Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)AcetalsAlkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.HydrocarbonsModels, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.EstersProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Dicarboxylic AcidsOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Mycolic AcidsCaproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)ButanesGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hydroxysteroids: Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.ButylaminesWaxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningGlycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

*Bridged compounds

... and from spiro compounds that have two rings linked by a single atom. Bridged compounds may be fully carbocyclic (all carbon) ... atoms. The bridgehead atoms are defined as any atom that is not a hydrogen, and that is part of the skeletal framework of the ... Hence, in fully carbocyclic bridged compounds, bridgehead atoms are always tertiary or quaternary carbon atoms; a bridge can ... where the atoms can be carbon atoms or heteroatom (but because at least divalent, not hydrogen); the main ring refers to a ring ...

*Fenestrane

A fenestrane in organic chemistry is a type of chemical compound with a central quaternary carbon atom which serves as a common ... two of a total of three sp2-hybridized carbon atomic orbitals form regular bonds with two of the hydrogen atoms as in a planar ... They can be regarded as spiro compounds twice over. Because of their inherent strain and instability, fenestranes are of ... In one study, a [4.5.5.5]fenestrane was synthesized with one carbon atom replaced by nitrogen because aza- compounds and their ...

*Cyclophane

Final step hydrogenation pf alkene by hydrogen and palladium on carbon Total Synthesis of (±)-Haouamine A Phil S. Baran and ... cyclophanes X-ray crystallography shows that the aromatic bridgehead carbon atom makes an angle of 20.5° with the plane. The ... pyrone Diels-Alder reaction in the crucial step with expulsion of carbon dioxide (scheme 5). In this compound the deviation ... One particular research field in cyclophanes involves probing just how close atoms can get above the center of an aromatic ...

*Coordination polymer

... atom or group of atoms) will formally donate a lone pair of electrons to a metal cation and form a coordination complex via a ... or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in 2 or 3 dimensions. A subclass ... Although not yet practical, porous coordination polymers have potential as molecular sieves in parallel with porous carbon and ... such as hydrogen bonding or pi stacking. Most often, the guest molecule will be the solvent that the coordination polymer was ...

*Organic chemistry

... compounds and unsaturated compounds exist as cyclic derivatives. The most stable rings contain five or six carbon atoms, but ... compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen), as well as myriad compositions based always on carbon, but also containing ... Such compounds are termed spiro and are important in a number of natural products. One important property of carbon is that it ... Rings can also fuse on a "corner" such that one atom (almost always carbon) has two bonds going to one ring and two to another ...

*Barton reaction

1999). "Alkylation of remote non-activated δ-carbon atoms: Addition of δ-carbon radicals, generated by 1,5-hydrogen transfer in ... Computational studies have shown that this preference for 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer over 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer appears to ... After a short synthesis to obtain the desired spiro-[5.4] system, Nobel Laureaute E.J. Corey and co-workers employed a Barton ... The resultant nitroso compounds undergoes tautomerization to the isolated oxime product. This mechanistic hypothesis is ...

*Methane monooxygenase

Each iron atoms are also coordinated to a histidine δN atom, Fe 1 to a His 147 and Fe 2 to His 246, Fe 1 is a ligated to a ... The radical mechanism starts with abstraction of the hydrogen atom from the substrate to form QH (the rate determining step), ... This compound Q with its diamond core is critical to the oxidizing species for MMO. There are two mechanisms suggested for the ... Liu KE, Valentine AM, Qiu D, Edmondson DE, Appelman EH, Spiro TG, Lippard SJ (1995). "Characterization of a Diiron(III) ...

*Hemoglobin

... or they may act to transport and regulate other small molecules and ions such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide ... The iron atom in the heme group must initially be in the ferrous (Fe2+) oxidation state to support oxygen and other gases' ... The iron ion, which is the site of oxygen binding, coordinates with the four nitrogen atoms in the center of the ring, which ... Although the color of the planet is due to iron compounds in combination with oxygen in the Martian soil, it is a common ...
A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Three crude oligosaccharides were respectively prepared by acid hydrolysis of three polysaccharides, which were water-extracted polysaccharide (WEP), sodium hydroxide-extracted polysaccharide (SEP) and acid-extracted polysaccharide (AEP) from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. Among the three oligosaccharides, the crude oligosaccharide prepared by acid hydrolysis of WEP was found to be the most efficient elicitor to enhance the production of palmarumycins C12 and C13 in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. When OW was applied to the medium at 300 mg/L on day 3 of culture, the maximal yields of palmarumycin C12 (87.96 mg/L) and palmarumycin C13 (422.28 mg/L) were achieved on day 15 of culture, which were 9.83 and 3.24-fold in comparison with those (8.95 and 130.43 mg/L) of control, respectively. The results indicate that addition of the oligosaccharides from the host plant D. zingiberensis should be an effective strategy for enhancing production of palmarumycins C12 and C13
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
0078] In a preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention the ring system formed by R1 and R2 is [0079] (i) cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, cyclononyl, cyclodecyl, spiro[3,3]heptyl, spiro[3,4]octyl, spiro[4,3]octyl, spiro[3,5]nonyl, spiro[5,3]nonyl, spiro[3,6]decyl, spiro[6,3]decyl, spiro[4,5]decyl, spiro[5,4]decyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptyl, bicyclo[3.2.0]heptyl, bicyclo[2.2.1]heptyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl, bicyclo[5.1.0]octyl, bicyclo[4.2.0]octyl, bicyclo[5.3.0]decyl, octahydro-pentalenyl, octahydro-indenyl, decahydro-azulenyl, adamantly, or decahydro-naphthalenyl; optionally substituted 1 to 14 times, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14 times, depending on the number of available valences with a substituent which is in each instance independently selected from the group consisting of ...
Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5 - 9 054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations ...
Title:Natural Product-Derived Spirooxindole Fragments Serve as Privileged Substructures for Discovery of New Anticancer Agents. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Bin Yu, Yi-Chao Zheng, Xiao-Jing Shi, Ping-Ping Qi and Hong-Min Liu. Affiliation:School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and New Drug Research & Development Center, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China.. Keywords:Anticancer agents, cancer therapy, MDM2 inhibitors, natural products, PLK4 inhibitors, spirooxindoles.. Abstract:The utility of natural products for identifying anticancer agents has been highly pursued in the last decades and over 100 drug molecules in clinic are natural products or natural product-derived compounds. Natural products are believed to be able to cover unexplored chemical space that is normally not occupied by commercially available molecule libraries. However, the low abundance and synthetic intractability of natural products have limited their applications in drug ...
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier ...
Kipka, U. and Di Toro, D. M. (2011), A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to particulate organic carbon in soils and sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30: 2013-2022. doi: 10.1002/etc.611 ...
Oakes, JM and Ross, DJ and Eyre, BD (2013) Processing of Particulate Organic Carbon Associated with Secondary-Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in Intertidal Sediments: A 13C Pulse-chase Experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (23). pp. 13258-13265. ISSN 1520-5851 ...
China RoHS 0.5 to 50 mm Low Carbon Steel Balls 1-1/16 Pinball Balls, Find details about China Carbon Steel Ball, Low Carbon Steel Ball from RoHS 0.5 to 50 mm Low Carbon Steel Balls 1-1/16 Pinball Balls - Guangzhou Decok Steel Ball Co., Ltd.
N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide 77377-52-7 NMR spectrum, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide H-NMR spectral analysis, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
An easy access to amine appended spiro[indoline-3,4-pyridine] ON-OFF chemosensor by one pot four-component reaction using commercially available and environmentally benign catalytic amount of molecular I2 (10 mol %) in aqueous ethanol at ambient temperature is described. The generated system can be utilized
3-METHYL-4-(2-PROPENYL)-SPIRO[FURAN-2(5H),3-[3H]INDOL]-2(1H)-ONE 882041-52-3 NMR spectrum, 3-METHYL-4-(2-PROPENYL)-SPIRO[FURAN-2(5H),3-[3H]INDOL]-2(1H)-ONE H-NMR spectral analysis, 3-METHYL-4-(2-PROPENYL)-SPIRO[FURAN-2(5H),3-[3H]INDOL]-2(1H)-ONE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into ...
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor is a new class of opioid receptor cloned in 1994 before identifying the endogenous ligand. Within a year, endogenous ligand was identified and soon many ligands were developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for NOP receptor distribution and activity. NOP receptor is widely distributed in brain, spinal cord and in peripheral organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, intestine and liver. Being a G-protein coupled receptor, its activation leads to changes in intracellular signal transduction mediated by adenylyl cyclase, Ca(2+) and K(+) ion channels, mitogen-activated kinase and phospholipase C. Based on preclinical studies, NOP receptor is implicated in regulation of pain, anxiety and depression, drug abuse, feeding, learning/memory, and motor activity.. Since the time of cloning the receptor and identification of endogenous ligand, numerous compounds have been designed targeting this receptor. However, there are no PET radioligands currently ...
32. A compound selected from1 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid {(S)-3-[3-(4-methanesulfonyl-benzyl)-bicyclo[3.2.1]-2,4-dioxo-1.quadratur- e.,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]dodec-8-yl]-1-phenyl-propyl}-amide;2 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid {(S)-3-[bicyclo[3.2.1]-2,4-dioxo-1.quadrature.,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]dodec- -8-yl]-1-phenyl-propyl}-amide;3 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid {(S)-3-[3-ethyl-bicyclo[3.2.1]-2,4-dioxo-1.quadrature.,3,8-triaza-spiro[4- .5]dodec-8-yl]-1-phenyl-propyl}-amide;4 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid {(S)-3-[1,3-diethyl-bicyclo[3.2.1]-2,4-dioxo-1.quadrature.,3,8-triaz- a-spiro[4.5]dodec-8-yl]-1-phenyl-propyl}-amide;5 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid {(S)-3-[bicyclo[3.2.1]-2,4-dioxo-1.quadrature.,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]dodec- -8-yl]-1-phenyl-propyl}-amide;65 4,4-Difluoro-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid ...
Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density ...
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor is a new class of opioid receptor cloned in 1994 before identifying the endogenous ligand. Within a year, endogenous ligand was identified and soon many ligands were developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for NOP receptor distribution and activity. NOP receptor is widely distributed in brain, spinal cord and in peripheral organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, intestine and liver. Being a G-protein coupled receptor, its activation leads to changes in intracellular signal transduction mediated by adenylyl cyclase, Ca(2+) and K(+) ion channels, mitogen-activated kinase and phospholipase C. Based on preclinical studies, NOP receptor is implicated in regulation of pain, anxiety and depression, drug abuse, feeding, learning/memory, and motor activity.. Since the time of cloning the receptor and identification of endogenous ligand, numerous compounds have been designed targeting this receptor. However, there are no PET radioligands currently ...
A short-term simulated weathering experiment was performed on two crude oils and two heavy fuel oils under natural conditions to evaluate the effects of natural weathering processes by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. The results of diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes show that only odd to even predominance (OEP1, OPE2) and carbon preference index (CPI) remain stabilized during the 28 d weathering process, but they cannot effectively distinguish the four types of oils. Statistical analyses based on paired sample t-test and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that stable carbon isotope compositions of n-alkanes in the four studied oils have no significant changes over the weathering time, and that the carbon isotope discrimination (Delta delta C-13) of n-alkanes is , 3 parts per thousand. We have provided evidence that the stable ...
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PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, ...
Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), ...
Elemental carbon was collected with the possibility of using elemental carbon as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter. The terms elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC) and soot are often used by atmospheric researchers to designate products of incomplete combustion that contain randomly oriented graphitic structures interspersed with other compounds. Elemental carbon has been considered a good surrogate for diesel particulate matter because of the relatively high fraction of elemental carbon in diesel particle matter and the relatively high particulate matter emissions from diesel-powered vehicles, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. Some studies imply a correspondence between elemental carbon measurements and diesel PM related to large truck ...
The flat surface spheroid migration assay suggested that siramesine killed migrating glioma cells. PI uptake in migrating tumor cells already detached from the spheroids was seen and there was a significant decrease in spheroid migration distance. Part of this decrease may also be explained by tumor cell death in the spheroid itself. In the organotypic 3D migration assay distance of invasion was not affected by siramesine in any of the cultures. However, some of the migrating tumor cells appeared to have lost their membrane protrusions, appearing as small rounded cells suggesting a stop in migration. These cells were primarily seen at concentrations of 100 μM siramesine being however toxic to the brain tissue and thus irrelevant in a clinical setting. It could be speculated if the lack of effect of siramesine on implanted invasive spheroids was due to a phenotypic migration-related shift making the tumor cells siramesine resistant. A phenotypic shift has previously been described as part of the ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as ...
Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source ...
Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and ...
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List of Tables and Figures Table Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Key Market Segments Table Key Players Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Covered Table Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Growth Rate by Type 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Market Share by Type 2013-2025 Figure Carbon Storage Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Storage Figure Carbon Transpotation Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Transpotation Figure Carbon Capture Figures Table Key Players of Carbon Capture Table Global Carbon Capture And Storage (CCS) Market Size Growth by Application 2013-2025 (Million ...
Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs ...
Description: The BTL-08 Spiro & BTL-08 Spiro Pro are modern compact spirometers for performing non-invasive pulmonary function tests and managing patient records comfortably and quickly. The minimum operational costs of the units are ensured by reusable sensor that can be easily disinfected. The measurements are carried out with maximum accuracy in the wide range of air flow and minimum air flow resistance. The units feature in-built sensors for automatic BTPS correction of examination results. The results can be previewed on the large color display prior to printing. ...
Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5 μM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies; the same is predicted for nanoparticles, which can reach deeper regions of the lung. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on alveolar macrophages. Macrophages (MΦ) function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticulates. We focused on two manufactured nanoparticles: multiwalled carbon nanotube aggregates and black-carbon. The two were tested against MΦ in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that exposure to nanoparticles would decrease MΦ ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of interleukin (IL)-12 and nitric oxide (NO), as well as phagocytosis, and MΦ ...
Pretreated dirty cotton residue (PDCR) from the textile industry was used as an alternative carbon source for the submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae and the production of xylanases. The filtered culture supernatant was fractionated by ultrafiltration followed by three chromatographic steps, which resulted in the isolation of a homogeneous low-molecular-weight xylanase (Xyl-O1) with a mass of 21.5 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) co-polymerized with 0.1% oat spelt xylan. Enzyme catalysis was the most efficient at 50 °C and pH 6.0. The Km values (mg·mL−1) for the soluble fraction of oat spelt and birchwood xylans were 10.05 and 3.34, respectively. Xyl-O1 was more stable in the presence of 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), l-cysteine or β-mercaptoethanol, which increased the rate of catalysis by 40%, 14%, 40% or 37%, respectively. The enzyme stability was improved at pH 7.0 in ...
Public health care has reached a level where tissue or organ reconstruction by means of biodegradable short-term implants via e.g. tissue engineering will be practicable in the near future. The vital issue now is to be able to reproducibly fabricate and design new materials with the appropriate properties and three-dimensional shape, and to facilitate their sterilization. In this thesis, macromolecular design and polymer architecture techniques are used to synthesize well-defined polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWD), and to control the reactions upon sterilization, and the degradation rate and profile.. A model system for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide (LLA) initiated by a spirocyclic tin initiator was developed to synthesize star-shaped polymers. It was shown that an increase in temperature and a decrease in the dielectrical constant of the solvents increased the reaction rate. The versatility of the spirocyclic tin initiator system was ...
The development of eco-friendly and environmentally benign catalytic systems is one of the main themes of modern organic synthesis. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a very inexpensive and readily available catalyst; it has been reported as a catalyst for the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds (Shaabani et al. 2003; Dabiri et al. 2009; Fortenberrya et al. 2013; Foroughifarab et al. 2011; Maleki and Salehabadi 2010; Shaabani et al. 2008; Hussein 2015). There are many bioactive molecules which possess various heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, always taken the attention of chemists over the years mainly because of their biological significance. Pyrano derivatives have well-known biological effects, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (El-Zohry et al. 2008a). Indolinone and spiro-indoline derivatives have possessed broad-spectrum therapeutic activities such as anticonvulsants (Ragavendran et al. 2007; Azam et ...
2-Tert-butyl-1-(3-chloro-1H-indole-6-carbonyl)spiro[4,6-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-5,4-piperidine]-7-one | C23H26ClN5O2 | CID 56967950 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The iridium complexes of chiral spiro aminophophine ligands, especially the ligand with 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl groups on the P atom () were demonstrated to be highly efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of alkyl aryl ketones. In the presence of KOtBu as a base and under mild reaction conditions, a series of chiral alcohols were synthesized in up to 97 % ee with high turnover number (TON up to 10 000) and high turnover frequency (TOF up to 3.7×104 h−1). Investigation on the structures of the iridium complexes of ligands (R)- and by X-ray analyses disclosed that the 3,5-di-tert-butyl groups on the P-phenyl rings of the ligand are the key factor for achieving high activity and enantioselectivity of the catalyst. Study of the catalysts generated from the Ir-(R)- complex and H2 by means of ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy indicated that the early formed iridium dihydride complex with one (R)- ligand was the active species, which was slowly transformed ...
The present invention relates to difluoroethyl-oxazole substituted bridged spiro[2.4] heptane derivatives of formula (I), ##STR00001## wherein the substituents at the piperidine ring are in trans-arr
Novel pyrazole-fused spiro[4H-pyridine-oxindoles] were synthesized under the catalysis of the binary ionic liquid mixture [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium chloride][1-methylimidazolium-3-sulfonate] in solvent-free conditions. The hitherto unreported binary ionic liquid (BIL) was synthesized via an acid-base r
Ryan, R.P., Fouhy, Y., Lucey, J.F., Crossman, L.C. Spiro, S., He, Y-W., Zhang, L-H., Heeb, S., Cámara, M., Williams, P. and Dow, J.M. (2006) Cell-cell signaling in Xanthomonas campestris involves an HD-GYP domain protein that functions in cyclic di-GMP turnover. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 6712-6717.[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16611728&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum ...
Facing Death: Where Culture, Religion, and Medicine Meet by Howard M Spiro (Editor) starting at $6.00. Facing Death: Where Culture, Religion, and Medicine Meet has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined the potential exposure enhancing effect of yohimbine hydrochloride in claustrophobic humans. Participants (71% undergraduate students and 29% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (n = 24) were treated with 2 1-h in vivo exposure sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to take 10.8 mg yohimbine hydrochloride (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) prior to each exposure session. Outcome measures included peak fear during a behavioral avoidance task, the Claustrophobia Questionnaire, and the Claustrophobic Concerns Questionnaire. Results showed that both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment with no significant difference between groups. Consistent with prediction the ...
The title compound, 1-(benzyloxy)-5-cyanomethyl-2,3-dihydrospiro [inden-1,2-pyrrolidine], (trans-IIIa), belongs to the family of spirocyclic compounds. It is worthwhile to stand out the natural occurring and synthetic cyclic alkaloids which contain a nitrogen atom adjacent to the spiro carbon. Of special interest are the structures exhibiting the 1-azaspiro[4.4]nonane (I) system (El Bialy et al., 2004) which represents the central core of the cephalotaxine, a natural occurring product isolated from evergreen plum yews of the genus Cephalotaxus (Paudler et al., 1963; Planas et al., 2004), whose ester derivatives as homoharringtonine exhibited a pronounced antileukemic activity (Benderra et al., 1998; Kantarjian et al., 2001; Lévy et al., 2006). Pyrrolidine is a heterocyclic amine used as building block or base in pharmaceutical and fine chemical manufacturing (Boyd et al., ...
Title: Specificity of Three Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Jeremy T. Saks, Barbara Truitt and Menachem Shoham. Affiliation:Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935, USA.. Keywords:Antagonist, GPCR, Receptor, Mozavaptan, Tolvaptan, Vaptan, Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), hV1R, vasodilation, hyponatremia, hypervolemia, V2R, adenylyl cyclase. Abstract: Vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans) are a new class of drugs to treat congestive heart failure. Since there are three subtypes of the receptor located in different tissues, it is important to devise tailor-made vaptans to target the appropriate receptor subtype. The binding of three vaptans, OPC21268, mozavaptan and tolvapatan was measured to the human V1-vascular vasopressin receptor (hV1R). Whereas arginine vasopressin (AVP) binds to hV1R and hV2R with equal affinity, vaptans interact differently with the receptor ...
Figure 1. M06-2x/6-31G(d) optimized geometries of 1 and 2.. They show that the geometry of 2 exhibits a structure that has two different C-C distances: one between the spiro carbons, and the second between the spiro carbon and the methylene carbon. The distance between the spiro carbons is rather short (1.458 Å), suggesting that the bonding here is between carbons that are nearly sp2-hybridized.. Lastly, they discuss the thermodynamics of polytriangulane. They employ a series of homodesmotic reactions to attempt to determine the enthalpy for adding another cyclopropyl ring to an extended triangulane. Unfortunately, the computed enthalpy is quite dependent on functional used. Similar attempts to define the strain energy is also flawed in this way. However, regardless of the functional the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization-induced amide bond formation creates a boron-centered spirocyclic system. AU - Levonis, Stephan M. AU - Pappin, Brighid B.. AU - Healy, Peter C.. AU - Kiefel, Milton J.. AU - Simone, Michela. AU - Houston, Todd A.. PY - 2017/6/27. Y1 - 2017/6/27. N2 - The 5-nitrosalicylate ester of 2-acetamidophenylboronic acid (C 15 H 10 BN 2 O 6) is formed under crystallization conditions from the 5-nitrosalicylate ester of 2-aminophenylboronic acid. The boron at the center of this structure exists as a tetrahedral complex produced by a dative bond with the amide carbonyl. The perpendicular shape produces an unusual packing structure including a bifurcated hydrogen bond between the amide hydrogen and carbonyl groups on two neighboring molecules. We propose that this reaction occurs due to increased Lewis acidity of the nitrosalicylate ester of 2-aminophenylboronic acid.. AB ...
Babu, YS and Manohar, Hattikudur and Ramachandran, K and Krishnamurthy, SS (1978) Crystal-Structure of A Spirocyclic cyclophosphazene n3p3(nme2)4(Nhch2ch2nh) - Evidence For Inter-Molecular Hydrogen-Bonding. In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung - B, 33 (6). 588-589 . Full text not available from this repository ...
Ranirestat (also known as AS-3201) is an aldose reductase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and PharmaKyorin. It has been granted orphan drug status. The drug is to be used orally. A Canadian Phase III clinical trial has been completed. Phase III trials in Europe and the US started in June 2009 and are expected to complete in April 2013. Ranirestat is aldose reductase inhibitor that acts by reducing sorbitol accumulation in cells. Aldose reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes one of the steps in sorbitol (polyol) pathway which is responsible for formation of fructose from glucose. Aldose reductase activity is increased, parallel to glucose blood levels, in tissues that are not insulin sensitive, including lenses, peripheral nerves and renal glomeruli. Sorbitol does not diffuse through cell membranes easily and therefore accumulates in these tissues, causing osmotic damage, leading to retinopathy and neuropathy. Results from a Canadian ...
BioAssay record AID 600430 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at nociceptin receptor in Albino guinea pig ileum assessed as inhibition of electrically evoked twitches.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aluminum chloride-catalyzed opening of the steroidal sapogenin spiroketal system. AU - Pettit, George. AU - Bowyer, William J.. PY - 1960. Y1 - 1960. N2 - Several representative steroidal sapogenins have been conveniently converted to the corresponding dihydrosapogenins employing the lithium aluminum hydride-aluminum chloride reagent. Dihydro derivatives of α-hydroxytigogenin, markogenin, and three previously described dihydrosapogenins were prepared by the new procedure. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of tomatidine, in the presence of aluminum chloride, provided both isomers of dihydrotomatidine.. AB - Several representative steroidal sapogenins have been conveniently converted to the corresponding dihydrosapogenins employing the lithium aluminum hydride-aluminum chloride reagent. Dihydro derivatives of α-hydroxytigogenin, markogenin, and three previously described dihydrosapogenins were prepared by the new procedure. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of tomatidine, in ...
A unique and practical synthetic sequence for rapid access to polyketides and to further the spiroacetals derived from them, which utilizes a bidirectional Hosomi-Sakurai allylation approach around key allylsilanes in the synthesis of the AB and CD ring systems of spongistatin 1 and 2, is reported. The synthesis of the AB spiroacetal 9 requires 13 steps, with a longest linear sequence of seven steps in an overall yield of 27%. The synthesis of the CD spiroacetal 13 requires 15 steps, with a longest linear sequence of 11 steps in an overall yield of 30%. Both syntheses start from but-3-enol.. Keywords: double chain elongation ; enantioselectivity ; Hosomi-Sakurai reaction ; spiro compounds ; spongistatin ; Stereocontrolled Total-Synthesis ; Marine Macrolide Synthesis ; Sponge Hyrtios-Altum ; Formal Total-Synthesis ; Potent Cytotoxic Macrolides ; F-Ring Subunit ; Altohyrtin-A ; Natural-Products ; Modular Approach ; ...
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. To extinguish fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam ...
Background:Cholesterol has essential functions in neurological processes that require tight regulation of synthesis and metabolism. Perturbed cholesterol homeostasis has been demonstrated in Huntingtons disease, however the exact role of these changes in disease pathogenesis is not fully understood. Objective:This study aimed to comprehensively examine changes in cholesterol biosynthetic precursors, metabolites and oxidation products in the striatum and cortex of the R6/1 transgenic mouse model of Huntingtons disease. We also aimed to characterise the progression of the physical phenotype in these mice. Methods:GC-MS/MS was used to quantify a broad range of sterols in the striatum and cortex of R6/1 and wild type mice at 6, 12, 20, 24 and 28 weeks of age. Motor dysfunction was assessed over 28 weeks using the RotaRod and the hind-paw clasping tests. Results:24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol were the major cholesterol metabolites that significantly changed in R6/1 mice. These changes
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation of guanine by carbonate radicals derived from photolysis of carbonatotetramminecobalt(III) complexes and the pH dependence of intrastrand DNA cross-links mediated by guanine radical reactions. AU - Crean, Conor. AU - Lee, Young Ae. AU - Yun, Byeong Hwa. AU - Geacintov, Nicholas. AU - Shafirovich, Vladimir. PY - 2008/8/12. Y1 - 2008/8/12. N2 - The carbonate radical anion CO3•- is a decomposition product of nitrosoperoxycarbonate derived from the combination of carbon dioxide and peroxynitrite, an important biological by product of the inflammatory response. The selective oxidation of guanine in DNA by CO3• radicals is known to yield spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh) products, and also a novel intrastrand cross-linked product: 5′-d(CCATCG*CT*ACC), featuring a linkage between ...
The reactions of the enolizable thioketone (1R,4R)-thiocamphor (= (1R,4R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]-heptane-2-thione; 1) with (S)-2-methyloxirane (2) in the presence of a Lewis acid such as SnCl4 or SiO2 in anhydrous CH2Cl2 led to two diastereoisomeric spirocyclic 1,3-oxathiolanes 3 and 4 with the Me group at C(5), as well as the isomeric beta-hydroxy thioether 5 (Scheme 2). The analogous reactions of 1 with (RS)-, (R)-, and (S)-2-phenyloxirane (7) yielded two isomeric spirocyclic 1,3-oxathiolanes 8 and 9 with Ph at C(4), an additional isomer 13 bearing the Ph group at C(5), and three isomeric beta-hydroxy thioethers 10, 11, and 12 (Scheme 4). In the presence of HCl, the beta-hydroxy thioethers 5, 10, 11, and 12 isomerized to the corresponding 1,3-oxathiolanes 3 and 4 (Scheme 3), and 8, 9, and 13, respectively (Scheme 5). Under similar conditions, an epimerization of 3, 8, and 9 occurred to yield the corresponding diastereoisomers 4, 14, and 15, respectively (Schemes 3 ...
Synthesis of Methyl 2-Bromo-2 oxoccyclopent-1-enecarboxylate." Rama Rao Tata and Michael Harmata. Org. Synth. 2018, 95, 425-438.. "Synthesis of 3-Arylsulfonyl-3-Pyrrolines from Allenyl Sulfonamides by Silver Ion Catalysis." Rama Rao Tata, Chencheng Fu, Steven P. Kelley, and Michael Harmata. Organic Letters 2018, 5723-5726.. "Synthesis of (Z)-2-[(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-3-(phenylthio)acrylaldehyde." Michael Topinka and Michael Harmata. Synthesis 2018, 4476-4482.. "Derivatives of Alkyl 2-Hydroxy-3-oxocyclopent-1-enecarboxylates and Intermolecular [4+2] Cycloadditions of Cyclopentadienones Prepared Therefrom." Aswin Garimalla and Michael Harmata. Synthesis 2018, 4483-4489.. "Sulfinate Allenyl Carbenoids: Synthesis of 2,​5-​Dihydrofurans by Domino Rearrangement and Cyclization." Rama Rao Tata and Michael Harmata. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2018, 372-375.. "(4+3)-Cycloaddition Reactions of N-Alkyl Oxidopyridinium Ions." Chencheng Fu, Nestor Lora, Patrick L. Kirchhoefer, Dong ...
INTRODUCTION Central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock is influenced by many neuronal systems, including the melanocortinergic and histaminergic systems. The aim of the study was to examine the involvement of the his-taminergic system in the resuscitating effect of melanocortin type 4 (MC4) receptor agonist Ro 27-3225. MATERIALS AND METHODS Studies were carried out on male Wistar rats subjected to irreversible haemorrhagic shock with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 20-25 mmHg. In the 5th minute of critical hypotension, the animals were injected intracere-broventricularly (icv) with Ro 27-3225 or a 0.9% NaCl solution (control group). RESULTS Hypovolaemia was accompanied by a decrease in pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR) and renal blood flow (RBF). In the control group, there were no increases in the measured parameters, and a survival rate of 2 h was 0%. Ro 27-3225 (10 nmol, icv) evoked long-lasting rises in MAP, PP and RBF as well as 100% survival at 2 h. Pre-treatment with ...
3E7A: Crystal structures of protein phosphatase-1 bound to nodularin-R and tautomycin: a novel scaffold for structure-based drug design of serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors
article{972d3387-c0ca-4d23-9b0a-36720bbb1e75, abstract = {In adipocytes, protein kinase B (PKB) has been suggested to be the enzyme that phosphorylates phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), a key enzyme in insulins antilipolytic signalling pathway. In order to screen for PKB phosphatases, adipocyte homogenates were fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography and analysed for PKB phosphatase activities. PKB phosphatase activity eluted as one main peak, which coeluted with serine/threonine phosphatases (PP)2A. In addition, adipocytes were incubated with inhibitors of PP. Incubation of adipocytes with 1 microM okadaic acid inhibited PP2A by 75% and PP1 activity by only 17%, while 1 microM tautomycin inhibited PP1 activity by 54% and PP2A by only 7%. Okadaic acid, but not tautomycin, induced the activation of both PKBalpha and PKBbeta. Finally, PP2A subunits were found in several subcellular compartments, including plasma membranes (PM) where the phosphorylation of PKB is thought to occur. In summary, ...
title = {Biosynthesis of porphyrins and related macrocycles .45. Determination by a novel X-ray method of the absolute configuration of the spiro lactam which inhibits uroporphyrinogen III synthase (cosynthetase ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Palladium catalysis enables an unprecedented, highly effective synthesis of γ-lactones from homoallylic alcohols in one step. The protocol affords aryl, alkyl, and spiro γ-lactones directly from readily available homoallylic alcohols in good yields with excellent functional group tolerance and high chemoselectivity under mild conditions.. ...
ID A1AZD8_PARDP Unreviewed; 212 AA. AC A1AZD8; DT 23-JAN-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 23-JAN-2007, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 74. DE SubName: Full=Lipolytic enzyme, G-D-S-L family {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABL68632.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Pden_0520 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABL68632.1}; OS Paracoccus denitrificans (strain Pd 1222). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhodobacterales; OC Rhodobacteraceae; Paracoccus. OX NCBI_TaxID=318586 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABL68632.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000361}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000361} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Pd 1222 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000361}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., RA Glavina del Rio T., Hammon N., Israni S., Dalin E., Tice H., RA Pitluck S., Munk A.C., Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., Tapia R., RA Gilna P., Schmutz J., Larimer F., Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., RA Lykidis A., Spiro S., Richardson D.J., Moir J.W.B., ...
Directory of patents invented by Charles A Blum (56 patents): Substituted quinazolin-4-ylamine analogues; Substituted (7-pyridyl-4-phenylamino-quinazolin-2-yl)-methanol analogues; Substituted quinazolin-4-ylamine analogues; Biaryl piperazinyl-pyridine analogues; Spiro&lsqb;isobenzofuran-1,4′-piperidin&rsqb;-3-ones and 3H-spiroisobenzofuran-1,4′-piperidines
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Hi guys, just finishing my first clinical year and coming up to exams. Ive used a two textbook combo of detail/understanding book (K/C big or Davidsons big) and Oxford Handbook to learn my SBA knowledge. So many SBAs test the first line treatment of conditions/first line investigations as in the NICE guidelines. However, I find that big textbooks are awful at telling you the order of investigations or treatment (something that SBAs love: "which is the MOST appropriate investigation/treatment or "first line"). The Oxford Handbook isnt great either (e.g. heart failure: it just lists the drugs not the fact that you have to give ACE-I and beta blocker/CCB then add spiro etc). Ive actually learnt guidelines through Passmedicine ...
Read the full analysis.. Washington, D.C. - An analysis released today by the Center for American Progress finds that like last year, Rep. Paul Ryans (R-WI) misguided budget blueprint would not only create a death spiral-in which less-healthy beneficiaries leave the traditional Medicare plan, causing premiums to rise and resulting in more beneficiaries leaving the program-but it would also result in substantially higher premiums for seniors, forcing them to pay as much as $1,200 more each year by 2030, and as much as $5,900 more each year by 2050.. "The plan put forward by Rep. Ryan once again threatens Medicare and shreds the safety net for the middle class and the most vulnerable people in our society. Instead of reducing health care costs, this plan just shifts costs to businesses, consumers, and states," said Topher Spiro, Vice President of Health Policy at the Center for American Progress. "Many seniors would be forced to pay sharply higher premiums to keep their current Medicare ...
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The presidency of Gerald Ford began on August 9, 1974, when Gerald Ford became President of the United States upon the resignation of Richard Nixon from office, and ended on January 20, 1977, a period of 895 days. Ford had served as Vice President of the United States since December 6, 1973, following Spiro Agnews resignation from that office. The 38th United States president, Ford has the distinction of being the first, and to date the only person to serve as president without being elected to either the presidency or the vice presidency. His presidency ended following his defeat in the 1976 presidential election by Democrat Jimmy Carter. As president, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente with the Soviet Union in the Cold War. With the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U.S. involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. In the aftermath of the war, Ford granted a conditional amnesty to Vietnam War draft dodgers. The foreign ...
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Originally Posted by BigVrunga I would think Spironolactone. When on a cycle, personally I would run the whole stack. Azelaic,Minoxidil,and Spiro 2x a
CRM-FDMT1 is a freeze-dried mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) containing a range of lipophilic marine toxins as well as domoic acid. CRM-FDMT1 is distributed in amber glass bottles, each containing 3 g of freeze-dried powder. It is recommended that the powder is reconstituted with water before use. Each bottle of CRM-FDMT1 contains enough material for approximately eight uses.. Certified toxin levels and associated uncertainties have been assigned for domoic acid, azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and -2, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2, and 13-desmethylspirolide C. Information values are also provided for a range of other toxin analogues in CRM FDMT1. The CRM is designed to test the accuracy of sample preparation procedures and liquid chromatography experiments for the analysis of multiple toxins ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 433712-61-9(4-[(Piperidine-4-carbonyl)amino]benzoic acid ethyl ester),please inquire us for 433712-61-9(4-[(Piperidine-4-carbonyl)amino]benzoic acid ethyl ester).
Nguyen, Tien; Kenton, Nathaniel T.; Adu-Amprawun, Daniel; Okumu, Anthony A.; Zhang, Zhingao; Chen, Yong; Nguyen, Son; Xu, Jianyan; McCarron, Pearse; Kilkoyne, Jane; Rise, Frode; Wilkins, Alistair Lawrence; Owen, Christopher & Forsyth, Craig J. (2017). Final twist in marine toxin structural saga. Chemical & Engineering News, 95(49), December 14, 2017 [Science & Technology, News of The Week]. Chemical & engineering news (Print). ISSN 0009-2347. 95(49), s 9- 9 . doi: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cen-09549-notw7 Vis sammendrag In the mid-1990s, scientists started to notice cases across Europe of people falling ill from a new kind of shellfish food poisoning. The culprit, researchers discovered, was a family of marine toxins called azaspiracids. The structures of these amorphous toxins have been difficult for chemists to pin down, though some have come very close. A pair of papers from the laboratory of Craig J. Forsyth at Ohio State University now corrects the stereochemistry of a key ...
Visible light emission from porous Si (PSi) produced via anodic etching in aqueous HF has stimulated tremendous interest over the past several years due to its potential application in opto-electronic devices and lasers and the ability to be integrated with current Si processing technology. Luminescence from porous silicon was observed over a decade ago, and since that time scientists have struggled to develop a mechanism to describe its photophysical properties. Despite the lack of a consistent physical description, a host of test devices have been produced which make use of the tunable luminescence and high surface area of porous silicon. Some of these devices have included: molecular sensors, cavity lasers, light emitting diodes, optical switches, photo-voltaic cells, and high field electron sources. Development of devices of this sort will require a detailed understanding of the luminescence properties of the nanostructured material.. We are interested in studying the electronic properties ...
2017 - Present: Scientific Director of the Sheffield Bioinformatics Core. 2014 - 2016: Senior Scientist, AstraZeneca. 2012 - 2014: Scientific Associate, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. I graduated from the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada) with a BSc in Computer Science, Microbiology and Immunology. I then moved to the University of Cambridge for an MPhil in Computational Biology working on signalling pathways with Prof Jasmin Fisher (Microsoft Research), and a PhD in Biostatistics working on statistical genetics with Prof Lorenz Wernisch (MRC Biostatistics Unit).. Following the completion of my PhD in 2012, I undertook postdoctoral training to investigate genetic prognostic markers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto with Prof Ming-Sound Tsao and Prof Frances Shepherd. I was promoted to a staff scientist in 2013 to coordinate the genomic sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of patient tumours. With a greater interest in drug development, I went ...
by Yecies, Derek and Gabriel, Stacey and Porter, Dale and Nucera, Carmelo and Antonescu, Cristina R and Chiang, Derek Y and Janne, Pasi A and Greulich, Heidi and Loo, Alice and Prensner, John and Maher, Elizabeth and Rustgi, Anil K and Ligon, Azra H and Tanaka, Kumiko E and Kaye, Frederic J and Ebert, Benjamin L and Pomeroy, Scott L and Lander, Eric S and Fletcher, Jonathan A and Okamoto, Aikou and Signoretti, Sabina and Haery, Leila and Reich, Michael and Dobson, Jennifer and Raychaudhuri, Soumya and Wei, Guo and Baselga, José and Tsao, Ming-Sound and Letai, Anthony and Getz, Gad and Liefeld, Ted and Donovan, Jerry and Levine, Ross L and Beer, David G and Daly, Mark J and Sasaki, Hidefumi and Pinchback, Reid M and Bass, Adam J and Hoffman, Carter and Ladanyi, Marc and True, Lawrence D and Cho, Yoon-Jae and Sellers, William R and Tabernero, Josep and Demichelis, Francesca and Tepper, Joel E and Golub, Todd R and Meyerson, Matthew and Boehm, Jesse S and Mermel, Craig H and Loda, Massimo and ...
Tsao Connie W CW From the Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (C.W.T.); Departments of Biostatistics (K.M.P., J.M.M.) and Epidemiology (E.J.B.), School of Public Health, and Department of Medicine, Sections of Cardiology and Preventative Medicine (E.J.B., R.S.V.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (D.L.); The Framingham Heart Study, MA (C.W.T., E.J.B., D.L., R.S.V., C.J.O.); Division of Intramural Research, NHLBI, Bethesda, MD (C.W.T., C.J.O.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine (C.J.O.) and Department of Radiology (U.H.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; and Cardiovascular Engineering Inc, Norwood, MA (G.F.M.). - - 2014 ...
Scagliotti, G. V., Gaafar, R., Nowak, A. K., Nakano, T., van Meerbeeck, J., Popat, S., Vogelzang, N. J., Grosso, F., Aboelhassan, R., Jakopovic, M., Ceresoli, G. L., Taylor, P., Orlandi, F., Fennell, D. A., Novello, S., Scherpereel, A., Kuribayashi, K., Cedres, S., Sorensen, J. B., Pavlakis, N. & 6 othersReck, M., Velema, D., von Wangenheim, U., Kim, M., Barrueco, J. & Tsao, A. S., Jul 2019, In : Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 7, 7, p. 569-580 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A potent virus-specific antibody-secreting cell response to acute enterovirus 71 infection in children. AU - Huang, Kuan Ying Arthur. AU - Lin, Jainn Jim. AU - Chiu, Cheng Hsun. AU - Yang, Shuan. AU - Tsao, Kuo Chien. AU - Huang, Yhu Chering. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. Methods: We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. Results: A potent EV71 genogroup B-and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral ...
synthetic approaches to complex target organic molecules CH402: Synthetic Chemistry I (Organic), lectures 1-7; Professor Martin Wills. synthetic approaches to complex target organic molecules Recommended reading (not essential but if you want to learn more or check anything): Classics in Total Synthesis; K. C. Nicolaou and E. J. Sorensen, Wiley-VCH Classics in Total Synthesis II, K. C. Nicolaou and E. J. Sorensen, VCH Molecules that changed the world, K. C. Nicolaou and T. Montagnon, Wiley-VCH, The Logic of Chemical Synthesis, E. J. Corey and X.-M. Cheng, Wiley-VCH, S. Warren and P. Wyatt, Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, Wiley, 2nd Edn 2008 and the associated workbook, 2nd Edition Catalysis in Asymmetric Synthesis by V. Caprio and J. M. J. Williams, Wiley, 2010 (2nd Edition). In addition, other annual reviews of progress frequently appear in review journals. For more detailed reviews of particular areas, you can search the web of knowledge or Scifinder Scholar for comprehensive
A new Streptomyces strain was isolated from the soil of volcanic Cheju Island, which produces a novel immunosuppressive molecule. The active compound was purified through various chemical methods and identified as TMC, which was originally found as an antifungal antibiotic. A comparable level of inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by mouse MLR or the mitogen Con A was observed with a 100-fold lower concentration of TMC than CsA. Although the induction of IL-2 gene expression was inhibited by both TMC and CsA, TMC showed the inhibition of the surface expression of CD69 or IL-2Rα chain. These findings suggested that TMC has the capacity to inhibit the intracellular signaling pathway leading to T cell activation and proliferation, and its mechanism of action is different from that of CsA.. Among the intracellular signaling events proximal to the TcR complex, TMC inhibited T lymphocyte activation by blocking the tyrosine phosphorylation induction of the T cell-specific signal mediator ...
The use of synthetic materials for tissue and organ reconstruction, i. e. tissue engineering, has become a promising alternative to current surgical therapies and may overcome the shortcomings of the methods in use today. The challenge is in the design and reproducible fabrication of biocompatible and bioresorbable polymers, with suitable surface chemistry, desirable mechanical properties, and the wanted degradation profile. These material properties can be achieved in various manners, including the synthesis of homo- and copolymers along with linear and star-shaped architectures. In many applications the materials three-dimensional structure is almost as important as its composition and porous scaffolds with high porosity and interconnected pores that facilitate the in-growth of cells and transportation of nutrients and metabolic waste is desired.. In this work linear and star-shaped polymers have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization using a stannous-based catalyst and a ...
The use of amino thio S-acids in the azirine/oxazolone method and a novel isomerization led to Aib-containing endothiopeptides. With the aim of generalizing this method, a variety of Aib-containing dipeptide thioanilides have been prepared. By their treatment with ZnCl2 in AcOH, followed by HCl-saturated AcOH, the C=S group was shifted from the last to the penultimate amino acid in high yield and without epimerization. As this methodology is very useful for the specific introduction of a thioamide group, it was extended to Aib-containing tripeptides. In addition, it could be shown that a mechanism via spirocyclic intermediates (cf. Scheme 4) is most likely for this isomerization. To establish the proposed neighboring-group participation of the N-acyl group, model dipeptide thioanilides containing no N-terminal C=O group were synthesized. These derivatives did not undergo rearrangement. ...
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CA1340939C - Photochromic compound 
        - Google PatentsCA1340939C - Photochromic compound - Google Patents

The novel photochromic compound of the present invention is a spirooxazine compound having an addition polymerizable organic ... Novel photochromic compound and a polymer comprising the photochromic compound are disclosed. ... represent C1-C10 alkyl or C7-C12 aralkyl, or R3 and R4 when taken together the spiro carbon atom to which they are attached, ... C07D498/00-Heterocyclic compounds containing in the condensed system at least one hetero ring having nitrogen and oxygen atoms ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/CA1340939C/en

Patent US5136037 - 3-(4-substituted-4-piperazinyl)butyl-4-thiazolidinone and related compounds - Google PatentsPatent US5136037 - 3-(4-substituted-4-piperazinyl)butyl-4-thiazolidinone and related compounds - Google Patents

R3 and R4 are independently hydrogen or loweralkyl, or alternatively R3 +R4 taken together with the carbon atom to which they ... R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, lower alkyl, ##STR3## or alternatively R1 +R2 taken together with the carbon atom to ... where X in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy, amino, cyano, ... trifluoromethyl or methylthio; Y in each occurrence is independently hydrogen, halogen, loweralkyl, hydroxy, nitro, loweralkoxy ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5136037?dq=5958006

US Patent # 9,708,270. Substituted spiropiperidinyl compounds useful as GPR120 agonists - Patents.comUS Patent # 9,708,270. Substituted spiropiperidinyl compounds useful as GPR120 agonists - Patents.com

The present invention relates to a compound represented by formula (I): and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are ... If no number is specified, 1-6 carbon atoms are intended for linear and 3-7 carbon atoms for branched alkyl groups. Examples of ... or 6-membered heterocycloalkyl containing 1 O ring atom, wherein ring B forms a spiro ring system with the adjoining ... 8. The compound of claim 7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R.sup.4 is hydrogen. 9. The compound of ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-9708270.html

Indian Patents. 228352:METHOD FOR PREPARING MALEAMIC ACID POLYMER CONJUGATEIndian Patents. 228352:'METHOD FOR PREPARING MALEAMIC ACID POLYMER CONJUGATE'

... or spiro cyclic compounds, preferably made up of 3 to about 12 carbon atoms, more preferably 3 to about 8.. "Lower cycloalkyl" ... A linker of the invention may be a single atom, such as an oxygen or a sulfur, two atoms, or a number of atoms. A linker is ... depending upon its position in a molecule and the number of points of attachment of the group to atoms other than hydrogen, ... "Alicyclic" refers to any aliphatic compound that contains a ring of carbon atoms. An alicyclic group is one that contains a " ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/228352-method-for-preparing-maleamic-acid-polymer-conjugate

US4725691A - 2-[8-quinolinyl]-sulphinyl-1H-benzimidazole 
        - Google PatentsUS4725691A - 2-[8-quinolinyl]-sulphinyl-1H-benzimidazole - Google Patents

... alkylene radicals containing 4-5 carbon atoms giving spiro compounds, or two or four of these substituents together form one or ... R 8a is hydrogen or an alkyl group, or R 6a and R 7a , or R 7a and R 8a together with the adjacent carbon atoms in the ... S and N atoms always are attached to position 3 in the compound IIIa, R is a alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or arylalkyl group, and X ... R 5a is hydrogen or an alkyl group, R 6a is hydrogen or an alkyl group or R 5a and R 6a are joined together to form an alkylene ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US4725691A/en

Bridged compounds - WikipediaBridged compounds - Wikipedia

... and from spiro compounds that have two rings linked by a single atom. Bridged compounds may be fully carbocyclic (all carbon) ... atoms. The bridgehead atoms are defined as any atom that is not a hydrogen, and that is part of the skeletal framework of the ... Hence, in fully carbocyclic bridged compounds, bridgehead atoms are always tertiary or quaternary carbon atoms; a bridge can ... where the atoms can be carbon atoms or heteroatom (but because at least divalent, not hydrogen); the main ring refers to a ring ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridged_compounds

US Patent for Hydrolytically stable maleimide-terminated polymers Patent (Patent #  7,432,330 issued October 7, 2008) - Justia...US Patent for Hydrolytically stable maleimide-terminated polymers Patent (Patent # 7,432,330 issued October 7, 2008) - Justia...

... or spiro cyclic compounds, preferably made up of 3 to about 12 carbon atoms, more preferably 3 to about 8. ... The chain length is measured as the number of carbon atoms forming the shortest atom chain linking the nitrogen atom of the ... Generally, X is a hydrocarbon chain possessing only carbon and hydrogen atoms, however, in certain embodiments, X may contain ... When discussing carbon atom positions within the linker, X, C1 refers to the carbon atom adjacent to the maleimide nitrogen, ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/7432330

New synthesis of complex organic molecules revealedNew synthesis of complex organic molecules revealed

... example of such complex molecules are those that involve several cyclic structures that are attached to carbon-hydrogen atoms ... As such, the final goal of the project is the synthesis of various spiro (or twisted-shaped) compounds that have a variety of ... meaning that they are a combination of several cyclical structures that are all attached to one atom. While beautiful, their ... The researchers focused on the carbon-hydrogen bond within their starting step and proceeded with a series of bond editions ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2019-06-synthesis-complex-molecules-revealed.html

Patente US6841635 - Internally blocked organoborate initiators and adhesives therefrom - Google PatentesPatente US6841635 - Internally blocked organoborate initiators and adhesives therefrom - Google Patentes

1 to 7 carbon atoms). T is the organic residue of an active hydrogen-containing acrylic ester the active hydrogen having been ... The polymeric epoxide compounds can have a number average molecular weight from about 300 to about 10,000. Epoxy compounds are ... can comprise a spiro ring or a spiro-ether ring; R1 or R2 together with R3 or R4 in (I) can be linked to form a cycloaliphatic ... R1 and R2 can be part of an internal ring with the boron atom. The ring formed with B, R1 and R2 can contain a heteroatom such ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6841635?hl=es&dq=flatulence

US Patent # 8,110,570. Modulators of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and methods of use thereof - Patents.comUS Patent # 8,110,570. Modulators of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and methods of use thereof - Patents.com

... along with methods of use of these compounds as pharmaceuticals, particularly in the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, ... The present invention provides compounds of formula I: ##STR00001## ... 0-1 O-atom, 0-1 S-atom, and 1-3 N-atoms, which heterocycle may be optionally substituted on a C-atom or N-atom by alkyl, acyl, ... containing from 2 to 24 carbons and containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond formed by the removal of two hydrogens. ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-8110570.html

IUCr) 2-[1′-(Benz-yl-oxy)spiro-[indane-1,2′-pyrrolidine]-5′-yl]aceto-nitrileIUCr) 2-[1′-(Benz-yl-oxy)spiro-[indane-1,2′-pyrrolidine]-5′-yl]aceto-nitrile

Secondary atom site location: difference Fourier map. R[F2 > 2σ(F2)] = 0.059. Hydrogen site location: inferred from ... For radical cyclization of 1-aza-spiro compounds, see: El Bialy et al. (2004. ); Dake (2006. ). For cephalotaxine synthesis, ... to stand out the natural occurring and synthetic cyclic alkaloids which contain a nitrogen atom adjacent to the spiro carbon. ... H-atom treatment. H atoms treated by a mixture of independent and constrained refinement. ...
more infohttp://journals.iucr.org/e/issues/2013/08/00/hg5325/index.html

www.openmolecules.orgwww.openmolecules.org

Atom. Atom Chain. Attaches a chain of n carbon atoms to the highlighted atom provided that its valence maximum is not ... one may create a new ring or attach a ring to an existing bond or atom to create annelated ring systems or a spiro compound, ... The Osiris Structure Editor assumes the presence of implicit hydrogens at any charged or non charged atoms to meet the atoms ... Atom. Atom Symbol. Changes the symbol of the highlighted atom according to the typed sequence of atoms. E.g. typing n ...
more infohttp://www.openmolecules.org/editor/editor.html

Fenestrane - WikipediaFenestrane - Wikipedia

A fenestrane in organic chemistry is a type of chemical compound with a central quaternary carbon atom which serves as a common ... two of a total of three sp2-hybridized carbon atomic orbitals form regular bonds with two of the hydrogen atoms as in a planar ... They can be regarded as spiro compounds twice over. Because of their inherent strain and instability, fenestranes are of ... In one study, a [4.5.5.5]fenestrane was synthesized with one carbon atom replaced by nitrogen because aza- compounds and their ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenestrane

US Patent for Unit dose formulations and methods of treating thrombosis with an oral factor Xa inhibitor Patent (Patent #  8...US Patent for Unit dose formulations and methods of treating thrombosis with an oral factor Xa inhibitor Patent (Patent # 8...

The unit dose of the factor Xa inhibitor compounds disclosed herein required to inhibit coagulation in a primate is lower than ... Unit doses of factor Xa inhibitor compounds and methods of using these compounds for inhibiting blood coagulation in a human ... Further, the term "substituted" means that one or more of the hydrogen atoms on the ring carbon atom(s) or nitrogen atom(s) of ... Also included are fused ring and spiro compounds containing, for example, the above heterocylic ring structures. ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/8404724

Chemiluminescent 3-(substituted Adamant-2-Ylidene) 1,2-dioxetanes - Patent # 5326882 - PatentGeniusChemiluminescent 3-(substituted Adamant-2'-Ylidene) 1,2-dioxetanes - Patent # 5326882 - PatentGenius

These compounds can be represented by the formula: ##STR1## The corresponding dioxetanes which, instead of being substituted at ... 2-dioxetane compounds capable of producing light energy when decomposed, substantially stable at room temperature before a bond ... The substituted adamant-2-ylidene moiety spiro bonded to the 3-carbon atom of the dioxetane ring, illustrated in formula I ... is hydrogen, a branched or straight chain alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, inclusive, e.g., methyl, n-butyl or decyl, ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5326882.html

UCB Societe Anonyme PatentsUCB Societe Anonyme Patents

... independently a hydrogen atom, an alkyl radical containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms, an alkenyl radical containing 2 to 4 carbon ... 6-Amino-spiro[cycloalkane-1,2-penam]-3-carboxylic acids of the formula ##STR1## WHEREIN Z is a hydrogen or an alkali metal ... Isocyanate-modified compounds consisting of the reaction products of an organic isocyanate with compounds with multiple acrylic ... represent independently a hydrogen atom, an alkyl radical containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms or a phenyl group, R.sub.8 is a ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/assignee/UCBSocieteAnonyme.html

Molecule Gallery - AlkanesMolecule Gallery - Alkanes

Spiro[4.4]nonane is a spirocyclic compound, in which two fused rings share a single common carbon atom.. ... with the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms on each carbon, or as branched chains of carbon atoms having carbon substituents ... Cyclopropane is a ring of three carbon atoms; the carbon atoms all lie within the same plane, at bond angles of 60 to each ... Alkanes are nonpolar molecules, since they contain only nonpolar carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. They are therefore ...
more infohttps://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/molecule_gallery/01_alkanes/00_alkanes.htm

WO2017063327 NOVEL C-SPIRO-O-GLYCOSIDE COMPOUND INTERMEDIATE AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREFORWO2017063327 NOVEL C-SPIRO-O-GLYCOSIDE COMPOUND INTERMEDIATE AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREFOR

Also provided is a preparation method for the novel C-spiro-O-glycoside compound intermediate, comprising: first preparing 6- ... The present invention provides a novel C-spiro-O-glycoside compound intermediate having a structural formula as shown in ... Preparation of compounds having C. O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds ... having an ether-oxygen atom bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017063327

Patent US4183553 - Pressure- or heat-sensitive recording material and novel chromano compounds ... - Google PatentsPatent US4183553 - Pressure- or heat-sensitive recording material and novel chromano compounds ... - Google Patents

... represent hydrogen, alkyl of not more than 12 carbon atoms which is unsubstituted or substituted by halogen, hydroxyl, cyano or ... together with the nitrogen atom to which said pair is attached, independently represents a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ... represent hydrogen, halogen, lower alkyl or lower alkoxy, and Y1 and Y2, each independently of the other, represent hydrogen ... or heat-sensitive recording material which contains as color former at least one chromano compound of the general formula ## ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4183553

SPIRO-[1,3]-OXAZINES AND SPIRO-[1,4]-OXAZEPINES AS BACE1 AND/OR BACE2     INHIBITORS - Patent applicationSPIRO-[1,3]-OXAZINES AND SPIRO-[1,4]-OXAZEPINES AS BACE1 AND/OR BACE2 INHIBITORS - Patent application

12. The compound of claim 1, wherein R5 is hydrogen. 13. The compound of claim 1, wherein R6 is hydrogen. 14. The compound of ... 6 carbon atoms, in particular from 2 to 4 carbon atoms, containing one, two or three triple bonds. Examples of C2-6-alkynyl ... atoms, more particularly 1-3 halogen atoms, most particularly 1 halogen atom or 3 halogen atoms. The term "halogen-C1-3-alkyl ... R1b is hydrogen; R3 is halogen; R4 is halogen; R5 is hydrogen; R6 is hydrogen; R7a is hydrogen; R7b is hydrogen; R8 is selected ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120302549

US Patent Class 540--    ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -- PART OF THE CLASS 532-570 SERIESUS Patent Class 540-- ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -- PART OF THE CLASS 532-570 SERIES

The spiro atom is the 17-position carbon of the cyclopentanohydrophenanthrene ring system. ... Plural spiro atoms. 8. DF .~.~.~.~.~ The cyclopentanohydrophenanthrene ring system is part of a polycyclo ring system having at ... Nitrogen or hydrogen bonded directly to the -C(=X)- group. 312. DF .~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~ Nitrogen bonded directly at the 6-position ... ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (Class 532, Subclass 1). 1. DF .~ HETEROCYCLIC CARBON COMPOUNDS CONTAINING A HETERO RING HAVING CHALCOGEN (I. ...
more infohttp://www.patentec.com/data/class/540.html

PYRAZOLONE DERIVATIVES AS PDE4 INHIBITORS - Patent applicationPYRAZOLONE DERIVATIVES AS PDE4 INHIBITORS - Patent application

R6 is hydrogen, [0186] or R5 and R6 together and with inclusion of the two carbon atoms, to which they are bonded, form a spiro ... 0057] R8 is 1-3C-alkyl [0058] or R7 and R8 together with the carbon atom, to which they are bonded, form a spiro-linked 5- or 6 ... 0021] or a stereoisomer of the compound. [0022] 1-3-Alkyl is a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 to 3 carbon atoms. ... 0074] R8 is 1-3C-alkyl [0075] or R7 and R8 together with the carbon atom, to which they are bonded, form a spiro-linked 5- or 6 ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130012544

Indian Patents. 252483:MICROCYCLIC PROLINE ANALOGUES AS HCV NS-3 SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITORSIndian Patents. 252483:'MICROCYCLIC PROLINE ANALOGUES AS HCV NS-3 SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITORS'

"Spiro" in this context simply means that the cycloalkyl ring shares a single carbon atom with the peptidic backbone of the ... A compound as claimed in claim 46, wherein J is dimensioned to provide a macrocycle of 14 or 15 ring atoms.. 50. A compound as ... A compound as claimed in claim 44, wherein R1 is H or C1-C6alkyl, preferably hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or tert-butyl.. 46. A ... Compounds wherein a tetrazole derivative is attached through a carbon atom of the heterocyclic ring are conveniently prepared ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/252483-microcyclic-proline-analogues-as-hcv-ns-3-serine-protease-inhibitors

Acyclic or Carbocyclic CompoundsAcyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds

... wherein R is hydrogen or alkyl, and R. is alkyl or cyclopropyl, or R and R. are taken together with the carbon atom to which ... SPIRO COMPOUND AND ORGANIC LUMINESCENCE DEVICE USING THE SAME. Provided are a novel spiro compound, and an organic luminescence ... arranged no more than 6 atoms from the end of the chain e... ... The spiro compound is ... WO/2004/020371A1 CONDENSED POLYCYCLIC ... DOUBLE-SPIRO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND ELECTROLUMINESCENT DEVICES. Disclosed are double-spiro organic compounds for use in the ...
more infohttp://www.sumobrain.com/ICL-C07C25-p8.html

Patent Report: | US10000479 | Compounds and their methods of usePatent Report: | US10000479 | Compounds and their methods of use

Also described herein are methods of using the compounds that inhibit glutaminase in the treatment of cancer. ... Compounds and compositions comprising compounds that inhibit glutaminase are described herein. ... The cycloalkyl groups can contain fused or spiro rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Examples of ... refers to an alkyl in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halo, and includes alkyl moieties in which all hydrogens ...
more infohttps://patents.patsnap.com/v/US10000479-compounds-and-their-methods-of-use.html
  • It is worthwhile to stand out the natural occurring and synthetic cyclic alkaloids which contain a nitrogen atom adjacent to the spiro carbon. (iucr.org)
  • R 1 and R 2 and R 3 and R 4 , together with the nitrogen atom to which said pair is attached, independently represents a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic radical. (google.com.au)
  • The synthesis of compounds whose molecular structure is composed of several kinds of circular structures has been difficult to achieve via conventional methods. (phys.org)
  • As such, the final goal of the project is the synthesis of various spiro (or twisted-shaped) compounds that have a variety of different atoms," Mori adds. (phys.org)
  • Many of these compounds are isolated from petroleum, and may serve as the starting points for the synthesis of more complex molecules. (angelo.edu)
  • An initial substitution of the fluorine atom in a benzene ring of said polyfluoride benzo-trifl. (sumobrain.com)
  • This electronic structure causes some of them to exhibit multiple coordination geometries, particularly copper and gold ions which as neutral atoms have full d-orbitals in their outer shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clayden simplifies this description, saying that bridged bicyclic compounds "are just what the name implies-[molecules in which] a bridge of [an atom or of atoms] is thrown across from one side of the ring to the other," examples of which are shown at left and right, and below. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Examples of inorganic bridged compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the number of carbon atoms increases, the number of structural isomers increases rapidly (see butane and isobutane below for examples). (angelo.edu)
  • Coordination polymers contain the subclass coordination networks that are coordination compounds extending, through repeating coordination entities, in 1 dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in 2 or 3 dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bridgehead atoms are defined as any atom that is not a hydrogen, and that is part of the skeletal framework of the molecule that is bonded to three or more other skeletal atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers focused on the carbon-hydrogen bond within their starting step and proceeded with a series of bond editions that involved sequential transformations of the molecule. (phys.org)
  • After achieving the desired cyclic conformations, the scientists introduced a few more carbon-hydrogen groups to obtain an ultimate molecule with the energetically preferred conformation. (phys.org)
  • As the number of carbon atoms increases, the attractions due to these weak London forces increase, and the boiling point of the molecule increases. (angelo.edu)
  • citation needed] One of the most highly strained fenestranes to have been isolated is a [4.4.4.enestrane with bond angles at the central carbon atom of around 130° (based on X-ray crystallography), as compared to the 109.45° standard for tetrahedral atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • That atom has an inverted tetrahedral geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon atoms in alkanes are sp 3 -hybridized, and have tetrahedral shapes, with the bonded atoms at angles of 109.5 to each other. (angelo.edu)
  • The Chain Tool provides the fastest way to draw aliphatic carbon chains in zig-zag orientation. (openmolecules.org)
  • A process for preparing substituted pentacene compounds comprises the step of cyclizing substituted bis(benzyl)phthalic acids using an acid composition comprising trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the substituted bis(benzyl)phthalic acids b. (sumobrain.com)
  • These adopt a square pyramidal geometry analogous to the trigonal pyramid of tetrahedrane, with the germanium or tin atom at the vertex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous methods have relied not only on several reaction steps but have resulted in very little compound yield. (phys.org)
  • Thus, the atom mapping tool is only available, when a reaction is edited. (openmolecules.org)
  • When a reaction is edited and the mapping tool is selected, then pressing the 'Delete' key removes all atom mapping from the reaction. (openmolecules.org)
  • Enzymatically cleavable light-producing 1,2-dioxetane compounds will usually also contain stabilizing groups, such as an adamantylidene group spiro bonded to the dioxetane ring's 3-carbon atom, that will aid in preventing the dioxetane compoundfrom undergoing substantial decomposition at room temperature (about 25.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • Unit doses of factor Xa inhibitor compounds and methods of using these compounds for inhibiting blood coagulation in a human patient are taught herein. (justia.com)
  • Structures within this class of chemicals can be named according to the number of atoms in each ring in addition to the systematic nomenclature of IUPAC naming rules. (wikipedia.org)