Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Aminopyrine: A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Lactose Intolerance: The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Methylococcus capsulatus: A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Lactose Tolerance Test: A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).EthaneChylomicron Remnants: Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blind Loop Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Methylosinus trichosporium: A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Methylocystaceae: A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Rabeprazole: A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Spirulina: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency: An autosomal recessive disorder affecting DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DEHYDROGENASE and causing familial pyrimidinemia. It is characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Even a partial deficiency in the enzyme leaves individuals at risk for developing severe 5-FLUOROURACIL-associated toxicity.Pancreatin: A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Diphenoxylate: A MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Achlorhydria: A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Pancreatic Extracts: Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Methanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Esomeprazole: The S-isomer of omeprazole.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.HydrocarbonsOxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Sprue, Tropical: A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Methylosinus: A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Beijerinckiaceae: A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Even though the test is normally known as a "hydrogen breath test", some physicians may also test for methane in addition to ... A baseline breath sample is collected, and then additional samples are collected at 15 minute or 20 minute intervals for 3-5 ... Hydrogen Breath Test information from MedicineNet. Hydrogen Breath Test information from the University of Michigan Health ... An increase of approximately 12 ppm or more in hydrogen and/or methane during the breath test could conclude bacterial ...
Natural gas reforming The reaction that would give us clean fossil fuels forever Hydrogen from methane without CO2 emissions ... They found mercury in every fish tested, according to the study by the U.S. Department of the Interior. They found mercury even ... Coal ash also releases a variety of toxic contaminants into nearby air, posing a health threat to those who breath in fugitive ... Normal operation however, is a deceiving baseline for comparison: just the Chernobyl nuclear disaster released, in iodine-131 ...
A hydrogen-methane breath test with oral glucose overload was performed. Demographic variables and nutritional parameters were ... collected at baseline and one month after effective treatment of SIBO. The antibiotic regimens and the number of treatment ...
Breath hydrogen & methane concentration were noted at baseline & every 15 min after administration of glucose for a total of 3 ... Judith J. Korterink, Marc A. Benninga, Herbert M. van Wering, Judith M. Deckers-Kocken, Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test for Small ... Satya Vati Rana, Aastha Malik, Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases, Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, ... Breath hydrogen and methane are associated with intestinal symptoms in patients with chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatology, 2015 ...
The breath test measured hydrogen and methane levels. Some participants had methane, some had hydrogen, others had neither, and ... was significantly lower than the baseline reading 2 hours after consuming mango. ... In this type of test, methane is considered a sign of poor gut health. ... The team also sampled blood and breath. By analyzing breath samples, it becomes possible to gain an understanding of gut health ...
... above the baseline. False negative results may be seen in patients with SIBO due to a non-hydrogen or methane producing ... Therefore, an alternate, less invasive method for diagnosing SIBO is the use of breath tests. Breath samples are obtained after ... methane. Patient with SIBO have excessive production of hydrogen and/or methane due to the microbial fermentation of ... Breath tests can determine gastric emptying after consuming nonradioactive 13C-labeled meals. Wireless motility capsules can ...
... breath testing for hydrogen and methane to detect the presence of SIBO and also fecal samples for gut microbiota profiling. ... above fasting baseline value or a sustained rise in H2 or CH4 of 5 ppm over 3 consecutive breath samples. A rise in breath ... Breath-testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) [ Time Frame: Three months ]. Participants were asked to exhale ... At intervals of 15 mins for the next 2 hours, breath samples were collected and symptoms recorded. Forty mL of exhaled breath ...
The concentration of hydrogen and methane was measured in parts per million (ppm). Measurements were determined and plotted by ... after a baseline breath sample had been obtained. Breath sampling then continued every 15 minutes for 3 hours. All breath ... The prevalence of an abnormal breath test was compared between study participants. Hydrogen production on the breath test was ... Any differences in breath hydrogen concentration between groups were compared using a t test. Finally, the degree of hydrogen ...
Her SIBO breath test indicated a borderline-positive hydrogen count of 21 ppm and 0 for methane gas. ... which was a large reduction from her baseline measurement of 635 µg/g. ... Though her SIBO test remained positive for hydrogen gas, this lab result was only borderline clinical. Given the history of ... with no change in the SIBO breath test results.. Discussion. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet9 removes starchy carbohydrates ( ...
Hydrogen-methane breath testing. Hydrogen and methane production were quantified using methods similar to previously described ... the high level of intersubject variability in faecal SCFA levels at baseline in this CAFÉ was not reduced in either the high- ... The lactulose breath hydrogen test and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1795-803. ... and methane production by breath testing (see online supplementary table S5) revealed no difference between vegans and ...
In this episode, we cover: What Chris had for breakfast The Role Archaea play in gut health Whats the big deal about methane? ... How to address SIBO in methane-producing patients Gut healthy treatment recommendations ... methane and hydrogen gases at baseline. Then theyre also going to measure the increase in hydrogen and methane production that ... So the more methane you have, the slower your transit time is. In one study, if a breath test was positive for methane, they ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test via the Trip Database. ... Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus. Breath tests (BTs) are ... Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test II. Indications testing III. Efficacy Preferred over : 90% IV. Technique Measure baseline breath ...
... are both highly accurate in identifying subjects at baseline that would be diagnosed as methane-positive in a 10-sample ... A cut-off value for methane at baseline of either ≥4 ppm, as in our USA dataset, or ≥ 5 ppm, as described in a single ... and low-methane producers using a spot-methane breath test: results from a large north American dataset of hydrogen, methane ... Keywords: breath tests; diagnostic test; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; spot-methane breath test. ...
Even though the test is normally known as a "hydrogen breath test", some physicians may also test for methane in addition to ... A baseline breath sample is collected, and then additional samples are collected at 15 minute or 20 minute intervals for 3-5 ... Hydrogen Breath Test information from MedicineNet. Hydrogen Breath Test information from the University of Michigan Health ... An increase of approximately 12 ppm or more in hydrogen and/or methane during the breath test could conclude bacterial ...
... the hydrogen breath test tends to be considered more accurate than the methane breath test in diagnosis of SIBO. ... Lactulose HBT: The conventional double peak (,10 ppm increase over baseline with a decrease of , 5ppm before the second peak) ( ... Stotzer PO, Kilander AF (2000) Comparison of the 1-gram (14)C-D-xylose breath test and the 50-gram hydrogen glucose breath test ... Non-invasive, indirect methods include hydrogen and methane breath testing (using. either glucose or lactulose as a substrate ...
... baseline]] within 90 minutes. **A [[methane]] level ≥10 ppm regardless of the time during the [[breath]] [[test]]. ... C-D-xylose breath test and the 50-gram hydrogen glucose breath test for diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth , ... Breath]] [[Test,tests]] have the advantage of being easy to perform, noninvasive, and inexpensive. [[Breath]] [[Test,tests]] ... Breath Tests==== *Small intestinal bacterial obstruction (SIBO) may also be [[Diagnose,diagnosed]] using [[breath]] [[Test, ...
Adults (lactose intolerant): Increase of ,20 ppm above baseline [1][4]. What might affect my test results?. *Methane producers ... Hydrogen breath test. What is this test?. This test measures the level of hydrogen gas in air that is exhaled (breathed out). ... Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test ... Why do I need this test?. Laboratory tests may be done for many reasons. Tests are performed for routine health screenings or ...
Here are my initial Lactulose breath test results:. Baseline Hydorogen(H) :2 Methane (M): 0. 20 H:2 M:2. 40 H:2 M:2. 60 H:2 M:3 ... Tagged: Hydrogen Breath Test Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lactulose Lactulose Breath Test Lactulose Test Sibo Breath Test Sibo Diet ... Here are my initial Lactulose breath test results:. Baseline Hydorogen(H) :2 Methane (M): 0. 20 H:2 M:2. 40 H:2 M:2. 60 H:2 M:3 ... I recently completed a SIBO hydrogen and methane breath test with lactulose. The initial values were high (H2 was 20 and CH4 ...
Figure 3: Hydrogen breath test results. High methane (CH4) levels were seen at baseline 90ppm CH4 (normal < 20ppm) and ... Hydrogen breath testing was done showing high methane levels at baseline and throughout the study, suggesting SIBO. Wireless ... A hydrogen breath test with 75g of glucose in 150ml of water. Samples were analyzed in a Quintron Breath Tracker Microanalyzer ... 105 colony forming units/ml of organisms or breath testing with identification of hydrogen or methane producing bacteria [9]. ...
Breath hydrogen and methane production were tested at baseline and during each study period. Fructan-sensitive and fructan- ... but there was no correlation between the improvement and the results of the lactose tolerance blood test, breath hydrogen test ... In a retrospective study, Däbritz et al.124 found that 109/146 (75%) children with RAP who underwent hydrogen breath testing ... In a retrospective study,124 55/142 (39%) children had fructose malabsorption identified by fructose hydrogen breath testing, ...
... baseline or one that exhibited an increase in breath hydrogen > or = 20 ppm (methane > or = 10 ppm) above baseline within the ... Adult , Breath Tests/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Irritable Bowel ... A hydrogen or methane producer was defined in 2 ways: either one that exhibited a breath hydrogen level > or = 20 ppm (methane ... baseline breath hydrogen (H2) >20 parts per million (ppm) or rise of breath H2 >20 ppm above the baseline in 10 ppm or rise of ...
Theres no perfect test, and standard treatments fall short or make matters worse. Luckily, there are diet and lifestyle ... specifically methane and hydrogen. SIBO breath testing measures these gases. ... Patients follow a strict diet for a few days prior to testing. On testing day, they will give a breath sample for a baseline ... SIBO breath tests. Doctors are more likely to turn to breath testing to check for SIBO and H. Pylori. These bacteria feed off ...
Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days ... dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen ... Hydrogen Breath Test (HBT). Lactose digestion was measured by breath hydrogen production. HBT machines were provided to each ... and the breath concentrations of hydrogen, methane, and CO2 were measured (baseline, Hour 0). The subject then ingested 25 ...
I have seen many talk about tests they have got done like... ... Breath testing measures the hydrogen (H) & methane (M) gas ... The gas is graphed over the SI transit time of 2 or 3 hours & compared to baseline. Patients drink a sugar solution of glucose ... the Hydrogen Breath Test.. Hydrogen Breath Test. A hydrogen breath test can be used to diagnose several conditions: H pylori ... The disadvantage is that it cannot diagnose bacterial overgrowth as well as the Glucose Breath Test (GBT).. Glucose Breath Test ...
In addition, methane production was correlated with hydrogen production.. Subject(s). Breath Tests , Female , Humans , Hydrogen ... The baseline hydrogen level was related to the baseline methane level (rho=0.592, p,0.001) and the maximal hydrogen level ... and clinical factors associated with positive breath-test results and to assess the relationship between hydrogen and methane ... early hydrogen increase, p=0.049), a ≥10 ppm increase in methane within 90 min (early methane increase, p=0.001), and a ≥10 ppm ...
28 A positive breath test was inferred in subjects with a rise in breath hydrogen and/or methane of at least 3 parts per ... The sample was injected into a gas chromatography analyzer to measure baseline values for hydrogen and methane. The subjects ... The hydrogen breath test is the foundational diagnostic assessment for identification of dietary fructose malabsorption.26 One ... The pitfall of the hydrogen breath test in diagnosis of fructose malabsorption is that 28% of the population does not expel ...
Breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 2 hours. Breath hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) concentrations were ... Gallstone disease; Glucose breath test; Lactulose breath test; Orocecal transit time; Post-cholecystectomy; Small intestinal ... An increase in breath H2 and/or CH4 concentration ≥ 12 ppm over baseline value in two consecutive readings was defined as SIBO ... Glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. Subjects were given 80 g of glucose in 450 mL of water to drink after taking a basal end ...
  • The frequent sampling is required to capture a rise of hydrogen emissions, which typically occur later in the test: in contrast, methane levels are typically elevated at baseline. (nih.gov)
  • If methane emissions represent the principal objective of the test, a spot methane test (i.e. a single-time-point sample taken after an overnight fast without administration of substrate) may be sufficient. (nih.gov)
  • Digestion of "roughage" in ruminant animals produces huge amounts of methane and measures have been undertaken to reduce cattle methane emissions either with diet modification or by introducing anti-menthanogen vaccination and antibiotics in order to control global warming and loss of energy. (jnmjournal.org)
  • Considering scalability, the potential to follow a favorable cost reduction curve, and lifecycle emissions, electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels have the most promise. (cleantechblog.com)
  • In the long-term, if technical successes in fuel cell development and low-carbon hydrogen production, distribution, and onboard storage can be achieved, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could reduce per vehicle GHG emissions by 80 percent or more. (cleantechblog.com)
  • Lungs/Respiratory Method: Business conclusions cannot be drawn from restricted scientific tests that suggest respiratory results in staff from very long-expression publicity to H2S. (blogkoo.com)
  • 4 However, recently, methane has been associated with gastrointestinal disorders, mainly chronic constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 4 , 5 as well as metabolic diseases like obesity. (jnmjournal.org)
  • Testing may be administered at hospitals, clinics, physician offices or if the physician/laboratory has the proper equipment and breath collection kit, patients can collect samples at home to then be mailed in for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory tests may be done for many reasons. (adam.com)
  • When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. (adam.com)
  • The guidelines in this roadmap will help you determine: (1) whether you have chronic fatigue syndrome, and if so: (2) which laboratory tests you can take to identify the infections and other factors that may underpin your ME/CFS, and: (3) which therapies you can use to tackle these infections and factors to improve your health. (altervista.org)
  • As usual, my baseline laboratory investigations were broad. (drkarafitzgerald.com)
  • IF YOU ARE SUFFERING FROM ACUTE OR CHRONIC HEALTH ISSUES AND ARE READY TO HAVE YOUR SPECIFIC NEEDS ADDRESSED utilizing evidence based research, cutting edge biomarkers laboratory testing and effective proven treatment protocols, contact Dr. V today! (drvofvitalhealth.com)
  • Direct measurement of lactase activity is tested biochemically through duodenal biopsy. (exploremyplan.com)
  • The 24th international measurement fair, the SENSOR+TEST, will be held from the 30th of May to the 1st of June, 2017, on the fair grounds of the Nürnberg Exhibition Center. (automation-review.com)
  • Distance, gap, position, angle, inclination, attitude, and fill level determinations are among the most common measurement tasks in a plethora of applications from smartphones and automotive engineering at test rigs and with driver assistance systems to tooling equipment and robots. (automation-review.com)
  • They were submitted to an electric bioimpedance test for body composition measurement and an Ergospirometric test in arm ergometer for oxygen consumption, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, resting and after exercises, analysis. (heighpubs.org)
  • Demographic variables and nutritional parameters were collected at baseline and one month after effective treatment of SIBO. (nih.gov)
  • FRIDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- A test that measures four serum metabolites can accurately distinguish patients with pancreatic cancer from healthy people and patients with pancreatitis, according to a study published online March 29 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . (diabetes-news-feed.com)