Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Glycoside HydrolasesEpoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.GlucuronidaseHexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 18.104.22.168.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Mucolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thiolester HydrolasesReceptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.alpha-L-Fucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 22.214.171.124.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 126.96.36.199 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 188.8.131.52 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 184.108.40.206 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 220.127.116.11 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 18.104.22.168.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.DisaccharidasesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.AmidohydrolasesGlucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 22.214.171.124. (Formerly EC 126.96.36.199).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Monocrotophos: An organophosphate insecticide that inhibits monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase. It has been shown to be genotoxic.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.EsterasesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saposins: A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 188.8.131.52.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.SulfatasesModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.SucraseSterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Glomus Tympanicum Tumor: A rare PARAGANGLIOMA involving the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM, a collection of chemoreceptor tissue adjacent to the TYMPANIC CAVITY. It can cause TINNITUS and conductive hearing loss (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE).alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 18.104.22.168.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Neocallimastigales: An order of fungi in the phylum NEOCALLIMASTIGOMYCOTA comprising anaerobic chytrids that inhabit the RUMEN; and CECUM of herbivorous animals. Genera (all in the lone family Neocallimastigaceae) include NEOCALLIMASTIX, Orpinomyces, PIROMYCES, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Caecomyces.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Aspartylglucosylaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine and water to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylamine and L-aspartate. It acts only on asparagine-oligosaccharides containing one amino acid, i.e. the ASPARAGINE has free alpha-amino and alpha-carboxyl groups. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.PeptidoglycanBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Piromyces: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.PolysaccharidesChitinaseAspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Leucyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.HexosephosphatesCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Gold Colloid, Radioactive: A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Comamonadaceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases: A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Tritrichomonas: A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex: An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans: A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Monoacylglycerol Lipases: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 126.96.36.199.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods: A group of anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.ArabinoseProtein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gangliosidoses: A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Naphthol AS D Esterase: Hydrolytic enzyme activity used as a histocytochemical test for the presence of esterases in tissue. Substrate used is 3-hydroxy-4'-nitro-2-naphthanilide chloroacetate (naphthol AS-D).Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.UreohydrolasesClostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Neocallimastix: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Dipeptidases: EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 184.108.40.206.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose: An acetyl ester of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE formed during NAD-dependent deacetylation of proteins by SIRTUINS. The acetate group resides on the ribose ring where nicotinamide was cleaved from NAD during the reaction. Several isomers of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose have been isolated from the reaction.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Penicillin Amidase: An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 220.127.116.11.Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Ceroid: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to lipofuscin. It accumulates in various tissues in certain experimental and pathological conditions.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/2136)The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose. (+info)
Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/2136)In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. (+info)
Thermodynamic analysis of halide binding to haloalkane dehalogenase suggests the occurrence of large conformational changes. (3/2136)Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) hydrolyzes short-chain haloalkanes to produce the corresponding alcohols and halide ions. Release of the halide ion from the active-site cavity can proceed via a two-step and a three-step route, which both contain slow enzyme isomerization steps. Thermodynamic analysis of bromide binding and release showed that the slow unimolecular isomerization steps in the three-step bromide export route have considerably larger transition state enthalpies and entropies than those in the other route. This suggests that the three-step route involves different and perhaps larger conformational changes than the two-step export route. We propose that the three-step halide export route starts with conformational changes that result in a more open configuration of the active site from which the halide ion can readily escape. In addition, we suggest that the two-step route for halide release involves the transfer of the halide ion from the halide-binding site in the cavity to a binding site somewhere at the protein surface, where a so-called collision complex is formed in which the halide ion is only weakly bound. No large structural rearrangements are necessary for this latter process. (+info)
A new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids. (4/2136)Through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in Peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. However, the enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates. (+info)
Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (5/2136)A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 18.104.22.168; EC 22.214.171.124) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme. (+info)
Galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activities in luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and in the rete testis fluid of some mammals. (6/2136)Galactosyltransferase activity was measured in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis of mice, rats, rabbits, rams and boars, and in the rete testis fluid of rams and boars. The activities of nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, which compete with galactosyltransferase for substrate, were also determined. In these species, galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was similar when the inhibitory effect of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase was minimized by assay conditions. However, under assay conditions that did not minimize the effect of these enzymes, the galactosyltransferase activities of these species were very different and were inversely correlated with the activities of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase. The ratio of galactosyltransferase activity to pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activity was much higher in the rete testis fluid than in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis in both rams and boars. In rams, galactosyltransferase in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was more heat resistant than that in serum. These results suggest that there is a species difference in the availability of galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and that in some species, galactosyltransferase in the luminal fluid is unlikely to have any function. The results are also discussed with respect to the possible function of galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase in epididymal luminal plasma and rete testis fluid. (+info)
Molecular cloning of cDNAs of mouse peptidylarginine deiminase type I, type III and type IV, and the expression pattern of type I in mouse. (7/2136)Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of post-translational enzymes, catalyze the conversion of protein-bound arginine residues to citrulline residues in a calcium ion-dependent manner and are widely distributed in various organs of vertebrates. Although the existence of four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III, and IV) is reported in rodents, the relative functions of the isoforms with respect to their colocation in the tissues have yet to be explored. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA encoding mouse PAD type I by screening a uterine cDNA library and using the RACE method. This cDNA consists of an open reading frame of 1989 bases encoding 662 amino acids (73,823 Da), a 5'-untranslated region of 127 bases and a 3'-untranslated region of 1639 bases. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR and Northern-blot analyses detected PAD type I mRNA only in the epidermis and uterus. Administration of estrogen to adult ovariectomized mice increased the content of PAD type I mRNA in the uterus, providing evidence that its expression is under the control of the sex steroid hormone. We also cloned the full-length cDNAs of mouse PAD type III and type IV by the reverse transcription-PCR and RACE methods. The primary structure of PAD type III contains 664 amino acids (75,098 Da) deduced from the coding region of 1995 bases, and the primary structure of PAD type IV consists of 666 amino acids (74,475 Da) deduced from the coding region of 2001 bases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of all four isoforms of PAD showed about 50% identity with each other, the 3' regions being highly homologous compared with the 5' regions. (+info)
Degradation of 1,2-dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1. (8/2136)The newly isolated bacterial strain GP1 can utilize 1, 2-dibromoethane as the sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was identified as a member of the subgroup which contains the fast-growing mycobacteria. The first step in 1,2-dibromoethane metabolism is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The resulting 2-bromoethanol is rapidly converted to ethylene oxide by a haloalcohol dehalogenase, in this way preventing the accumulation of 2-bromoethanol and 2-bromoacetaldehyde as toxic intermediates. Ethylene oxide can serve as a growth substrate for strain GP1, but the pathway(s) by which it is further metabolized is still unclear. Strain GP1 can also utilize 1-chloropropane, 1-bromopropane, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-chloroethanol as growth substrates. 2-Chloroethanol and 2-bromoethanol are metabolized via ethylene oxide, which for both haloalcohols is a novel way to remove the halide without going through the corresponding acetaldehyde intermediate. The haloalkane dehalogenase gene was cloned and sequenced. The dehalogenase (DhaAf) encoded by this gene is identical to the haloalkane dehalogenase (DhaA) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, except for three amino acid substitutions and a 14-amino-acid extension at the C terminus. Alignments of the complete dehalogenase gene region of strain GP1 with DNA sequences in different databases showed that a large part of a dhaA gene region, which is also present in R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, was fused to a fragment of a haloalcohol dehalogenase gene that was identical to the last 42 nucleotides of the hheB gene found in Corynebacterium sp. strain N-1074. (+info)
Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium
ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp.167-176. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000100018.. The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic ...
The Growth of Pseudomonas putida on Chlorinated Aliphatic Acids and its Dehalogenase Activity | Microbiology Society
SUMMARY: Two strains of Pseudomonas putida, S3 and P3, were shown to contain dehalogenase activity against monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, 2-monochloropropionate and 2,2#-dichloro-propionate but differed markedly in their levels of enzyme activity. Strain S3 had activities of less than 1 μmol substrate converted (mg protein)−1 h−1 and was unable to grow on any of nine chlorinated compounds tested. Strain P3 had enzyme activities 10 to 40 times greater than those of strain S3 but was capable of growth only on 2-monochloropropionate and 2,2#-dichloropropionate. In strain P3, dehalogenase activity was induced by a number of chlorinated compounds other than those that acted as growth substrates. Strain P3 dehalogenase activity dehalogenated C-2 substituted compounds. The evidence of the dehalogenase activity profiles in chemostat cultures and from thermal denaturation experiments suggested that there was more than one dehalogenase enzyme in P. putida strain P3. In crude extract, the enzyme activity
Molecular biology of the 2-haloacid halidohydrolase IVa from Pseudomonas cepacia MBA4 | Biochemical Journal
The structural gene (hdl IVa) for the Pseudomonas cepacia MBA4 2-haloacid halidohydrolase IVa (Hdl IVa) was isolated on a 1.6 kb fragment of Ps. cepacia MBA4 chromosomal DNA. The recombinant halidohydrolase was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida and the structural gene was subcloned on to the tac expression vector pBTac1. High-level expression from the tac promoter was seen to be temperature-dependent, a consequence of the nucleotide sequence adjacent to the fragment encoding the halidohydrolase. The nucleotide sequence of the fragment encoding the Hdl IVa was determined and analysed. Three ATG codons were identified in one of the open reading frames and the one corresponding to the start of the hdl IVa structural gene was determined by comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences with the experimentally determined N-terminal sequences of halidohydrolase IVa. The hdl IVa gene encoded a 231-amino acid-residue protein of M(r) 25,900. The sequence and predicted structural data ...
Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX). | Journal of Bacteriology
A chromosomal gene of Enterobacter cloacae encoding an outer membrane protein (OmpX) has been cloned. Overproduction of the OmpX protein decreased the quantity of porins in the outer membrane of the parental strain and of Escherichia coli HB101. The ompX gene was located by insertions of the gamma delta sequence into the recombinant plasmid. The polarity of the gene was determined by in vitro transcription and translation of the gamma delta-containing plasmids. The nucleotide sequence of the ompX gene was elucidated by using both inverted terminal repeats of the gamma delta sequence as starting points for M13 dideoxy sequencing. The gene was found to encode a precursor of the OmpX protein consisting of 172 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 18.6 kDa. The protein contains an N-terminal signal sequence of 23 amino acid residues. The exact cleavage point was established by sequencing the N-terminal part of the mature protein. The OmpX protein has several characteristics in common with ...
Abstract 16986: A New Cardiac Muscle Post-Translational Modification: Detection of Protein Arginine Deiminases and Protein...
ABSTRACT: Protein citrullination originates from enzymatic deimination of amino acid arginine in a protein and is involved in various biological processes during health and disease. However, it has not been investigated in heart. Therefore, our goal was to identify novel substrates for peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), enzyme responsible for this modification and associate it with changes in protein citrullination during heart failure (HF).. METHODS: Proteomics methods were used to identify citrullinated proteins and the site of modification in control mouse and control vs. HF human heart tissue (5 per group). The characterization of deiminated proteins was facilitated by modification of peptide-bound citrullineted Arg residues with antipyrine and butanedione, allowing for the unambiguous identification by mass spectrometry. Verification of citrullinated proteins was carried out by 2DE (modification causes pI shift) and western blot with anti-citrullinated antibody. PAD enzyme expression was ...
Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition disrupts NET formation and protects against kidney, skin and vascular disease in lupus...
Objectives An imbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation has been described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), potentially contributing to autoantigen externalisation, type I interferon synthesis and endothelial damage. We have demonstrated that peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) inhibition reduces NET formation and protects against lupus-related vascular damage in the New Zealand Mixed model of lupus. However, another strategy for inhibiting NETs-knockout of NOX2-accelerates lupus in a different murine model, MRL/lpr. Here, we test the effects of PAD inhibition on MRL/lpr mice in order to clarify whether some NET inhibitory pathways may be consistently therapeutic across models of SLE. ...
Generation of monoclonal antibodies against peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (pad2) and development of a pad2-specific enzyme...
"Protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4): Current understanding and future " by Justin E. Jones, Corey P. Causey et al.
The protein arginine deiminases (PADs), and in particular PAD4, have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this review, evidence linking dysregulated PAD activity to the onset and progression of RA is presented, and the potential role of such aberrant activity in other human diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and cancer, is discussed. The known physiological roles of the PADs, particularly PAD4, and current knowledge regarding PAD structure, catalysis and inhibition are also described.
Methods for the Detection of Peptidylarginine Deiminase (PAD) Activity and Protein Citrullination
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) | DC Chemicals
The structure of the cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus. What does it tell us? | Faculty of Science
Extrinsic nitric oxide donor partially reverses arginine deiminase induced cell growth inhibition through NFκB and Bcl-X<sub>L<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrinsic nitric oxide donor partially reverses arginine deiminase induced cell growth inhibition through NFκB and Bcl-XL AU - Seo, Jae Hong. AU - Sung, Hwa Jung. AU - Choi, Chul Won. AU - Kim, Byung Soo. AU - Shin, Sang Won. AU - Kim, Yeul Hong. AU - Min, Bon Hong. AU - Kim, Jun Suk. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Arginine deiminase (ADI) is known to be an inducer of apoptosis in vitro and an anti-tumor agent in vivo in some cancers. ADI causes the enzymatic depletion of arginine which may inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. However, the effect of ADI treatment on NO synthesis has not been clearly elucidated. With the goal of understanding the role of ADI in NO synthesis, we used the Ramos human lymphoma cell line, which is known to be ADI-sensitive. After determining an optimal experimental ADI concentration (0.001 U/ml), we studied the effects of ADI treatment when combined with different concentrations of the extrinsic NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (i.e., ...
Nanomosis: Water-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions: building a nanoscale water solvated reaction system one molecule at a time
Prof. David Phillips, Director of the Ultrafast Laser Facility at The University of Hong Kong, will present the following seminar from the Pacific Rim Conference in Nanoscience (7-11 September 2004). The seminar will be available for viewing and discussion through the internanotech Community at http://nanotech.colayer.net/ Water-catalyzed dehalogenation reactions: building a nanoscale water solvated reaction system one molecule at a time
PADI4 - Wikipedia
Peptidyl arginine deiminase, type IV, also known as PADI4, is a human protein which in humans is encoded by the PADI4 gene. The human gene is found on the short arm of Chromosome 1 near the telomere (1p36.13). It is located on the Watson (plus) strand and is 55,806 bases long. The protein is 663 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 74,095 Da. This gene is a member of a gene family which encodes enzymes responsible for the conversion of arginine to citrulline residues. This gene may play a role in granulocyte and macrophage development leading to inflammation and immune response. PADI4 plays a role in the epigenetics, the deimination of arginines on histones 3 and 4 can act antagonistically to arginine methylation (Chromatin modifications and their function, Kouzarides 2007, Cell, review) The protein may be found in oligomers and binds 5 calcium ions per subunit. It catalyses the reaction: Protein L-arginine + H2O = protein L-citrulline + NH3 It is normally found in the cytoplasm, nucleus ...
Enzyme deregulation in disease
Citrullination (or deamination) is carried out by a small family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) and is involved in innate immunity, nerve cell myelination, skin homeostasis and pluripotency. Conversely, abnormal citrullination is a pathological feature of diseases such as autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis), neurodegeneration (Alzheimers and prion diseases), atherosclerosis and late stage cancer, while its inhibition by genetic and pharmacological means was shown to prevent or revert some of these pathologies. Despite the likely mechanistic importance of citrullination in both cell physiology and disease, it remains largely unexplored.. The central aims of our work are to define the molecular mechanisms that control PADI activation under physiological conditions, understand how PADIs modulate protein and cell function and decipher how abnormal citrullination contributes to pathology. We employ a combination of ...
Regulating Transcription Through Arginine Deimination | Science Signaling
Posttranslational modifications of histones, the proteins around which DNA is wound, help regulate chromatin structure and function. For instance, transcriptional activation by estrogen is associated with arginine methylation of histone H3. Although cycles of arginine methylation have been observed during the activation of estrogen-responsive genes, the mechanisms whereby methylation is lost remain unclear. Cuthbert et al. used a combination of Western analysis; truncated H3, N-terminal sequencing; and mass spectrometry to show that PADI4 (peptidyl arginine deiminase 4) catalyzed the in vitro conversion of arginines Arg2, Arg8, Arg17, and Arg26 in the H3 tail to citrulline. Overexpression of PADI4 in MCF-7 cells indicated that H3 tail arginines were also deiminated in vivo. Arginine deimination blocked H3 methylation by the methyltransferase CARM1 and, although PADI4 could not deiminate dimethylated arginines, it appeared to deiminate monomethyl arginine. When PADI4 and either the estrogen ...
Citrullination of CXCL8 by peptidylarginine deiminase alters receptor usage, prevents proteolysis, and dampens tissue...
During the past decade, posttranslational modification of chemokines has been reported to affect their in vitro and in vivo activities (11). Primarily N-terminal processing alters the receptor affinity and specific biological activity of chemokines. This includes minimal modification of an N-terminal Gln to pyroglutamic acid in the three monocyte chemotactic proteins, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL7/MCP-3, for which this pyroglutamic acid is essential for full biological activity (26, 35). Proteolytic processing of the N terminus of chemokines results in enhanced or reduced activity depending on the chemokine, protease, and degree of processing involved. In addition to the numerous naturally occurring forms of N-terminally truncated chemokines, a limited number of C-terminally processed chemokines have been identified (CCL2, CXCL7, and CXCL10) (36-38). Some chemokines, e.g., CCL2 and CCL11, may also be glycosylated (39, 40). Despite the significant increase in Mr, glycosylation only moderately ...
Crystallographic analysis of the catalytic mechanism of haloalkane dehalogenase. Crystallographic structure of the T domain-DNA...
Cit17]-Histone H3 (1-21)-GGK(Biotin)
Peptides , Histones , Histone H3 Peptides , [Cit17]-Histone H3 (1-21)-GGK(Biotin); This peptide is histone H3 (1-21) with deimination at Arg17, converting it to Cit (Citrulline). It is biotinylated through a C-terminal GGK linker. Deimination by peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) blocks methylation by the CARM1 methyltransferase and inhibits transcriptional activation. Provided at |95% peptide purity, this peptide was dissolved in distilled water at 1 mg/ml and re-lyophilized to powder form.; ARTKQTARKSTGGKAP-Cit-KQLAGG-K(Biotin); H-Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Gln-Thr-Ala-Arg-Lys-Ser-Thr-Gly-Gly-Lys-Ala-Pro-Cit-Lys-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gly-Gly-Lys(Biotin)-OH
Protein that switches cancers from inflammation to proliferation identified. ecancer - News
05 Feb 2016. Oxford University scientists researching PAD4, a protein that plays a role in the development of inflammatory diseases like arthritis and which is regularly found in cancers have uncovered the proteins role in cancer development.. Their results are published online by the journal Science Advances.. Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is an enzyme that plays a role in genetic expression - turning our genetic code into functional products in the body.. Professor Nick La Thangue from Oxford Universitys Oncology department explained: As our understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation has increased, interest in PAD enzymes as targets for treatments has grown. PAD4s presence in cancer was well known but its role was not - rather like continually seeing someone at crime scenes but not being able to prove theyre involved.. The team therefore set out to understand the mechanisms by which PAD4 was involved.. They found that PAD4 is attracted by another protein called E2F-1, ...
Exploring functionally related enzymes using radially distributed properties of active sites around the reacting points of...
High-throughput methods for structural genomics have produced an increasing number of protein structures to be solved by X-ray crystallography. The abundance of protein structure information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has increased the need and desire for structure-based function prediction  and has contributed to structure-based drug design . However, two problems remain regarding the prediction of enzyme function. First, proteins within a superfamily, which are usually expected to share the same catalytic properties, can catalyze different reactions. There are reports that enzymes with 98% sequence identity, such as melamine deaminase and atrazine chlorohydrolase, may catalyze different reactions . Second, two enzymes belonging to different superfamilies or fold classes can catalyze almost identical reactions .. The function of a protein can be affected by a small number of residues in a localized region of its three-dimensional structure . Moreover, the specific arrangement ...
Inhibition of peptidyl-arginine deiminases reverses protein-hypercitrullination and disease in mouse models of multiple...
MS is the most common demyelinating disease of humans and is a heterogeneous disease characterized into four types (Lucchinetti et al., 2000). Pattern 1 shows inflammatory demyelination with macrophage infiltration. Pattern 2 shows demyelination with inflammatory infiltration with T cells. Pattern 3 is characterized by loss of oligodendrocytes by apoptosis. Pattern 4 also shows loss of oligodendrocytes, but is rare.. Understanding the pathogenesis of MS has relied heavily on animal models, of which there are several. Although all models reproduce some of the features of MS, none reproduces all the features. In our studies described here, we have used four animal models to try to bring together as many of the features of MS as possible. Two of the models were inflammatory autoimmune models (acute and chronic relapsing EAE) reflective of pattern 2 MS. The acute EAE was monophasic and rapid, whereas the crEAE was more reflective of the relapsing-remitting course of MS. The ND4 transgenic mouse, ...
Wrt is driven by inflammation - WeeksMD
Wound healing is impaired in diabetes, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Neutrophils are the main leukocytes involved in the early phase of healing. As part of their anti-microbial defense, neutrophils form extracellular traps (NETs) by releasing decondensed chromatin lined with cytotoxic proteins. NETs, however, can also induce tissue damage. Here we show that neutrophils isolated from type 1 and type 2 diabetic humans and mice were primed to produce NETs (a process termed NETosis). Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4, encoded by Padi4 in mice), an enzyme important in chromatin decondensation, was elevated in neutrophils from individuals with diabetes. When subjected to excisional skin wounds, wild-type (WT) mice produced large quantities of NETs in wounds, but this was not observed in Padi4(-/-) mice. In diabetic mice, higher levels of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit, a NET marker) were found in their wounds than in normoglycemic mice and healing was delayed. Wound ...
IAA-amino acid hydrolase elisa and antibody
Gel Pad Activity Center | Enabling Devices
RN  RL Curr Biol. 1995 Dec 1;5(12):1424-36. RT Extent and character of circadian gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster: identification of twenty oscillating mRNAs in the fly head. RA Van Gelder RN, Bae H, Palazzolo MJ, Krasnow MA. RM PMID: 8749395 RN  RM PMID: 7966317 RT Computer analysis of bacterial haloacid dehalogenases defines a large superfamily of hydrolases with diverse specificity. Application of an iterative approach to database search. RA Koonin EV, Tatusov RL. RL J Mol Biol 1994 Nov 18;244(1):125-32 RN  RM PMID: 11601995 RT MDP-1 is a new and distinct member of the haloacid dehalogenase family of aspartate-dependent phosphohydrolases. RA Selengut, JD RL Biochemistry 2001 Oct 23;40(42):12704-11 RN  RM PMID: 10956028 RT The crystal structure of bacillus cereus phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase: insight into catalysis of phosphorus bond cleavage and catalytic diversification wi thin the HAD enzyme superfamily. RA Morais MC, Zhang W, Baker AS, Zhang G, Dunaway-Mariano D, ...
Biology-Online • View topic - Hydrolases
The way the amino acids are put together in the protein will determine the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. Hydrolases are enzymes and all enzymes recognize a specific sequence much like a lock recognizes a key. Enzymes will recognize a target protein by various means including its three dimensional structure. Hence, an enzyme (which is a protein) will recognize a specific recognition sequence or conformation but it will not contain that sequence or conformation itself. Thus it cannot degrade itself ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Haloalkane dehalogenase 3 - P9WMR9 (DHAA MYCTU)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily can exhibit exquisite substrate specificities. These phosphatases have undergone a remarkable expansion during metazoan evolution, and some have acquired an elaborate extracatalytic multidomain structure. In this review, we describe the gene complement of human HAD phosphatases, discuss their structure, catalytic mechanism and evolution, and summarize their known functions in health and disease. ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Haloacid dehalogenase, type II - Q12G50 (Q12G50 POLSJ)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
BIOETYMOLOGY : ORIGIN IN BIOMEDICAL TERMS: hydrolase
Cannondale CAAD10-1 - Destroyed my frame or crankset? Help - Weight Weenies
PADI4 / PAD4抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-PADI4 / PAD4抗体(ab50332)
2013 CAAD10 Black Inc - Weight Weenies
Mesin Pertanian, Bakso, Kopi, Padi, Pemipil Jagung, Penggiling, Pemanen, Disk Mill, Vertical Drayer
Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced citrullination and arthritis, but not...
Citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginines to citrullines, may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis development given the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). However, it is not known which peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the citrullination seen in inflammation. PAD4 exacerbates inflammatory arthritis and is critical for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs display citrullinated antigens targeted by ACPAs and thus may be a source of citrullinated protein. However, PAD4 is not required for citrullination in inflamed lungs. PAD2 is important for citrullination in healthy tissues and is present in NETs, but its role in citrullination in the inflamed joint, NETosis and inflammatory arthritis is unknown. Here we use mice with TNFα-induced inflammatory arthritis, a model of rheumatoid arthritis, to identify the roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in citrullination, NETosis, and arthritis. In mice with TNFα-induced arthritis, citrullination in the ...
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase - Wikipedia
3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 9101289. Phaneuf D, Lambert M, Laframboise R, Mitchell G, Lettre F, Tanguay RM (1992). "Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia. Evidence for molecular heterogeneity and identification of a causal mutation in a French Canadian patient". J. Clin. Invest. 90 (4): 1185-92. doi:10.1172/JCI115979. PMC 443158 . PMID 1401056. Tanguay RM, Valet JP, Lescault A, Duband JL, Laberge C, Lettre F, Plante M (1990). "Different molecular basis for fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency in the two clinical forms of hereditary tyrosinemia (type I)". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 47 (2): 308-16. PMC 1683717 . PMID 2378356. Laberge C, Grenier A, Valet JP, Morissette J (1990). "Fumarylacetoacetase measurement as a mass-screening procedure for hereditary tyrosinemia type I". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 47 (2): 325-8. PMC 1683713 . PMID 2378358. Kvittingen EA, Halvorsen S, Jellum E (1983). "Deficient fumarylacetoacetate fumarylhydrolase activity in lymphocytes and fibroblasts from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia". Pediatr. ...
atrazine chlorohydrolase Summary Report | CureHunter
Iguratimod dose dependently inhibits the expression of citrullinated proteins and peptidylarginine deiminases 2 and 4 in...
Arginine deiminase augments the chemosensitivity of argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to...
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world with a 5-year survival rate of less than 6%. Currently, there is no successful therapeutic strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer, and new effective strategies are urgently needed. Recently, an arginine deprivation agent, arginine deiminase, was found to inhibit the growth of some tumor cells (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and lung cancer) deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), an enzyme used to synthesize arginine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of arginine deiminase in combination with gemcitabine, the first line chemotherapeutic drug for patients with pancreatic cancer, and to identify the mechanisms associated with its anticancer effects. In this study, we first analyzed the expression levels of ASS in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. We further tested the effects of the combination regimen of arginine deiminase
Some Biochemical Properties and the Classification of a Range of Bacterial Haloalkane Dehalogenases | Protein Engineering Group
Multivariate analyses and experimental data have been used to evaluate the relationships between eight bacterial hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenases. The results indicate that seven of the dehalogenases investigated can confidently be placed into two Classes [sensu Slater bull and Hardman (1995) Biodegradation 6, 181-189] according to their substrate profiles, The remaining enzyme, isolated from Rhodococcus erythropolis CP9, appears to represent a third Class of haloalkane dehalogenases.. Full text. ...
The Devil in the Details: The Emerging Role of Anticitrulline Autoimmunity in Rheumatoid Arthritis | The Journal of Immunology
Five mammalian peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), PAD1-4 and PAD6, each with a defined tissue distribution, mediate citrullination of arginine in the presence of sufficient concentrations of Ca2+ (reviewed in Ref.26). Interestingly, PAD enzymes were found in monocytes (PAD4) and macrophages (PAD2 and PAD4) in synovial fluid (27), indicating that they could be involved in citrullination of synovial proteins once they become activated. Indeed, it has been shown that citrullination of synovial proteins is an active process during inflammation (28, 29) and that several citrullinated proteins, such as fibrin (30), can be found in the RA synovium. Together with citrullinated proteins in the inflamed joint, B cells actively secreting ACPA have been detected in synovial fluid and synovium from RA patients (31, 32) but not in peripheral blood or in healthy controls. The presence of IgM ACPA-secreting B cells in synovial fluid is indicative of a continuous activation of B cells specific for citrullinated ...
A C-terminal phosphatase module conserved in vertebrate CMP-sialic acid synthetases provides a tetramerization interface for...
The biosynthesis of sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates is crucial for the development of vertebrate life. Cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid synthetase (CSS) catalyzes the metabolic activation of sialic acids. In vertebrates, the enzyme is chimeric, with the N-terminal domain harboring the synthetase activity. The function of the highly conserved C-terminal domain (CSS-CT) is unknown. To shed light on its biological function, we solved the X-ray structure of murine CSS-CT to 1.9 Šresolution. CSS-CT is a stable shamrock-like tetramer that superimposes well with phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. However, a region found exclusively in vertebrate CSS-CT appears to block the active-site entrance. Accordingly, no phosphatase activity was observed in vitro, which points toward a nonenzymatic function of CSS-CT. A computational three-dimensional model of full-length CSS, in combination with in vitro oligomerization studies, provides evidence that CSS-CT serves as a platform for ...
Citrullinated proteins have increased immunogenicity and arthritogenicity and their presence in arthritic joints correlates...
Autoantibodies directed against citrulline-containing proteins have an impressive specificity of nearly 100% in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and have been suggested to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The targeted epitopes are generated by a post-translational modification catalysed by the calcium-dependent enzyme peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD), which converts positively charged arginine to polar but uncharged citrulline. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of citrullination on the immunogenicity of autoantigens as well as on potential arthritogenicity. Thus, immune responses to citrullinated rat serum albumin (Cit-RSA) and to unmodified rat serum albumin (RSA) were examined as well as arthritis development induced by immunisation with citrullinated rat collagen type II (Cit-CII) or unmodified CII. In addition, to correlate the presence of citrullinated proteins and the enzyme PAD4 with different stages of arthritis, synovial tissues obtained at different time points from
Spontaneous secretion of peptidyl-arginine deiminase 2 and cell surface exposure of peptidyl-arginine deiminase 4 by...
Autoantibodies directed against citrullinated epitopes of proteins are highly diagnostic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and elevated levels of protein citrullination can be found in the joints of RA patients. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in protein citrullination remain incompletely understood, the neutrophil is emerging as a prime suspect. Here we report that fully viable resting neutrophils from healthy donors have enzymatically active PAD4 exposed on their surface and that they spontaneously secrete enzymatically active PAD2. Activation of the neutrophils by several stimulatory agents, such as immune complexes, tumor necrosis factor a, phorbol myristate acetate, and agonists of Toll-like receptors1, 5, 7, and 9, increased the immunoreactive amount of PAD4 on the cells. However, immune complex, LPS and PMA stimulation reduced PAD2 secretion. The presence of extracellular PAD2 and PAD4 was not caused by NETosis, apoptosis, or lysis ...
"Mechanistic studies of agmatine deiminase from multiple bacterial spec" by Justin E. Jones, Christina J. Dreyton et al.
One subfamily of guanidino group-modifying enzymes (GMEs) consists of the agmatine deiminases (AgDs). These enzymes catalyze the conversion of agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) to N-carbamoyl putrescine and ammonia. In plants, viruses, and bacteria, these enzymes are thought to be involved in energy production, biosynthesis of polyamines, and biofilm formation. In particular, we are interested in the role that this enzyme plays in pathogenic bacteria. Previously, we reported the initial kinetic characterization of the agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori and described the synthesis and characterization the two most potent AgD inactivators. Herein, we have expanded our initial efforts to characterize the catalytic mechanisms of AgD from H. pylori as well as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Through the use of pH rate profiles, pK(a) measurements of the active site cysteine, solvent isotope effects, and solvent viscosity effects, we have determined that the AgDs, like PADs 1 and 4
Depletion of Arginine by Recombinant Arginine Deiminase Induces nNOS-Activated Neurotoxicity in Neuroblastoma Cells
The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with |i|N|/i|-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline) buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and
Spinal cord regeneration: A role for peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in secondary injury response : WestminsterResearch
Romani, A., Antille, N., Atenekeng, G., Courcol, J.D., Devresse, A., Dynes, J.A., Gevaert, M., Gonzalo, J.K., Gulyas, A., Kali, S., Kanari, L., Lange, S., Mercer, A., Migliore, M., Muller, E.B., Palacios, J.P., Ramaswamy, S., Reimann, M., Riquelme, R.L., Rössert, C.A., Ying, S., Shillcock, J., Telefont, M., Van Geit, W.A.H., Vanherpe, L., Markram, H. and Thomson, A. 2016. Data-driven model of the hippocampus using the HBP Brain Simulation Platform. 10th FENS Forum of Neuroscience. Copenhagen, Denmark 02 - 06 Jul 2016 PF7.09 Non-phagocytic epithelial cells take up microvesicles by micropinocytosis ...
Alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 | definition of alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 by Medical...
Looking for online definition of alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 in the Medical Dictionary? alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 explanation free. What is alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3? Meaning of alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 medical term. What does alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 mean?
Abstract 20419: Citrullination in Actin-Tropomyosin-Myosin Complex: Novel Regulatory Mechanism | Circulation
Background: A novel protein post-translational modification, citrullination was shown previously in a number of key myofilament proteins, tropomyosin (R 133, R 238), actin (R 39) and myosin heavy chain (R 1176, 1303, 1434) in HF patient (values for total spectra counts for citrullinated proteins in control, ISHD and IDCM: 1.8 ±1.3, 3.2±2.7 and 2.3±1.9, respectively). The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca2+-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human myocardium are still not resolved. Protein citrullination arises from the enzymatic conversion of arginine residues to citrulline result in loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. And here, the biophysical and biochemical effect on myofilament function is determined.. Method: F-actin-tropomyosin binding, tropomyosin-actin-myosin, actin-myosin and myosin ATPase activity assays, and F-actin stability assays were carried out.. Results: In vitro citrullinated tropomyosin ...
Expression of citrulline and homocitrulline residues in the lungs of non-smokers and smokers: implications for autoimmunity in...
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is a well-established risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and it has been proposed that smoking-induced citrullination renders autoantigens immunogenic. To investigate this mechanism, we examined human lung tissue from 40 subjects with defined smoking status, with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and control tissues from other organs for citrullinated proteins and the deiminating enzymes peptidylarginine deiminase type-2 (PAD2) and -4 (PAD4). METHODS: Lung tissue samples, dissected from lobectomy specimens from 10 never smokers, 10 smokers without airflow limitation, 13 COPD smokers and eight COPD ex-smokers, and control tissue samples (spleen, skeletal muscle, liver, ovary, lymph node, kidney and heart), were analysed for citrullinated proteins, PAD2 and PAD4 by immunoblotting. Citrulline and homocitrulline residues in enolase and vimentin were analysed by partial purification by gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry in 12 of the lung
Dehalogenase | definition of dehalogenase by Medical dictionary
Electron-Transfer Photoredox Catalysis: Development of a Tin-Free Reductive Dehalogenation Reaction
Abstract. An operationally simple, tin-free reductive dehalogenation system allows the reduction of activated C-X bonds in good yields with excellent functional-group tolerance and chemoselectivity over aryl and vinyl C-X bonds in the presence of the well-known visible-light-activated photoredox catalyst Ru(bpy)3Cl2 in combination with iPr2NEt and HCO2H or Hantzsch ester as the hydrogen atom donor.. ...
Deuterium Exchange Measurement | Profiles RNS
Many melanomas do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) which is a key enzyme in the process of arginine biosynthesis. As a result, these melanoma cells need exogenous arginine supply for survival and proliferation while normal cell do not. A new drug targeting this metabolic defect of melanoma has been developed by Polaris, Inc. (recombinant arginine deiminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol-20 or ADI-PEG20). This complex can effectively degrade blood arginine to citrulline. Phase I/II clinical trials with ADI-PEG20 have shown promising activity in patients with advanced melanoma. However, our laboratory studies have demonstrated that after treatment with ADI-PEG20, some melanoma cells are able to induce the production of ASS, while others have the ability to undergo prolonged autophagy as well as low requirement for arginine to survive. Thus, arginine deprivation results in growth inhibition without cell death. On the other hand, TRAIL has been used to induce apoptosis in certain ...
In silico design of potentially functional artificial metallo-haloalkane dehalogenase containing catalytic zinc. | FoldX
Artificial metalloenzymes are unique as they combine the good features of homogeneous and enzymatic catalysts, and they can potentially improve some difficult catalytic assays. This study reports a method that can be used to create an artificial metal-binding site prior to proving it to be functional in a wet lab. Haloalkane dehalogenase was grafted into a metal-binding site to form an artificial metallo-haloalkane dehalogenase and was studied for its potential functionalities in silico. Computational protocols regarding dynamic metal docking were studied using native metalloenzymes and functional artificial metalloenzymes. Using YASARA Structure, a simulation box covering template structure was created to be filled with water molecules followed by one mutated water molecule closest to the metal-binding site to metal ion. A simple energy minimization step was subsequently run using an AMBER force field to allow the metal ion to interact with the metal-binding residues. Long molecular dynamic ...
Hydrocarbon Dehalogenation in a Tortuous Microreactor
Removing halogen groups from hydrocarbons is an important reaction step in several chemical processes. One application is water purification. Other examples involve organic synthesis, where the removal of halogen groups serves as a starting point for carbon-carbon coupling reactions. Typically, the carbon-halogen bond scission is activated by precious metal catalysts based on platinum or palladium. This model shows hydrocarbon dehalogenation as it occurs in a microreactor. The reactants are transported from the fluid bulk to the catalytic surfaces at the reactor walls, where they react. First you set up a space-independent model, analyzing two competing reactions, using the Reaction Engineering interface. Then, you export the reaction kinetics and set up and solve a space-dependent model of the microreactor.. ...
Proteomic characterization of serine hydrolase activity and composition in normal urine
Abstract Background Serine hydrolases constitute a large enzyme family involved in a diversity of proteolytic and metabolic processes which are essential for many aspects of normal physiology. The roles of serine hydrolases in renal function are largely unknown and monitoring their activity may provide important insights into renal physiology. The goal of this study was to profile urinary serine hydrolases with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and to perform an in-depth compositional analysis. Methods Eighteen healthy individuals provided random, mid-stream urine samples. ABPP was performed by reacting urines (n = 18) with a rhodamine-tagged fluorophosphonate probe and visualizing on SDS-PAGE. Active serine hydrolases were isolated with affinity purification and identified on MS-MS. Enzyme activity was confirmed with substrate specific assays. A complementary 2D LC/MS-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the composition of serine hydrolases in urine. Results Enzyme activity was ...
DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders: Inherited: Tyrosinemia
Objective The mechanisms that donate to the persistent activation of macrophages - Novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of...
Objective The mechanisms that donate to the persistent activation of macrophages in arthritis rheumatoid (RA) are incompletely understood. style of RA, and neutralizing antibodies to gp96, ameliorated joint irritation on scientific and histologic evaluation. Conclusions These observations support the function of gp96 as an endogenous TLR2 ligand in RA and recognize the TLR2 pathway being a healing target. INTRODUCTION ARTHRITIS RHEUMATOID (RA) is certainly a chronic Olanzapine inflammatory disease that, if not treated successfully, network marketing leads to cartilage and bone tissue devastation (1C3). Latest observations claim that RA is set up in genetically predisposed people who have HLA-DR1 alleles which contain the distributed epitope pursuing environmental exposure, such as for example tobacco smoke or periodontal disease (4C6). Environmentally friendly exposure leads to Rabbit polyclonal to LIMD1. proteins citrullination and these altered proteins are selectively offered by shared ...
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FAHD2A Gene - GeneCards | FAH2A Protein | FAH2A Antibody
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anti-FAHD2A antibody [7C9] | GeneTex
Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin.
The fault in our stars - Beardstown Junior/Senior High Media Center
According to author John Green, The Fault In Our Stars was inspired by his friendship with Esther Earl, who redefined the process of dying young for me. (December 2012 Good Reads interview, http://www.goodreads.com/interviews/show/828.John_Green). He cautions his readers not to take the novel too literally however, stating that he doesnt want people conflating Esther with Hazel (theyre very different), and its extremely important to me that I not claim to be telling Esthers story. Esthers story belongs to Esther and to her family. (John Greens tumblr, August 2, 2012 http://fishingboatproceeds.tumblr.com/post/28557373623/everybody-was-told-to-make-a-funny-face-but-i). Esthers story is told in the 2014 posthumous memoir This Star Wont Go Out : the Life and Words of Esther Grace Earl ...
April 2011 - Wan H
Kate tambah curiga ketika Esther mendedahkan pengetahuan tentang seks jauh lebih banyak daripada yang diharapkan dari seorang anak seusianya. kecurigaan nya bertambah ketika Esther melukai gadis lain di sekolah. Sementara dia awalnya percaya bahawa semua itu kemalangan, dia lebih banyak curiga ketika Sister Abigail (CCH Pounder), Guru besar panti asuhan, dan Yohanes memberi amaran bahawa Ester selalu ada di sekitar kawasan kejadian ketika hal-hal buruk berlaku . Esther mendengar kata-kata Sister Abigail, sebagai balasan, esther merancang untuk membunuh sister abigail dengan menolak Max ke jalan, dan membuat sister abigial mengalami kemalangan kecil untuk mengelak dari terlanggar max. Sister Abigail bergegas untuk melihat apakah Max terluka, sister abigail tidak menyedari kehadiran esther. Esther cepat2x memukul sister abigail dengan tukul besi. Dia memberitahu Max untuk membantunya menyembunyikan tukul tersebut di rumah pokok mereka. Kate yakin bahawa ada sesuatu yang tak kena dengan Esther, ...
Hot Mic Live Audiobook | Dan Savage, Maria Bamford, Cedric Yarbrough, Esther Povitsky | Audible.co.uk
Cannondale CAAD - Super - Synapse - Road Bikes - Formby Cycles
Sequence Similarity Search - BLAST
bar:GBAA_2753 K01556 kynureninase [EC:126.96.36.199] , (GenBank) kynU; kynureninase (A) MYKEPFQPTYEYALECDKHDELKDFQTEFYKKEGTIYLDGNSLGLLSKRAEKSLLTLLDS WKEYGIDGWTEGEHPWFFLSEKLGELTAPLIGALPEETIVTGSTTTNIHQVIATFYEPKG IRTKILADELTFPSDIYALQSQIRLKGLDPDEHLVRVKSRDGRTLSEDDIIQAMTDDIAL ILLPSVLYRSGQILDMKRLTAEAHERGIHIGFDLCHSIGSIPHHFKEWDVDFAIWCNYKY LNAGPGGVAGLYVNKKHFNRLPGLSGWFSSRKDKQFDMEHTLTAADHAGAYQIGTPHVLS TAPLIGSLEIFKEAGIERLREKSLHITRFMLNLIAHELSDFGFTIGNPLEDEKRGGHIYL EHAEAARICKALKANGVIPDFRAPNGVRLAPVALYNTYEEVWQSVMILKKIMKDEEYKQF ENKREVVA ...
Pascale MARCHOT - AFMB UMR 7257
The entrance to the central cavity of the AtzA hexamer | Open-i
Indira Radić - Hvala što nisi lyrics
Tree of glycosyl hydrolases of the GH13 family. Full ge | Open-i
Xpert search results for Why study the Didache?start=20600
There are many of us trying to make place for CAAD in a natural way in the Curriculum of the Architect school. We would like to make CAAD useful to the students already during their studies. Even if we have the support of our collegues for running courses there is very often no space in the timetable. And even if we have all the entusiasm of our students it is hard to practice your CAAD knowledge on projects where it is not asked for. The education of architects in the use of computers has lead ...
Assay Procedure for Creatinine Deiminase Microbial | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
PADI4 polyclonal antibody - (PAB14053) - Products - Abnova
PADI1 purified MaxPab mouse polyclonal antibody (B01P) - (H00029943-B01P) - Products - Abnova
What's in the Cards for Ares Capital (ARCC) in Q3 Earnings? - October 28, 2019 - Zacks.com
Esther Duflo: Social experiments to fight poverty | TED Talk
Esther Duflo: Social experiments to fight poverty | TED Talk
X8 protein domain
... ribonucleoside hydrolase, nucleoside hydrolase, N-ribosyl purine ribohydrolase, nucleosidase g, N-D-ribosylpurine ribohydrolase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those glycosylases that hydrolyse N-glycosyl compounds. The ... Tarr HLA (1955). "Fish muscle riboside hydrolases". Biochem. J. 59: 386-391. Parkin DW (1996). "Purine-specific nucleoside N- ... Mazumder-Shivakumar D, Bruice TC (2005). "Computational study of IAG-nucleoside hydrolase: determination of the preferred ...
Zanvil A. Cohn
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... Pantothenate hydrolase". Biochemistry. 5 (2): 399-402. doi:10.1021/bi00866a002. PMID 5940928. Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Other names in common use include pantothenate hydrolase, and pantothenate amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in ...
Epoxide hydrolase 1 is an enzyme encoded by the EPHX1 gene in humans. Epoxide hydrolase plays an important role in both the ... Microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) was first isolated by Watabe and Kanehira from rabbit liver and later also purified from ... Zhu QS, Xing W, Qian B, von Dippe P, Shneider BL, Fox VL, Levy D (2003). "Inhibition of human m-epoxide hydrolase gene ... Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase is coded by EPHX1 gene located on chromosome 1 (1q42.12). Three transcription variants ...
Thus, glycoside hydrolases are gaining great interest in biorefining applications in the future bioeconomy. Some examples are ... Another important group of thermostable enzymes are glycoside hydrolases. These enzymes are responsible of the degradation of ... Linares-Pastén, J. A.; Andersson, M; Nordberg karlsson, E (2014). "Thermostable glycoside hydrolases in biorefinery ... hence give thermostable variants of glycoside hydrolases an important role in this context. Protein engineering can be used to ...
Barras, D.R.; Stone, B.A. (1969). "β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. I. The nature of the hydrolases". Biochim. ... Barras, D.R.; Stone, B.A. (1969). "β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. II. Purification and properties of the β-1,3- ... glucan exo-hydrolase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 191 (2): 342-353. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(69)90253-8. PMID 5354265. Cunningham, L. ...
Signal peptidase II
Barras, D.R.; Stone, B.A. (1969). "β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. I. The nature of the hydrolases". Biochim. ... Barras, D.R.; Stone, B.A. (1969). "β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. II. Purification and properties of the β-1,3- ... Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase (EC 188.8.131.52, exo-1,3-beta-glucosidase, beta-1,3-glucan exo-hydrolase, exo (1->3)-glucanohydrolase ... glucan exo-hydrolase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 191: 342-353. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(69)90253-8. PMID 5354265. Glucan 1,3-beta- ...
YjeF N terminal protein domain
Structural homology indicated it may have some similarity to the enzyme family, hydrolase. At the cellular level, the YjeF-N ... ATP/GTP hydrolase; and pyruvate-formate lyase 1-activating enzyme. In plants, the YjeF N-terminal domain is fused to a C- ... site of the YjeF N-terminal domains shows some similarities to the amino acids found in the active sites of diverse hydrolases ...
N-substituted formamide deformylase
Saposins A-D are required for the hydrolysis of certain sphingolipids by specific lysosomal hydrolases. Saposin A was ... 1991). "Secretion of sphingolipid hydrolase activator precursor, prosaposin". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176 (2): 668-74. ... which is optimal for many lysosomal hydrolases. This helical structure is seen in all (especially with the first region), but ... evidence that four sphingolipid hydrolase activator proteins are encoded by single genes in humans and rats". Genomics. 5 (3): ...
... (EC 184.108.40.206, OGA, glycoside hydrolase O-GlcNAcase, O-GlcNAcase, BtGH84, O-GlcNAc hydrolase) is an enzyme ... However, all three isoforms exhibit glycoside hydrolase activity. Protein O-GlcNAcases belong to glycoside hydrolase family 84 ... "Glycoside Hydrolase Family 84". Cazypedia. Retrieved 28 March 2017. Gao, Y.; Wells, L.; Comer, F.I.; Parker, G.J.; Hart, G.W. ( ... with systematic name (protein)-3-O-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-serine/threonine N-acetylglucosaminyl hydrolase. This enzyme ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is riboflavin hydrolase. This enzyme participates in riboflavin metabolism. Yanagita T ... Foster JW (1956). "A bacterial riboflavin hydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 221 (2): 593-607. PMID 13357454. Molecular and Cellular ...
Acyl carrier protein hydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (8): 1776-81. PMID 4290442. Thomas J, Cronan JE (2005). "The enigmatic acyl ... The 4'-phosphopantetheine hydrolase of rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (17): 8561-6. PMID 224058. Vagelos PR, Larrabes AR (1967 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on phosphoric diester bonds. The systematic name of ...
Biology-Online • View topic - Hydrolases
Hydrolases. by Poison » Thu Jun 09, 2005 7:29 pm OK here is a question about hydrolases. someone tried to explain it to me but ... 1) A hydrolase which binds other hydrolase molecules of its type may have gotten eliminated thru natural selection if it did ... A hydrolase which breaks down peptide bonds would break down its bonds as well. It didnt seem logical enough to me. I mean Im ... Hydrolases are enzymes and all enzymes recognize a specific sequence much like a lock recognizes a key. Enzymes will recognize ...
BIOETYMOLOGY : ORIGIN IN BIOMEDICAL TERMS: hydrolase
Glycoside hydrolase - Wikipedia
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex ... Main article: List of glycoside hydrolase families. Glycoside hydrolases are classified into EC 3.2.1 as enzymes catalyzing the ... Bairoch, A. "Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and index of glycosyl hydrolase entries in SWISS-PROT". 1999. ... a b CAZy Family Glycoside Hydrolase *^ Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Mornon JP, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Davies G (1995). "Conserved ...
Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase - Wikipedia
14-tetraenoate hydrolase. Other names in common use include LTA4 hydrolase, LTA4H, and leukotriene A4 hydrolase. This enzyme ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on ether bonds (ether hydrolases). The systematic ... Leukotriene A4 hydrolase, also known as LTA4H is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional ... This hydrolase article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases
An overview of the different classes of peptidoglycan hydrolases and their cleavage sites is provided. The physiological ... Most bacteria have multiple peptidoglycan hydrolases capable of cleaving covalent bonds in peptidoglycan sacculi or its ... Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008 Mar;32(2):259-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00099.x. ... Specialized hydrolases enlarge the pores in the peptidoglycan for the assembly of large trans-envelope complexes (pili, ...
Phosphoric monoester hydrolases - Wikipedia
Acid anhydride hydrolases - Wikipedia
Organic Solvent Tolerance of Retro-Friedel-Crafts Hydrolases | SpringerLink
These unique hydrolases are scarcely studied for biocatalytical applications in organic... ... Retro-Friedel-Crafts hydrolases are co-factor independent enzymes with unusual reactivity and selectivity. ... Two Friedel-Crafts hydrolases were selected, namely 2,6-diacetylphloroglucinol hydrolase (PhlG) from Pseudomonas fluorescens ... C-C hydrolase Enzyme stability Solvent tolerance Retro-Friedel-Crafts acylation This is a preview of subscription content, log ...
Production of polysaccharide hydrolases in the genus Rhizopus | SpringerLink
Polysaccharide hydrolase activity was assayed in a group of 28 selected Rhizopusstrains. The production of lichenases, ... Polysaccharide hydrolase activity was assayed in a group of 28 selectedRhizopus strains. The production of lichenases, ... Lukášová J., Zemek J., Augustín J., Kuniak L.: Production of hydrolases in staphylococci isolated from foodstuffs.Arch. ... Vincúrová M., Zemek J., Augustín J., Schwartz E., Kuniak L.: Hydrolases of polysaccharides in typical and atypical ...
Glycoside hydrolase superfamily (IPR017853) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Glycoside hydrolase superfamily (IPR017853). Short name: Glycoside_hydrolase_SF Overlapping entries *Glycoside hydrolase family ... Glycosyl hydrolases family 1, N-terminal conserved site (IPR033132). *Glycosyl hydrolase family 30, TIM-barrel domain ( ... Glycoside hydrolase, family 2, active site (IPR023232). *Uncharacterised protein family, glycosyl hydrolase catalytic domain ( ... O-Glycosyl hydrolases (EC:3.2.1.) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more ...
Glycoside hydrolase, family 45 (IPR000334) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Glycoside hydrolase, family 45 (IPR000334). Short name: Glyco_hydro_45 Domain relationships *RlpA-like protein, double-psi beta ... O-Glycosyl hydrolases (EC:3.2.1.) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more ... Glycoside hydrolase family 45 GH45 comprises enzymes with only one known activity; endoglucanase (EC:220.127.116.11). ... One of these families is known as the cellulase family K or as the glycosyl hydrolases family 45 [PMID: 8352747]. The best ...
MULTISPECIES: glycosyl hydrolase [Bacteroides] - Protein - NCBI
Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. I. Glycosidases
Fig4 hydrolase gene ontology
Psma4 hydrolase gene ontology
Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases: families and functional modules. - PubMed - NCBI
Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases: families and functional modules.. Bourne Y1, Henrissat B. ... The past year has witnessed the expected increase in the number of solved structures of glycoside hydrolases and ... These structures show that, while glycoside hydrolases display an extraordinary variety of folds, glycosyltransferases and ...
Industrial Example 1: Hydrolases - Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemicals | Coursera
RCSB PDB - 1GQ6: PROCLAVAMINATE AMIDINO HYDROLASE FROM STREPTOMYCES CLAVULIGERUS
PROCLAVAMINATE AMIDINO HYDROLASE. A, B, C. 313. Streptomyces clavuligerus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: pah. EC: 18.104.22.168 (PDB ... Oligomeric Structure of Proclavaminic Acid Amidino Hydrolase: Evolution of a Hydrolytic Enzyme in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis ... by clavaminic acid synthase is separated from the other two by a step catalysed by proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase (PAH), ... by clavaminic acid synthase is separated from the other two by a step catalysed by proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase (PAH), ...
Patent US20020061580 - Alpha/beta hydrolase-fold enzymes - Google Patents
The present invention provides amino acid sequences for the hydrolase. The present invention provides host cells which comprise ... animal feeds and compositions used to treat a textile that include the hydrolase of the present invention. ... The present invention relates to the identification of novel hydrolases in gram positive microorganisms. ... nucleic acid encoding the hydrolase. The present invention also provides cleaning compositions, ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Hydrolase - Q7SIB5 (Q7SIB5 9PAST)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... The serine hydrolase superfamily is one of the largest known enzyme families comprising approximately 1% of ... Hydrolase: esterases (EC 3.1). 3.1.1: Carboxylic ester hydrolases. Cholinesterase - Pectinesterase - 6-phosphogluconolactonase ... EC1 Oxidoreductases/list - EC2 Transferases/list - EC3 Hydrolases/list - EC4 Lyases/list - EC5 Isomerases/list - EC6 Ligases/ ... The serine hydrolase superfamily is one of the largest known enzyme families comprising approximately 1% of the genes in the ...
carboxylic ester hydrolase activity | SGD
Gene Ontology Term: carboxylic ester hydrolase activity. GO ID. GO:0052689 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis ... carboxylic ester hydrolase activity, carboxylic esterase activity, cocaine esterase activity, esterase A, esterase B, ... carboxyl ester hydrolase activity, carboxylate esterase activity, carboxylesterase activity, carboxylic acid esterase activity ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00036312 - In vitro hydrolase and phagocytic activities of alveolar macrophages.
N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid hydrolase - Ensifer adhaerens
CN hydrolasePROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid hydrolase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid hydrolase1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information which has been inferred by a curator based on ... sp,Q5S260,DCAS_ENSAD N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid hydrolase OS=Ensifer adhaerens OX=106592 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Site Directed Mutagenesis Of Dienelactone Hydrolase - Digital Library
Enzyme assays showed that dienelactone hydrolase activity of the mutants Arg 81 and Arg 206 was totally abolished. The DLHase ... Site-specific mutants of dienelactone hydrolase were created using mismatched oligonucleotides to prime DNA synthesis. ... The role of individual amino acid residues of the enzyme dienelactone hydrolase was investigated. Using the polymerase chain ... Chen, Wei, 1965-. Site Directed Mutagenesis Of Dienelactone Hydrolase, thesis, December 1992; Denton, Texas. (digital.library. ...
Peptide hydrolases | definition of Peptide hydrolases by Medical dictionary
What is Peptide hydrolases? Meaning of Peptide hydrolases medical term. What does Peptide hydrolases mean? ... Looking for online definition of Peptide hydrolases in the Medical Dictionary? Peptide hydrolases explanation free. ... redirected from Peptide hydrolases). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. endopeptidase. [en″do-pep´tĭ-dās] any ... Peptide hydrolases , definition of Peptide hydrolases by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Anti-Epoxide hydrolase antibody (ab96695) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Epoxide hydrolase antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. ... All lanes : Anti-Epoxide hydrolase antibody (ab96695) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : HepG2 whole ... ab96695, at a 1/200 dilution, staining Epoxide hydrolase in methanol fixed HeLa cells by Immunofluorescence analysis. Lower ... ab96695, at a 1/500 dilution, staining Epoxide hydrolase in paraffin embedded SG xenograft by Immunohistochemical analysis. ...
Anti-LTA4 Hydrolase Antibody Products | Biocompare
Compare Anti-LTA4 Hydrolase Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Anti-LTA4 Hydrolase Antibody Products. Listed below are anti-LTA4 Hydrolase antibodies from multiple suppliers. LTA4 Hydrolase ... is a reported alias name for the human gene LTA4H, or leukotriene A4 hydrolase. The 611-amino acid protein is a member of the ...
Gene-centric metagenomics of the fiber-adherent bovine rumen microbiome reveals forage specific glycoside hydrolases | PNAS
2005) Novel hydrolase diversity retrieved from a metagenome library of bovine rumen microflora. Environ Microbiol 7:1996-2010. ... Other abundant glycosyl hydrolase families, which contain enzymes active on side chains of hemicelluloses and pectins, include ... Gene-centric metagenomics of the fiber-adherent bovine rumen microbiome reveals forage specific glycoside hydrolases. Jennifer ... In contrast, metagenomic analysis of a bovine rumen expression library (17) identified 22 glycoside hydrolase (GH) clones of ...
Novel multidomain, multifunctional glycoside hydrolases from highly lignocellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor species (Journal...
Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases Journal Article Chen, Mo ; Bu, Lintao ; Alahuhta ... 09 BIOMASS FUELS; Caldicellulosiruptor; lignocellulose; glycoside hydrolase; cellulase. OSTI Identifier:. 1475518. Alternate ... We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of ... In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using ...
Smoke-derived karrikin perception by the α/β-hydrolase KAI2 from Arabidopsis | PNAS
KAI2 lacks detectable hydrolase activity against karrikins, GR24, and synthetic α/β-hydrolase substrates including ... Smoke-derived karrikin perception by the α/β-hydrolase KAI2 from Arabidopsis. Yongxia Guo, Zuyu Zheng, James J. La Clair, ... 2012) DAD2 is an α/β hydrolase likely to be involved in the perception of the plant branching hormone, strigolactone. Curr Biol ... KAI2 contains a typical α/β-hydrolase fold. The core domain of KAI2 is a six-stranded parallel β-sheet (cyan) surrounded by ...
JCI - Soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes astrocyte survival in retinopathy of prematurity
Soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes astrocyte survival in retinopathy of prematurity. Jiong Hu,1,2 Sofia-Iris Bibli,1,2 Janina ... Epoxide hydrolase activity in the mitochondrial fraction of mouse liver. Nature. 1981;291(5811):167-168.. View this article via ... Epoxide hydrolase activity in the mitochondrial and submitochondrial fractions of mouse liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1981;30(15): ... Inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase by tyrosine nitration. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(41):28156-28163.. View this article ...
Leukotriene A4 hydrolEnzymeGlycoside hydrolaseCell Wall HydrolaseInhibitionFattyGlycosyl hydrolasesSuperfamilyInhibitorsMicrosomalMetabolismPeptideEster hydrolase activityProteinsCatalyzeAntibodiesDegradationEpoxide hydrolasesBacterial hydrolasesHydrolyticBacteriaUbiquitinPeptidoglycanEPHX2LysosomalArabidopsisPhosphataseEpoxyeicosatrienoic acidsIntestinalAcid anhydrideOrganismReactivityOrganophosphorusPolysaccharide
- Leukotriene A4 hydrolase , also known as LTA4H is a human gene . (wikipedia.org)
- Other names in common use include LTA4 hydrolase , LTA4H , and leukotriene A4 hydrolase . (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular cloning of a cDNA coding for human leukotriene A4 hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
- Leukotriene A4 hydrolase in the human lung. (wikipedia.org)
- Other enzymes with epoxide hydrolase activity include leukotriene A4 hydrolase , Cholesterol-5,6-oxide hydrolase , MEST (gene) (Peg1/MEST), and Hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase . (wikidoc.org)
- A key enzyme in chronic lung inflammation is leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H). (harvard.edu)
- Additionally we are shipping Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Antibodies (94) and Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Proteins (14) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Characterization of human airway epithelial cell leukotriene A4 hydrolase. (ovid.com)
- One of the important occurrences of glycoside hydrolases in bacteria is the enzyme beta-galactosidase (LacZ), which is involved in regulation of expression of the lac operon in E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
- This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases , specifically those acting on ether bonds (ether hydrolases). (wikipedia.org)
- The serine hydrolase superfamily is one of the largest known enzyme families comprising approximately 1% of the genes in the human genome. (bionity.com)
- The role of individual amino acid residues of the enzyme dienelactone hydrolase was investigated. (unt.edu)
- Enzyme assays showed that dienelactone hydrolase activity of the mutants Arg 81 and Arg 206 was totally abolished. (unt.edu)
- Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if polymorphisms in microsomal epoxide hydrolase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of reactive intermediates of vinyl chloride (VC), contribute to the variable susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of vinyl chloride among exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
- The latter pathway features an isothiocyanate hydrolase that is homologous to a previously characterized bacterial enzyme, and converts isothiocyanate into products that are not toxic to the fungus. (nature.com)
- These endogenous lipid mediators are converted into inactive diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), and so inhibiting this enzyme would be expected to enhance the stability and therapeutic actions of EETs [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Thus, human tumors can metabolize BLM, and while BLM hydrolase activity may be important in tumor resistance to the drug, these data suggest that either ( a ) the enzyme activity in the tumor homogenate does not reflect that in the clonogenic cells or ( b ) other mechanisms of resistance may be operative. (aacrjournals.org)
- The specific activities of three glycosyl hydrolases, including an α-glucosidase ( malA ), a β-glycosidase ( lacS ), and the major secreted α-amylase, were measured in the mutant strains using enzyme activity assays, Western blot analysis, and Northern blot analysis. (genetics.org)
- These revertants were pleiotropic and restored glycosyl hydrolase activity either partially or completely to wild-type levels as indicated by enzyme assays and Western blots. (genetics.org)
- Catalytic characteristics of hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His 6 -OPH) and its enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes with poly- l -glutamic acid or poly- l -aspartic acid (His 6 -OPH/PLD 50 ), hydrolyzing organophosphorous compounds, and N -acyl homoserine lactones were studied in the presence of various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and rifampicin). (mdpi.com)
- Acyl-enzyme intermediates are formed during lipase-catalyzed reactions and in an analogous way, retaining glycoside hydrolases form glycosyl-enzyme intermediates during catalysis. (lu.se)
- Probing enzyme promiscuity of SGNH hydrolases. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mice lacking the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH (−/−) mice] are severely impaired in their ability to degrade the endocannabinoid anandamide and therefore represent a unique animal model in which to examine the function of this signaling lipid in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
- 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. (portlandpress.com)
- However, release of three of these hydrolases (acid phosphatase was an exception) by low concentrations of thrombin (0.015 and 0.04 U/ml) was decreased in the patients as a group, although considerable variation in the extent of release of each enzyme was noted. (biomedsearch.com)
- Isolation of bovine S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase by affinity chromatography unexpectedly yielded two forms of the enzyme. (rice.edu)
- A comparison of the glycoside hydrolase and cellulosome functional genes revealed that in the rumen microbiome, initial colonization of fiber appears to be by organisms possessing enzymes that attack the easily available side chains of complex plant polysaccharides and not the more recalcitrant main chains, especially cellulose. (pnas.org)
- The glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) β -glucosidases are a structurally diverse family of enzymes. (iucr.org)
- Glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) is one of the larger families in the CAZy classification and currently contains over 13 600 annotated protein sequences. (iucr.org)
- Effect of wounding on cell wall hydrolase activity in tomato fruit. (springer.com)
- Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. (osti.gov)
- Each cell wall hydrolase (CWH) has a specific role regarding the PG: (i) cell wall amidase (CWA) cleaves the amide bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and L-alanine residue at the N-terminal of the stem peptide, (ii) cell wall glycosidase (CWG) catalyses the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages, whereas (iii) cell wall peptidase (CWP) cleaves amide bonds between amino acids within the PG chain. (frontiersin.org)
- investigated whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) alters responses of dorsal horn neurons in neuropathic pain ( Fig. 1 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Epoxyeicosatrienoic and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids dilate human coronary arterioles via BK(Ca) channels: implications for soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition. (wikipathways.org)
- Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition reveals novel biological functions of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). (wikipathways.org)
- Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) terminates the endocannabinoid signaling pathway that regulates numerous neurobehavioral processes in animals by hydrolyzing a class of lipid mediators, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). (unt.edu)
- Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: A Potential Target for Next Generatio. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The activity of AEA at its receptors is limited by cellular uptake through a specific membrane transporter, followed by intracellular degradation by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). (ingentaconnect.com)
- Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 (FAAH1) is a plasma membrane-bound hydrolase that converts oleamide to oleic acid (2). (cellsignal.com)
- This hydrolase also converts the cannabinoid anandamide, the endogenous ligand for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, to arachidonic acid, suggesting a role in fatty-acid amide inactivation (2). (cellsignal.com)
- With the exception of the 5(6)-EET, these epoxy fatty acids are good substrates for the soluble epoxide hydrolase. (wikipathways.org)
- The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyzes NAE to ethanolamine and free fatty acid. (frontiersin.org)
- Here we provide evidence that a critical balance between anandamide synthesis by N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-selective phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and its degradation by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in mouse embryos and oviducts creates locally an appropriate "anandamide tone" for normal development of embryos and their oviductal transport. (ovid.com)
- Recently, a novel metal Mg2+-dependent phosphatase activity has been discovered in the N-terminal domain of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), opening a new branch of fatty acid metabolism and providing an additional site for drug targeting. (epfl.ch)
- Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases ) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars . (wikipedia.org)
- A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of more than 100 different families. (wikipedia.org)
- 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. (portlandpress.com)
- KAI2, also known as HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT (HTL) ( 10 ), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase superfamily commonly containing a catalytic triad, Ser(Cys)-His-Asp ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Notably, several other members of the α/β-hydrolase superfamily sense, bind, and/or catalytically modify phytohormones. (pnas.org)
- Several hydrolases of the SGNH superfamily, including the lipase SrLip from Streptomyces rimosus (Q93MW7), the acyl-CoA thioesterase I TesA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Q9HZY8) and the two lipolytic enzymes EstA (from P. aeruginosa, O33407) and EstP (from Pseudomonas putida, Q88QS0), were examined for promiscuity. (semanticscholar.org)
- Recent development of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase are proving to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-nociceptive properties. (wikipathways.org)
- Incubations with human liver fractions and hepatocytes were performed with and without inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (P450), mEH and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). (aspetjournals.org)
- Polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in French vinyl chloride workers. (cdc.gov)
- Results: Compared to the low-activity microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotype stratum, the odds ratio for the presence of the VC-induced mutant biomarkers increased to 1.16 (95% CI: 0.64-2.10) in the medium-activity genotype stratum and to 1.35 (95% CI: 0.66-2.77) in the high-activity genotype stratum. (cdc.gov)
- Conclusions: The results suggest that polymorphisms in microsomal epoxide hydrolase do not play a significant role in susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of vinyl chloride. (cdc.gov)
- Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (epoxide hydrolase 1, EH1, or mEH), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, epoxide hydrolase 2, EH2, or cytoplasmic epoxide hydrolase), and the more recently discovered but not as yet well defined functionally, epoxide hydrolase 3 (EH3) and epoxide hydrolase 4 (EH4) are structurally closely related isozymes . (wikidoc.org)
- mEH therefore may play a minor role, compared to sEH, in limiting the bioactivity of these cell signaling compounds (see microsomal epoxide hydrolase ). (wikidoc.org)
- Think about an active hydrolase which breaks down peptide bonds. (biology-online.org)
- A hydrolase which breaks down peptide bonds would break down its bonds as well. (biology-online.org)
- 1. Uncentrifuged and centrifuged rat intestinal contents were assayed for peptide hydrolase activity with glycyl-l-phenylalanine (Gly-Phe) and l-phenylalanyl-glycine (Phe-Gly) as substrates in the absence and presence of the intestinal cytosol peptide hydrolase inhibitor p -hydroxymercuribenzoate. (portlandpress.com)
- 3. p -Hydroxymercuribenzoate markedly inhibited jejunal peptide hydrolase activity. (portlandpress.com)
- Although the presence of soluble bacterial enzymes cannot be excluded, peptide hydrolase enzymes in jejunal contents have the characteristics of mucosal cytosol enzymes whereas enzymes in ileal contents have the characteristics of mucosal brush border as well as cytosol enzymes. (portlandpress.com)
- Acylpeptide hydrolases (APHs) catalyze the removal of N -acylated amino acids from blocked peptides. (mdpi.com)
- Peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases or autolysins are a group of enzymes which catalyze the degradation of bacterial cell wall at specific sites. (amrita.edu)
- The transglycosylases, hydrolases which naturally catalyze mainly transfer reactions, are of special interest and might be useful guides for engineering of other hydrolases. (lu.se)
- In higher organisms glycoside hydrolases are found within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus where they are involved in processing of N-linked glycoproteins , and in the lysosome as enzymes involved in the degradation of carbohydrate structures. (wikipedia.org)
- The glycoside hydrolases are involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of glycogen in the body. (wikipedia.org)
- In order to address this problem, this paper reports the application of a 96-well microplate fluorogenic assay, originally designed for purified hydrolytic enzymes, 12,13 to screen microbial whole cells for epoxide hydrolases (EHs) and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). (scielo.br)
- Gerry Brooks and epoxide hydrolases: four decades to a pharmaceutical. (wikipathways.org)
- These unique hydrolases are scarcely studied for biocatalytical applications in organic chemistry yet, although many other hydrolytic enzymes (e.g. lipases) are commonly applied as catalysts. (springer.com)
- The alpha/beta hydrolase fold common to several hydrolytic enzymes of differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function was described by Ollis et al. (google.com.au)
- Most bacteria have multiple peptidoglycan hydrolases capable of cleaving covalent bonds in peptidoglycan sacculi or its fragments. (nih.gov)
- These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases. (osti.gov)
- An overview of the different classes of peptidoglycan hydrolases and their cleavage sites is provided. (nih.gov)
- Specialized hydrolases enlarge the pores in the peptidoglycan for the assembly of large trans-envelope complexes (pili, flagella, secretion systems), or they specifically cleave peptidoglycan during sporulation or spore germination. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, peptidoglycan hydrolases are involved in lysis phenomena such as fratricide or developmental lysis occurring in bacterial populations. (nih.gov)
- We will also review the current view on the regulation of autolysins and on the role of cytoplasm hydrolases in peptidoglycan recycling and induction of beta-lactamase. (nih.gov)
- Genetic studies in Arabidopsis implicate an α/β-hydrolase, KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) as a receptor for karrikins, germination-promoting butenolide small molecules found in the smoke of burned plants. (pnas.org)
- This hypothesis is supported by the recent discovery that another α/β-hydrolase family member DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE 2 (DAD2) from petunia ( 15 ) [ Oryza sativa DWARF 14 ( Os D14) from rice ( 16 ) and Arabidopsis thaliana DWARF 14 ( At D14) from Arabidopsis ( 9 )], a close structural homolog of KAI2, is the putative receptor for another butenolide-containing class of chemicals, the strigolactones. (pnas.org)
- The levels of four acid hydrolases, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, and acid phosphatase, and the extent of their release (release II) by thrombin was determined in platelets from nine normal subjects, nine patients with storage pool disease, and in normal platelets which had been exposed to aspirin. (biomedsearch.com)
- By diminishing the anti-inflammatory activities of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been considered a potential therapeutic target for epileptic seizures. (omicsonline.org)
- The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which is expressed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, metabolizes cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their less active diols. (ahajournals.org)
- Glycoside hydrolases are found in the intestinal tract and in saliva where they degrade complex carbohydrates such as lactose , starch , sucrose and trehalose . (wikipedia.org)
- Properties of food folates determined by stability and susceptibility to intestinal pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase action. (biomedsearch.com)
- On the other hand, the presence of polyglutamyl folate necessitates the action of intestinal hydrolases, which could be affected by food constituents. (biomedsearch.com)
- Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: Advances in Research and Application. (wikipedia.org)
- Acid Anhydride Hydrolases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acid Anhydride Hydrolases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Acid Anhydride Hydrolases" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Acid Anhydride Hydrolases" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
- Maslova O, Aslanli A, Stepanov N, Lyagin I, Efremenko E. Catalytic Characteristics of New Antibacterials Based on Hexahistidine-Containing Organophosphorus Hydrolase. (mdpi.com)
- To date, the binding pose of organophosphorus (OP) compounds of APH, as well as the different OP compounds binding and inducing conformational changes in two domains, namely, α/β hydrolase and β-propeller, remain poorly understood. (mdpi.com)