A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Hydrogen. peroxide. →. Peroxidases. catalase. H. 2. O. Water. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Oxygen}{O2}}-,{\underset { ... Catalases are enzymes that catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, using either an iron or manganese ... with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidases removing hydrogen peroxide. As ... Despite its apparent importance in hydrogen peroxide removal, humans with genetic deficiency of catalase - "acatalasemia" - or ...
S. aureus is catalase-positive (meaning it can produce the enzyme catalase). Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) to ... such as hydrogen peroxide, than pigmented strains. Mutant colonies are quickly killed when exposed to human neutrophils, while ... It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen ... Catalase-activity tests are sometimes used to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. Previously, S. ...
Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide in cells into water and oxygen. Low levels of catalase can cause hydrogen peroxide to ... He had spread hydrogen peroxide on the diseased part, but oxygen was not generated due to the lack of catalase. List of ... This disorder is commonly diagnosed pouring hydrogen peroxide on the patient's blood sample. Instead of a very bubbling ... Acatalasia is often the result of mutations in both copies of the CAT gene which codes for the enzyme catalase. There are ...
Hydrogen peroxide can then be broken down by another enzyme called catalase. SOD1 has been postulated to localize to the outer ... Increased expression of SOD1 likely causes increased production of hydrogen peroxide leading to increased cellular injury. The ... superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. ... the disproportionation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and ...
Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide to cytotoxic levels results in parasite death. Nifurtimox is sold under the brand name Lampit ... Mammalian cells are protected by presence of catalase, glutathione, peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase. ...
Compartmentalization of this reaction in peroxisomes likely sequesters the hydrogen peroxide produced. Catalase is produced in ... This produces formaldehyde as well as hydrogen peroxide. ...
Another complex ion enzyme is catalase, which decomposes the cell's waste hydrogen peroxide. Synthetic coordination compounds ... An anionic complex can be stabilised by a hydrogen cation, becoming an acidic complex which can dissociate to release the ... cationic hydrogen. This kind of complex compound has a name with "ic" added after the central metal. For example, H2[Pt(CN)4] ...
Hydrogen peroxide is also damaging and is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase. Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant ... The superoxide anion radical (O− 2) spontaneously dismutes to O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) quite rapidly (~105 M−1s−1 at ... and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many ... Catalase Glutathione peroxidase Jiaogulan NADPH oxidase, an enzyme which produces superoxide Peroxidase PDB: 1VAR​; Borgstahl ...
... -dependent hydrogen peroxide metabolism is particularly important in these organisms because they lack catalase. ... Here, trypanothione-dependent enzymes such as tryparedoxin peroxidase (TryP) reduce peroxides using electrons donated either ...
Reactive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the byproduct of oxalate oxidase reaction, can be neutralized by catalase. Alarm ...
Reactive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the byproduct of oxalate oxidase reaction, can be neutralized by catalase. Alarm ... The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores ... The hydrogen ions are released in the thylakoid lumen and therefore contribute to the transmembrane chemiosmotic potential that ... The energy delivered to the electron acceptors is used to move hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. The ...
Another example is the chemical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide carried out by the enzyme catalase. As enzymes are catalysts ... The substrate(s), however, is/are converted to product(s). Here, hydrogen peroxide is converted to water and oxygen gas. E + S ... as in the rennin and catalase reactions just mentioned) or reversible (e.g. many reactions in the glycolysis metabolic pathway ...
Catalase catalyzes the decomposition the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and protects against oxidative stress. It ... Queens have more than twice the catalase activity and seven times higher levels of expression of the catalase gene RsCAT1 than ...
He proposed the name 'catalase' for the enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. His work in this area ... While in Washington, he discovered the enzyme catalase and carried out investigations on the influence of calcium and magnesium ... Catalase: A New Enzym of General Occurrence, with special reference to the tobacco plant (1901) L'Énergie Chimique Primaire de ...
Catalase is a common enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. SORBS2 is also known as ... Cao C, Leng Y, Kufe D (August 2003). "Catalase activity is regulated by c-Abl and Arg in the oxidative stress response". J. ... ABL2 has been shown to interact with three proteins: Abl gene, catalase, and SORBS2. The protein Abl gene is also known as ... Chelikani P, Fita I, Loewen PC (January 2004). "Diversity of structures and properties among catalases". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. ...
"Kinetic Characterization of Extracellular Catalases from Penicillium piceum F-648 and Its Hydrogen Peroxide-Adapted Variants". ... I.; Mikhailova, R. V.; Moroz, I. V.; Eremin, A. N. (2003). "Resistance of Penicillium piceum F-648 to Hydrogen Peroxide under ...
... and does not produce a catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. It produces a reduction of litmus milk, but does not liquefy ...
The end-product of this metabolism is either water or hydrogen peroxide (broken down by catalase). Strains may be either ...
Within the peroxisome, hydrogen peroxide can then be converted to water by enzymes like catalase and peroxidase. Discovered and ... It contains enzymes like oxidase, react hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct of its enzymatic reactions. ... that the name Microbody was too general and chose the name of Peroxisome because of its relationship with hydrogen peroxide. In ... Generally microbodies are involved in detoxification of peroxides and in photo respiration in plants. Different types of ...
Similarly, catalase increases the formation of water from hydrogen peroxide by catalyzing the reaction: 2H2O2↔ O2 + 2H2O. As a ... and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase). The antioxidant ... In marine systems, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exists at concentrations of 10−8-10−9 M in the photic zone, but has been found in ... In addition, hydrogen peroxide reduces to the hydroxyl radical, the most reactive radical and the one with the greatest ...
... hydrogen peroxide reagent; its catalase reaction is unlike other catalase-positive species because the reaction is explosive ... wadsworthia are the utilisation of the sulfated amino acid taurine in the production of hydrogen sulfide and the rapid catalase ... hydrogen sulfide production also contributes to disease pathology. Production of hydrogen sulfide has been linked to irritable ... The bacterium converts taurine to hydrogen sulfide when it respires taurine. The production of hydrogen sulfide is connected to ...
The test differs from that used to detect catalase in other types of bacteria by using 30% hydrogen peroxide in a strong ... Organisms producing the enzyme catalase have the ability to decompose hydrogen peroxide into water and free oxygen. ... Catalase, semiquantitative activity Most mycobacteria produce the enzyme catalase, but they vary in the quantity produced. Also ... some forms of catalase are inactivated by heating at 68°C for 20 minutes (others are stable). ...
Catalase is an enzyme that removes hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, and thus limits oxidative DNA damage. In mice ... when catalase expression is increased specifically in mitochondria, oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) in skeletal muscle is ... "Extension of murine life span by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria". Science. 308 (5730): 1909-1911. Bibcode: ...
... the main enzyme responsible for hydrogen peroxide removal in chloroplasts and cytosol of higher plants; and bacterial catalase ... Haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) are haem-containing enzymes that use hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to ... removal of hydrogen peroxide from chloroplasts and cytosol; oxidation of toxic compounds; biosynthesis of the cell wall; ... peroxidases, exhibiting both peroxidase and catalase activities. It is thought that catalase-peroxidase provides protection to ...
The catalases lining the vestibule wall facilitate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, as in the following theoretical ... Some beetles additionally mix hydrogen peroxide, a common by-product of the metabolism of cells, with the hydroquinone; some of ... The spray is produced from a reaction between two chemical compounds, hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide, which are stored in ... The beetles' glands store enough hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide to allow the beetle to release its chemical spray roughly ...
The catalase test tests whether a microbe produces the enzyme catalase, which catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. ... Smearing a colony sample onto a glass slide and adding a solution of hydrogen peroxide (3% H2O2) will indicate whether the ... "Catalase and Oxidase Test" (PDF). Austin CC. "CLO Test: Reasons, Procedure and Results". www.medicalhealthtests.com. Retrieved ... The lysine iron agar slant test is used to tell whether an organism can decarboxylate lysine and/or produce hydrogen sulfide. ...
Catalase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide in many organisms. In infections caused by organisms ... that lack catalase (catalase-negative), the host with CGD is successfully able to "borrow" hydrogen peroxide being made by the ... is unsuccessful because the enzyme catalase first breaks down any hydrogen peroxide that would be borrowed from the organism. ... Therefore in the CGD patient, hydrogen peroxide cannot be used to make oxygen radicals to fight infection, leaving the patient ...
It is catalase positive, meaning it has the ability to break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The most abundant ... H. noricense is also catalase positive, meaning it can break down reactive oxygen species (ROS), like hydrogen peroxide into ...
The liver produces the enzyme catalase to break down hydrogen peroxide, a toxic oxidising agent, into water and oxygen. The ...
Likewise, catalases HPI and HPII, encoded by katG and katE convert harmful hydrogen peroxide molecules to water and oxygen. The ... Demple B, Halbrook J, Linn S (February 1983). "Escherichia coli xth mutants are hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide". Journal ... Demple, B.; Halbreok, J.; Linn, S. (1983). "Escherichia coil xth mutants are hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide". J. Bacteriol ...
... producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, itself toxic): R. H. 2. +. O. 2. →. R. +. H. 2. O. 2. {\displaystyle \mathrm {RH} _{\mathrm ... catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2. H. 2. O. 2. →. 2. H. 2. O. +. O. 2. {\displaystyle 2\mathrm {H} _{2}\ ... Corpas FJ (2015). "What is the role of hydrogen peroxide in plant peroxisomes?". Plant Biol (Stuttg). 17 (6): 1099-103. doi: ... thus eliminating the poisonous hydrogen peroxide in the process.. This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where ...
... exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen peroxide ... Mitochondrial localization of catalase provides optimal protection from H2O2-induced cell death in lung epithelial cells. Am J ... hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are among the most important irritant gases. Hydrogen ... Smoke, chlorine, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are common ...
Hydrogen peroxide is also damaging and is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase. Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant ... The superoxide anion radical (O2−) spontaneously dismutes to O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) quite rapidly (~105 M−1s−1 at pH 7 ... or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many ... However, the lifespan of C. elegans can be extended by superoxide/catalase mimetics suggesting that oxidative stress is a major ...
... the catalases and peroxidases rapidly break down the hydrogen peroxide and catalyze the oxidation of the hydroquinones into p- ... Hydroquinones are one of the two primary reagents in the defensive glands of bombardier beetles, along with hydrogen peroxide ( ... The conversion uses hydrogen peroxide and affords a mixture of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene-1,2-diol): ... This chamber is lined with cells that secrete catalases and peroxidases. When the contents of the reservoir are forced into the ...
Lee KJ, Jeong HG (September 2007). "Protective effects of kahweol and cafestol against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative ... Other proteins include enzymes, such as catalase and polyphenol oxidase, which are important for the maturation of green coffee ...
Hydrogen peroxide is then assayed by a fluorimetric method.[11] As a free radical, superoxide has a strong EPR signal, and it ... especially catalase-positive organisms. In turn, micro-organisms genetically engineered to lack the superoxide-scavenging ... "A fluorimetric assay for hydrogen peroxide, suitable for NAD(P)H-dependent superoxide generating redox systems". Anal Biochem. ... One approach that has been used in quantitative assays converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which is relatively stable. ...
S. aureus is catalase-positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme catalase) and able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ... to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. ...
... it produces reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which lead to propagation of free radicals, ... catalase, and peroxidases,[80] which detoxify the reactive species, limiting damage to the cell. ... Hydrogen sulfide Poisons Complex IV Inhibit the electron transport chain by binding more strongly than oxygen to the Fe-Cu ... Peroxide. {\displaystyle {\ce {O2-,[{\ce {e^{-}}}]{\underset {Superoxide}{O2^{\underline {\bullet }}}}-,[{\ce {e^{-}}}]{\ ...
Alpha hemolysis is caused by hydrogen peroxide produced by the bacterium, oxidizing hemoglobin to green biliverdin. ... Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. ...
"Catalase: H2O2: H2O2 Oxidoreductase: Catalase Structural Tutorial. Retrieved 11 February 2007.. ... High blood levels of free ferrous iron react with peroxides to produce highly reactive free radicals that can damage DNA, ... Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms. ... Examples of iron-containing proteins in higher organisms include hemoglobin, cytochrome (see high-valent iron), and catalase.[5 ...
An explosion of the hydrogen and oxygen in Dr Ox's factory brings his experiment to an end. Verne summarised his story by ... Kim, YS; Kim, SU (1991). "Oligodendroglial cell death induced by oxygen radicals and its protection by catalase". Journal of ... peroxidation mechanism shows a single radical initiating a chain reaction which converts unsaturated lipids to lipid peroxides, ... the eponymous doctor uses electrolysis of water to separate oxygen and hydrogen. He then pumps the pure oxygen throughout the ...
The catalase will have applications for removal of hydrogen peroxide in industrial processes such as pulp and paper bleaching, ... The thermoalkaliphilic catalase, which initiates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water, was isolated from an ... The catalase operates over a temperature range from 30 °C to over 94 °C and a pH range from 6-10. This catalase is extremely ... In a comparative study, the T. brockianus catalase exhibited a half life of 15 days at 80 °C and pH 10 while a catalase derived ...
Hydrogen peroxide can then be broken down by another enzyme called catalase. ... response to hydrogen peroxide. • superoxide metabolic process. • peripheral nervous system myelin maintenance. • response to ... hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process. • regulation of protein kinase activity. • negative regulation of cholesterol ... Increased expression of SOD1 likely causes increased production of hydrogen peroxide leading to increased cellular injury. ...
Catalase test on nutrient agar tests for the production of enzyme catalase, which splits hydrogen peroxide and releases oxygen ... Catalase reactions vary among Enterobacteriaceae. Ecology[edit]. Many members of this family are normal members of the gut ...
Graying of hair may be triggered by the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Abnormally low levels of the enzyme catalase, which ... researchers treated the buildup of hydrogen peroxide which causes this with a light-activated pseudo-catalase. This produced ... breaks down hydrogen peroxide and relieves oxidative stress in patients suffering from vitiligo. Since vitiligo can cause ... It is not yet known whether imatinib has an effect on catalase, or if its reversal of the graying process is due to something ...
In reactions involving donation of a hydrogen atom, oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Some ... Catalase & Oxidase tests video. *Oxidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The mechanism involves oxidation of the selenol of a selenocysteine residue by hydrogen peroxide. This process gives the ... the activity of glutathione peroxidase along with other antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was not ... whose preferred substrate is hydrogen peroxide. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) has a high preference for lipid hydroperoxides ... glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide ...
... or vaporized hydrogen peroxide) or a "bag-in/bag-out" procedure.. *UV lights are checked and changed. UV lights decrease in ...
... and cell envelope structure on susceptibility of Salmonella triumphant to the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide ... "Structure of the heme d of Penicillium vitale and Escherichia coli catalases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (15): ... Heme m is the derivative of heme B covalently bound at the active site of peroxide. Heme m contains the two ester bonds at the ... The addition of peroxide with the glutamyl-375 and aspartyl-225 of lactoperoxidase forms ester bonds between these amino acid ...
The basic mechanism of heme peroxidases consists in using hydrogen peroxide to produce an activated form of the heme cofactor, ... The third and less relevant mechanism is the catalase activity of peroxidases. This mechanism appears to operate only in the ... The major function of eosinophil peroxidase is to catalyze the formation of hypohalous acids from hydrogen peroxide and halide ... The fifth ligand of iron is a conserved histidine residue, hydrogen bonded directly to an asparagine residue. These two ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen; they are ... and catalase.[25] The antioxidants present in cherry extracts act as inhibitors of the free radicals.[19] However, the DNA and ... Wang, Shiow Y.; Jiao, Hongjun (2000). "Scavenging Capacity of Berry Crops on Superoxide Radicals, Hydrogen Peroxide, Hydroxyl ... yield hydrogen cyanide.[17] Although the fruits of some may be edible by humans and livestock (in addition to the ubiquitous ...
... system from the potentially harmful effects of oxygen and other reactive oxygen-containing molecules such as hydrogen peroxide ... These systems include peroxidases, catalases, and superoxide dismutases. A complementary metalloprotein to those that react ... About 99% of mammals' mass are the elements carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, hydrogen, phosphorus, ... contain the majority of the carbon and nitrogen and most of the oxygen and hydrogen is present as water.[2] The entire ...
... groups that allow the enzyme to react with the hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH for human catalase is approximately 7,[4] and ... "Catalase: H2O2: H2O2 Oxidoreductase: Catalase Structural Tutorial. Dicapai 2007-02-11.. Selenggaraan CS1: Pelbagai nama: ... "Catalase". MadSci FAQ. madsci.org. Dicapai 2009-03-05.. *. "Catalase and oxidase test video". Regnvm Prokaryotae. Dicapai 2009- ... "How does the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affect the reaction". MadSci Network. Dicapai 009-03-02.. Check date values in ...
Another complex ion enzyme is catalase, which decomposes the cell's waste hydrogen peroxide. ... An anionic complex can be stabilised by a hydrogen cation, becoming an acidic complex which can dissociate to release the ... cationic hydrogen. This kind of complex compound has a name with "ic" added after the central metal. For example, H2[Pt(CN)4] ...
... can also be decomposed biologically by the enzyme catalase. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide liberates ... hydrogen peroxide-urea. Hydrogen peroxide is both an oxidizing agent and reducing agent. The oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by ... Soyuz using hydrogen peroxide propellant (NASA website) *^ "Ways to use Hydrogen Peroxide in the Garden". Using Hydrogen ... Hydrogen peroxide reacts with acetone to form acetone peroxide and with ozone to form trioxidane. Hydrogen peroxide forms ...
"Are respiratory enzymes the primary sources of intracellular hydrogen peroxide?". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48742-50. doi: ... Chelikani P, Fita I, Loewen P (2004). "Diversity of structures and properties among catalases". Cell Mol Life Sci 61 (2): 192- ... show increased susceptibility to the oxidative stress-inducing agents paraquat and hydrogen peroxide". J Biol Chem 273 (35): ... Zámocký M, Koller F (1999). "Understanding the structure and function of catalases: clues from molecular evolution and in vitro ...
1.11 Category:EC 1.11 (act on peroxide as an acceptor -- peroxidases). *1.12 Category:EC 1.12 (act on hydrogen as a donor) ... Catalase EC 1.11.1.6. *Myeloperoxidase EC 1.11.1.7. *Thyroid peroxidase EC 1.11.1.8 ... Category:EC 1.12 (act on hydrogen as a donor)Edit. *Category:EC 1.12.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) ... Category:EC 1.11 (act on peroxide as an acceptor -- peroxidases)Edit. *Category:EC 1.11.1 (peroxidases) *Cytochrome c ...
Omnicare 1 Step information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Allergan, Omnicare 1 Step indications, usages and related health products lists
Hydrogen peroxide-mediated isoniazid activation catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) and its ... we describe how hydrogen peroxide, delivered at very low concentrations to ferric KatG, leads to efficient inhibition of InhA ... in the presence of KatG even in the absence of added peroxide, due to endogenous peroxide. The poor efficiency of the KatG[ ... INH action against mycobacteria requires catalase-peroxidase (KatG) function, and IN-NAD adduct formation is catalyzed in vitro ...
A. 5cm3 hydrogen peroxide solution + 1 small pieace of fresh liver B. 5cm3 hydrogen peroxide solution + 1 small piece of boiled ... C. 5cm3 hydrogen peroxide + a little manganese (IV) oxide. D. 5cm3 hydrogen peroxide solution + a little boiled manganese ... To compare the action of catalase and manganese dioxide on hydrogen peroxide.. 1. Label 4 test-tubes A, B, C and D.. 2. To ... Similar Discussions: Action of catalase and MnO2 on hydrogen peroxide * Hydrogene Atom (Replies: 5) ...
When exposed to hydrogen peroxide and, to a greater extent, paraquat, total catalase activity was elevated 7- to 16-fold, ... Cloning and characterization of the katB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoding a hydrogen peroxide-inducible catalase: ... Cloning and characterization of the katB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoding a hydrogen peroxide-inducible catalase: ... Cloning and characterization of the katB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoding a hydrogen peroxide-inducible catalase: ...
What are the roles of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, hydrogen, and catalase in the following chemical reaction? catalase 2H2O2 > O2 ... the effect of catalase on the rate of reaction on hydrogen peroxide. but i dont know the amount of hydrogen peroxide i should ... Did a catalase producing hydrogen peroxide lab, used manganese dioxide, fresh frozen liver, potato, ice, fine clean sand, etc. ... I did a lab with catalase breaking down hydrogen peroxide. A question asks, what gas is being formed (oxygen), suggest a method ...
Examining Catalase Kinetics with the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide with Temperature Changes Table of Contents 1... ... Catalase Kinetics with the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide with Temperature Changes. 964 words (4 pages) Essay in Chemistry ... Kinetic study of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase in a flow-mix microcalorimetric system. Thermochimica Acta 402:19- ... "Catalase Kinetics with the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide with Temperature Changes." UKEssays.com. 11 2018. All Answers Ltd ...
Enthalpy of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase at 25 degrees C (with molar extinction coefficients of H 2 O 2 ... Enthalpy of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase at 25 degrees C (with molar extinction coefficients of H 2 O 2 ...
Determine how the substrate concentration affects the activity of catalase in hydrogen peroxide. Catalase is an enzyme present ... By using the same volume of hydrogen peroxide. I will be using the same volume of hydrogen peroxide because increasing or ... Reaction of Catalase and Hydrogen Peroxide At this point the enzyme is saturated and the reaction remains at the saturation ... The effect of Copper Sulphate concentration on Catalase activity on Hydrogen Peroxide. If the test tube is held and shaken it ...
The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide. of the hydrogen peroxide, the volume of hydrogen peroxide that is to be decomposed, the ... Hydrogen Peroxide is the poisonous by-product of metabolism. Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into ... effect of hydrogen peroxide on the catalase Aim An investigation to see the volume of oxygen produced when hydrogen peroxide ... of hydrogen peroxide was poured into the reservoir * The tap was opened until all the hydrogen peroxide had poured into the ...
Glutathione and catalase provide overlapping defenses for protection against respiration-generated hydrogen peroxide in ... "Glutathione and Catalase Provide Overlapping Defenses for Protection Against Respiration-generated Hydrogen Peroxide in ... "Glutathione and Catalase Provide Overlapping Defenses for Protection Against Respiration-generated Hydrogen Peroxide in ... Glutathione and catalase provide overlapping defenses for protection against respiration-generated hydrogen peroxide in ...
example: Gatalase Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (toxic) 2HrO, -+ 2H2O + 02 Under biological conditions: Very Slow Catalase ... Gatalase Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (toxic) 2HrO, -+ 2H2O + 02 Under biological conditions: Very Slow Catalase: 10 ... million molecules of I{rO, per catalase molecule per second ,d#. +* Gatalase (Mw = 250,000) Active sites Active site (withod ...
Catalase was used to destroy the residual hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the hydrogen peroxide-catalase treatment demonstrated ... To obtain a typical cheddar cheese body and texture using low fat milk, it was proposed that the hydrogen peroxide-catalase ... 2. Compare the effects of the pasteurization and hydrogen peroxide-catalase treatments of the milk on the body and texture of ... 4. Compare the relative effects of the pasteurization and hydrogen peroxide-catalase treatments on the casein by the use of the ...
Here is an example of A-level biology coursework on the effect of I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide ... Home example small business plan Catalase and hydrogen peroxide experiment coursework Catalase and hydrogen peroxide experiment ... Catalase and hydrogen peroxide experiment temperature. All the active sites are being used so any extra Hydrogen Peroxide ... Catalase And Hydrogen Peroxide Coursework - gobamar. Boiling liver damaged the catalase enzyme and clearly decreased the amount ...
It promotes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide, a ... Catalase is an enzyme present in the cells of plants, animals ... studentshare.org/science/1519372-action-of-enzyme-catalase-on-hydrogen-peroxide.. "Action Of Enzyme Catalase On Hydrogen ... studentshare.org/science/1519372-action-of-enzyme-catalase-on-hydrogen-peroxide. (Action Of Enzyme Catalase On Hydrogen ... Let us find you another Lab Report on topic Action Of Enzyme Catalase On Hydrogen Peroxide for FREE! ...
Using a potato and hydrogen peroxide, we can observe how enzymes like catalase work to perform decomposition, or the breaking ... In this catalase and hydrogen peroxide experiment, we will discover how enzymes act as catalysts by causing chemical reactions ... The active site of Catalase, the. Cells make the enzyme catalase to remove hydrogen peroxide. Do not return solution to stock ... The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide In the absence of a catalyst, Hydrogen Peroxide is quite stable, decomposing only very ...
A, Endothelial hydrogen peroxide levels after treatment with vehicle or catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (1 mmol/L) as measured ... Figure 2. Effect of catalase inhibitor aminotriazole on endogenous hydrogen peroxide content in the slices of left ventricle of ... and catalase most likely consumes NO, which partially inhibits the reaction of the enzyme with hydrogen peroxide.33,34 We ... effect of hydrogen peroxide on vascular smooth muscle and might be interpreted as a dual vascular role of hydrogen peroxide, ...
The pH optimum for other catalases varies between 4 and 11 depending ... PBB GE CAT 211922 enzyme catalase breakdown of hydrogen peroxide at fs. PBB GE CAT 201432 at fs. ... PBB GE CAT 211922 enzyme catalase breakdown of hydrogen peroxide at fs. PBB GE CAT 201432 at fs. The pH optimum for other ... we put the filter paper filled with catalase concentration in to five sets of hydrogen peroxide. Causing free radical damage, ...
Can a very high concentration of hydrogen peroxide, inhibit or denature the enzyme catalase? ... Catalase is an enzyme as it is a protein found in living organisms. $\endgroup$ - Dr. J. Jun 9 18 at 11:32 ... As for catalase, it seems to just decompose $\ce{H2O2}$, but this is useful in many different areas. For example, decomposing ... All Google searches have simply returned more info on catalase. Im looking for a catalyst that isnt found inside living ...
Diseases : Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Apoptotic, Antioxidants, Catalase Up-Regulation, ... Diseases : Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity, Oxidative Stress. Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Catalase Up-Regulation ... Nelumbo nucifera leaves protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage.May 31, 2015. ... Rosella extract increase the catalase activity and expression of catalase antioxidant gene.Apr 30, 2018. ...
Textile Desizing Enzyme by Catalase Liquid - XIANHUA (SHANGHAI) BIO CHEMICAL CO.,LTD. from China. ... Popular Products of Ultra High Concentration Catalase Liquid Enzyme , ... It is mainly used for printing & dyeing factory to avoid the negative effect of residual hydrogen peroxide. ... industry enzyme that applied to decompose the residual hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) after oxygen bleaching. ...
... by the UK Health Protection Agency highlights the fact that MRSA dried on surfaces appears to be less susceptible to hydrogen ... peroxide vapour (HPV) than bacterial endospores in the form of commercially produced biological indicators. This is a surprise ... HomeHydrogen peroxide at war with catalase Hydrogen peroxide at war with catalase. January 17, 2013. Jon Otter (@jonotter) ... The answer lies in the enzyme catalase. Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide and is produced by MRSA but not by the ...
... microorganisms possess antioxidant defense mechanisms for protection from reactive oxygen metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide ... DNA repair is more important than catalase for Salmonella virulence in mice.. Buchmeier NA1, Libby SJ, Xu Y, Loewen PC, Switala ... The catalase mutant was found to be resistant to macrophages and retained full murine virulence, in contrast to the recA mutant ... The recA mutant was hypersusceptible to H2O2 at low cell densities in vitro, while the catalase mutant was more susceptible to ...
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. ... hydrogen peroxide catabolic process Source: MGIInferred from direct assayi*. "The role of HNF-1alpha in controlling hepatic ... IPR040333 Catalase_3. IPR024708 Catalase_AS. IPR024711 Catalase_clade1/3. IPR011614 Catalase_core. IPR037060 Catalase_core_sf. ... IPR040333 Catalase_3. IPR024708 Catalase_AS. IPR024711 Catalase_clade1/3. IPR011614 Catalase_core. IPR037060 Catalase_core_sf. ...
... you will use catalase in yeast to catalytically decompose hydrogen peroxide. You will use an O2 Gas Sensor to determine the ... In this investigation, we will refer to this as the rate of catalase activity. As the peroxide is decomposed, less of it is ... When no more peroxide is left, O2 is no longer produced. When data collection is complete, you will perform a linear fit on the ... After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about catalase, enzymes, and ...
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. ... response to hydrogen peroxide Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic ... IPR040333 Catalase_3. IPR024708 Catalase_AS. IPR024711 Catalase_clade1/3. IPR011614 Catalase_core. IPR037060 Catalase_core_sf. ... IPR040333 Catalase_3. IPR024708 Catalase_AS. IPR024711 Catalase_clade1/3. IPR011614 Catalase_core. IPR037060 Catalase_core_sf. ...
Both mannitol and catalase function to protect cells from different reactive oxygen species. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide ... Catalase activity is necessary for heat-shock recovery in Aspergillus nidulans germlings Microbiology. 1999 Nov;145 ( Pt 11): ... increased A. nidulans germling viability after heat shock whilst mutants deficient in catalase were more sensitive to a 50 ... dramatically increased the concentration of trehalose and induced the accumulation of mannitol and mRNA from the catalase gene ...
A: A decomposition reaction occurs between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, where catalase speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen ... What type of reaction occurs between catalase and hydrogen peroxide?. ...
What type of reaction occurs between catalase and hydrogen peroxide?. * Q: How does diffusion work?. ...
Reaction with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Superoxol-negative. Catalase Test Reaction with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Catalase-negative. ... Also in contrast to most Neisseria spp., N. elongata is catalase-negative and superoxol-negative. ...
  • O2 + 2H2O A. Catalase is an enzyme, O2 and H2O are substrates, and H2O2 is a reactant. (jiskha.com)
  • of H2O2 with Catalase.I am trying to use the Arrhenius equation in my coursework, but i am struggling to get it to work. (jiskha.com)
  • 2mno4 - + 5h2o2 + 6h= 2mn 2+ + 5o2(gás) + 8h2o You must determine the percentage of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a solution by permangan titration. (jiskha.com)
  • As for catalase, it seems to just decompose $\ce{H2O2}$, but this is useful in many different areas. (stackexchange.com)
  • abstract = "A photosystem II (PSII) membrane-associated heme catalase has been identified as a major source of the dark H2O2-dismutation reaction in PSII membrane samples [Sheptovitsky, Y. G., and Brudvig, G. W. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 16255-16263]. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that serum catalase activity can alter H2O2-dependent reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Pathogenic microorganisms possess antioxidant defense mechanisms for protection from reactive oxygen metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are generated during the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. (nih.gov)
  • The recA mutant was hypersusceptible to H2O2 at low cell densities in vitro, while the catalase mutant was more susceptible to high H2O2 concentrations at high cell densities. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest that Salmonella is subjected to low concentrations of H2O2 while at relatively low cell density during infection, conditions requiring an intact DNA repair system but not functional catalase activity. (nih.gov)
  • How does temperature play a role on the catalase enzyme's efficiency to catabolize hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)? (africasportnews.com)
  • At the time of conducting the experiment, the intention was to analyse the effect that an increase in catalase concentration had on the amount of oxygen (O2) produced if the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration was constant. (123helpme.com)
  • abstract = "Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a known toxicant which causes its damage via the production of hydroxyl radicals. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In this report protein content and catalase (CAT) activity were used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on leaf senescence in detached Pigeon pea leaves. (journalcra.com)
  • My Input variable is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (essay911.org)
  • The name peroxisome was applied because this organelle is specifically involved in the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (madsci.org)
  • Three of them - urate oxidase, D-amino oxidase, and alpha-hydroxylic acid oxidase - produce peroxide (H2O2), and catalase destroys it (2H2O2 - 2H2O + O2). (madsci.org)
  • however, only a fraction of this H2O2 diffuses to the cytosol, and most of it is degraded by the intraorganellar catalase. (madsci.org)
  • Catalase acts as a "safety valve" for dealing with the large amounts of H2O2 generated by peroxisomes, however, other enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, are capable of metabolizing hydroperoxides and also H2O2, in the cytosol and mitochondria. (madsci.org)
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), is a mildly poisonous substance as it is a strong oxidant formed by many living cells, for e.g. when they are damaged. (brightkite.com)
  • 2711 words - 11 pages of H2O2 by catalase. (brightkite.com)
  • The chemical makeup of hydrogen peroxide is H2O2. (hubpages.com)
  • This study was done to determine whether or not hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide ion (O2) are responsible for cardiac injury from hemorrhagic shock as indicated by reduced coronary perfusion and impaired contractile function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • applied to bio degrade the residual hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) after oxygen bleaching. (fnxradio.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide , chemical formula H2O2.Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue viscous liquid, which can be mixed with water in any proportion.The aqueous solution is suitable for medical wound disinfection, environmental disinfection and food . (fnxradio.com)
  • Otherwise you won't know whether the metal ion is having an effect on the catalase or inducing H2O2 breakdown directly. (bio.net)
  • It is concluded that a toxic product is formed in a reaction involving superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and metal ions, which might be the Haber-Weiss reaction, O2- + H2O2 → OH + OH- + O2. (tudelft.nl)
  • I believe you are breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and elemental oxygen, so that positive reactions will give off oxygen gas, which will ignite your glowing splinter. (physicsforums.com)
  • During aerobic respiration, the metabolism of dioxygen can lead to the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, one of which includes hydrogen peroxide. (asm.org)
  • What are the roles of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, hydrogen, and catalase in the following chemical reaction? (jiskha.com)
  • The primary reaction catalyzed by catalase is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxygen, which occurs spontaneously, but not at a very rapid rate. (jiskha.com)
  • Naturally, under stress, the body will increase the concentration of reactive oxygen species (e.g., hydrogen peroxide) from oxidative metabolism. (ukessays.com)
  • However, cells reduce this risk by weaponizing antioxidizing enzymes like catalase that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. (ukessays.com)
  • If catalase activity increases with temperature, then indirectly measuring the pressure rate of released molecular oxygen should prove whether this relationship is true. (ukessays.com)
  • Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Catalase is an enzyme present in the cells of plants, animals and aerobic (oxygen requiring) bacteria. (studentshare.org)
  • Download file to see previous pages The student feels that the more the concentration of the liver the more the enzyme that would result since more amount of oxygen would react with the hydrogen peroxide molecules. (studentshare.org)
  • The independent variable is the various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, while the dependent variable is the rate of reaction in terms of oxygen production. (studentshare.org)
  • To this end, catalase is extremely used by cells to rapidly catalyze the specific of hydrogen peroxide into less-reactive uninspired oxygen and water molecules. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • The waiting number of advice in hydrogen seven is -1, intermediate between 0 in advertising and -2 in supporting, and this allows the oxygen to act as both a reductant and make in either acid H2 O2 or find HO2- solution. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Materials & Methods: Catalase is used as the enzyme because it is common in many living organisms that are exposed to oxygen, where it catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase is regarded as involving two reactions, namely, the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is a maximum at the optimum pH toand the "induced inactivation" of catalase by the "nascent" oxygen produced by the hydrogen peroxide and still adhering to the catalase surface. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • one molecule of the enzyme can catalyse the conversion of overhydrogen peroxide molecules into water and oxygen every second. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Quantification of reactive oxygen species by fluorescence signals in cat ++ versus catalase-negative (cat n ) mice showed a strong decrease in aortic endothelium and left ventricular myocardium but not in leukocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a nonradical reactive oxygen species that is produced in many different cell types in the human body, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The yeast acts as a catalyst and speeds up the hydrogen peroxide's release of oxygen gas, which is the opposite of what we are trying to achieve. (russky.me)
  • industry enzyme that applied to decompose the residual hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) after oxygen bleaching. (burrillandco.com)
  • These defense mechanisms include enzymes such as catalase, which detoxify reactive oxygen species, and DNA repair systems which repair damage resulting from oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • You will use an O 2 Gas Sensor to determine the rate of catalase activity by measuring oxygen gas produced as H 2 O 2 is decomposed. (vernier.com)
  • Both mannitol and catalase function to protect cells from different reactive oxygen species. (nih.gov)
  • The hydrogen peroxide- and paraquat-inducible responses were similar but not identical to that induced by oxygen as seen by two-dimensional gel protein profile. (ecu.edu)
  • As a first step to understanding the resistance to oxygen, a catalase-deficient mutant was constructed by allelic gene exchange. (ecu.edu)
  • Temperature on the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Introduction: The catalase is added to hydrogen peroxide (H²0²), a vigorous reaction occurs and oxygen gas is evolved. (123helpme.com)
  • It was proposed that when the catalase increases in concentration at the increments of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% and the hydrogen peroxide remained at a fixed concentration, the oxygen production would rise gradually. (123helpme.com)
  • The enzyme, catalase, is derived from potatoes and is present in cells where it speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. (educationindex.com)
  • The hypothesis was that hydrogen peroxide will be broken down by catalase into hydrogen and oxygen, where a higher concentration of inhibitor will yield less oxygen, resultant of a lower rate of reaction. (educationindex.com)
  • Consistently, the lsd1 mutant was more sensitive to the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole than the wild type, suggesting that the interaction between lsd 1 and catalases is involved in the regulation of the reactive oxygen species generated in the peroxisome. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Under normal circumstances, peroxisomally generated H 2 O 2 is quickly degraded to water and oxygen by the primary peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme, catalase. (frontiersin.org)
  • My aim for this investigation is to measure the amount of oxygen given off when we react catalase (enzyme) with hydrogen peroxide (substrate), this means that I aim to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the activity of catalase. (essay911.org)
  • My values will be: Hydrogen Peroxide Water 5mls 0mls 4mls 1ml 3mls 2mls 2mls 3mls 1ml 4mls My out put variable will be the oxygen. (essay911.org)
  • They catalyse the breakdown of hydrogem peroxide with the release of free oxygen (resulting in bubbles).The classical test for differentiating staphylococci (positive) from streptococci (negative).To observe the action of the enzymes, catalase reagent is added to a pure bacterial culture. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Any immediate bubbling is indicative of a positive result since oxygen is a by-product of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Catalase levels were higher under high aeration conditions than under microaerophilic conditions, including in sod1 D sod2 D cells that contain less H 2 O 2 , since SOD catalyzes the cleavage of superoxide producing H 2 O 2 and oxygen. (scielo.br)
  • The incomplete reduction of oxygen to water during respiration, however, leads to the formation of redox-active oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide anion radical (O 2 ), the hydroxyl radical ( OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) (2). (scielo.br)
  • Catalase, known to be one of the most efficient enzymes, reacts with H 2 O 2 to form water and molecular oxygen. (scielo.br)
  • This suggests that HOXB13 may be involved in the cytotoxicity caused by hydrogen peroxide via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (mdpi.com)
  • technology, which can efficiently catalyze hydrogen peroxide ( hydrogen peroxide ) into oxygen and water, and can be widely used in textile, paper, electronics, food and other industries to remove hydrogen peroxide , a significant saving of water resources. (fazendomedia.com)
  • It can effectively catalyses the transformation of residual hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. (fazendomedia.com)
  • 2.The hydrogen peroxide , produced in oxidation process, can oxidize glucose into gluconic acid lactone, and produces hydrogen peroxide while consuming oxygen. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Apart from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, there is one other element always present in the building blocks of enzymes. (brainscape.com)
  • The enzyme catalase breaks it down to harmless water and oxygen. (brightkite.com)
  • HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H 2 O 2 ) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly recognized as toxic intermediates in a wide variety of pathologies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide therapy, also known as oxygen therapy, is a simple process of either ingesting or injecting hydrogen peroxide into the body, which in turn releases free radicals of oxygen into the system that the body uses to fight off many harmful and deadly diseases. (hubpages.com)
  • When hydrogen peroxide reacts with things, the extra oxygen atom is released and hydrogen peroxide turns into water. (hubpages.com)
  • A hydrogen peroxide molecule, what makes hydrogen peroxide therapy and oxygen therapy possible. (hubpages.com)
  • When hydrogen peroxide is released into the body, it breaks down into an oxygen atom, and a water molecule. (hubpages.com)
  • Fridovich, 1995 ), which is then converted to water (peroxidases such as glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin) or dismuted to water and oxygen (catalase). (biologists.org)
  • Hydrogen and oxygen are produced by a chemical reaction of electrolyzed water while utilizing the physical properties of hydrogen and oxygen for carbon. (benadorassociates.com)
  • We found no significant difference in shock induced derangements in myocardial oxygen metabolism or the degree of myocardial depression and regional ischemia in dogs in a state of shock given superoxide dismutase plus catalase, compared with shock alone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Use a Gas Pressure Sensor to measure the production of oxygen gas as hydrogen peroxide is destroyed by the enzyme catalase or peroxidase at various enzyme concentrations. (vernier.com)
  • Measure the production of oxygen gas as hydrogen peroxide is destroyed by the enzyme catalase or peroxidase at various temperatures. (vernier.com)
  • Catalase acts as a natural antioxidant to study the roles of reactive oxygen species in gene expression and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Catalase is an enzyme in your cells that converts hydrogen peroxide into pure oxygen and water, causing a foaming action to occur. (wikihow.com)
  • Aim: To investigate the effect of increasing surface area on the rate of reaction.Background information: Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical that consists of hydrogen and oxygen. (brightkite.com)
  • Decomposition because the hydrogen peroxide is being broken down into hydrogen and oxygen gas. (slideserve.com)
  • Catalase breaks down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, therefore releasing bubbles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the term "oxygenated water" may appear on retail packaging referring to mixtures containing either water and hydrogen peroxide or water and dissolved oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A P. aeruginosa katB mutant demonstrated 50% greater sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide than wild-type bacteria, suggesting that KatB is essential for optimal resistance of P. aeroginosa to exogenous hydrogen peroxide. (asm.org)
  • contrast, the vast majority of studies investigated the vasomotor effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide at much larger concentrations (up to 10 mmol/L), and both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects were reported. (ahajournals.org)
  • Haemonchus contortus utilises catalase in defence against exogenous hydrogen peroxide in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Kotze2001HaemonchusCU, title={Haemonchus contortus utilises catalase in defence against exogenous hydrogen peroxide in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The B. fragilis protein profile was significantly altered after either a shift from anaerobic to aerobic conditions with or without paraquat or the addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. (ecu.edu)
  • Biology Coursework - Planning Investigating how quickly the enzyme catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide I will be investigating the enzyme catalase and the factors affecting the rate at which it speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide and is produced by MRSA but not by the metabolically inert spores. (reflectionsipc.com)
  • Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle's oxidative balance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, the treatment of cultures with a sublethal concentration of hydrogen peroxide was necessary to induce resistance to higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the parent strain, suggesting that this was an inducible response. (ecu.edu)
  • However, the total number of dead cells without chromatin condensation was dramatically elevated in immortal DF-1 CEFs treated with hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the inhibition of immortal DF-1 cell growth by low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide is due to increased necrotic cell death, but not apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • questioned how temperature and the presence or absence of additives and substrate affect the kinetics and temperature inactivation of mammalian catalase (using incubation and iso conversional methods). (ukessays.com)
  • When the substrate was absent, the initial rate of reaction for catalase with additives decreased exponentially with temperature increase. (ukessays.com)
  • The team observed that the maximum for catalase activation with water and substrate was forty degrees Celsius. (ukessays.com)
  • In this experiment the catalase was the enzyme and the hydrogen peroxide was the substrate. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, which means that there could be more or fewer collisions and resulting successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. (dellrichards.com)
  • The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase A Level Biology Project Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. (123helpme.com)
  • They are:·Temperature·pH·Inhibitors·Substrate Concentration·Enzyme ConcentrationThe factor I am changing is surface area of potato containing Catalase. (brightkite.com)
  • The substrate in this reaction is the hydrogen peroxide. (brightkite.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide-mediated isoniazid activation catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) and its S315T mutant. (nih.gov)
  • INH action against mycobacteria requires catalase-peroxidase (KatG) function, and IN-NAD adduct formation is catalyzed in vitro by M. tuberculosis KatG under a variety of conditions, yet a physiologically relevant approach to the process has not emerged that allows scrutiny of the mechanism and the origins of INH resistance in the most prevalent drug-resistant strain bearing KatG[S315T]. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in the activities of the antioxidative enzymes catalase ( CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase ( POX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase ( SOD) were assayed in leaves to monitor the temporal regulation. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • When compared with the parental PC12 line, the HPR-C subclone did not have higher levels of catalase or glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity or mRNA expression (as assessed by PCR analysis of cDNA reverse transcribed from total cellular RNA). (utmb.edu)
  • A reagent to detect the enzymes catalase and peroxidase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Catalase and peroxidase is found in most aerobe bacteria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To defend the organism against ROS, the cell possesses antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). (scielo.br)
  • These particles were enriched with some oxidative enzymes, such as peroxidase, catalase, D-amino oxidase, and urate oxidase. (madsci.org)
  • Anti-oxidative factors such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase are expressed in the lungs and maintain its redox states [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A short duration flooding treatment elevated the activities of SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase (AP), and glutathione reductase (GR), while further flooding significantly reduced the enzyme activities but enhanced the concentrations of ascorbic acid and reduced form glutathione (GSH). (springer.com)
  • Chance B and Maehly A C 1955 Assay of catalase and peroxidase. (springer.com)
  • example: Gatalase Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (toxic) 2HrO, -+ 2H2O + 02 Under biological conditions: Very Slow Catalase: 10 million molecules of I{rO, per catalase molecule per second ,d#. (coursehero.com)
  • All the active sites are being used so any extra Hydrogen Peroxide molecules will have to wait until an active site becomes available. (dellrichards.com)
  • Background Information Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules that are found in living cells. (essay911.org)
  • But when the concentration is reduced the enzymes will be finding fewer Hydrogen peroxide molecules so there will be less reactions taking place. (essay911.org)
  • By increasing the surface area of the potato, you make more Catalase molecules be exposed to hydrogen peroxide. (brightkite.com)
  • Water clings to other polar molecules (adhesion), as well as itself (cohesion), by forming transient hydrogen bonds. (issuu.com)
  • In aqueous solutions, hydrogen peroxide differs from the pure substance due to the effects of hydrogen bonding between water and hydrogen peroxide molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induced activity of catalase will increase if temperature increases. (ukessays.com)
  • One is to simply drink food grade hydrogen peroxide diluted in water. (hubpages.com)
  • Food grade hydrogen peroxide is 35% strength and very powerful, as compared to your local grocery store variety which is only 3%, so don't ever drink it without diluting it. (hubpages.com)
  • The benefits of drinking food grade hydrogen peroxide is that it is effective against removing toxins from the system. (hubpages.com)
  • All food grade hydrogen peroxide wholesalers & food grade hydrogen peroxide manufacturers come from members. (fnxradio.com)
  • We doesn't provide food grade hydrogen peroxide products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (fnxradio.com)
  • Slang stress in wild-type mice strategically induces oxidative DNA objective measured as 8-oxodG in sperm with material, but these damages are significantly reduced in concluding catalase over-expressing mice. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • To determine the relative importance of these two potentially protective defense mechanisms against oxidative stress encountered by Salmonella during infection of the host, a Salmonella typhimurium double mutant unable to produce either the HPI or HPII catalase was constructed, and compared with an isogenic recA mutant deficient in DNA repair. (nih.gov)
  • The oxidative stress was regulated by adding hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as a source of ROS, while sodium azide (NaN 3 ) was used as an inhibitor of the antioxidative enzyme catalase, which is naturally present throughout the epidermis. (mdpi.com)
  • Oxidative stress response in an anaerobe, Bacteroides fragilis: a role for catalase in protection against hydrogen peroxide. (ecu.edu)
  • Complementation of catalase activity in the mutant restored the ability of the mutant strain to survive in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, showing that the catalase (KatB) may play a role in oxidative stress resistance in aerotolerant anaerobic bacteria. (ecu.edu)
  • Rocha, Edson R. and Selby, Tina and Coleman, James P. and Smith, C. Jeffrey, "Oxidative stress response in an anaerobe, Bacteroides fragilis: a role for catalase in protection against hydrogen peroxide. (ecu.edu)
  • To balance the oxidative state , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase ), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin C, and vitamin E . (wikipedia.org)
  • As this process begins in middle-passage cells, we sought to determine whether peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide could contribute to the oxidative damage observed in mitochondria in late-passage cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, our observation suggests that the balanced antioxidant function might be important for cell proliferation in response to toxic oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that catalase is not essential for sod mutants under normal conditions, but plays an important role in the acquisition of tolerance to oxidative stress induced by high aeration. (scielo.br)
  • Furthermore, C. neoformans induces the activation of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalases, and the synthesis of antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), to adapt to oxidative attack ( 14 , 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In recent years the possible relationship between peroxides and free radicals (such as O2. (madsci.org)
  • However, research has shown that the body actually uses these free radicals to fight against bacteria and disease, and actually produces its own hydrogen peroxide readily when it needs it. (hubpages.com)
  • enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase hunt the free radicals superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. (godandscience.org)
  • How my partner and me did the experiment was very simple, we put the filter paper filled with catalase concentration in to five sets of hydrogen peroxide. (dellrichards.com)
  • 2-4 However, in vitro studies have yielded conflicting results on the effect of hydrogen peroxide on vasomotor tone, 5,6 suggesting that the vasomotor response to hydrogen peroxide depends on experimental conditions, such as the type of vessel studied, the species studied, and the concentration range used. (ahajournals.org)
  • The steady-state concentration of hydrogen peroxide in human plasma, blood cells, and vascular cells is unknown but is most likely in the lower micromolar range or less. (ahajournals.org)
  • Enzymes are made up of several hundred amino acids, we put the filter paper filled with catalase concentration in to five sets of hydrogen peroxide. (russky.me)
  • Can a very high concentration of hydrogen peroxide, inhibit or denature the enzyme catalase? (stackexchange.com)
  • Both glucose/glucose oxidase (generation of hydrogen peroxide) and xanthine/xanthine oxidase (generation of superoxide anion) systems showed concentration-dependent toxicity to the nematodes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The heat treatment dramatically increased the concentration of trehalose and induced the accumulation of mannitol and mRNA from the catalase gene catA. (nih.gov)
  • Among the five antioxidative enzymes monitored, the APX, POX, GR and SOD specific activities were significantly enhanced at high concentration (400 mM NaCl), while the catalase activities declined, suggesting both up and downregulations of antioxidative enzymes occurred due to NaCl imposed osmotic and ionic stress. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • This was confirmed when the bacterial culture, treated with chloramphenicol before the cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of peroxide, completely lost viability. (ecu.edu)
  • Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions without undergoing any physical change. (123helpme.com)
  • In such a homeostatic environment, the temperature and the pH (concentration of hydrogen ions), remain within a fairly narrow range. (educationindex.com)
  • Concentration: The concentration of the hydrogen peroxide would effect the rat of reaction. (essay911.org)
  • To ensure this experiment is done as fairly as possible, all the variables apart from the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide must be kept the same for all of the experiments. (essay911.org)
  • Variables that must not be altered are: Temperature, catalase concentration, dimensions of potato, air pressure and humidity. (essay911.org)
  • first grade , content85%) industrial synthetic hydrochloric acid (concentration31%) or concentrated sulfuric acid (industrial first grade , concentration 83.02.0%) sodium chlorate (industrial one Grade , content ≥99%) Hydrogen peroxide (industrial. (fazendomedia.com)
  • At this concentration (approximately 3 vol) hydrogen peroxide is described as low hazard (see CLEAPSS Hazcard), but take appropriate precautions in preparing the dilute solution - store in brown bottles, do not dilute more than you need, and use as quickly as possible. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Large differences between mechanisms are observed for higher organic peroxides and higher aldehydes with a r.m.s. error of around 50% for the final concentration in PLUME1. (tudelft.nl)
  • Early-passage human fibroblasts (Hs27) treated with aminotriazole (3-AT), an irreversible catalase inhibitor, demonstrated decreased catalase activity, increased levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyls, and peroxisomal numbers. (frontiersin.org)
  • The sod2 D mutant demonstrated a similar catalase activity to that of the wild-type without treatment, whilst decreased catalase activity was observed in conditions of low aeration. (scielo.br)
  • In this report, we describe how hydrogen peroxide, delivered at very low concentrations to ferric KatG, leads to efficient inhibition of InhA due to formation of the IN-NAD adduct. (nih.gov)
  • Enzyme inhibition or inactivation of catalase can lead to damage to macromolecules, including nucleic acids, and cell death by apoptosis or necrosis (Halliwell B., 1998). (ukessays.com)
  • It is apparent that inhibition of Haemonchus contortus catalase increases the susceptibility of the parasite to the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating a protective role for this enzyme. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, cell viability was greatly preserved when protein synthesis inhibition occurred after peroxide induction. (ecu.edu)
  • Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, antioxidant and inhibition of senescence effects of embelin were examined using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cellular aging model of human dermal fibroblast. (springer.com)
  • study was to test the rate of reactivity of the enzyme catalase on hydrogen peroxide while subject to different concentrations of an inhibitor. (educationindex.com)
  • However, these increases were rarely observed in the presence of a transcriptional inhibitor, which suggests that hydrogen peroxide increases protein levels via increased transcription of HOXB13. (mdpi.com)
  • Vessels of these mice (cat ++ ) expressed significantly higher levels of catalase mRNA, protein, and activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Catalase is an enzyme as it is a protein found in living organisms. (stackexchange.com)
  • Enzyme Catalase Background information: An enzyme is a large protein that acts as a biological catalyst and which changes the rate of a reaction. (123helpme.com)
  • Effect of hydrogen peroxide on protein content and catalase activity in cajanus cajan (l.) millsp. (journalcra.com)
  • Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Catalase is in the matrix of liver peroxisomes and represents up to 40% of the total protein. (madsci.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide also increased both the mRNA and protein levels of HOXB13. (mdpi.com)
  • Catalase is a globular protein molecule that is found in all living cells. (brightkite.com)
  • It can also react with alkylhydrogen peroxides, such as methylperoxide and ethylperoxide and the second H 2 O 2 molecule can be replaced by methanol, ethanol, propanol, formate and nitrate as a hydrogen donor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 3159 words - 13 pages Factors affecting the catalytic decomposition of Hydrogen peroxidePlease refer to the additional files for tables/graphs.Aim- The purpose of this investigation is to investigate how certain factors affect the catalytic decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide. (brightkite.com)
  • endogenous antioxidant capacity can be overwhelmed, leading to increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide concentrations. (biologists.org)
  • Go Away Gray creator Cathy Beggan states, "According to recent scientific studies, low levels of Catalase in your body can turn your hair gray. (prweb.com)
  • To compare the action of catalase and manganese dioxide on hydrogen peroxide. (physicsforums.com)
  • D. 5cm 3 hydrogen peroxide solution + a little boiled manganese dioxode (The manganese dioxide has been boiled and cooled before use. (physicsforums.com)
  • Manganese dioxide is an inorganic catalyst (but not an enzyme) for the breaking down of hydrogen peroxide. (physicsforums.com)
  • The expression of manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA was shown to increase in most of the immortal chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells tested, while expression of catalase mRNA appeared to be dramatically decreased in all immortal CEF cells compared to their primary counterparts. (elsevier.com)
  • hi i have a big problem got a practical, the effect of catalase on the rate of reaction on hydrogen peroxide. (jiskha.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is an unstable compound, which will decompose independently over time and through contact with other catalytic agents such as high temperatures and light I will then work out the gradient of the two concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. (dellrichards.com)
  • Into The Rate of Reaction of The Catalase Enzyme Introduction: In this experiment I will attempt to investigate the factors that effect the rate of reaction of the catalyse enzyme. (123helpme.com)
  • Adult nematodes exposed to aminotriazole for 24 h showed catalase activities reduced to less than 20% of controls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effect of aminotriazole pre-treatment implicates hydrogen peroxide as a significant toxic agent in the glucose/glucose oxidase system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serum from normal human subjects contained variable amounts of catalase activity, which was inhibitable by heat, azide, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), or aminotriazole treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Although often asymptomatic, this condition can lead to recurrent oral infections by peroxide-generating bacteria. (jiskha.com)
  • The decomposition reaction is also used as a test for catalase in bacteria. (stackexchange.com)
  • A previous study also showed that catalase-producing bacteria were less susceptible to HPV than bacteria that did not produce catalase and metabolically inert spores. (reflectionsipc.com)
  • Does the finding that MRSA and probably other catalase-producing bacteria are less susceptible to HPV, "cell for spore", than bacterial endospores challenge the use of BIs to monitor decontamination using HPV? (reflectionsipc.com)
  • However, as vegetables, animals, and some bacteria also produce catalase, this test only rules out the inorganic samples. (encyclopedia.com)
  • PBB GE CAT 211922 enzyme catalase breakdown of hydrogen peroxide at fs. (russky.me)
  • It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Pointing peroxide is used as a potent hand agent when cells are unlikely with a particular. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Cells make the enzyme catalase to remove hydrogen peroxide. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is used as a potent antimicrobial agent when cells are infected with a pathogen. (russky.me)
  • Serum also decreased hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentrations in vitro and H 2 O 2 -mediated injury to cultured endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. (uniprot.org)
  • Peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles present in almost all eukaryotic cells and house a wide variety of indispensable metabolic reactions, the majority of which produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as by-product (reviewed by Schrader and Fahimi, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the progressive mislocalization of catalase has been demonstrated to occur in cells as early as middle-passage (PDL30-40). (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mode of H 2 O 2 -induced cell death and to assess if overexpression of catalase could protect against its toxicity H 2 O 2 causes cell death of immortalized CSM 14.1 neural cells in a dose-dependent manner H 2 O 2 -induced death was associated with DNA laddering as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Stable overexpression of catalase by transfection of a vector containing human cDNA into these cells markedly attenuated H 2 O 2 - induced toxic effects. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These cells which overexpress catalase or SOD will help to determine the specific role of H 2 O 2 or O 2 / - in the deleterious effects of a number of toxins. (uthscsa.edu)
  • HPR-C cells retained the ability to respond to NGF treatment by increasing catalase and GSH Px activity and expression. (utmb.edu)
  • Size of potato: The Size of a potato cube would effect the investigation because the size of the cube would effect the number of cells in contact with the hydrogen peroxide. (essay911.org)
  • Dimensions of potato: If the potato has more surface area showing that will effect the number of cells in contact with the hydrogen peroxide. (essay911.org)
  • As primary and immortal DF-1 CEF cells were treated with 10-100 μM of hydrogen peroxide (concentrations known to be sublethal in human diploid fibroblasts), immortal DF-1 CEF cells were shown to be more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and total cell numbers were dramatically reduced when compared with primary cell counterparts. (elsevier.com)
  • This increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide in immortal DF-1 cells occurred without evident changes in either antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle distribution or chromatin condensation. (elsevier.com)
  • Untreated sod1 D sod2 D double mutant cells presented a lower catalase activity. (scielo.br)
  • Here, we studied the role of HOXB13 in cytotoxicity caused by hydrogen peroxide in human lung epithelial A549 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies have shown that when hydrogen peroxide is injected in large enough quantities around a cancerous area, the cancer cells die. (hubpages.com)
  • Recent data suggest that at low concentrations hydrogen peroxide acts as a cellular messenger in insulin signaling, whereas at high concentrations it is toxic, particularly in pancreatic cells, which are catalase poor. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This risk may be due to peroxide damage of normally catalase-poor pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One possible explanation for this phenomenon may be that increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in muscle cells due to decreased blood catalase may favor insulin signaling via inactivation of the oxidation-sensitive tyrosine phosphatases that could not dephosphorylate insulin receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) is a by-product of respiration and is made in all living cells. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • people with takahara's disease don't produce catalase. (jiskha.com)
  • Rbc's produce catalase and could give a false positive. (studystack.com)
  • Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. (vernier.com)
  • In this Preliminary Activity, you will use catalase in yeast to catalytically decompose hydrogen peroxide. (vernier.com)
  • Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, KatB was not produced during the normal P. aeruginosa growth cycle, and catalase activity was greater in nonmucoid than in mucoid, alginate-producing organisms. (asm.org)
  • When exposed to hydrogen peroxide and, to a greater extent, paraquat, total catalase activity was elevated 7- to 16-fold, respectively. (asm.org)
  • In addition, an increase in KatB activity caused a marked increase in resistance to hydrogen peroxide. (asm.org)
  • In this experiment, the goal was to determine whether catalase activity regarding the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was affected by an increase in temperature (22 o C vs. 37 o C). (ukessays.com)
  • This study will provide insight into how we can predict, understand and interpret the effects of temperature (independent variable) on the rate of catalase activity. (ukessays.com)
  • Make fresh for each lesson, because catalase activity reduces noticeably over 2/3 hours. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • A single saturating flash given to catalase-free PSII membranes did not induce any H 2 O 2 -dismutation activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The light-induced O 2 -evolution activity in catalase-free PSH was found to be irreversibly impaired by micromolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Regular ingestion of turmeric reduces plasma malondialdehyde and increases red blood cell catalase activity and plasma albumin levels in hemodialysis patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We conclude that serum catalase activity can alter H 2 O 2 -dependent reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • We speculate that variations in serum catalase activity may alter individual susceptibility to oxidant-mediated vascular disease or be a factor when added to test systems in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • In this investigation, we will refer to this as the rate of catalase activity. (vernier.com)
  • When data collection is complete, you will perform a linear fit on the resultant graph to determine catalase activity. (vernier.com)
  • After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about catalase, enzymes, and enzyme activity before you choose and investigate a researchable question dealing with catalase activity. (vernier.com)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to see if there would be enzyme activity that is in catalase, which is found in potatoes. (123helpme.com)
  • Activity of the Enzyme Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide Background Information: An enzyme (Catalase) is a biological catalyst. (123helpme.com)
  • We found that the catalase enzymatic activity was reduced in the lsd1 mutant, indicating that the catalase enzyme activity was partially dependent on lsd 1 . (plantphysiol.org)
  • Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, a determination of the activity of GPO and catalase was only possible at high, unphysiological H 2 O 2 concentrations. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These data may suggest that downregulation of catalase synthesis, rather than specific catalase gene mutations, may be responsible for decreased blood catalase activity in the type 2 diabetic subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activity of catalase decreased 6 hr after the pesticide treatment in both the age groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different plant materials show very different amounts of catalase activity - and the most metabolically active tissues show the greatest activity. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Assessing the catalase activity of each sample will take 5-10 minutes depending on number of repeats. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • An experiment to show the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the catalase. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The reaction of catalase with hydrogen peroxide takes place in the human body as well as in other animals and plants do you think that all energy resulting from biochemical reactions appear as heat energy as in the experiment? (homeworkmarket.com)
  • The Enzyme Catalase Experiment Aim A series of experiments involving the enzyme Catalase has been performed in order to determine some of the enzyme's properties. (123helpme.com)
  • In this cool catalase and hydrogen peroxide experiment, kids put a potato in a jar of hydrogen peroxide to see how catalase acts as an enzyme. (education.com)
  • I'm currently in high school and I'm doing a biology experiment with catalase reacting with hydrogen peroxide. (physicsforums.com)
  • In this experiment, you will be testing for the presence of catalase using hydrogen peroxide. (wikihow.com)
  • 2003. Kinetic study of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase in a flow-mix microcalorimetric system. (ukessays.com)
  • Experiments with fresh human hemolysate allowed us to determine H 2 O 2 decomposition by catalase and GPO using these enzymes in their original quantitative ratio. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide In the absence of a catalyst, Hydrogen Peroxide is quite stable, decomposing only very slowly. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Industrially, catalses have been used to remove hydrogen peroxide added to milk and cheese, in textile bleaching, and to examine its positive effects on the viability of DNA-repair mutants of E. coli. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Milligan SA, Hoeffel JM, Goldstein IM, Flick MR 1988 Effect of catalase on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in unanesthetized sheep. (nature.com)
  • The reaction of catalase with hydrogen peroxide takes place in the human body as well as in other animals and. (homeworkmarket.com)
  • Background- Although many studies suggested direct vasomotor effects of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in vitro, little is known about the vasomotor effects of H 2 O 2 in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that lsd 1 interacted with all three catalases both in vitro and in vivo, and the interaction required the zinc fingers of lsd 1. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although there are no data on the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the vascular tone of small skeletal muscle resistance arteries, it seems possible that the vasomotor effects of endogenously produced hydrogen peroxide contribute to the regulation of blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • The katB mutant was found to be more sensitive to the lethal effects of hydrogen peroxide than was the parent strain when the ferrous iron chelator bipyridyl was added to culture media. (ecu.edu)
  • This difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, which is absent in the gaseous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenolphthalein releases hydrogen peroxide that reacts with an enzyme known as catalase in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Catalase was used to destroy the residual hydrogen peroxide. (usu.edu)
  • It is mainly used for printing & dyeing factory to avoid the negative effect of residual hydrogen peroxide. (burrillandco.com)
  • These data indicate an almost exclusive role for catalase in the removal of H 2 O 2 in normal human erythrocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The explosive properties of mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and isopropanol were determined The mixtures appear to detonate in a well-defined range of concentrations and show extremely fast reactions in an adjacent range of concentrations if initiated by shock wave stimuli. (tudelft.nl)
  • Basically just added hydrogen peroxide to the catalysts under diff conditions and stuff. (jiskha.com)
  • B. 5cm 3 hydrogen peroxide solution + 1 small piece of boiled liver (Boil the liver for 10 minutes and cool before use. (physicsforums.com)
  • Did your manual or instructor specify that catalase in present in both the liver and in potato tubers? (physicsforums.com)
  • Similarly, deadlines in the liver are also important to functioning at most temperature 37 degrees Celsiusso restricting the blended liver to a fight hotter than that should have completed the catalase enzyme and clearly acquired the amount of bubbles when it was printed to hydrogen peroxide. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • The enzyme occurs widely in tissues such as the liver and prevents accumulation of, and tissue damage by, hydrogen peroxide that is. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • We will use homogenized chicken or beef liver as a source of catalase. (russky.me)
  • Catalase is an enzyme found in many foods such as potato and liver. (essay911.org)
  • Catalase from bovine liver is a tetramer consisting of 4 equal subunits each with a 60 kDa molecular weight. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Add a 2cm cube of liver, which contains the enzyme catalase.8. (brightkite.com)
  • The exponential decay of H 2 O 2 in the presence of purified erythrocyte catalase was followed down to 10 −9 mol/L H 2 O 2 at pH 7.4. (bloodjournal.org)
  • any inherited or acquired deficiencies in erythrocyte catalase may cause increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations with both toxic and physiological effects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The catalase test will always be positive for catalase. (studystack.com)
  • These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Catalase rewards the following reaction: Move glass beaker or cup Wrap Divide the potato into three more equal sections. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • This reaction is caused by catalase, an argument within the potato. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • Go further in this situation by looking at a very early sample of potato combined with information peroxide under a thesis. (hopebayboatdays.com)
  • The speed of the potato floating up is in correlation to the efficiency of catalase. (africasportnews.com)
  • Crushed potato samples of equal weight were placed in hydrogen peroxide solutions of various temperatures. (educationindex.com)
  • Seekamp A, Lalonde C, Zhu DG, Demling R 1988 Catalase prevents prostanoid release and lung lipid peroxidation after endotoxemia in sheep. (nature.com)
  • A 7-day flooding treatment resulted in a significant increase in chlorophyll breakdown, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehye content), membrane permeability, and the production of superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in corn leaves. (springer.com)
  • 2013. Kinetics of thermal inactivation of catalase in the presence of additives. (ukessays.com)
  • The researchers concluded that the inactivation of catalase was significantly larger when hydrogen peroxide was present. (ukessays.com)
  • The rate of inactivation is decreased by superoxide dismutase, by catalase, and by EDTA, whereas it is increased by addition of cupric ions or hydrogen peroxide. (tudelft.nl)
  • This suggests that the presence of ferrous iron in anaerobic culture media exacerbates the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide and that the presence of a functional catalase is important for survival in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. (ecu.edu)
  • As the temperature of the enzyme active site increases, the efficiency to catalyze hydrogen peroxide which is determined by the height of the bubbles formed also increases. (africasportnews.com)
  • During the test for pH, when hydrogen peroxide was added to the catalase/water solution with a pH of 3, which is acidic, thirty four millimeters of bubbles were produced. (educationindex.com)
  • This lab reached the objective by determining the impact temperature has on the function of catalase. (africasportnews.com)
  • Theoretically, according to Smith Brett, the optimum temperature of catalase is 37°C which means in the 40°C trials, the catalase surpassed the optimum point and began to denature. (africasportnews.com)
  • The image displayed above can be used to predict the temperature at which the catalase would be completely denatured preventing any catalysis which would be around 60°C. (africasportnews.com)
  • 2243 words - 9 pages Effect of Temperature on an Enzyme in Hydgrogen Peroxide Introduction. (brightkite.com)
  • The aim of this investigation is to find out how temperature affects the speed at which the enzyme,Catalase,works best in Hydrogen Peroxide.I hope to achieve reliable results that will confirm my predictions. (brightkite.com)
  • In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo potentially explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature. (wikipedia.org)