Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Potassium Deficiency: A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Potassium Permanganate: Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).KCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Potassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsGlyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.PeroxidasesBiological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Pinacidil: A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits: The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectAmitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits: The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Hydrogen. H2O. Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Potassium. K+. Cofactor in protein synthesis, water balance, etc. ... The chemical elements of which plants are constructed-principally carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, etc.- ...
Potassium cyanide Related compounds. Hydrogen cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... A similar process uses potassium cyanide (KCN, a close relative of sodium cyanide) to produce potassium gold cyanide (KAu(CN)2 ... Potassium cyanide (KCN) adopts a similar structure. Each Na+ forms pi-bonds to two CN− groups as well as two "bent" Na---CN and ... Cyanure de potassium", Fiche toxicologique n° 111, Paris, 2006, 6 pp. (PDF file, in French) ...
hydrogen cyanide: 2.98 D. *cyanamide: 4.27 D. *potassium bromide: 10.41 D. The linear molecule CO2 has a zero dipole as the two ... Potassium bromide (KBr) has one of the highest dipole moments because it is an ionic compound that exists as a molecule in the ... Such is the case with polar compounds like hydrogen fluoride (HF), where electron density is shared unequally between atoms. ...
22.0% hydrogen. 6.0% helium. 0.5% potassium. Trace amounts of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, xenon, krypton, & ...
H. pylori also secretes certain products that inhibit hydrogen potassium ATPase; activate calcitonin gene-related peptide ...
In presence of moisture reacts with potassium chlorate and perchlorate, yielding hydrogen. Particle size selected according to ... In contact with potassium nitrate (e.g. in black powder) produces potassium perchlorate and hygroscopic ammonium nitrate; no ... Potassium nitrate and potassium sulfate are commonly used. Opacifiers. Some solid rocket propellants have problems with ... Slightly more hygroscopic than potassium nitrate. Produces smoke of potassium chloride. Can act as a chlorine donor. High ...
The potassium cyanide slowly decomposes, releasing hydrogen cyanide. Killing jars are only used on hard-bodied insects. Soft- ... Potassium cyanide or other cyanide compounds including calcium cyanide are also used, but only by experts due to its extreme ...
IF : 0.514) Lithium Potassium Hydrogen Sulphate single crystal. an ultrasonic study, J Ferroelectrics, 323, 133-137, 2005.(IF ... 7-9, 2006, p.103) Anisotropy in elastic properties in Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Sulphate (Proce. of the International ... IF : 1.203) Elastic study of Potassium sulphamate crystal using ultrasonic Pulse echo overlap technique, Solid State Commun. ... 7-9, 2006, p.109) Dielectric and conductivity anomaly near 260K in Potassium sulphamate single crystal (Proce. of 3rd ...
It produced fluorine by electrolysis of potassium hydrogen fluoride. A modification of his process was used to make fluorine ...
penicillin G potassium,[1] penicillin G sodium. AHFS/Drugs.com. International Drug Names. ... black=carbon and carbon bonds; white=hydrogen. Clinical data. Trade names. Pfizerpen, other. ...
Potassium hydrogen phthalate. Dobavljeno iz "https://sh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kalijum_hidrogen_ftalat&oldid=33638846 ...
Substances secreted include urea, creatinine, potassium, hydrogen, and uric acid. Some of the hormones which signal the tubules ... When aldosterone is present, more sodium is reabsorbed and more potassium secreted. Atrial natriuretic peptide causes the ... potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium ...
See also Wikipedia's articles "Oxalis acetosella" and "Potassium hydrogen oxalate". See: François Pierre Savary, Dissertatio ... potassium hydrogen oxalate), crystals would sublimate onto the receiver. From p. 17: "Unum adhuc circa liquorem acidum, quem ... in one the hydrogen-bonding results in a chain-like structure whereas the hydrogen bonding pattern in the other form defines a ... Historically oxalic acid was obtained exclusively by using caustics, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, on sawdust. ...
An X-ray study of potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate: The α-form". J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 (6): 703. doi:10.1039/ ... It is often called potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate or monopotassium acetylenedicarboxylate. The salt can be obtained ... The reaction yields potassium bromide and potassium acetylenedicarboxylate. The salts are separated and the latter is treated ... Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate is a potassium salt of HADC with chemical formula KC4HO4 or K+·HC4O4−, often ...
In fact, hydrogen gas diffuses through Pd windows via the intermediacy of PdH. Ternary metal hydrides have the formula AxMHn, ... The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Potassium Rhenium Hydride, K2ReH9". Inorg. Chem. 3: 558-567. doi:10.1021/ic50014a026. R. ... The M-H bond can in principle cleave to produce a proton, hydrogen radical, or hydride. HMLn ⇌ MLn− + H+ HMLn ⇌ MLn + H HMLn ⇌ ... In this situation the starting complex can be reduced by two electrons with hydrogen and base. Even if the hydride is not ...
... also potassium chloride and potassium fluoride. Example: hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), hydrogen thioperoxide (HSOH), and hydrogen ... Examples: potassium chloride and sodium chloride may be considered congeners; ...
Within the molecule an intramolecular N−H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bond is present forming pseudoaromatic 6-membered ring. Additionally ... The Reaction of N-Chlorobenzamide with Potassium Fluoride". J. Org. Chem. 30 (1): 48-49. doi:10.1021/jo01012a010. ... Karabıyık, Hasan; Karabıyık, Hande; İskeleli, Nazan (2012). "Hydrogen-bridged chelate ring-assisted π-stacking interactions". ... Rand, Leon; Dolinski, Richard (1965). "Reactions Catalyzed By Potassium Fluoride. IV. ...
This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants. Later in 1959, ... "HyGear Delivers Hydrogen System for Fuel Cell Based Forklift Trucks".. *^ "Hydrogen Fueling Stations Could Reach 5,200 by 2020" ... By May 2017, there were 91 hydrogen fueling stations in Japan.[177] As of 2016, Norway planned to build a network of hydrogen ... However, since hydrogen is necessary for the reactions listed above, the fuel selected must contain hydrogen atoms. For the ...
When the resin reaches the large intestine the hydrogen ions are exchanged for free potassium ions; the resin is then ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia High potassium level *^ Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S (May 2010). "Ion-exchange resins ... They are widely used as ion-exchange resins to remove ions such as potassium, calcium, and sodium from solutions in technical ... Wang, Y, Serradell, N, Rosa, E, Bolos, J (2007). "Tolevamer Potassium Sodium". Drugs of the Future. 32 (6): 501-505. doi: ...
A useful molten salt, FLiNaK, consists of a mixture of LiF, together with sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride. The primary ... LiF is prepared from lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate with hydrogen fluoride. Fluorine is produced by the electrolysis of ... molten potassium bifluoride. This electrolysis proceeds more efficiently when the electrolyte contains a few percent of LiF, ...
The positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, and the negative electrode is hydrogen ions, or protons. The hydrogen ions are ... NiMH cells have an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide. ... Hydrogen evolution is suppressed, and the charging energy is converted to heat. This process allows NiMH cells to remain sealed ... Nii, K.; Amano, M. (1997). "R & D of Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys in Japan". Acta Metallurgica Sinica. 10 (3): 249-255. Retrieved ...
Hydrazine and potassium hydroxide give limonene (6) via a Wolff-Kishner reduction. Oxidation of carvone can also lead to a ... In the presence of an alkali such as Ba(OH)2, carvone is oxidised by air or oxygen to give the diketone 7. With hydrogen ... This can be achieved by the formation an addition compound with hydrogen sulfide, from which carvone may be regenerated by ... Notes: (1) Varrentrapp purified carvone by mixing oil of caraway with alcohol that had been saturated with hydrogen sulfide and ...
It consists of the elements arsenic, iron, hydrogen, potassium, sodium and oxygen. It has a Mohs hardness of 2 to 3, about that ...
Oxidants such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and potassium permanganate have been used. Electrolysis is able to perform the ... who found that methyl-substituted quinolines could be oxidized to quinolinic acid by potassium permanganate. This compound is ...
Potassium dithionite Sodium dithionite Catherine E. Housecroft; Alan G. Sharpe (2008). "Chapter 16: The group 16 elements". ... The reason for this is the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. It is now known that dithionous acid spontaneously ...
... s are hydrogen-bond acceptors. Ketones are not usually hydrogen-bond donors and cannot hydrogen-bond to themselves. ... Typical strong oxidants (source of "O" in the above reaction) include potassium permanganate or a Cr(VI) compound. Milder ... In aldehydes, the carbonyl is bonded to one carbon and one hydrogen and are located at the ends of carbon chains. Ketones are ... Ketones that have at least one alpha-hydrogen, undergo keto-enol tautomerization; the tautomer is an enol. Tautomerization is ...
Loosen tubes D and E first, and then tube C. Add to tube D, 5 ml of 20% potassium iodide solution. Mix the bromine and the ... About 0.5 g of sodium hydrogen carbonate is added to the titrated solution followed by 10 ml of 10% sulfuric acid. When carbon ... Potassium acetate: 100 g is dissolved in a mixture of 900 ml of acetic acid and 100 ml of acetic anhydride. ... Bromine solution: Bromine (1 ml) is added to 300 ml of glacial acetic acid which is saturated with dried potassium bromide ( ...
... which is potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide, which is also called cyan hydrogen. The taste and smell, which are always ... Hydrogen cyanide or cyan hydrogen. Hydrogen cyanide or cyan hydrogen. In detective novels, such as those by Agatha Christie, it ... When potassium cyanide is exposed to acid, it results in hydrogen cyanide which is a gas. This prevents cells using oxygen and ... It was called gassing with hydrogen cyanide. They taped all the windows and doors (except one!) and put buckets of potassium ...
Potassium permanganate is a point-of-entry treatment method that oxidizes dissolved iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulfide into ... Potassium permanganate oxidizes iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulfide into particles. The particles are then filtered with a ... If too much potassium permanganate is fed into the water prior to filtration, the excess potassium permanganate serves as a ... How potassium permanganate works. Potassium permanganate is available as a dry, purplish solid. A device injects a solution of ...
Potassium bicarbonate suppliers,Potassium bicarbonate price,Potassium bicarbonate manufacturer,Inquiry Potassium bicarbonate on ... Product Description:Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a ... Physically, potassium bicarbonate occurs as a crystal or a soft white granular powder. Potassium bicarbonate is very rarely ... According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potassium bicarbonate is "generally recognized as safe".There is no ...
It oxidises iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide into particles that are filtered out which in turn removes hardness of water ... Potassium permanganate has oxidising, bacterial and algicidal properties which make it a versatile compound that is used in a ... Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula, KMnO4. It is a dark purple coloured crystalline ... Potassium permanganate is an important product both economically and commercially in various industries as it is highly oxidant ...
It oxidises iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide into particles that are filtered out which in turn removes hardness of water ... Global Potassium Permanganate Market to Reach 296 Thousand Tons by 2022. Print This Article Share it With Friends ... Global Potassium Permanganate Market to Reach 296 Thousand Tons by 2022. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ... Potassium permanganate has oxidising, bacterial and algicidal properties which make it a versatile compound that is used in a ...
They express an outwardly rectifying potassium current, termed a ... such as agonists at G protein-coupled receptors and hydrogen ... They express an outwardly rectifying potassium current, termed a "standing-outward" K+ current, or IKSO, which does not ... This description of a functional two-pore domain potassium channel in the mammalian central nervous system indicates its ... A Functional Role for the Two-Pore Domain Potassium Channel TASK-1 in Cerebellar Granule Neurons ...
Potassium hydrogen fluoride* (KHF2) is used in the chemical industry, manufacture of wood preservatives glass processing, glass ... Potassium hydrogen fluoride is used in the the following applications:. *Glass manufacturing: for special optical glasses ( ... Potassium hydrogen fluoride* (KHF2) is used in the chemical industry, manufacture of wood preservatives glass processing, glass ... INTEROX® Hydrogen Peroxide Pico & PicoPlus. INTEROX® Hydrogen Peroxide Pico and PicoPlus are two of a range of Electronic Wet ...
... potassium hydrogen sulfite, potassium metabisulfite, potassium sulfite, sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium metabisulfite, sodium ... POTASSIUM AND SODIUM HYDROGEN SULFITE AND SODIUM THIOSULFATE). FU. O. ... 0-0.7 (GROUP ADI FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFITES EXPRESSED AS SULFUR DIOXIDE, COVERING SODIUM AND POTASSIUM METABISULFITE, ... Group ADI, expressed as sulfur dioxide, for calcium hydrogen sulfite, calcium metabisulfite, calcium sulfite, ...
Potassium Hydrogen Fluoride KF-HF bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program ... About Potassium Hydrogen Fluoride. Potassium Hydrogen Fluoride is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity ... Potassium acid fluoride, Potassiumhydrofluoride, Hydrogen potassium fluoride, Potassium monohydrogen difluoride ... 19 K 39.098300000 Potassium See more Potassium products. Potassium (atomic symbol: K, atomic number: 19) is a Block S, Group 1 ...
Potassium Hydrogen Iodate KH(IO3)2 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program ... Potassium Hydrogen Iodate Synonyms. Iodic acid (HIO3), potassium salt (2:1); Potassium hydrogen diiodate; potassium ion iodic ... About Potassium Hydrogen Iodate. Potassium Hydrogen Iodate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, ... 19 K 39.098300000 Potassium See more Potassium products. Potassium (atomic symbol: K, atomic number: 19) is a Block S, Group 1 ...
... ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, alpha polypeptide Identifiers Symbol ATP4A Entrez 495 HUGO 819 OMIM 137216 ... The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach and as such is the enzyme primarily ... The H+/K+ ATPase transports one hydrogen ion (H+) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell in exchange for one potassium ion (K+ ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Hydrogen_potassium_ATPase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
other: The study has been assessed for the use in a category approach. According to the methodology and to the extent of available details, the study has been judged as reliable with restrictions. ...
... sodium potassium, sodium, potassium and calcium tartrate) may be assessed using data specific for tartaric acid. Therefore, ...
potassium hydrogen phosphonate Type:. legal entity composition of the substance. Degree of purity:. >= 98 - < 99.5 % (w/w). ... Potassium hydrogen phosphonate Type:. legal entity composition of the substance. State Form:. solid: particulate/powder. ... potassium hydrogen phosphonate Type:. legal entity composition of the substance. State Form:. solid: particulate/powder. ... Phosphonic acid, potassium salt (1:1) Type:. legal entity composition of the substance. State Form:. solid: bulk. Constituent 1 ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
2015 Global Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report - Market Research Reports ... 17.1 Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Market Analysis. 17.2 Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Project SWOT Analysis. 17.3 Potassium Hydrogen ... Chapter One Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Industry Overview. 1.1 Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Definition. 1.2 Potassium Hydrogen ... 1.6.5 Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Global Market Development Trend Analysis. Chapter Two Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate Up and Down ...
... channels enable potassium efflux and membrane repolarization in excitable tissues. Many Kv channels undergo a progressive loss ... Hydrogen bonds as molecular timers for slow inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels Elife. 2013 Dec 10;2:e01289. doi: ... Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels enable potassium efflux and membrane repolarization in excitable tissues. Many Kv ... Keywords: channel inactivation; hydrogen bonds; ion channel gating; molecular timers; neuroscience; unnatural amino acids. ...
Potassium hydrogen carbonate and as well sodium hydrogen carbonat are used as leavening agents in industrially produced food ... Therefore, many suppliers are switching to potassium. As an alternative solution Evonik offers potassium hydrogen carbonate to ...
The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach. It exchanges potassium from the ... Gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase, also known as H+/K+ ATPase, is an enzyme which functions to acidify the stomach. ... The hydrogen potassium ATPase is activated indirectly by gastrin that causes ECL cells to release histamine. The histamine ... Inhibiting the hydrogen potassium pump to decrease stomach acidity has been most common method of treating diseases including ...
Potassium hydrogen phthalate, often called simply KHP, is an acidic salt compound. It forms white powder, colorless crystals, a ... Thermogravimetry of potassium hydrogen phthalate and its use as a thermal standard. Canadian Mineralogist 15, 30-35. ... "Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate". Arlington, TX: Ricca Chemical Company. Retrieved 2012-10-03. "The Standardization Of NaOH and ... KHP dissociates completely in water, giving the potassium cation (K+) and hydrogen phthalate anion (HP− or Hphthalate−). As a ...
H314-H335: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause respiratory irritation.. DOTInformation : Hazard Class: 8, Packing Group: II. ...
False colour scanning electron micrograph of crystals of potassium hydrogen tartrate, also known as cream of tartar. These ... False colour scanning electron micrograph of crystals of potassium hydrogen tartrate, also known as cream of tartar. These ...
... address of companies manufacturing and supplying Potassium Hydrogen Sulfate, 7646-93-7, Potassium Hydrogen Sulphate across ... Find here Potassium Hydrogen Sulfate manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. Get contact details & ...
The potassium hydroxide (KOH) compound produces a more efficient chemical reaction, producing a higher output of hydrogen and ... If changing from a sodium hydroxide compound to this potassium hydroxide compound, the reservoir in your hydrogen torch must be ... Rio 1080g Dry Mix Potassium Hydroxide Electrolyte Compound for Casting or Four-Torch Hydrogen Welding Systems. Item #: 500235 ... Rio 360g Dry Mix Potassium Hydroxide Electrolyte Compound for Double-Torch Hydrogen Welding System. Item #: 500220 ...
  • IK SO is blocked by Ba 2+ ions and is regulated by activation of muscarinic M 3 receptors, but it is insensitive to the classical broad-spectrum potassium channel blocking drugs 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium ions. (wright.edu)
  • This description of a functional two-pore domain potassium channel in the mammalian central nervous system indicates its physiological importance in controlling cell excitability and how agents that modify its activity, such as agonists at G protein-coupled receptors and hydrogen ions, can profoundly alter both the neuron's resting potential and its excitability. (wright.edu)
  • 2005-06-09 00:00:00 Kinetic aspects and the mechanism of shaping of particles of potassium superoxide in its synthesis from drops of an alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide in a flow of a drying agent were studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • That is the level (single digit parts per trillion) to which metallic impurities in Solvay's INTEROX® Pico Hydrogen Peroxide need to be detected and eliminated. (solvay.com)
  • INTEROX® Hydrogen Peroxide Pico and PicoPlus are two of a range of Electronic Wet Chemicals produced by Solvay's GBU Special Chem (others include ultra pure Phosphoric Acid & Hydrofluoric Acid). (solvay.com)
  • Potassium Oxalate Hydrogen Peroxide Report by Material, Application, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 is a professional and in-depth research report on the world's major regional market conditions, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, united Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China). (garnerinsights.com)
  • Uma Chemicals - Distributor / Channel Partner of acitic acid, hydrogen peroxide & sodium hypochlorite in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. (indiamart.com)
  • OxiPhos (Mono and di potassium salts of phosphorus acid + hydrogen peroxide) is labeled for managing oomycetes (downy mildew, Phytophthora and Pythium pathogens) and diseases caused by certain bacterial pathogens. (ir4project.org)
  • In this report, the United States Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Potassium hydrogen fluoride* (KHF2) is used in the chemical industry, manufacture of wood preservatives glass processing, glass manufacturing and for the production of soldering agents. (solvay.com)
  • The adsorption of potassium and its interaction with hydrogen atoms on MgO(100) have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). (nus.edu.sg)
  • The desorption energy of adsorbed K atoms was found to decrease from 82.3 to 78.5 kJ mol-1 with increasing potassium coverage in the range of θK≤1 ML, which is attributed to the repulsive dipole interaction between adsorbed K atoms. (nus.edu.sg)
  • There are a lot of hydrogen atoms in unsaturated lipids, but less hydrogen atoms in double bonded called polyunsaturated lipids. (writework.com)
  • In the past, it was not uncommon for hydrogen atoms to be shown as a very large proton with a very small electron sitting on the edge of the atom. (reference.com)
  • Oxidation is the process in which either loss of electrons, oxidation number increases, or loss of hydrogen atoms takes place. (bartleby.com)
  • abstract = "Three synthetic peptides, derived from the human potassium channel proteins Ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG), KCNQ1, and KCNE1, were investigated by hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled with electrontransfer dissociation mass spectrometry at single residue resolution. (elsevier.com)
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include Chlorhexidine Chemical, Compressed Hydrogen Gas, Chlorhexidine Base, Trichloroaniline and Molecular Biology. (indiamart.com)
  • Today, however, chemists use the word organic to refer to any compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen, thus excluding carbonates (which are a type of mineral) and oxides such as carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 3.Used for acidic flux, decomposition of crystallization of alumina, iron Oxide , etc.Used as preservatives,also used for the preparation of potassium. (nschemicalsn.com)
  • It serves as a disintegrating agent in analytical chemistry and as an intermediate in the preparation of potassium persulfate by electrolysis. (fishersci.co.uk)