 3 (Ephx3) Gene Disruption Reduces Ceramide Linoleate Epoxide Hydrolysis and Impairs Skin Barrier Function. ... Gene Disruption Reduces Ceramide Linoleate Epoxide Hydrolysis and Impairs Skin Barrier Function] Edin ML, Yamanashi H, Boeglin ... Abstract Epoxide Hydrolase 3 (Ephx3) Gene Disruption Reduces Ceramide Linoleate Epoxide Hydrolysis and Impairs Skin Barrier ...
After the hydrolysis by trypsin to substrate bovine serum albulnin (BSA) under different temperatures and pH, the hydrolysis ... From the quantitative analysis to the electrophoresis bands of BSA and its hydrolysis products in SDS-PAGE pattern, the change ... After the hydrolysis by trypsin to substrate bovine serum albulnin (BSA) under different temperatures and pH, the hydrolysis ... Optimum pH of Trypsin-Catalyzed Hydrolysis. The experiment for assaying the optimum pH of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis was ...
Hydrolysis can be mediated via an enzyme reaction with β-glucuronidase or chemically with hydro-chloric acid or sodium ... What limitations should labs be aware of when performing hydrolysis?. Hydrolysis can be mediated via an enzyme reaction with β- ... Enzymatic hydrolysis procedures can be time-consuming, with hydrolysis incubation times ranging from 15 minutes to more than 24 ... Although chemical hydrolysis is faster than enzymatic hydrolysis, acid can degrade benzodiazepine and opioid drugs, too, which ...
Caserio, Marjorie C. and Glusker, Donald L. and Roberts, John D. (1959) Hydrolysis of Diaryliodonium Salts. Journal of the ... Hydrolysis of Diaryliodonium Salts Marjorie C. Caserio, Donald L. Glusker, and John D. Roberts Journal of the American Chemical ... A rate study has shown that hydrolysis is a complex reaction which is retarded by acid and catalyzed by cuprous copper and also ... The products of hydrolysis of some unsymmetrically substituted diphenyliodonium salts to phenols and aryl iodides have been ...
Amino Acid Hydrolysis Ashing Drying Microwave Digestion Solvent Extraction Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Liquid ...
Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes. Published: April 1, 2021. , Global Industry Analysts, Inc. , 149 Pages , Delivery time: 1-2 ... TABLE 57: Rest of World 15-Year Perspective for Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes by End-Use - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for ... TABLE 48: UK 15-Year Perspective for Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes by End-Use - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Detergent ... TABLE 51: Rest of Europe 15-Year Perspective for Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes by End-Use - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales ...
Improved Enzymes for Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Hydrolysis. Author: Plastic waste is a growing ... General features to enhance enzymatic activity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolysis,. Chun-Chi Chen, Xu Han, Xian Li, ...
Newspaper is your news, entertainment, music fashion website. We provide you with the latest breaking news and videos straight from the entertainment industry. ...
RNA hydrolysis by RNase H1. (a) Diagram of the RNA/DNA hybrid for in crystallo cleavage. (b, c) The Ca2+- (light blue) and Mg2+ ... Cation trafficking propels RNA hydrolysis Nadine L Samara 1 2 , Wei Yang 3 ... Cation trafficking propels RNA hydrolysis Nadine L Samara et al. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2018 Aug. ... a) Diagram of RNA hydrolysis catalyzed by RNase H1. ES complex formation with two Mg2+ and one K+ ions; binding of two ...
9. Leading Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Companies. 9.1 Key Players. 9.2 Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Companies - SWOT and Financial ... The Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes report computes the 2020 market value in revenue terms based on the average Protein Hydrolysis ... 3.2 Global Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Market Size and Share Outlook by Type, 2020-2026. 3.3 Global Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes ... 5.2 Europe Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Market Size and Share Outlook by Type, 2020-2026. 5.3 Europe Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes ...
with SO3H and COOH groups for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. X. Li, Y. Jiang, L. Shuai, L. Wang, L. Meng and X. Mu, J. ... yields in the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. than the conventional heating method with acid polymers. as catalysts. . ... was evaluated for the hydrolysis of starch. and cellulose in aqueous solution under microwave irradiation. With the same ... Sulfonated copolymers with SO3H and COOH groups for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides ...
Hydrolysis was michaelian with Km = 0.20 ± 0.03 mM and kcat = 5.4 ± 1.6 min−1. The GG1 phosphotriesterase ... Therefore, Probe IV can be recommended for monitoring hydrolysis of P–S bonded OPs by thiol-free OP hydrolases. ... The high sensitivity of the method allowed steady-state kinetic analysis of echothiophate hydrolysis by highly purified G117H ... Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of echothiophate, a P–S bonded organophosphorus (OP) model, was spectrofluorimetrically ...
Convolvulaceae Health aspects Usage Enzymes Hydrolysis Melanoma Care and treatment Development and progression Oral ... antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.( ... The low Mw polysaccharide was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis with mannase. Oxidative stress can produce excessive free ... The enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was obtained by hydrolysis with mannase (0.1% in sodium acetate ...
An effective approach is the sustainable energy production from animal by-products with Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis combined ... Biogas production and Phosphorus-recovery from animal by-products with thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH). ... An effective approach is the sustainable energy production from animal by-products with Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis combined ...
Comparison of norepinephrine- and veratrine-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain.. K U Maier and C O Rutledge ... Comparison of norepinephrine- and veratrine-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain.. K U Maier and C O Rutledge ... Comparison of norepinephrine- and veratrine-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain.. K U Maier and C O Rutledge ... Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by depolarization with veratrine was compared to that produced by stimulation of ...
US-4663477-A chemical patent summary.
Enrichment of Phospholipids by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Membrane Filtration of Whey Protein Phospholipid Concentrate  ... Browsing Department of Food Science by Subject "WPPC, phospholipids, enzymatic hydrolysis, microfiltration". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E ...
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Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis accompanies T cell receptor-induced apoptosis of murine thymocytes within the ... P2 hydrolysis signaling pathway, and thus that this signaling pathway may be implicated both in provoking apoptosis in immature ... and pharmacological agents on the generation of inositol phosphates through hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ...
Synthesis of 7-deaza-8-bromo cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose: the first hydrolysis resistant antagonist at the cADPR ... Synthesis of 7-deaza-8-bromo cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose: the first hydrolysis resistant antagonist at the cADPR ...
The hydrolysis of AB (AB, NH3BH3) with the help of transition metal catalysts has been identified as one of the promising ... The hydrolysis of AB (AB, NH3BH3) with the help of transition metal catalysts have been identified as one of the promising ... Schematic energy profiles of catalytic hydrolysis of AB involving the simultaneous H2O attacks (A). The hydrolysis AB is ... hydrolysis of AB catalyzed by metal catalyst via the stepwise H2O attack; (B) hydrolysis of AB by metal catalyst via the ...
  • The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. (
  • When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. (
  • The data provide an important base for design of novel reactors and operating regimes which include continuous product removal during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. (
  • Partial enzymatic hydrolysis is frequently used as strategy to improve the functional and nutritional properties of vegetable proteins. (
  • The changes occurring during the enzymatic hydrolysis affected the gel-forming ability of quinoa proteins and therefore the characteristics of gels. (
  • Membrane-based recovery of glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis of ionic liqu. (
  • The use of surfactants to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae Sargassum muticum has been investigated. (
  • The use of non-ionic surfactant, combined to enzymatic hydrolysis, showed an increased efficiency in disrupting cell wall and solubilizing phlorotannins in Sargassum muticum. (
  • Wheat straw was pretreated with ozone to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. (
  • WST equal to 20 minutes and WCT equal to 80 seconds, showed a drop in AIL content to 9.35 % with an increase in enzymatic hydrolysis yield to 80 % of the theoretical. (
  • Besides enzyme-related factors (for example, enzyme inactivation and product inhibition) [10], the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is limited by its physical properties [11-14]. (
  • Increased enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by a novel glucose- and xylose-stimulated ß-glucosidase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. (
  • Typical peptides are unfortunately vulnerable to enzymatic hydrolysis, and therefore sequences of. (
  • The preparation of enantiopure cyanohydrin acetates via enzymatic hydrolysis has been investigated by screening a range of biocatalysts and reaction conditions. (
  • Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. (
  • Reason (r) : The condensed tannin- are resistant to acid hydrolysis, therefore stain the lignin present in match stick. (
  • By correlating particle size and crystallinity of the cellulosic substrates with initial hydrolysis rates, it could be shown that the swollenin-induced reduction in particle size and crystallinity resulted in high cellulose hydrolysis rates. (
  • The hydrolysis of its main component cellulose to glucose necessitates a cellulase system consisting of cellobiohydrolase (CBH, E.C. (
  • Cellulose accessibility, which is determined by cellulose particle size (external surface area) and porosity (internal surface area) [15,19], is the most important factor for hydrolysis [15,18,20-24]. (
  • for direct physical contact between cellulase and cellulose and, therefore, influences cellulase adsorption as well as the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis [21,25]. (
  • ß- Glucosidase is claimed as a key enzyme in cellulose hydrolysis . (
  • We also showcase examples of our own work in this area, discussing both the non-enzymatic reaction in aqueous solution, as well as insights obtained from the computational modeling of organophosphate hydrolysis and catalytic promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer. (
  • Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) organophosphate hydrolysis is not reduced in ALS. (
  • This evoked a most improbable insight: the activating diacylglycerol - to most of us, a common and fairly boring lipid - might be a novel second messenger generated by receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis (Takai, Y. et al . (
  • Our work involves characterization of a group of acyl-CoA thioesterase enzymes, that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH). (
  • EN] An unprecedented quantum tunneling effect has been observed in catalytic Si-H bond activations at room temperature. (
  • A useful definition of the catalytic effect can be obtained when one compares kcat for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine by water ~ 8?10^-10s-1 (e.g. see primary source) to kcat in the enzyme active site ~ 1.6?10^4 s-1 [BNID 109216 ]. (
  • We also establish a conserved mechanism for the displacement of the catalytic magnesium ion post GTP hydrolysis. (
  • Dhifaf carried out her BSc diploma thesis as part of the Chemical Engineering program at KTH during the fall 2022, working on catalytic hydrolysis of ethers using water-compatible Lewis acids. (
  • Phosphate ester hydrolysis is fundamental to many life processes, and has been the topic of substantial experimental and computational research effort. (
  • Although clindamycin phosphate is inactive in vitro , rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts this compound to the antibacterially active clindamycin. (
  • However, the rates of hydrolysis and reactivation of AChE following carbamylation or phosphorylation of the active site will be drastically slower than for the hydrolysis of the acetylated enzyme (Ecobichon, 2001). (
  • whereas, the carbamylated enzyme t1/2 for hydrolysis is substantially slower (more or less 15-30 min). (
  • Synthesis of Novel Proponohydrazides and Their Hydrolysis Reactions" by MUSTAFA SAÇMACI, EMİN SARIPINAR et al. (
  • In addition, compounds 5a-h were converted into corresponding pyrazolone derivatives 7i,j by the reactions of hydrolysis in acidic solution. (
  • The technique is based on differential infrared spectrometry combined with base hydrolysis and silylation reactions. (
  • Hydrolysis is the first step of anaerobic digestion in which insoluble complex molecules such as carbohydrates and fats are broken down to short sugars, fatty acids and amino acids. (
  • Here, pretreatment of cellulosic substrates with swollenin, even in non-saturating concentrations, significantly accelerated the hydrolysis. (
  • The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. (
  • So there is ongoing interest in searching for glucose - and xylose -stimulated ß- glucosidases to increase the efficiency of hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass . (
  • Furthermore, Bglp showed obvious advantages in the hydrolysis when initial concentrations of glucose and xylose are high. (
  • ACES_TORCA ] Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. (
  • Hydrolysis of untreated lignocellulosic feedstock is independent of S-lignin composition in newly classified anaerobic fungal isolate, Piromyces sp. (
  • This study aimed to assess the effect of carbohydrates on protein hydrolysis and potential implications for the design of anaerobic reactors for treatment of protein-rich wastewaters. (
  • Carbohydrates do not directly affect protein hydrolysis and further degradation. (
  • Build-up of VFA prevents complete protein hydrolysis in non-methanogenic conditions. (
  • VFA slows down protein hydrolysis rates. (
  • The optimization of enzymatic protein hydrolysis often represents a tedious task due to complicated analytical methods. (
  • However, there are other criteria commonly used for characterizing the extent of protein hydrolysis, comprising the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the SN-TCA index, that is the fraction of nitrogen soluble in trichloroacetic acid under well-defined conditions. (
  • After 3 h of proteolysis, protein hydrolysates with 17 ± 2% hydrolysis degree and low surface hydrophobicity were obtained. (
  • Silverman, RB & Dolphin, D 1975, ' On the Mechanisms of Hydrolysis of y-Acetal Cobalamins ', Journal of the American Chemical Society , vol. 97, pp. 2924-2925. (
  • These results imply that methanogenesis dictates the reactor design for methane production but hydrolysis does for VFA production from wastewater proteins. (
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate the hydrolysis of quinoa proteins, as well as the functional and antioxidant properties of their acid-induced gels. (
  • In conclusion, even though the hydrolysis treatment negatively affects the gelling properties of the quinoa proteins, limited hydrolysis enables us to obtain gels with antioxidant capacities which present differential characteristics. (
  • Polymers containing ester groups, or manufactured by polycondensation, generally display a weakness when attacked by water or moisture, particularly at elevated temperatures.This degradation or breakdown of polymers by water and acids is known as hydrolysis. (
  • The proposed accelerated hydrolysis degradation method is relevant for producing partially degraded PET MPF reference materials for use in fate and effect studies. (
  • Moreover, whole-cell catalysis was developed for icariin hydrolysis. (
  • Here, we investigate a second, potentially more important mechanism of interference: signaling-molecule hydrolysis driven by charcoal-induced soil pH changes. (
  • Hydrolysis describes the cleavage of a chemical compound through the reaction with water. (
  • These changes reduce or eliminate the protein's ability to perform the hydrolysis reaction. (
  • 1.5E6 OH/cm3) Half-Life = 1.850 Hrs Ozone Reaction: No Ozone Reaction Estimation Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 1 (Junge,Mackay) Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66): Koc : 539.8 Log Koc: 2.732 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]: Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure! (
  • In particular, sulfide-type all-solid-state batteries are attracting attention for their excellent material properties, such as high lithium-ion conductivity and wide operating temperature range, but their electrolyte tends to generate hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) gas due to hydrolysis reaction with a small amount of water, so sufficient safety measures are required. (
  • Alkaline hydrolysis provided linearly increasing degrees of degraded PET MPFs over just a few hours, with full decomposition into molecular fragments occurring after 3 h. (
  • The use of 5% dry weight (DW - 5% by weight of hydrolyzed algae) of an enzymatic mix containing a commercial beta-glucanase, a commercial protease and an alginate lyase extracted from Pseudomonas alginovora led after 3 hours of hydrolysis to the solubilization of 2.43% DW polysaccharides and 0.52% DW phlorotannins. (
  • The hydrolysis degree, surface hydrophobicity, sulphydryl group content and the electrophoretic profile of hydrolysates were assayed. (
  • RGS16E89K increased GTP hydrolysis of Galpha i1 by a similar extent, but with an about 100-fold reduced affinity compared with non-mutated RGS16. (
  • Determine the Effect of Hydrolysis in Producing Acids or Bases. (
  • The results of a screen for microbial esterases that have enantioselective activity for the hydrolysis of butyl 2-ethylhexanoate are described. (
  • Hydrolysis Buffer for the analysis of total metanephrines (free + conjugated) in urine with LC-MS/MS. (
  • Hydrolysis stabilizers provides additive solutions especially suited to improve the hydrolysis resistance of poly-condensates, expanding their range of applications.Use of the hydrolysis stabilizer is cost efficient too for the manufacturing of the multiple products. (
  • It exhibits excellent physical pathways similar to good thermal conductivity, dimensional stability, dielectric strength, excellent hydrolysis resistance, low thermal reduction and high mechanical strength. (
  • The present invention concerns the synthesis of nanoparticles by laser hydrolysis. (
  • Plastics and polyurethanes have tendencies to degrade in short span of time and the products made of them stand useless, thus the demands to extend the shelf life of these products facilitates the growth of the plastic additives such as hydrolysis stabilizer thereby aiding the growth of the global hydrolysis stabilizer market in the future five years. (
  • Growing demand for the plastic products and polyurethanes facilitate the growth of the global hydrolysis stabilizer market in the upcoming five years.Hydrolysis stabilizers are higher in demand due to growing demands for plastics from the end use sectors. (
  • Manufacturing of plastic containers, and other similar products demands sturdy and stable compounds that prolongs the shelf life of the products that would further facilitate the growth of the global hydrolysis stabilizer market in the forecast years. (
  • Seasonal Variation of Glucosinolate Hydrolysis Products in Commercial White and Red Cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. (
  • Regarding the health beneficial effects from these vegetables, more information, especially concerning the seasonal variation of glucosinolate profiles and the formation of their bioactive hydrolysis products in commercial cabbages, is needed. (
  • Studies have shown that lipoprotein hydrolysis products induce pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by endothelial cells. (
  • Thus, our objective was to determine if hydrolysis products generated by LPL from total lipoproteins can also promote pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from breast cancer cells. (
  • Using cytokine arrays, we found that MDA-MB-231 cells increased secretion of seven cytokines in response to treatment with lipoprotein hydrolysis products. (
  • These results provide information on how lipoprotein hydrolysis products within the tumor microenvironment might affect breast cancer cell viability and progression. (
  • However, the role of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on cytokine secretion in breast cancer remains to be investigated. (
  • Thus, for the current study, our objective was to examine the cytokine expression profiles of breast cancer cells with differing ER/PR and HER2 receptor status, in response to total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. (
  • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were generated by LPL (or no LPL-mock) using total lipoproteins from normolipidemic human plasma. (
  • Hydrolysis products were diluted to 0.68 mM and incubated for 24 h with human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, SKBR3, MCF-7, and T47D) or MCF-10a non-tumorigenic human breast cells. (
  • The main objective is to show how swollenin quantitatively affects relevant physical properties of cellulosic substrates and how it affects subsequent hydrolysis. (
  • For the first time, this study quantifies and elucidates in detail how swollenin affects different cellulosic substrates and their hydrolysis. (
  • In this study, glucosinolates and glucosinolate hydrolysis product profiles in red and white cabbages from three different food retailers were monitored over six different sampling dates across the selling season in autumn. (
  • For the first time, it was shown that, while glucosinolate profiles were similar in each cabbage variety, glucosinolate hydrolysis product profiles and hydrolysis behavior varied considerably over the season. (
  • Recent studies of chronic effects in animals indicate that cancer is associated with exposure to commercial-grade TDI (an 80:20 mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI) and 2,4-TDA, a hydrolysis product of TDI. (
  • This HSP mutant, ATL1-F151S, is impaired in its GTP hydrolysis cycle but is capable of sampling the high affinity homodimer when bound to a transition state analog. (
  • Our latest RUO kit, the Luna ® SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR Multiplex Assay Kit , enables high throughput workflows for real-time detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using hydrolysis probes. (
  • Among those crucifers, white and red cabbage are commonly consumed vegetables, exhibiting different glucosinolate and hydrolysis profiles thereof. (