Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.TurtlesSodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/46035)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Does gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase contribute to carbon dioxide excretion: a comparison between dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (2/46035)

In vivo experiments were conducted on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in sea water to determine the potential role of externally oriented or gill boundary layer carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide excretion. This was accomplished by assessing pH changes in expired water using a stopped-flow apparatus. In dogfish, expired water was in acid-base disequilibrium as indicated by a pronounced acidification (delta pH=-0.11+/-0.01; N=22; mean +/- s.e.m.) during the period of stopped flow; inspired water, however, was in acid-base equilibrium (delta pH=-0.002+/-0.01; N=22). The acid-base disequilibrium in expired water was abolished (delta pH=-0.005+/-0.01; N=6) by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (5 mg l-1) to the external medium. Addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (1 mmol l-1) to the water significantly reduced the magnitude of the pH disequilibrium (from -0.133+/-0.03 to -0.063+/-0.02; N=4). However, after correcting for the increased buffering capacity of the water caused by acetazolamide, the acid-base disequilibrium during stopped flow was unaffected by this treatment (control delta [H+]=99.8+/-22.8 micromol l-1; acetazolamide delta [H+]=81.3+/-21.5 micromol l-1). In rainbow trout, expired water displayed an acid-base disequilibrium (delta pH=0.09+/-0.01; N=6) that also was abolished by the application of external carbonic anhydrase (delta pH=0.02+/-0.01). The origin of the expired water acid-base disequilibrium was investigated further in dogfish. Intravascular injection of acetazolamide (40 mg kg-1) to inhibit internal carbonic anhydrase activity non-specifically and thus CO2 excretion significantly diminished the extent of the expired water disequilibrium pH after 30 min (from -0.123+/-0.01 to -0.065+/-0.01; N=6). Selective inhibition of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity using a low intravascular dose (1.3 mg kg-1) of the inhibitor benzolamide caused a significant reduction in the acid-base disequilibrium after 5 min (from -0.11+/-0.01 to -0.07+/-0. 01; N=14). These results demonstrate that the expired water acid-base disequilibrium originates, at least in part, from excretory CO2 and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase in dogfish may have a significant role in carbon dioxide excretion. However, externally oriented carbonic anhydrase (if present in dogfish) plays no role in catalysing the hydration of the excretory CO2 in water flowing over the gills and thus is unlikely to facilitate CO2 excretion.  (+info)

Inward rectification in KATP channels: a pH switch in the pore. (3/46035)

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir channels) stabilize the resting membrane potential and set a threshold for excitation in many types of cell. This function arises from voltage-dependent rectification of these channels due to blockage by intracellular polyamines. In all Kir channels studied to date, the voltage-dependence of rectification is either strong or weak. Here we show that in cardiac as well as in cloned KATP channels (Kir6.2 + sulfonylurea receptor) polyamine-mediated rectification is not fixed but changes with intracellular pH in the physiological range: inward-rectification is prominent at basic pH, while at acidic pH rectification is very weak. The pH-dependence of polyamine block is specific for KATP as shown in experiments with other Kir channels. Systematic mutagenesis revealed a titratable C-terminal histidine residue (H216) in Kir6.2 to be the structural determinant, and electrostatic interaction between this residue and polyamines was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent rectification. This pH-dependent block of KATP channels may represent a novel and direct link between excitation and intracellular pH.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (4/46035)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (5/46035)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

A new alkali-resistant hemoglobin alpha2J Oxford gammaF2 in a Sicilian baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia. (6/46035)

A 10-mo-old baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia and alphaJOxford, presenting the clinical picture of homozygous beta thalassemia is described. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed three bands: the first two with the mobilities of hemoglobin Hb A2 (1%) and Hb F (69%), respectively, the third migrating a little faster than Hb A (30%). About 30% of her alpha chains were J Oxford which, bound to her gamma chains, produced a new alkali-resistant hemoglobin, alpha2 J Oxford gamma F2, which has not been described previously. Hemoglobin synthesis in vitro showed the absence of beta chain synthesis and an alpha/non-alpha ratio of 2. The patient's father was heterozygous for both the Hb J Oxford and beta0 thalassemia genes, the mother a carrier of beta0 thalassemia; four other relatives were carriers of Hb J Oxford, and one was a carrier of beta thalassemia.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (7/46035)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (8/46035)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

*Delta ratio

... while bicarbonate and hydrogen ions diffuse with ease (as H₂CO₃, carbonic acid), the usual result will be closer to a delta ... A normal anion gap acidosis (NAGMA) has more to do with a change in [Cl¯]) or [HCO3¯] concentrations. So the AG doesn't change ... and reflects either an increase in the anion gap or a decrease in the bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3¯]). The ratio gives one ...

*Magnesium monohydride

The trihydride ion is produced the most, and in a greater proportion when pure hydrogen is used rather than ammonia. The ... Otherwise in these stars, below any magnesium silicate clouds where the temperature is hotter, the concentration of MgH is ... The distance between hydrogen and magnesium atoms is 1.7297Å. The ground state of magnesium monohydride is X2Σ+. Due to the ... Thermally produced hydrogen atoms and magnesium vapour can react and condense in a solid argon matrix. This process does not ...

*Carsten Olsen

The influence of hydrogen ion concentration. Physiologia Plantarum, 6, 848-858. Olsen, C. (1954) Hvilke betingelser må være ... 2] Olsen, C. (1923) Studies on the hydrogen ion concentration of the soil and its significance to the vegetation, especially to ... Olsen, C. & Linderstrøm-Lang, K. (1927) On the accuracy of the various methods of measuring concentration of Hydrogen ions in ... Olsen, C. (1921) The concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil. Science 54 (1405), 539-541. [1] Olsen, C. (1921) The ecology ...

*Agnes J. Quirk

Quirk AJ (1923). Hydrogen-ion concentration vs. titratable acidity in culture mediums. Quirk AJ, Fawcett, EH (1926). A Begonia ... Agnes J. Quirk (1923). Hydrogen-ion concentration vs. titratable acidity in culture mediums. Retrieved 30 March 2012. Ogilvie, ...

*Jesse Francis McClendon

McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations. Amer. J. Physiol., 1915, ... The hydrogen ion concentrations of the contents of the small intestine. J. of Biological Chemistry, Feb 19, 1918. XXXIV, No 1. ... McClendon J. F. A direct reading potenciometer for measuring hydrogen ion concentration. Amer. J. Physiol., 1915, 38, 2, 186. ... stomachs and duodenums of adults and infants plotted with the acid of imported methods of measuring hydrogen ion concentration ...

*Benjamin Karpman

The hydrogen ion concentrations of the contents of the small intestine. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Feb 19, 1918. XXXIV, ...

*Arthur W. Thomas

Thomas, A. W., & Kelly, M. W. (1923). The influence of hydrogen-ion concentration in the fixation of vegetable tannins by hide ... Thomas, A. W. (1920). Tabulation of hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations of some acids and bases. Journal of the American ... Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration upon enzymatic activity of three typical amylases. Journal of the American Chemical ... Contrasting effects of chlorides and sulfates on the hydrogen-ion concentration of acid solutions. Journal of the American ...

*Gastroenterology

McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations. - Amer. J. Physoil., 1915 ...

*Hexamethylenetetramine

A. (1935). "HEXAMINE AS AN URINARY ANTISEPTIC: I. ITS RATE OF HYDROLYSIS AT DIFFERENT HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATIONS. II. ITS ...

*Ranitidine

This results in decreased gastric acid secretion and gastric volume, and reduced hydrogen ion concentration. Absorption: Oral: ... Ranitidine enters breast milk, with peak concentrations seen at 5.5 hours after the dose in breast milk. Caution should be ...

*Acidic oxide

... they are not Arrhenius acids because they do not increase the hydrogen ion concentration of water. However, they are Lewis ...

*Alkalosis

... is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to ... mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and ... Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain ... It may also cause low blood calcium concentration. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become ...

*Reversible hydrogen electrode

The hydrogen ion concentration is therefore not 1, but corresponds to that of the electrolyte solution; in this way we can ... Dynamic hydrogen electrode Palladium-hydrogen electrode Cai, Yu; Anderson, Alfred B. (2004). "The reversible hydrogen electrode ... The reversible hydrogen electrode is a fairly practical and reproducible electrode "standard." The term refers to a hydrogen ... A reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) is a reference electrode, more specifically a subtype of the standard hydrogen electrodes ...

*Neutrophile

... s are adapted to live in an environment where the hydrogen ion concentration is at equilibrium. They are sensitive ... to the concentration, and when the pH become too basic or acidic, the cell's proteins can denature. Depending on the microbe ...

*PH

The concentration of hydroxide ions in water is related to the concentration of hydrogen ions by [ O H − ] = K W [ H + ] {\ ... Since addition of hydroxide reduces the hydrogen ion concentration, and the hydroxide ion concentration is constrained by the ... it is possible to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions directly, if the electrode is calibrated in terms of hydrogen ion ... Since the concentrations of acid and alkaline are known, it is easy to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ions so that the ...

*Guar

The borate-guar reaction is reversible, and depends on the pH (hydrogen ion concentration) of the solution. Crosslinking of ... Guar gum is often crosslinked with boron or chromium ions to make it more stable and heat-resistant. The crosslinking of guar ... Thanks to the latter, it exhibits a great hydrogen bonding activity having a viscosifying effect in liquids. It is known as ... PHGG as sold commercially is completely soluble, acid and heat stable, unaffected by ions, and will not gel at high ...

*Determination of equilibrium constants

When the pH (or equivalent e.m.f., E).is measured, the free concentration of hydrogen ions, [H], is obtained from the measured ... Constant-boiling hydrochloric acid may also be used as a primary standard for hydrogen ion concentration. It is assumed that ... A solution of known hydrogen ion concentration may be prepared by standardization of a strong acid against borax. ... With aqueous solutions the concentrations of proton (hydronium ion) and hydroxide ion are constrained by the self-dissociation ...

*Hypocapnia

Chemoreceptors in the body sense a change in partial pressures and pH (hydrogen ion concentration) in the blood. Chemoreceptors ... leading to lowered plasma calcium ions and increased nerve and muscle excitability. This explains the other common symptoms of ...

*Dennis Robert Hoagland

1924 The Electrical Charge on a Clay Colloid as Influenced by Hydrogen-Ion Concentration and by Different Salts. With W. C. ... Res., 7:3. 1917 The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydroxyl Ion Concentration on the Growth of Barley Seedlings. Soil Sci., 3(6) 547- ... Hydrogen-Ion Effects and the Accumulation of Salt by Barley Roots as Influenced by Metabolism. With T. C. Broyer. Am. J. Bot., ... The Relation of Concentration and Reaction of the Nutrient Medium to the Growth and Absorption of the Plant. J. Agr. Res., 18(2 ...

*Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

1969). "Effect of hydrogen ion concentration and of temperature on the growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil extract ...

*Equilibrium chemistry

It includes hydroxide complexes because the concentration of the hydroxide ions is related to the concentration of hydrogen ... Hydrogen ion concentration can be increased by the presence of carbon dioxide, which behaves as a weak acid. H2O + CO2 ⇌ {\ ... H+ as this shows that when hydrogen ion concentration increases the equilibrium is shifted to the left in accordance with Le ... In solution chemistry, it is usual to use H+ as an abbreviation for the solvated hydrogen ion, regardless of the solvent. In ...

*PH meter

The glass electrode for measuring the pH has a glass bulb specifically designed to be selective to hydrogen-ion concentration. ... which provides binding sites for alkali-metal ions and hydrogen ions from the solutions. This provides an ion-exchange capacity ... Selectivity for hydrogen ions (H+) arises from a balance of ionic charge, volume requirements versus other ions, and the ... On immersion in the solution to be tested, hydrogen ions in the test solution exchange for other positively charged ions on the ...

*Porcine parvovirus

... a wide range of hydrogen ion concentrations, and enzymes. Replication of PPV in vitro is cytocidal and characterized by " ...

*Buffer solution

They are concentration effects and reflect the fact that pH is related to the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. ... The hydrogen ion concentration decreases by less than the amount expected because most of the added hydroxide ion is consumed ... CA is the analytical concentration of the acid, CH is the analytical concentration of added hydrogen ions, βq are the ... Because of this, the hydrogen ion concentration increases by less than the amount expected for the quantity of strong acid ...

*Acidosis

... an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term ...

*Sulfide

"Hydrogen sulfide" is itself an example of a non-systematic name of this nature. However, it is also a trivial name, and the ... Sulfide does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water, being undetectable at pH < ~15 (8 M NaOH). ... Examples of such naming are selenium disulfide and titanium sulfide, which contains no sulfide ions whatsoever. Sulfide is also ... Hydrogen sulfide, some of its salts, and almost all organic sulfides have a strong and putrid stench; rotting biomass releases ...

*Conductometry

This development allowed for testing the solubility of salts and hydrogen ion concentration, as well as acid/base and redox ... are associated with the changing concentrations of the two most highly conducting ions-the hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. The ... For each amount of NaOH added equivalent amount of hydrogen ions is removed. Effectively, the mobile H+ cation is replaced by ... If more base is added, an increase in conductivity or conductance is observed, since more ions Na+ and OH− are being added and ...
The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unity were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the ...
China High-Temperature pH Sensor/ pH Electrode for Sterilization (pH5806/S8), Find details about China pH Sensor, pH Probe from High-Temperature pH Sensor/ pH Electrode for Sterilization (pH5806/S8) - Shanghai Boqu Instrument Co., Ltd.
Increasing the extracellular pH over the range pH 7.4-8.9 stimulated protein synthesis by about 60% in the rat heart preparation anterogradely perfused in vitro. Protein degradation was inhibited by this pH increase. The magnitudes of the effects at pH 8.9 on protein synthesis and degradation were similar to those of high concentrations of insulin. Cardiac outputs were increased, as were cardiac phosphocreatine contents, indicating that the alterations in extracellular pH did not adversely affect the physiological viability of the preparation. ATP contents were unaltered. The creatine kinase equilibrium was used to assess the magnitude of the change in intracellular pH induced by these treatments. The increase in intracellular pH was about 0.2 for a 1-unit increase in extracellular pH. Thus small changes in intracellular pH have dramatic effects on cardiac protein turnover. ...
Understanding and predicting the effect of various environments that differ in terms of pH and the presence of cosolutes and macromolecules on protein properties is a formidable challenge. Yet this knowledge is crucial in understanding the effect of cellular environments on a protein. By combining thermodynamic theories of solution condition effects with statistical mechanics and computer simulations we develop a molecular perspective of protein folding and amyloid formation that was previously unobtainable. The resulting Molecular Transfer Model offers, in some instances, quantitatively accurate predictions of cosolute and pH effects on various protein properties. We show that protein denatured state properties can change significantly with osmolyte concentration, and that residual structure can persist at high denaturant concentrations. We study the single molecule mechanical unfolding of proteins at various pH values and varying osmolyte and denaturant concentrations. We find that the the ...
In this work, the near-neutral photo-Fenton process, as a means of wastewater disinfection, was enhanced by the addition of Organic Acids (OAs), namely citric, ascorbic, tartaric and caffeic acid. The addition of OAs exhibited significant bacterial inactivation enhancement, compared to the classic photo-Fenton systems (Fe2+/H2O2/solar and Fe3+/H2O2/solar). The improved disinfection performance was not attributed to pH variations by the addition of OAs, but to the increase of the initial dissolved iron in the system, facilitating the Fe3+/Fe2+ turnover in the catalytic photo-Fenton reaction and consequently, the hydroxyl radicals production. For citric and tartaric acid, increased photo-activity of the complexes was associated with their high capability to complex Fe3+ and to promote ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT), which is of key importance to feed Fe2+ to the Fenton process. On the other hand, for ascorbic and caffeic acid, the acceleration of the homogeneous Fenton reaction was ...
Ion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells provide key mechanisms in signal perception and volume regulation during stomatal movement. Recent studies have suggested that the strongly voltage-dependent, inactivating guard cell anion channel (GCAC1) acts as a sensor of the ambient extracellular CO2 concentration and as a target of modulation by nucleotides and Ca2+ ions. Applying the patch-clamp technique it is demonstrated here that GCAC1 is activated by cytoplasmic ATP in a pH-dependent manner.. When the apoplastic pH was buffered to 5.6 and the cytosolic pH dropped step-wise from 7.8 to 5.6, the single-channel activity increased as a function of proton concentration. This pH-sensitivity is characterized by a titratable site with an apparent pK value around 6.9. While the steepness and direction of the transmembrane pH gradient did not affect the kinetics of activation, deactivation and fast inactivation of the whole-cell anion current, the kinetics of slow inactivation and reactivation ...
China High Quality Online pH Sensor 0-14pH for Fermentation (pH5806/K8S), Find details about China pH Sensor, pH Electrode from High Quality Online pH Sensor 0-14pH for Fermentation (pH5806/K8S) - Shanghai Boqu Instrument Co., Ltd.
Filamentous fungi have the ability to efficiently decompose plant biomass, and thus are widely used in the biofuel and bioprocess industries. In process, ambient pH has been reported to strongly affect the performance of the applied functional filamentous fungi. In this study, Trichoderma guizhouense NJAU4742 was investigated under the fermentation of rice straw at different initial pH values for a detailed study. The results showed that NJAU4742 strain could tolerate ambient pH values ranging from 3.0 to 9.0, but had significantly higher growth speed and extracellular enzyme activities under acidic conditions. At low ambient pH (| 4), NJAU4742 strain achieved rapid degradation of rice straw by elevating the ambient pH to an optimal range through environmental alkalinization. Further proteomic analysis identified a total of 1139 intracellular and extracellular proteins during the solid-state fermentation processes, including the quantified 190 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) responsible for rice
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H3O+ + OH-. The position of any equilibrium is given by an equilibrium constant, K, which for the dissociation of water according to the acid-base reaction just described is:. K = a(H3O+)a(OH-)/a2(H2O). In this equation, the chemical activities a can be approximated by the appropriate molar concentrations, indicated here by the use of square brackets in the form K = [H3O+][OH-]/[H2O]2 Since the concentration of water is approximately constant, it is normally included with the equilibrium constant of water (in other words, the chemical activity of water is taken as that of pure water, which is unity). In that case the equilibrium constant above is known as the ion product of water or the autoionization constant of water and indicated by the subscript w, so that by definition:. Kw = [H3O+][OH-]. The ionization constants of acids and bases other than water are dealt with in a similar way. The ionization of acetic acid in water is described by the equilibrium. CH3COOH(aq) + H2O ...
Comparative Evaluation of Magnesium Bisulfite Pretreatment under Different pH Values for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover. Jiwei Ren,a Lei Liu,b Qianqian Xu,b Xin Li,b Qiang Yong,c and Jia Ouyang b,c,*. During pretreatment, the pretreatment pH often plays an important role in removing hemicelluloses and lignin for improving the conversion of biomass to sugars. In this study, corn stover was subjected to magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP) under various pH conditions. The obtained data showed that the hemicelluloses and lignin were solubilized by MBSP, which led to changes in the structural and chemical properties of the pretreated material. The pretreatment pH could alter the existing forms of SO2, and magnesium bisulfite was the most effective reagent for removing lignin. A relatively neutral MBSP (pH 5.13) not only considerably improved the enzymatic hydrolysis yield (80.18%), but also produced a large amount of high-value xylo-oligosaccharides in the spent liquor. Furthermore, only the ...
The hydrogen ion concentration is extremely important to the structural and functional integrity of living systems. Even slight changes in may cause profound changes in the large molecules and
Toxic chemicals and both prescription and over-the-counter drugs lower body`s pH levels, which is the reason why they come with a wide range of side effects and little or no effectiveness. Enzymes are deactivated when the pH drops below 6.4, which in turn compromises both digestion and assimilation of vitamins, minerals, and food supplements. Acid reduces the energy production on cellular level, the ability to detoxify heavy metals, the capacity to repair cells, and makes the body more prone to illness and fatigue.. It has been scientifically shown that disease cannot thrive in an alkaline environment, and that bacteria, yeast, mold, candida, fungus, and cancer cells thrive in an acidic and low pH environment. The most common causes of an acidic pH include emotional stress, toxic overload, an acid forming diet, and depletion of oxygen and nutrients. In turn, the body tries to compensate for acid by using alkaline mineral reserves, which then leads to development of a wide array of ...
Ethanol oxidation in 0.1 M NaOH on single-crystal electrodes has been studied using electrochemical and FTIR techniques. The results show that the activity order is the opposite of that found in acidic solutions. The Pt(111) electrode displays the highest currents and also the highest onset potential of all the electrodes. The onset potential for the oxidation of ethanol is linked to the adsorption of OH on the electrode surface. However, small (or even negligible) amounts of COads and carbonate are detected by FTIR, which implies that cleavage of the ...
Background Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli includes numerous mechanisms involving pH-dependent catabolism and ion fluxes. An important contributor is transmembrane K+ flux, but the actual basis of K+ compensation for pH stress remains unclear. Osmoprotection could mediate the pH protection afforded by K+ and other osmolytes. Methods and Principal Findings The cytoplasmic pH of E. coli K-12 strains was measured by GFPmut3 fluorimetry. The wild-type strain Frag1 was exposed to rapid external acidification by HCl addition. Recovery of cytoplasmic pH was enhanced equally by supplementation with NaCl, KCl, proline, or sucrose. A triple mutant strain TK2420 defective for the Kdp, Trk and Kup K+ uptake systems requires exogenous K+ for steady-state pH homeostasis and for recovery from sudden acid shift. The K+requirement however was partly compensated by supplementation with NaCl, choline chloride, proline, or sucrose. Thus, the K+ requirement was mediated in part by osmolarity, possibly by
1. Na+/H+ antiport activity was measured in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells of 12 healthy subjects by using an intracellular pH clamp technique to determine the external Na(+)-dependent H+ efflux rate in cells loaded with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, bis(carboxyethyl)carboxyfluorescein. The change in external Na+ concentrations for all pH measurements was similar in both cell types. 2. A significant difference between the two types of cells was found, the polymorphonuclear leucocytes having a higher Na+/H+ antiport activity than the lymphocytes. Cellular intrinsic buffering capacity measured in the absence of HCO3- was also higher in the polymorphonuclear cells than in the lymphocytes. 3. These differences may be associated with a difference in the role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in these two types of cells, although in vivo the presence of HCO3-/Cl- exchangers may also contribute to intracellular pH homoeostasis.
1. Pyridine reacts with alkaline haematin to form a dipyridine dihydroxy dimeric haematin in which there is no competition between pyridine and OH− for coordination positions on the iron of haematin. 2. Imidazole competes directly with OH− to form the monomeric imidazole parahaematin in alkaline media. 3. The monomeric imidazole parahaematin aggregates readily to form a species that is precipitated on standing. 4. A structure is proposed for the haematin-pyridine compound in alkaline media.. ...
1 ml of urine is diluted to 4 ml with a phosphate buffer at pH 6. 1ml of blood is de-proteinized by mean of sonication (15 minutes), vortex mixing (30 sec) and added with a phosphate buffer at pH 6. 5 min. Centrifugation is following (5 min. 300 r/min) and the precipitate eliminated. The B.E.C. column is conditioned with 2 ml of Methanol, 2 ml of water and 3 ml of a phosphate buffer solution at pH 6. Conditioning flow rate is 1.5 ml/min. The sample is then loaded onto the column at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Before elution, the column is rinsed with 1 ml of buffer solution and dried under vacuum for 5 min. Column pH is lowered to the value of 3 by Acetic Acid teatment at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Stationary phase is dried again under vacuum for 5 min and wet with 1.0 ml of hexane. Elution is performed at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min with the following conditions: ...
All growers should do their own media pH and EC testing every week, at least on key crops. They can then send in periodic samples to a reputable testing lab for complete media (and tissue) analysis to back up their own findings, when they have problems showing up, or when they change something big such as the media or fertilizer program. Samples should be taken from commercial mixes out of the bag or your own hopper before sowing or planting the crop. To determine the true effect of the lime in the media, I suggest you also take samples after watering the flats or trays for one and two weeks with just your water, no feed. You should be able to see how the lime will affect the media pH within the first two weeks. Afterwards, I tell growers to monitor key crops, the ones more likely to show problems with media pH or EC. Here are my recommendations:. If you test one or more crops from each list weekly, you can avoid problems on those crops before they show up. All other crops will fall somewhere in ...
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For improving the therapeutic efficiency of tumors and decreasing undesirable side effects, ternary complexes were developed by coating pH-sensitive PEG-b-PLL-g-succinylsulfathiazole (hereafter abbreviated as PPSD) with DNA/PEI polyplexes via electrostatic interaction. PPSD can efficiently shield the surface charge of DNA/PEI. The gene transfection efficiency of ternary complexes was lower than that of DNA/PEI at pH 7.4; however, it recovered to the same level as that of DNA/PEI at pH 6.0, attributed to the pH-triggered release of DNA/PEI from ternary complexes. Cell uptake results also exhibited the same trend as transfection at different pH values. The suitable ability for pH-triggered shielding/deshielding estimated that PPSD demonstrates potential as a shielding system for use in in vivo gene delivery.
The most commonly accepted mechanism of entry for alphaviruses is via endocytosis and the subsequent acidification of the vesicle leading to membrane fusion. This is similar to the mechanism accepted for influenza. The studies in support of this mechanism are extensive, and rely on the observations that alphaviruses have membrane fusion capabilities, and that inhibition of the acidification of endosomes inhibits the entry of the virus. The original fusion assays were done with cultured cells, and it was shown that treating cells with adsorbed virus to a brief low pH environment, resulted in cell-cell fusion (fusion from without) [62]. This suggested the acid environment of an endosome could provide the requirements for fusion and penetration. However in these studies the cells were always returned to neutral pH before fusion was seen and it was subsequently shown that this return to neutral pH was required to induce fusion of the virus and cell membranes[63]. The pH of the endosome does not ...
Several inwardly-rectifying (Kir) potassium channels (Kin l 1, Kir41 and Kir4 2) are characterised by their sensitivity to inhibition by intracellular H+ within the physiological range The mechanism by which these channels are regulated by intracellular pH has been the subject of intense scrutiny for over a decade, yet the molecular identity of the titratable pH-sensor remains elusive In this study we have taken advantage of the acidic intracellular environment of S cerevisiae and used a K+-auxotrophic strain to screen for mutants of Kin 1 1 with impaired pH-sensitivity In addition to the previously identified K80M mutation, this unbiased screening approach identified a novel mutation (S172T) in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) that also produces a marked reduction in pH-sensitivity through destabilization of the closed-state However, despite this extensive mutagenic approach, no mutations could be identified which removed channel pH-sensitivity or which were likely to act as a separate H+-sensor
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pH dependent ion exchange matrices are provided, with methods for making such matrices, and methods for using such matrices to isolate a target nucleic acid, such as plasmid DNA, chromosomal DNA, or RNA from contaminants, including proteins, lipids, cellular debris, or other nucleic acids. Each pH dependent ion exchange matrix of this invention comprises at least two different ion exchange functional groups, one of which is capable of acting as an anion exchanger at a first pH, and the other of which is capable of acting as a cation exchanger at a second, higher pH. The matrix has an overall neutral charge in a pH range between the first and second pH. The pH dependent ion exchange matrices of the present invention are designed to bind to the target nucleic acid at a pH wherein the overall charge of the matrix is positive, and to release the target nucleic acid as the pH of the surrounding solution is increased. The target nucleic acid can be released from the pH dependent matrix in little or no salt
According to Florida State Universtiy, pH affects enzyme activity by altering or inhibiting an enzyme from catalyzing a reaction. Changes in pH affect polar and non-polar forces, alter the shape of...
HPLC Application #16098: Non-Polar Acids at pH 2.5 using Onyx C18 3.0mm ID. Column used: Onyx™ Monolithic C18, LC Column 100 x 3 mm, Ea Part#: CH0-8158
Enzymes are biological catalysts. Enzymes are also proteins that are folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site.. They can be denatured by high temperatures or extremes of pH. The enzyme activity gradually increases with temperature until around 37ºC, or body temperature. Then, as the temperature continues to rise, the rate of reaction falls rapidly, as heat energy denatures the enzyme.. Different enzymes work best at different pH values. The optimum pH for an enzyme depends on where it normally works. For example, a stomach enzyme would work best in acidic conditions. A mouth enzyme would work best in neutral conditions.. Enzymes reduce the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place.. ...
Interpretations of pH values are soundest when associated with dilute aqueous solutions of simple solutes; they become unsound when associated with nonaqueous solvents, colloids, or solutions of high ionic strength. For most applications the pH value may be regarded as a practical and comparative measure of acidity, and no attempt need be made to interpret it rigorously in terms of single-ion activity. In many calculations the hydrogen ion concentration is more accessible than the activity. For example, the electroneutrality condition is written in terms of concentrations rather than activities. Ka CA- + [HI] Solution of strong acid A strong acid, by definition, is one for which (3-11) is complete to the right, so that [HA] is essentially zero. From (3-14) [H] = + CHA [OH-] (3-18) The total concentration of hydrogen ion is that from the strong acid plus that from the water (equal to [OH-]). Unless the solution is extremely dilute (CHA< M), the second term may be neglected. Consider, for ...
The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of a reporter molecule attached to gold or silver nanostructures, which is pH-sensitive, can deliver information on the local pH in the environment of the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a mobile SERS nanosensor made from gold nanaoaggregates and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (pMBA) attached as a reporter for monitoring changes in local pH of the cellular compartments of living NIH/3T3 cells. We show that SERS nanosensors enable the dynamics of local pH in individual live cells to be followed at subendosomal resolution in a timeline of cellular processes. This information is of basic interest for a better understanding of a broad range of physiological and metabolic processes as well as for a number of biotechnological applications ...
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This free online seminar addresses various ways in which temperature impacts pH measurements and discusses temperature compensation during calibration of instruments with buffers and measurement of pH in samples.
Effect of Intraluminal pH on the Absorption of Pteroylmonoglutamic Acid: The administration of pteroylmonoglutamic acid and either sodium bicarbonate or phenyto
We offer a distinguished range of buffer solutions and substances for the exact calibration of your pH measurement equipment. Using Certipur reference materials, you benefit from maximum accuracy, reliability and convenience and avoid costly repeat analyses.
A base is also called alkaline, is the opposite of an acid. Some examples of a base substance are baking soda and ammonia. The body needs balance to function optimally, but the number 7 is not necessarily the magic number for all parts of the body. Inside, the bodys biochemical environment prefers to be on the slightly more on the alkaline side. The optimal measurement here actually is 7.39.. The blood however, functions properly only as long as the pH measurement falls within the range of 7.36 (a bit more acidic) to 7.45 (a bit more alkaline). This range of 7.36 and 7.45 is vital to persons well being. The body will go through great lengths to maintain the appropriate, slightly alkaline, nature of its internal environment. Measurements outside this range significantly compromise the bloods ability to function properly and can even result in death.. Alkalosis results when the bloods pH measurement falls between 7.42 and 7.8. Acidosis results when the bloods pH measurement ranges from 7 to ...
A normal liver has a neutral pH of 7, which is the same pH as pure water, according to Scientific American. In a pH-neutral solution, there is an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions....
1)   solvent phase  ,  2)  aqueous phase  ,  3)  precipitates ,  4)  both ( and (
Hematoxylin is a positively charged dye (at low pH values). It therefore colors negatively charged (basophilic) structures blue, like the DNA of nuclear chromatin, the RNA of rough endoplasmatic reticulum, and the acidic glycosaminoglycans of hyaline cartilage ...
Ionic charges work in the same way as magnets and opposites attract, so the amount of molecules that this happens to in pure water is relatively low - only 1 in 555million water molecules stays separated in this way, and as there is nothing else in the solution for the ions to bind to, the number of H+ equals the number of OH-. This gives pure water a pH of 7, and other solutions are compared to this. When the water is impure (has things mixed into it) the ionic balance is disrupted - either the OH- or the H+s will bind to the molecules within the solution and leave an excess of the other. Due to the nature of the calculation giving us pH, as the concentration of H+ increases, the pH decreases, so the more acidic a solution, the lower the pH ...
2218 - Lamotte Wide Range pH indicator reagent #3 (500ml) Lamotte Chemical Refills This product is for an individual chemical refill for the Lamotte chemical testing kits.
How to do correct and accurate pH measurement? The right equipment selection, handling and maintenance are explained in this pH Theory Guide.
Of all the molecular determinants for growth, the hydronium and hydroxide ions are found naturally in the widest concentration range, from acid mine drainage below pH 0 to soda lakes above pH 13. Most bacteria and archaea have mechanisms that maintain their internal, cytoplasmic pH within a narrower range than the pH outside the cell, termed
pH represents the effective concentration (activity) of hydrogen ions (H+) in water. This concentration could be expressed in the same kind of units as other dissolved species, but H+ concentrations are much smaller than other species in most waters. The activity of hydrogen ions can be expressed most conveniently in logarithmic units. pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the activity of H+ ions: pH = -log [H+]. where [H+] is the concentration of H+ ions in moles per liter (a mole is a unit of measurement, equal to 6.022 x 1023 atoms). Because H+ ions associate with water molecules to form hydronium (H3O+) ions, pH is often expressed in terms of the concentration of hydronium ions. In pure water at 22° C (72° F), H3O+ and hydroxyl (OH-) ions exist in equal quantities; the concentration of each is 1.0 x 10-7 moles per liter (mol/L). Therefore, pH of pure water = -log (1.0 x 10-7) = -(-7.00) = 7.00. Because pH is defined as log [H+], pH decreases as [H+] increases (which will happen if ...
The major buffering systems in the body are proteins, particularly those with the amino acids histidine and cysteine exposed to the outside environment, phosphate, and bicarbonate. All three of these are weak acids with pKa values lower than physiological pH. As a consequence, buffering capacity increases as the pH is lowered from the physiological range. This meets the needs of most organisms because physiological pH excursions generally occur in the acid direction. Hence, the low pKa of these buffering systems is poised to respond to metabolic acidosis. Of these three, only the bicarbonate system, which is critical for buffering extracellular fluids such as blood, is in steady-state between production and removal. Thus, pH changes via this dynamic bicarbonate system are taking place on a background provided by the more static protein and phosphate systems. ...
The major findings of this study are the demonstration of a tumor-selective increase in pO2 in response to a bolus systemic administration of nitrite and the proof of concept that such a procedure is therapeutically exploitable to radiosensitize tumors. Moreover, we have identified tumor cell respiration but not tumor perfusion as a critical target of nitrite, and low pH, as encountered in many tumor types, as a necessary condition to promote the nitrite conversion into bioactive NO.. We found that both vascular and tumor cells may be influenced by nitrite exposure to a larger extent under acidic conditions than at physiologic pH. The same dose of nitrite (100 μmol/L) showed, for instance, a 3-fold higher capacity to dilate isolated arterioles (Fig. 1A) and a reduction in tumor cell O2 consumption by ∼40% (Fig. 4B) when the pH was set at 6.7 to 6.8 (versus pH 7.4). Together with the observation that a blocker of the NO/cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathway prevented these effects, ...
It has been shown:. 1. That complement exposed to ultra-violet light is not thereby sensitized to the action of heat (which indicates that it is not protein).. 2. That inactivation of complement by ultra-violet light is accompanied by a decrease in its surface tension.. 3. That photoinactivation of complement is not a result of any changes in hydrogen ion concentration since these are less than 0.05 pH.. 4. That hydrogen ion concentrations high enough to transform serum proteins from the cation to the anion condition (i.e. past the isoelectric point) permanently inactivate complement.. These facts together with those given in previous papers lead to the following hypotheses.. 1. That there is present in serum a hemolytic substance which is formed from a precursor (which may resemble lecithin) and is constantly being formed and simultaneously being broken down into inactive products.. 2. That both precursor and lysin contain the same photosensitive molecular group.. 3. That the lytic substance is ...
pH balance or pH homeostasis in humans commonly refers to the internal balance of the bodys electro-magnetic and chemical systems in response to the changing conditions of the external world and the changing conditions of the internal world. The word homeostasis comes from the Greek words: "homeo" means similar or "alki" or "alkaline" and "stasis" means a tendency toward maintaining stability. There are many homoeostatic mechanisms in our bodies that help maintain this balance and our state of health is directly related to the health of these mechanisms. pH homeostasis is maintained by dynamic processes of feedback and regulation. pH homeostasis has only one objective: to preserve the beneficial conditions of life in the internal alkali environment. Every day we are bombarded with external influences that threaten that balanced internal alkaline pH environment. Some of these threats include becoming too hot or too cold, eating too much or eating acidic foods or drinks, breathing polluted air ...
What Is The pH Meter Principle? Working principle of pH sensor electrode and pH meter used in quality control and manufacturing area. A pH meter is used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. pH is the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. A solution containing more H+ ions remains acidic…. Read More ...
Quasi steady-state inactivation curves of the WT ClC-0 and the C212S mutant at different pH values. (A) Whole oocyte currents of the WT and C212S at three exter
It has been implicated that BRAT1 might be a regulator for ATM and DNA-PK activation in response to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) or chemicals [4]. Interestingly, silencing of BRAT1 increased constitutive apoptosis and reduced cell growth. In this study, we determined a role for BRAT1 in proliferation and mitochondrial functions. After confirming suppressed BRAT1 expression, we found reduced BRAT1 expression in multiple cell lines induces growth retardation, increased apoptosis, and reduced tumor growth in vivo (Figures 1 and 2). This data suggests that BRAT1 has play a role in tumorigenesis, but further studies will be needed to identify BRAT1 role for whole tumor progress, including metastasis of specific tumor models.It was interesting that BRAT1 knockdown cells used inefficient glucose, leading to fast reduction in pH. We first found acidic extracellular pH through phenol red color (Figure S1). Although BRAT1 knockdown decreased cell proliferation, higher glycolysis and ...
description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2014-09-05T17:28:04Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 DoughertyRobertWatson1941.pdf: 5574401 bytes, checksum: 093153325bf22306825a669b9d50e78b (MD5) Previous issue date: 1941-04- ...
Keeping lawns looking good throughout the season takes nurturing. Some of that nurturing is making sure that your soils pH level is balanced. Lawns thrive and look lush when the pH level is between 6.5 and 7.0 . Too high a pH level can be corrected with sulfate, while soil with a low pH can be corrected with ...
The "educator?" Do you know the story "The Emperors New Clothes?" Assuming unit chemical activities (dilute solution), pH is the negative common logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration (the "p" means "negative common logarithm of"). There is neither mystery nor romance to it. It is merely a concentration of a species in solution. 1a) You look up the pKa of HOCl. You now know the Ka. You write the hydrolysis equation OCl- + H20 < HOCl + OH- You write the equilibrium expression from the equation You plug in the known concentrations and the HOCl ionization constant. You solve for the unknown [H+] (or [OH-]; theyre related) You take -log[H+] to get the pH. It is no different from figuring out the pH of an acetate buffer. 1b) Same idea, You look up the disproprotionation (or conproportionation) constant of Cl2 + H2O < HOCl + HCl (or the equation in base; whatever). 2) You could do something daring, going beyond cracking your textbook, like looking it up in another text (library). Or ...
Musclemag Vol 2 issue 1). I am 5 feet 10 inches tall and weigh 140 pounds and, obviously, very thin. I also have small bones. My problem is that the only fat on my body is concentrated on my obliques area and I cannot get rid of it which takes away considerably from any V shape look I may attain. Any weight I gain goes right to the waistline, but if any is lost it comes from the rest of my body. I have read contradicting stories as to the benefits of side bends and related movements. Some state they will thicken the obliques too much in cases like mine where they are already heavy while others think the stretching of side bends will trim the waist. Would you care to give me some advice or program on how to alleviate this unsightly sag?. Your problem is mixing carbohydrate and protein at the same meal. Protein and carbohydrate are incompatible. They both digest in a different medium. Protein digests in an acid medium and carbohydrate is an alkaline medium ...
A highly concentrated and gentle plant enzyme digestive formula, stable and active in a wide pH range (pH 2-12), from the acid environment of the stomach to the alkaline environment of the small intestine. NUT-5595
Encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags, with distinct encoding patterns, have been prepared using an apoferritin template. A center cavity structure as well as the dissociation and reconstructive characteristics of apoferritin at different pH environments provides a facile route for preparing such encoded nanoparticle tags. Encapsulation and diffusion approaches have been investigated during
Two novel vis-NIR pH probes based on styrylcyanine with acidic pH response are easily synthesized, which display large Stokes shift and high sensitivity. The significant colocalizations of two probes with LysoTracker Green DND-26 are achieved in C6 cells, suggesting potential application for imaging acidic o
compare mold and yeast by family media used to cultivate and enumerate coducive enviorments for growth ph salt and, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
2. How is bond order related to the stability of a molecule ? [1]. 3. What is the binding force between molecules if a substance is a gas under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure ? [1]. 4. In the reaction;. Mn02 + 4HC1 - MnC12 + C12 + 2H20, which species is oxidized ?. 5. How many hydrogen bonded water molecule(s) are present in CuSO4.5H20 ? [1]. 6. A sample of NaNO3 weighing 0.83 g is placed in a 50 ml volumetric flask. The flask is then filled with water to the mark on the neck. What is the molarity of the solution ? [2]. 7. Determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron which has 69.9% iron and 30.1% dioxygen by mass. [2]. 8. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in the following biological fluids whose pH are given : [2]. (a) Human muscle-fluid, 6.83. (b) Human stomach fluid, 1.2. 9. Write four major water pollutants. [2]. 10. Draw the structures of cis- and trans-isomers of the following compounds name ; [2]. (i) CHCI = CHCI. (ii) C2H5C(CH3) = C(CH3)C2H5. OR. Suggest ...
Can be grafted to amino groups via DCC/NHS; pH Indicator - complete fluorescence quenching at basic pH, pKa 7.4, absorption is red-shifted by 20nm. Forms lactone in basic and apolar media. ...
High Range pH Kit Water test kits, Welcome to our friendly aquarium forum. We are happy to talk fish, answer your questions and help solve your problems. Join today. Its free!
Introduction. Report for Group 4 Object Name: Mena Nadum Class: IB07 Date: 05/19/09 Introduction: Our practical was about examining the reaction of an enzyme in a particular type of food, in which the enzyme break down food and digest the existing proteins inside the materials (food). And to investigate the rate of the enzymes reaction when its get influenced by different types of pH levels. The enzyme we chose for our lab is the Trypsin. The reason why we chose this particular enzyme is first, for the fact that Trypsin has a very high activity which means its reaction is fast and it digests proteins completely in short period of time. ...read more. Middle. pH solutions: pH 3, pH 4, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8, pH 9 and pH 10. 0.1 g of Trypsin enzyme. Spectra Photometer. A device that maintains the temperature constant. Procedure At the beginning of the experiment, we prepared all the pH solutions needed. And then we started performing our lab by first, mixing the enzyme with one pH level and then the ...
Substrate concentration: At low s.c. the enzyme activity is proportional to the substrate concentration, because of random collision between substrate and enzyme. Thus the more substrate the higher the rate. However at a high substrate concentration, at some point all active sites are occupied so raising the substrate concentration has no effect. Temperature: Enzyme activity increases as temperature increases, often doubling with each 10°C. This is because collision between substrate and active site happen more frequently at higher temperatures, due to fast molecular movement. However at high temperatures enzymes are denatured and stop working. This is because heat causes vibrations inside the enzyme, which break bonds needed to maintain the structure. pH: There is an optimum at which enzyme activity is fastest ( mostly pH 7), and as pH increases or decreases from its optimum, enzyme activity is reduced. (acids and alkali denature enzymes) Define Denaturation ...
Hello - I was planning to answer this question for you, but am called away for other tasks. If I have a chance, I will finish the answer, otherwise, another researcher may be able to furnish you with a complete answer. pKa is a property of a compound which can undergoe acid-base chemistry and is a reflection of the compounds propensity to give up or accept a hydrogen ion. It is related, quite intimately, to the more common term of pH. Simply put, the pKa of compound X is related to the pH of a solution of compound X when it is at equilibrium between its acid and base forms. In more depth, the pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution (a reflection of the acidity of the solution - the more hydrogen ions, the more acidic the solution, and the lower the pH). The pKa is the negative logarithm of the equilibrium constant (Ka) of the acid-base reaction of the compound of interest. The pKa of a compound relates to how likely, at a give pH, the compound will be ...
Using one liter of byproduct where the oils original titration was ~ 3.5 KOH for a total of 11.28g/L KOH; using ACS grade HCl (34-38%) to lower pH to ~5; I added HCl in 1mL increments and recorded the pH level each mL of acid was able to bring the byproduct to. I used a calibrated pH meter/electrode with an attached ATC (automatic temp compensator) on a magnetic stir/heat plate. I had to raise the temp of the byproduct to between 30-33C and maintain for reasons of viscosity of the product at ambient temps. Im uncertain as to the water content of the byproduct but Im assuming it should be relatively low due to my having dried the oil before the original conversion; however, Im sure that the "cracking" procedure itself created some water. I will list each mL of HCl added and its resulting effect on pH. Original pH of the byproduct was ~10.6 ...
... - Lemon is an excellent and rich source of vitamin C, an essential nutrient that protects the body against immune system deficiencies Lemons contain pectin fiber which is very beneficial for colon...
A method to sense pH of a fluid and an optical pH sensor. The method includes the steps of supplying at least a portion of an optical source through an input fiber. The optical source is passed through a sensor head having a sapphire window to a fluid. Optical power reflected from the fluid is collected in a plurality of output fibers in the sensor head. The reflected optical power in the output fibers in the sensor head is thereafter converted to an electrical signal which is used to determine the pH of the fluid.
DS is having his first endoscopy and pH probe study in January. We have gone round and round over the years trying to get weaned off meds and trying to avoid further testing. He is able to verbalize now more as he is older about his pain. Time to follow up with the endoscopy. I am ok with doing this but worried about how in the world he will keep in the pH probe. I dont want to traumatize him. The GI doc did agree that if he pulls it out we can just go with what data we have and not try to replace it. I worked in healthcare and put in NG tubes before and know bigger kids arent exactly cooperative!! Anyway, hoping it all goes well ...
Enzymedica Digest 180 CapsulesEnzyme deficiencies may result from a combination of age, diet and lifestyle. These deficiencies can lead to a variety of digestive discomforts, including occasional gas, bloating, indigestion and irregularity. Digest is an enhanced formula that breaks down carbohydrates, fats, fiber and protein. The enzymes included in Digest support optimal digestion by helping the body absorb nutrients and convert food into energy. Digestive well-being improves concentration and increases vitality. Recommended Use: 1 capsule with each meal. More may be taken as needed. For higher enzyme potency, Enzymedicas Digest Gold™ may be helpful. Thera-blend is an exclusive process that combines multiple strains of enzymes that work in various pH levels. Thera-blend enzymes have been shown to be three times stronger and work more than six times faster than leading digestive supplement. Supplement Facts Each capsule of Digest provides: Amylase Thera-Blend 12,000 DU Protease
Enzymedica Digest 180 CapsulesEnzyme deficiencies may result from a combination of age, diet and lifestyle. These deficiencies can lead to a variety of digestive discomforts, including occasional gas, bloating, indigestion and irregularity. Digest is an enhanced formula that breaks down carbohydrates, fats, fiber and protein. The enzymes included in Digest support optimal digestion by helping the body absorb nutrients and convert food into energy. Digestive well-being improves concentration and increases vitality. Recommended Use: 1 capsule with each meal. More may be taken as needed. For higher enzyme potency, Enzymedicas Digest Gold™ may be helpful. Thera-blend is an exclusive process that combines multiple strains of enzymes that work in various pH levels. Thera-blend enzymes have been shown to be three times stronger and work more than six times faster than leading digestive supplement. Supplement Facts Each capsule of Digest provides: Amylase Thera-Blend 12,000 DU Protease
Enzyme deficiencies may result from a combination of age, diet and lifestyle. These deficiencies can lead to a variety of digestive discomforts, including occasional gas, bloating, indigestion and irregularity.. Digest Basic is a gentle formula that breaks down carbohydrates, fats, fiber and protein. The enzymes included in Digest Basic support optimal digestion by helping the body absorb nutrients and convert food into energy. Digestive well-being improves concentration and increases vitality.. Thera-blend is an exclusive process that combines multiple strains of enzymes that work in various pH levels. Thera-blend enzymes have been shown to be three times stronger and work more than six times faster than leading digestive supplements ...
1) A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is called pH scale. 2) pH value of a solution is simply a number which indicates the acidic or basic nature of a solution. 3) If pH value = 7, it is a neu…
Article pH Theory & Measurement. WHAT IS pH?pH is a short form for the Power (p) of Hydrogen (H). pH is defined as the negative log of the hydrogen ion activity, aH~ or the effective hydrogen ion concentration.Descriptive DefinitionpH is a unit of me...
The pH of healthy blood is 7.35-7.45. This means that it is slightly alkaline. This alkalinity has to be kept almost constant; even minor variations are dangerous. If the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood rises to pH 6.95, coma and death result as the heart relaxes and ceases to beat.. The major affect from an overly acidic body chemistry is depression of the central nervous system. In extreme cases when the pH of the blood falls below 7.0, the nervous system becomes so depressed that the person first becomes disoriented and finally comatose.. In less severe cases, this translates into inhibited brain and nerve action. One who has an alkaline blood condition can think and act (decide) well. On the other hand, one who has an acidic blood condition cannot think well or act quickly, clearly or decisively. Therefore it is very important to maintain an alkaline blood condition all the time - not only for physical health, but also for mental awareness.. On a physical level, as our blood becomes ...
Fig. 3. pH-dependent stability analysis reveals that K48M mutation alters DSE interactions. A-D represent schematic illustrations of the approach. (A) The calculated and experimental curves agree when the DSE pKa values are equal to model compound values. (B) Agreement could also result from cancellation of favorable and unfavorable DSE interactions. (C) Significant DSE electrostatic interactions will lead to a deviation between the calculated and experimental curves. In this case, favorable DSE interactions are considered. Unfavorable DSE interactions lead to a deviation of the opposite sense. (D) The case in which there are both favorable and unfavorable DSE interactions and in which one of these is perturbed by mutation. The open circle represents the mutation of a positively charged residue to a neutral. In this case, the calculated and experimental curves of the mutant diverge. The example corresponds to the mutation eliminating a favorable DSE interaction. Experimental pH-dependent ...
Even very tiny alterations in the pH level of various organisms can cause major problems. For example, due to environmental concerns, such as increasing CO2 deposition, the pH of the ocean has dropped from 8.2 to 8.1 and various life forms living in the ocean have greatly suffered. The pH level is also crucial for growing plants, and therefore it greatly affects the mineral content of the foods we eat. Minerals in the ocean, soil and human body are used as buffers to maintain optimal pH levels, so when acidity rises, minerals fall ...
To elute DNA, add 50 μL of Buffer EB (10 mM Tris·Cl, pH 8.5) or H2O to the center of the QIAquick membrane and centrifuge the column for 1 min at maximum speed. Alternatively, for increased DNA concentration, add 30 μl elution buffer to the center of the QIAquick membrane, let the column stand for 1 min, and then centrifuge for 1 min. Important: Ensure that the elution buffer is dispensed directly onto the QIAquick membrane for complete elution of bound DNA. The average eluate volume is 48 μL from 50 μL elution buffer volume, and 28 μL from 30 μL. Elution efficiency is dependent on pH. The maximum elution efficiency is achieved between pH 7.0 and 8.5. When using water, make sure that the pH value is within this range, and store DNA at -20°C as DNA may degrade in the absence of a buffering agent. The purified DNA can also be eluted in TE (10 mM Tris·Cl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0), but the EDTA may inhibit subsequent enzymatic reactions ...
To elute DNA, add 50 μL of Buffer EB (10 mM Tris·Cl, pH 8.5) or H2O to the center of the QIAquick membrane and centrifuge the column for 1 min at maximum speed. Alternatively, for increased DNA concentration, add 30 μl elution buffer to the center of the QIAquick membrane, let the column stand for 1 min, and then centrifuge for 1 min. Important: Ensure that the elution buffer is dispensed directly onto the QIAquick membrane for complete elution of bound DNA. The average eluate volume is 48 μL from 50 μL elution buffer volume, and 28 μL from 30 μL. Elution efficiency is dependent on pH. The maximum elution efficiency is achieved between pH 7.0 and 8.5. When using water, make sure that the pH value is within this range, and store DNA at -20°C as DNA may degrade in the absence of a buffering agent. The purified DNA can also be eluted in TE (10 mM Tris·Cl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0), but the EDTA may inhibit subsequent enzymatic reactions ...
Beware of using water unless you are sure of what you are getting in to. The pH of water can vary widely (Ive seen from pH 5 to pH 8.5), and depurination of DNA at low pH or degradation of RNA at high pH are possibilities. Water also typically contains trace metals, which can accelerate these reactions. I typically recommend resuspension in TE (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA). This makes sure your nucleic acid is at a neutral pH and the EDTA will chelate any trace metals. Since they are in such small amounts, neither the buffer nor the EDTA will affect most downstream reactions.--[[User:Kathmc,Kathleen ...
RNase Blaster is a high-efficiency, near-neutral pH cleaning solution designed to make the lab working environment RNase-free in a matter of minutes.
In the presence of divalent metal ions (Zn2+, Co2+, and Ni2+) and at pHs above 8, duplex DNA forms a complex called M-DNA. M-DNA can be converted back to B-DNA by addition of EDTA or lowering the pH. The stability of M
Generally speaking, if you eat more animal products and processed foods than fresh foods you will find that your pH levels tend to be more on the acidic side of the scale. Your pH balance is also heavily impacted by lack of sleep, anxiety and stress. Even if you are eating a healthy diet, living an overly stressful life can result in an acidic body. Planning a balanced diet, getting plenty of sleep and making an effort to reduce the stress in your life will help you to maintain a more balanced pH level ...
Scientists at Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered a mechanism that amplifies the autoimmune reaction in an early stage of pancreatic islet autoimmunity prior to the progression to clinical type 1 diabetes. If the researchers blocked the corresponding molecules, the immune system was significantly less active. The study was conducted under the auspices of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) and was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. ...
In the brain, normal and pathological electrical activity gives rise to rapid changes in extracellular and intracellular pH. This modulation of pH can feedback...
pH-dependence of three properties of inhibiton. The pH-dependence of (A) apparent affinity, (B) reversibility, and (C) onset time constant is illustrated for th
Formulated to provide precise pH determinations, these buffer solutions are standardized against N.I.S.T. certified reference samples and are ideal for calibrating electrodes and pH meters ...
The pH level of the body has the ability to affect every single cell of the body. When the blood has an alkaline pH instead of an acidic pH, it will have a positive effect on how every bodily system functions. The brain, circulatory system, nerves, muscles, respiratory system, digestive system, and reproductive system can all benefit from a proper pH level. On the other hand, when the pH of the body is too acidic, it is susceptible to many diseases and problems. Weight gain, heart disease, premature aging, fatigue, nerve problems, allergies, muscle disease and cancer are all more prevalent when the bodys pH is not optimal. Because these problems are all more likely to occur when the bodys pH is too acid, it makes good sense to eat a diet rich in alkalizing foods. The primary goal is usually to eat approximately 75-80% alkaline foods along with only about 20-25% acidifying foods. If this level is maintained in the diet, the end result is a slightly alkaline pH in the body, which is perfect for ...
Serum half-life of aspirin 15 minutes, low protein binding, saturable metabolism with increasing doses (switches from first to zero order metabolism). Urinary alkalinisation increases excretion of salicylate and its conjugates ...
The resuspension solution is used to break the bacteria and to degrade RNA; the neutralization solution because when you add NaOH the pH increases and you need to lower it to 8 so that your plasmid DNA renatures and goes in solution while the genomic and the RNA can precipitate; the DNA purification resin is used, as the name says, to purify DNA. ...
In one of the DNA-sequencing experiments based on change in pH difference due to release of proton per nuceotide added to DNA. There was considerable pH change in pH due to various factors out of which one was due to the pH-sensor position inside the well; sensor kept stable vs sensor moving in the well in circular motion gives different result. So I invented pH-rocker (the name was given by me)to move sensor in the well in stable circular motion, rest is discussed in the page link: ...
Digital Ph and TDS meters are so dirt cheap online these days. You can get everything you need to detect an accurate current PH and PPM. With the PH up...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Browse our recommended supplements for naturally balancing cellular pH levels, plus learn how to effectively balance pH naturally & why its so important.
It takes 10 mmols NaOH to neutralize the first H ion AND it takes 10 mmols of NaOH to neutralize the second H. So after you neutralize the first H you STILL have 10 mmols of H to neutralize. Thats what Im saying with the carboxylic acid + the other acid. After youve neutralized the COOH group you still have 10 mmoles of the "other" acid to neutralize. The only difference is that both H ions are listed together in H2SO4 but in your problem the COOH is one acid and there is another acid group separate from that. But it doesnt change the logic.. ...
Just want to sanity check...with my numbers my CSI is currently at -.08, even with a pH of 8.2....before I go running to drop it back to 7.8 (Ill prob do it later today or tomorrow morning), is it ok to run that high as long as the CSI is happily balanced?
Did you know that, in your natural healthy state, your body is slightly acidic? Everything is either acidic or alkaline, or somewhere in between. Anything above 7.0 on the pH scale is considered alkaline and anything below is considered acidic.
It shall be the object of this investigation to measure the hydrogen ion concentration in lead acetate solutions and to apply the measurements to the control of color in the preparation of chrome yellow pigments. Lead acetate solutions of high concentration, known as lead liquors, are used in the preparation of chrome yellows by precipitation with sodium dichromate. Since the color of the pigment is believed to be dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration of the lead acetate solution used, such a study is of interest to dry-color manufacturers and to users of chrome yellows. The methods now in use for the analysis of lead acetate are to be reviewed, and an attempt will be made to measure the hydrogen ion concentration of the lead acetate solutions by a potentiometric method. It is proposed, therefore, to measure the hydrogen ion concentration in the lead acetate solutions, and to show the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the color of chrome yellow pigments.
The photosystem-II-associated 33-kDa extrinsic manganese-stabilizing protein is found in all oxygen-evolving organisms. In this paper, we show that this protein undergoes pH-induced conformational changes in the physiological pH range. At a neutral pH of 7.2, the hydrophobic amino acid residues that are most likely located inside the beta barrel are "closed" and the protein binds neither Mn2+ nor Ca2+ ions. When the protein is transferred to a solution with a slightly acidic pH of 5.7, hydrophobic amino acid residues become exposed to the surrounding medium, enabling them to bind the fluorescent probe 8,1-ANS. At this pH-induced open state, Mn2+ and Ca2+ bind to the manganese-stabilizing protein. The pH values used in this study, 7.2 and 5.7, are typical of the pH found in the thylakoid lumen in the dark and light, respectively. A model is presented in which the manganese-stabilizing protein undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change that in turn influences its capacity to bind calcium and ...
Intracellular pH must be kept close to neutrality to be compatible with cellular functions, but the mechanisms of pH homeostasis and the responses to intracellular acidification are mostly unknown. In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we found that intracellular acid stress generated by weak organic acids at normal external pH induces expression of several chaperone genes, including ROF2, which encodes a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase of the FK506-binding protein class. Loss of function of ROF2, and especially double mutation of ROF2 and the closely related gene ROF1, results in acid sensitivity. Over-expression of ROF2 confers tolerance to intracellular acidification by increasing proton extrusion from cells. The activation of the plasma membrane proton pump (H+-ATPase) is indirect: over-expression of ROF2 activates K+ uptake, causing depolarization of the plasma membrane, which activates the electrogenic H+ pump. The depolarization of ROF2 over-expressing plants explains their tolerance to ...
The normal range for pH is 7.35-7.45. As the pH decreases (,7.35), it implies acidosis, while if the pH increases (,7.45) it implies alkalosis. In the context of arterial blood gases, the most common occurrence will be that of respiratory acidosis. Carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood as carbonic acid, a weak acid; however, in large concentrations, it can affect the pH drastically. Whenever there is poor pulmonary ventilation, the carbon dioxide levels in the blood are expected to rise. This leads to a rise of carbonic acid, leading to a decrease in pH. The first buffer of pH will be the plasma proteins, since these can accept some H+ ions to try to maintain homeostasis. As carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase (PaCO2 , 45 mmHg), a condition known as respiratory acidosis occurs. The body tries to maintain homeostasis by increasing the respiratory rate, a condition known as tachypnea. This allows much more carbon dioxide to escape the body through the lungs, thus increasing the ...
Acute poisoning with chlorophenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-D and MCPA is reported world wide, potentially causing severe toxicity and death. Since there is no antidote for chlorophenoxy herbicides, treatments such as urinary alkalinisation have been used to increase the clearance of these poisons from the body. Although urinary alkalinisation was first trialled over 30 years ago, it is not currently used routinely for the treatment of patients with acute chlorophenoxy poisoning. This review looked for studies where this treatment had been given to poisoned patients. No studies of sufficient quality were identified and therefore routine use of this approach to treatment cannot be recommended. However, due to the poor outcomes in patients who present with severe toxicity it may have a role in addition to standard intensive care support. More research should be conducted.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - pH Dependence of and Kinetic Solvent Isotope Effects on the Methanolysis and Hydrolysis of β-Lactams Catalyzed by Class C β-Lactamase. AU - Page, Michael I.. AU - Vilanova, Bartolomé. AU - Layland, Nicola J.. PY - 1995/12. Y1 - 1995/12. N2 - The methanolysis of benzylpenicillin is catalyzed by Enterobacter cloacae P99 class C β-lactamase and the pH dependence of kcat indicates that the catalytic groups involved of pKa ca. 5 and 10 are the same as those for hydrolysis. The kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE) is 1.42 for both the hydrolysis and methanolysis of benzylpenicillin. However, there is an inverse KSIE on of 0.83 ± 0.05 for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine. There is also an abnormally high shift in the low pKa on going from H2O to D2O of 0.85 ± 0.15 from the pH dependence of both kcat and kcat/Km for both methanolysis and hydrolysis. The D2O shift on the high pKa of ca. 10 is the normal value of ca. 0.4. These results are consistent with a ...
A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we propose a fast and reliable alkalinization assay to monitor plant defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and
Looking for online definition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the Medical Dictionary? cetyltrimethylammonium bromide explanation free. What is cetyltrimethylammonium bromide? Meaning of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide medical term. What does cetyltrimethylammonium bromide mean?
Climate change with increasing temperature and ocean acidification (OA) poses risks for marine ecosystems. According to Pörtner and Farrell [1], synergistic effects of elevated temperature and CO2-induced OA on energy metabolism will narrow the thermal tolerance window of marine ectothermal animals. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of an acute temperature rise on energy metabolism of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas chronically exposed to elevated CO2 levels (partial pressure of CO2 in the seawater ~0.15 kPa, seawater pH ~ 7.7). Within one month of incubation at elevated PCO2 and 15 °C hemolymph pH fell (pHe = 7.1 ± 0.2 (CO2-group) vs. 7.6 ± 0.1 (control)) and PeCO2 values in hemolymph increased (0.5 ± 0.2 kPa (CO2-group) vs. 0.2 ± 0.04 kPa (control)). Slightly but significantly elevated bicarbonate concentrations in the hemolymph of CO2-incubated oysters ([HCO-3]e = 1.8 ± 0.3 mM (CO2-group) vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mM (control)) indicate only minimal regulation of extracellular acid-base

Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration, in moles | bartlebyCalculate the hydrogen ion concentration, in moles | bartleby

The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ...
more infohttps://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-16-problem-51qap-introductory-chemistry-a-foundation-9th-edition/9781337399425/calculate-the-hydrogen-ion-concentration-in-moles-per-liter-for-solutions-with-each-of-the/26062629-252f-11e9-8385-02ee952b546e

Hydrogen-ion Concentration | Definition of Hydrogen-ion Concentration by Merriam-WebsterHydrogen-ion Concentration | Definition of Hydrogen-ion Concentration by Merriam-Webster

How to use hydrogen-ion concentration in a sentence. ... the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution expressed ... Learn More about hydrogen-ion concentration. Share hydrogen-ion concentration Post the Definition of hydrogen-ion concentration ... Dictionary Entries near hydrogen-ion concentration. hydrogenide hydrogen iodide hydrogen ion hydrogen-ion concentration ... Comments on hydrogen-ion concentration What made you want to look up hydrogen-ion concentration? Please tell us where you read ...
more infohttps://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hydrogen-ion%20concentration

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN EXUDATES OF PNEUMOCOCCUS INFECTION | JEMHYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN EXUDATES OF PNEUMOCOCCUS INFECTION | JEM

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN EXUDATES OF PNEUMOCOCCUS INFECTION. William H. Kelley, E. N. Scadron, B. M. Shinners ... While these hydrogen ion concentrations are similar to those attained in the pneumonic exudate from dogs, they are of lesser ... The hydrogen ion concentrations in exudate from dermal pneumococcus infection in rabbits varied between pH 6.87 and 6.66 but ... The hydrogen ion concentration in the lesions of experimental pneumococcus infection has been estimated directly by pH ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/67/5/659

JCI -
Hydrogen ion concentration is not the sole determinant of muscle metaboreceptor responses in humans.JCI - Hydrogen ion concentration is not the sole determinant of muscle metaboreceptor responses in humans.

Hydrogen ion concentration is not the sole determinant of muscle metaboreceptor responses in humans.. ... Hydrogen ion concentration is not the sole determinant of muscle metaboreceptor responses in humans.. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/115792/pdf

Massive Blood Replacement: Correlation of Ionized Calcium, Citrate, and Hydrogen Ion ConcentrationMassive Blood Replacement: Correlation of Ionized Calcium, Citrate, and Hydrogen Ion Concentration

Baseline concentrations of total calcium (Ca), ionized calcium (Ca2+), albumin, total protein, and hydrogen ion concentration [ ... Massive Blood Replacement: Correlation of Ionized Calcium, Citrate, and Hydrogen Ion Concentration. ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/asag/197907000/00000539-197907000-00003

Electrostatics of soft charged interfaces with pH-dependent charge density: effect of consideration of appropriate hydrogen ion...Electrostatics of soft charged interfaces with pH-dependent charge density: effect of consideration of appropriate hydrogen ion...

... in order to address this hydrogen ion concentration jump and at the same time ensure zero hydrogen ion flux at the PEL-rigid- ... Our theory considers for the first time the explicit variation of the hydrogen ion concentration inside and outside the PEL and ... Such uniformity causes unphysical hydrogen ion concentration jump across the PEL-electrolyte interface. In fact we demonstrate ... effect of consideration of appropriate hydrogen ion concentration distribution G. Chen and S. Das, RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 4493 DOI ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/ra/c4ra13946a

A Brief Note on Hydrogen Ion Concentration and the Role of BuffersA Brief Note on Hydrogen Ion Concentration and the Role of Buffers

The hydrogen ion concentration is extremely important to the structural and functional integrity of living systems. Even slight ... Hydrogen ion concentration is expressed in terms of PH units, representing a measure of the acidity or the alkalinity of a ... The hydrogen ion concentration is extremely important to the structural and functional integrity of living systems. Even slight ... A Brief Note on Hydrogen Ion Concentration and the Role of Buffers Akhila Mol ...
more infohttp://www.preservearticles.com/2012022123496/brief-note-on-hydrogen-ion-concentration-and-the-role-of-buffers.html

REGULATION OF THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND ITS RELATION TO METABOLISM AND RESPIRATION IN THE STARFISH | JGPREGULATION OF THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND ITS RELATION TO METABOLISM AND RESPIRATION IN THE STARFISH | JGP

REGULATION OF THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND ITS RELATION TO METABOLISM AND RESPIRATION IN THE STARFISH. Laurence Irving ... The optimum pH found for carbon dioxide production is a true one for the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the tissue. It ... REGULATION OF THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND ITS RELATION TO METABOLISM AND RESPIRATION IN THE STARFISH ... Because the normal excised cæca maintain a definite hydrogen ion concentration and change their internal environment toward ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/10/2/345

The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal...The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal...

The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/25/6/1860

Article | Trends in cation, nitrogen, sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation in the United States and Europe...Article | Trends in cation, nitrogen, sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation in the United States and Europe...

Trends in cation, nitrogen, sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation in the United States and Europe from 1978 ... Lajtha, K., & Jones, J. (2013). Trends in cation, nitrogen, sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation in the ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/02870x66m

Bio Exams 1-3 - Bio Exams 1-3 Exam#1 1 What is the H(hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 2 0.01...Bio Exams 1-3 - Bio Exams 1-3 Exam#1 1 What is the H(hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 2 0.01...

... hydrogen ion) concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 2? 0.01 M Which carbon ... Bio Exams 1-3 Exam #1 1) What is the H+ (hydrogen ion) concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 2? • 0.01 M 2) ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/49576/Bio-Exams-1-3/

Hydrogen-Ion Concentration | ISHAR OnlineHydrogen-Ion Concentration | ISHAR Online

Part of the product was aliquoted into two CLX bags, 60 ml into each, on day 0. L-carnitine (LC) to a final concentration of 5 ... A concentrated aqueous extract was prepared from the fruit of T. chebula . A mouth rinse of 10% concentration was prepared by ... First, D-optimal design was used to evaluate the effects of variables, including concentrations of substrate (chebulic ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/hydrogen-ion-concentration

Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. - Semantic ScholarBlood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. - Semantic Scholar

Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. by A. Rizzo et al. ... Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders.. *. A. Rizzo, Giuseppe ... article{Rizzo1981BloodAE, title={Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Blood-and-erythrocyte-hydrogen-ion-concentrations-Rizzo-Bonsignore/527201a8a452af96e8eda1a4fea1164c86b90451

For each hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration | bartlebyFor each hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration | bartleby

The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ... The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity of a solution. If concentration of hydrogen ion is more ...
more infohttps://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-16-problem-100ap-introductory-chemistry-a-foundation-9th-edition/9781337399425/for-each-hydrogen-or-hydroxide-ion-concentration-listed-calculate-the-concentration-of-the/01685c8b-252f-11e9-8385-02ee952b546e

Concentration of Hydrogen IonsConcentration of Hydrogen Ions

Actually, it is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions, the percentage of hydrogen ions contained in the solution.. ... that a hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 4 is 10-4mol/l, meaning it contains 0.0001 mol of hydrogen ions in ... a solution with a pH of 5 contains 10-5mol/l of hydrogen ions, a solution with a pH of 6 contains 10-6mol/l of hydrogen ions, ... and hydroxide ions, (OH-), as illustrated in the figure.. Actually, this balance of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions determines ...
more infohttps://www.horiba.com/en_en/technology/measurement-and-control-techniques/electrochemistry/the-basis-of-ph/concentration-of-hydrogen-ions/

Quantitative evaluation of ammonium hydrosulfide reagent for precipitation of group II cations at 1.0 molar hydrogen ion...Quantitative evaluation of ammonium hydrosulfide reagent for precipitation of group II cations at 1.0 molar hydrogen ion...

... evaluation of ammonium hydrosulfide reagent for precipitation of group II cations at 1.0 molar hydrogen ion concentration and ... evaluation of ammonium hydrosulfide reagent for precipitation of group II cations at 1.0 molar hydrogen ion concentration and ...
more infohttp://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1958-THESIS-R183

PH and molar concentration of hydrogen ionPH and molar concentration of hydrogen ion

2.Given the molar concentration of hydroxide ion [OH -] = 4.6 X 10 -13, calculate the concentration of hydrogen. ... 1.Given the molar concentration of hydrogen ion [H+] = 6.2 x 10 -7, calculate the concentration of hydroxide ion. ... 1.Given the molar concentration of hydrogen ion [H+] = 6.2 x 10 -7, calculate the concentration of hydroxide ion. ... 2.Given the molar concentration of hydroxide ion [OH -] = 4.6 X 10 -13, calculate the concentration of hydrogen ion. ...
more infohttps://brainmass.com/chemistry/physical-chemistry/ph-molar-concentration-hydrogen-ion-198772

Hydrogen ion concentration and coronary artery bypass graft surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass | Journal of...Hydrogen ion concentration and coronary artery bypass graft surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass | Journal of...

This study aimed to explore the role of CPB in the development of acidosis by comparing changes in hydrogen ion concentration ... Carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, [H+], bicarbonate and haemoglobin were ... has been related to the strong ion difference (SID) and the composition of intravascular fluids that are administered. Less ... compensating for change in SID by reducing the concentration of weak acids. Although it was associated with significantly ...
more infohttps://cardiothoracicsurgery.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-8090-8-184

Leonor Michaelis | Open LibraryLeonor Michaelis | Open Library

Hydrogen ion concentration, Oxidation-reduction potentials, Die bindungsgesetze von Toxin und Antitoxin, Einführung in die ... farbstoffchemie für histologen, Practical, physical and colloid chemistry, The effects of ions in collodial systems ... Hydrogen-ion concentration, Physical and theoretical Chemistry, Acids, Basicity, Chemistry, Physiological, Ions, Mathematics, ... Hydrogen ion concentration by Leonor Michaelis 3 editions - first published in 1926 ...
more infohttps://openlibrary.org/authors/OL156166A/Leonor_Michaelis

Four-step method of interpreting arterial blood gas analysis | Clinical | Nursing TimesFour-step method of interpreting arterial blood gas analysis | Clinical | Nursing Times

Hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) provides information on acid-base balance. This relates to how ... The pH scale indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions. Lots of hydrogen ions will make a solution acidic and the solution ... Hydrogen ion concentration (pH).. Oxygen concentration and saturation. In the UK pO2 is a pressure measured in kilopascals (kPa ... Bicarbonate ion level and base excess. In simple terms the bicarbonate ion (HCO3) concentration and base excess (BE) provide ...
more infohttps://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/respiratory/four-step-method-of-interpreting-arterial-blood-gas-analysis/204054.article

aqueous solution - Concentration of Hydrogen Ions - Chemistry Stack Exchangeaqueous solution - Concentration of Hydrogen Ions - Chemistry Stack Exchange

It is obvious that $\ce{HCl}$ and organic acid cannot have such concentration of hydrogen ions. Both ammonia and natrium ... Is the concentration of negative ions always equal to that of positive ions? ... The equilibrium concentrations for an unknown $x$ reacted amount (in concentration units) would be ... How do we know the concentration of hydroxide ions in this derivation? ...
more infohttps://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/108447/concentration-of-hydrogen-ions

eCFR - Code of Federal RegulationseCFR - Code of Federal Regulations

Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration ... 868.1170 Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.. §868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) ... the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) in blood to aid in determining the patients acid-base balance. ... a) Identification. An argon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of argon in a gas mixture to aid in ...
more infohttps://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&mc=true&n=sp21.8.868.b&r=SUBPART&ty=HTML
  • The rubber tube is connected at K with a tube, L, leading from a hydrogen generator, and a slow stream of H2 passes down the rubber tube and out at G, thus converting the platinum wire from H to F into a hydrogen electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a filtrate obtained after first group analysis of Pb2+ contains an appreciable concentration of this cation, enough to give the test of the second group, viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1st analytical group of cations consists of ions that form insoluble chlorides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confirmation test for Lead ion: Pb2+ + 2 KI → PbI2 + 2 K+ Pb2+ + K2CrO4 → PbCrO4 + 2 K+ Confirmation test for Silver ion: Ag+ + KI → AgI + K+ 2Ag+ + K2CrO4 → Ag2CrO4 + 2 K+ Confirmation test for Mercury(I) ion: Hg2+ 2 + 2 KI → Hg2I2 + 2 K+ 2 Hg2+ 2 + 2 NaOH → 2 Hg 2O + 2 Na+ + H2O The 2nd analytical group of cations consists of ions that form acid-insoluble sulfides. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS production exhibited a biphasic dependence on valinomycin concentration, with peak production occurring at valinomycin concentrations that catalyze about the same K(+) influx as K(ATP) channel openers. (mendeley.com)
  • While AgCl dissolves in ammonia (due to the formation of the complex ion [Ag(NH3)), Hg2Cl2 gives a black precipitate consisting of a mixture of chloro-mercuric amide and elemental mercury. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, D-optimal design was used to evaluate the effects of variables, including concentrations of substrate (chebulic myrobalan, fruits of the tree Terminalia chebula ), pH, inoculum density, agitation and incubation period, on tannase production. (isharonline.org)
  • We examined ROS production in suspensions of isolated rat heart and liver mitochondria, using fluorescent probes that are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. (mendeley.com)
  • In fact we demonstrate that this distribution of chargeable sites on a given polymer must obey at least a cubic variation with distance (within the PEL) in order to address this hydrogen ion concentration jump and at the same time ensure zero hydrogen ion flux at the PEL-rigid-solid interface. (rsc.org)
  • This happens because cationic analysis is based on the solubility products of the ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • McClendon J. F. A direct reading potenciometer for measuring hydrogen ion concentration. (wikipedia.org)