The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (1/3487)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (2/3487)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Solid-state NMR and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a bilayer-solubilized peptide: structural and mechanistic implications. (3/3487)

Hydrogen-deuterium exchange has been monitored by solid-state NMR to investigate the structure of gramicidin M in a lipid bilayer and to investigate the mechanisms for polypeptide insertion into a lipid bilayer. Through exchange it is possible to observe 15N-2H dipolar interactions in oriented samples that yield precise structural constraints. In separate experiments the pulse sequence SFAM was used to measure dipolar distances in this structure, showing that the dimer is antiparallel. The combined use of orientational and distance constraints is shown to be a powerful structural approach. By monitoring the hydrogen-deuterium exchange at different stages in the insertion of peptides into a bilayer environment it is shown that dimeric gramicidin is inserted into the bilayer intact, i.e., without separating into monomer units. The exchange mechanism is investigated for various sites and support for a relayed imidic acid mechanism is presented. Both acid and base catalyzed mechanisms may be operable. The nonexchangeable sites clearly define a central core to which water is inaccessible or hydroxide or hydronium ion is not even momentarily stable. This provides strong evidence that this is a nonconducting state.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (4/3487)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

Incubation of OKP cells in low-K+ media increases NHE3 activity after early decrease in intracellular pH. (5/3487)

Chronic hypokalemia increases the activity of proximal tubule apical membrane Na+/H+ antiporter NHE3. The present study examined the effect of the incubation of OKP cells (an opossum kidney, clone P cell line) in control medium (K+ concn ([K+]) = 5.4 mM) or low-K+ medium ([K+] = 2.7 mM) on NHE3. The activity of an ethylisopropyl amiloride-resistant Na+/H+ antiporter, whose characteristics were consistent with those of NHE3, was increased in low-K+ cells beginning at 8 h. NHE3 mRNA and NHE3 protein abundance were increased 2.2-fold and 62%, respectively, at 24 h but not at 8 h. After incubation in low-K+ medium, intracellular pH (pHi) decreased by 0.27 pH units (maximum at 27 min) and then recovered to the control level. Intracellular acidosis induced by 5 mM sodium propionate increased Na+/H+ antiporter activity at 8 and 24 h. Herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked low-K+- and sodium propionate-induced activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter at 8 and 24 h. Our results demonstrate that low-K+ medium causes an early decrease in pHi, which leads to an increase in NHE3 activity via a tyrosine kinase pathway.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (6/3487)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Chromatium vinosum with H2 and CO. (7/3487)

Results are presented of the first rapid-mixing/rapid-freezing studies with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The enzyme from Chromatium vinosum was used. In particular the reactions of active enzyme with H2 and CO were monitored. The conversion from fully reduced, active hydrogenase (Nia-SR state) to the Nia-C* state was completed in less than 8 ms, a rate consistent with the H2-evolution activity of the enzyme. The reaction of CO with fully reduced enzyme was followed from 8 to 200 ms. The Nia-SR state did not react with CO. It was discovered, contrary to expectations, that the Nia-C* state did not react with CO when reactions were performed in the dark. When H2 was replaced by CO, a Nia-C* EPR signal appeared within 11 ms; this was also the case when H2 was replaced by Ar. With CO, however, the Nia-C* state decayed within 40 ms, due to the generation of the Nia-S.CO state (the EPR-silent state of the enzyme with bound CO). The Nia-C* state, induced after 11 ms by replacing H2 by CO in the dark, could be converted, in the frozen enzyme, into the EPR-detectable state with CO bound to nickel (Nia*.CO) by illumination at 30 K (evoking the Nia-L* state), followed by dark adaptation at 200 K. This can be explained by assuming that the Nia-C* state represents a formally trivalent state of nickel, which is unable to bind CO, whereas nickel in the Nia-L* and the Nia*.CO states is formally monovalent.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (8/3487)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Breath hydrogen excretion over a period of three hours was measured to evaluate carbohydrate malassimilation in healthy cats treated orally with antibiotics. Both an absorbable carbohydrate (xylose) and a non-absorbable carbohydrate (lactulose) were administered during the tests to evaluate the changes in the intestinal mucosa and the population of bacteria within the intestinal lumen. Overall, the effects of oxytetracycline and metronidazole on breath hydrogen excretion were not significantly different. However, the treatment effect with an antibiotic did significantly change breath hydrogen excretion after xylose administration (P<0.05) within groups. Similarly, with each antibiotic, breath hydrogen excretion was affected significantly (P<0.001) by the time after the administration of the carbohydrate. Treatment with each antibiotic also interacted significantly with this time effect (P<0.05) within groups. After lactulose administration, there was a trend within groups for the ...
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hydrogen-rich saline on pancreatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Eighty heterotopic pancreas transplantations (HPT) were performed in syngenic rats. The receptors were randomized blindly into the following three groups: the HPT group and two groups that underwent transplantation and administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HS, ,0.6 mM, 6 mL/kg) or normal saline (NS, 6 mL/kg) via the tail vein at the beginning of reperfusion (HPT + HS group, HPT + NS group). Samples from the pancreas and blood were taken at 12 hours after reperfusion. The protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against I/R injury were evaluated by determining the changes in histopathology and measuring serological parameters, oxidative stress-associated molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline produced notable protection against pancreatic I/R injury in rats. Histopathological improvements and recovery of impaired ...
[Experimental studies of effects of hydrogen-rich saline in rats with severe acute pancreatitis].: Hydrogen-rich saline can decrease the levels of inflammatory
Previous studies have showed that the hydrogen gas evolved from Hup - legume nodules promotes plant growth and increases the hydrogen uptake rate of soils adjacent to Hup - nodules. This may be resulted from hydrogen-induced variation of rhizobacterial community structure. Twenty isolates of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to genera of Variovorax, Burkhorderia and Flavobacterium showed positive effect on root elongation. This study showed that isolates belonging to Variovorax and Flavobacterium had ACC deaminase activity and isolates belonging to Burkhorderia had the ability to excrete rhizobitoxine or its structural analogue such as AVG, which meant that they have the ability to promote plant growth by lowering of plant ethylene levels. TRFLP studies showed that hydrogen metabolism resulted in obvious variation of bacterial community structure in hydrogen treated soils compared to the controls. TRF peaks whose intensity increased obviously in profiles from hydrogen-treated soils were ...
Hydrogen water contains hydrogen molecules that can act as a powerful antioxidant. It is on-trend. You may have seen celebs like Ryan Reynolds, Zac Efron, and Blake Lively drinking hydrogen water. Why is this the drink the latest craze in the trend of specialty waters? What is Hydrogen Water? This type of water is quite different from regular water. It is generally purified water that is infused with excess molecular Hydrogen, which is tasteless and odorless gas. 7 Health Benefits of Hydrogen Water : 1. Hydrogen Water Boosts Skin Health The skin serves not just is attractive outside but is also responsible for the protection of the body from various infectious organisms. Bathing with these type of water for 3 months noticeably reduced skin wrinkles in 6-7 people. Scientific study suggests that regular use of these water can reduce the damage on skin cells, as well as promoting the production of type I collagen in the dermis. The regular use of these type of water can also help improve or treat ...
What is hydrogen-rich water?What is hydrogen-rich water? Hydrogen-rich water is water that dissolves hydrogen. Generally, hydrogen can be dissolved in the water slightly. In the conditions of atmosphe...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats. AU - Sun, Qiang. AU - Kawamura, Tomohiro. AU - Masutani, Kosuke. AU - Peng, Ximei. AU - Sun, Qing. AU - Stolz, Donna B.. AU - Pribis, John P.. AU - Billiar, Timothy R.. AU - Sun, Xuejun. AU - Bermudez, Christian A.. AU - Toyoda, Yoshiya. AU - Nakao, Atsunori. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Aims: Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results: The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg 2H2O → Mg (OH)2 H2). Beginning on the day of ...
Hydrogen-rich saline is able to attenuate the renal I/R injury, which is possibly by reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhalation of high concentration hydrogen gas improves short-term outcomes in a rat model of asphyxia induced-cardiac arrest. AU - Huang, Lei. AU - Applegate, Richard Lee. AU - Applegate, Patricia. AU - Boling, Warren. AU - Zhang, John. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Cardiogenic global brain hypoxia-ischemia is a devastating medical problem that is associated with unfavorable neurologic outcomes. Low dose hydrogen gas (up to 2.9%) has been shown to be neuroprotective in a variety of brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of water by electrolysis-derived high concentration hydrogen gas (60%) in a rat model of asphyxia induced-cardiac arrest and global brain hypoxia-ischemia. High concentration hydrogen gas was either administered starting 1 hour prior to cardiac arrest for 1 hour and starting 1 hour post-resuscitation for 1 hour (pre- & post-treatment) or starting 1 hour post-resuscitation for 2 hours (post-treatment). In animals subjected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Asoh, Sadamitsu. AU - Ishikawa, Masahiro. AU - Yamamoto, Yasuhiro. AU - Ohsawa, Ikuroh. AU - Ohta, Shigeo. PY - 2007/9/28. Y1 - 2007/9/28. N2 - We have recently showed that molecular hydrogen has great potential for selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, and that inhalation of hydrogen gas decreases cerebral infarction volume by reducing oxidative stress [I. Ohsawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, K.-I. Katsura, Y. Katayama, S. Asoh, S. Ohta, Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals, Nat. Med., 13 (2007) 688-694]. Here we show that the inhalation of hydrogen gas is applicable for hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, using mice. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver ...
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Rich hydrogen products are dazzling, each said good, consumers are difficult to adapt. Effective and safe hydrogen-rich products must: 1, the concentration of 1200ppb or more, 2, no chemical by-products, such as SPE membrane electrolysis hydrogen. 3, must be made of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen and oxygen separation technology. 4. Instantaneous hydrogen production and continuous hydrogen production are the most reliable. 5. Heating function is critical.. According to the drinking hydrogen water standard issued by the International Hydrogen Standards Committee (IHSA), the hydrogen content of the hydrogen-rich water machine must be above 1200 pp, which is 1.2 ppm or more. Any hydrogen-rich water machine smaller than this data is ineffective for the human body. Some merchants may say that his machine has a hydrogen content of only 300 ppb, but he can absorb more hydrogen by drinking more than 3 liters of water a day. Medical research has shown that drinking water below 1200 ppb is not beneficial to ...
To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the benefits of drinking hydrogen water in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant tumors. This finding may provide the foundation for a clinically applicable, effective, and safe strategy for the delivery of hydrogen gas to mitigate radiation-induced cellular injury. Patients experience GI symptoms and decreased QOL during radiotherapy. These symptoms usually occur as a result of the body repairing damage to healthy cells, are particularly common towards the end of a course of radiation treatment, and can last for some time. The symptoms and their impact on QOL can be worsened by having to travel to the hospital each day. Drinking hydrogen-rich water improved the QOL of the patients receiving radiotherapy and did not require additional hospital visits. Although overall survival of patients with malignant tumors should remain oncologists primary concern, survival should also be interpreted in light of symptom palliation and ...
Crude glycerol (CG) is the main by-product (waste) of biodiesel production (by transesterification of lipids) and by weight it could be as high as 10% (w/w) of the final product. Considering global interest for biodiesel production, there is a need for sustainable management of the waste. In this context, bio-hydrogen production by utilization of CG could be an interesting option. Moreover, hydrogen is considered as the cleanest renewable alternative of fossil fuels. However, CG contains a few impurities, such as methanol, NaCl and soap and their individual and interactive effect on hydrogen production should be investigated. Thus, present study deals with the investigation of the effect of methanol, NaCl and soap on hydrogen production and substrate (glycerol) utilization. Based on the investigation carried out using response surface methodology, it was observed that soap is the most significant factor (p value=0.0104,0.05) to inhibit hydrogen production. Similarly, methanol was also found to ...
Molecular hydrogen (water) in the treatment of acute and chronic neurological conditions(Alzheimers, Parkinsons,etc): mechanisms of protection and routes of administration. ...
Thermodynamic and kinetic study of hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in SOFCs based on species territory adsorption modelThermodynamic and kinetic study of hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in SOFCs based on species territory adsorption model ...
Molecular hydrogen (H2) improves body composition, metabolic profiles and mitochondrial function in overweight women, yet no studies so far evaluated the effectiveness of H2 for improving exercise capacity in this population.. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 28-days supplementation with 1 L per day of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on exercise capacity and quality of life in overweight mid-age women.. METHODS: Twelve women (age 53.8 ± 13.0 years, BMI 28.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2, VO2max 22.3 ± 3.7 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, repeated-measure interventional study. All participants were allocated in a double-blind design to receive two randomly assigned trials: first group received 1 L per day of HRW (supplying ~ 9 ppm of H2), while the second group received placebo (tap water). Participants were evaluated at baseline, and following 28 days of intervention. The primary endpoint was the change in cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) assessed at baseline and at ...
Molecular Hydrogen is a small scientific miracle:. Molecular Hydrogen is currently in it`s infancy in the field of medical research.. hydrogen can have tremendous impact as a new and innovative therapeutic tool where modern medicine cannot help with serious health problems (Huang et al., 2010).. According to recent scientific studies, Molecular Hydrogen can have a positive impact on many health problems.. Tyler W. LeBaron from the Molecular Hydrogen Institute (USA) states ...
( -- Researchers at the Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, a joint institute of SLAC and Stanford University, have produced a hydrogen-rich alloy that could provide insight into the properties of metallic hydrogen, according to a study published in the August 17 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The work is a step toward materials with revolutionary implications for energy science, enabling lossless power transmission, next-generation particle accelerators and even magnetic levitation.
A method of operating a H2-O2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H2 consumption.
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It has long been recognized that the reaction rates of the hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution reactions (HOR and HER) are slower in basic than acidic electrolytes, even though the surface intermediate of adsorbed hydrogen is independent of solution pH. Understanding the root of this observation is critical to designing catalysts for a multitude of electrochemical reactions with relevance to energy conversion and storage. In this work, we undertake a fundamental investigation relating interfacial water structure to the reaction barrier for hydrogen underpotential adsorption and to the HER/HOR kinetics.. The pH-dependence of HOR/HER kinetics has been attributed to a variety of reasons. The research groups of Gasteiger and Yan have both suggested that in base, hydroxide ions stabilize the Pt-H bond for stronger binding and slower catalysis [1,2]. Central to this hypothesis is an experimentally measured shift with pH in the peak potential for hydrogen underpotential deposition on the (100) ...
Types of hydrogen inhalation machines available. How hydrogen inhalation works in human body - all you need to know about inhalation.
High-resolution core-level spectroscopy (HRCLS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of hydrogen on a PdO(101) film grown on Pd(111). Energy-dependent measurements of the O 1s and Pd 3d(5/2) binding energies enable identification of surface components that correspond to undercoordinated Pd and O atoms. HRCLS data obtained at 110 K, after hydrogen exposure at the same temperature, reveal hydrogen adsorption and formation of Pd-H and O-H groups. Adsorption at room temperature results instead in complete reduction of the oxide. The experimental results are supported by the DFT calculations of core-level shifts and barriers for water formation.
iv] Sergej M. Ostojic & Marko D. Stojanovic Hydrogen-Rich Water Affected Blood Alkalinity in Physically Active Men Research in Sports Medicine Vol. 22 , Iss. 1,2014 [v] Da Ponte A, Giovanelli N, Nigris D, Lazzer S. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Apr 26. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06883-9 [vi] P.Dridab T.Trivica C.CasalscS.Trivicd M.Stojanovicab S.M.Ostojicab Is molecular hydrogen beneficial to enhance post-exercise recovery in female athletes? Science & Sports Volume 31, Issue 4, September 2016, Pages 207-213 [vii] Ostojic, Sergej, M.; Korovljev, Darinka; Stajer, Valdemar; Javorac, Dejan 28-Days Hydrogen-Rich Water Supplementation Affects Exercise Capacity in Mid-Age Overweight Women: 2942 Board #225 June 1 330 PM - 500 PM Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2018 - Volume 50 - Issue 5S - p 728-729 doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000538402.25953.d2 [viii] Takuji Kawamura 1 ; Yuko Gando ; Masaki Takahashi ; Reira Hara ; Katsuhiko ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production from cellulose catalytic gasification on CeO2/Fe2O3 catalyst. AU - Zou, Jun. AU - Oladipo, Japhet. AU - Fu, Shilong. AU - Al-Rahbi, Amal. AU - Yang, Haiping. AU - Wu, Chunfei. AU - Cai, Ning. AU - Williams, Paul. AU - Chen, Hanping. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Catalytic steam gasification of biomass can produce clean and renewable hydrogen. In this study, Ce/Fe bimetallic catalysts were used to promote hydrogen production from cellulose steam catalytic reforming at 500-900 °C. The effect of different Ce/Fe ratios on the catalytic performance of hydrogen production was studied. The distribution of products, gas composition, carbon deposition and the stability of the catalyst were analyzed with variant approaches. The results show that the catalytic performance of the CeO2/Fe2O3 catalyst in relation to hydrogen production was much better than pure CeO2 or Fe2O3. When the ratio of Ce:Fe was 3:7, the maximum yield of the H2 was 28.58 mmol at 800 °C. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production from ethanol using low energy pulse discharge at ambient temperature. AU - Sekine, Y.. AU - Matsukata, M.. AU - Kikuchi, E.. AU - Kado, S.. AU - Haga, F.. PY - 2004/9/1. Y1 - 2004/9/1. N2 - Fuel cell is attracting attention, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. However, hydrogen production and transportation processes have many problems with the present technology so innovative technological methods to produce hydrogen are needed. Low energy pulse discharge was used for this goal. The energy efficiency was improved because the liquid phase reactor did not require a heater which is needed to vaporize the mixture of water and ethanol. Any pump supplying the liquid into the reactor was not required. So the liquid phase reactor made the process scale reduced, and also made the device size compact without spoiling its function. This process would be very useful for room temperature hydrogen formation system.. AB - Fuel cell is attracting attention, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benchmark Results for Hydrogen Atom Transfer between Carbon Centers and Validation of Electronic Structure Methods for Bond Energies and Barrier Heights. AU - Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka. AU - Paneth, Piotr. AU - Pu, Jingzhi. AU - Truhlar, Donald G.. PY - 2004/4/1. Y1 - 2004/4/1. N2 - First we report benchmark high-level calculations for the barrier heights of five degenerate and nearly degenerate rearrangements (CH 3· + CH 4 or C 2H 6, C 2H 5· + CH 4 or C 2H 6, and n-C 3H 7· + n-C 3H 8) involving hydrogen transfer between hydrocarbon fragments. Then the performance of 11 existing and 5 new semiempirical methods based on the neglect of diatomic differential overlap (NDDO) and the intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) is evaluated by comparing their predictions to those of the more accurate levels. All methods are additionally tested against a representative test suite of reactive barrier heights and a representative test suite of bond energies. Two new NDDO ...
Uncontrolled production of oxygen and nitrogen radicals results in oxidative and nitrosative stresses that impair cellular functions and have been regarded as causative common denominators of many pathological processes. In this review, we report on the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in scavenging radicals in an artificial system of •OH formation. As a proof of principle, we also demonstrate that in rat hearts in vivo, administration of molecular hydrogen led to a significant increase in superoxide dismutase as well as pAKT, a cell survival signaling molecule. Irradiation of the rats caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which was mitigated by pre-treatment of the animals with molecular hydrogen. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is regarded as an important regulator of oxyradical homeostasis, as well as it supports the functional integrity of cells, particularly under conditions of oxidative stress. We suggest that the beneficial effects of molecular ...
Antioxidant. Hydrogen-rich water is also referred to as alkaline, antioxidant water, which helps to lower the risk of oxidation causing damage to the bodys cells. Also, this potent antioxidant has the ability to repair the already damaged cells that are attacked by free radicals. This healthy type of water is produced using an alkaline filter and tests show it has the highest concentration of antioxidants.. Preventing oxidation related damage to the body can benefit in many ways because it can lead to serious health issues such as dementia or other neurological conditions, certain cancers, and early aging. Also, the person with a high volume of oxidative damage is less likely to function properly and can experience issues related to mental clarity and low energy levels.. Inflammation. A regular drinker of hydrogen-rich water has the ability to minimize issues related to inflammation. It is not only able to relieve the existing symptoms of inflammatory disease, but can also lower the risk of ...
Properties:OtherPlace of Origin:Guangdong, China (Mainland)Brand Name:sz or oemModel Number:sz-ws001Input voltage:100-220v---1.0A 50/60HzOutput votage:12v-2.0ARated power:24Wwater capacity:200-500mlSize:23.5*15*7cmWeig...
Hydrogen Power, Inc. (OTCBB: HYDP) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen NowTM. Hydrogen Now involves a chemical reaction between water, aluminum, and an environmentally friendly catalyst to cleanly and efficiently produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. Their high energy density AlumiFuelTM powder, consisting of aluminum and catalyst can be easily transported and stored. On December 26 the company announced that its common stock has begun trading on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board. The company claims: the Hydrogen Now technology produces hydrogen on-site and on-demand requiring no energy consumption for the creation of hydrogen. The aluminum
Hydrogen Power, Inc. (OTCBB: HYDP) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen NowTM. Hydrogen Now involves a chemical reaction between water, aluminum, and an environmentally friendly catalyst to cleanly and efficiently produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. Their high energy density AlumiFuelTM powder, consisting of aluminum and catalyst can be easily transported and stored. On December 26 the company announced that its common stock has begun trading on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board. The company claims: the Hydrogen Now technology produces hydrogen on-site and on-demand requiring no energy consumption for the creation of hydrogen. The aluminum
Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of AMD. Hydrogen has anti-oxidative stress and apoptotic effects on retinal injury. However, the effect of hydrogen on AMD is not clear. In this study, fundus radiography, OCT, and FFA demonstrated that HRW reduced the deposition of drusen-like structures in RPE layer, prevented retina from thinning and leakage of ocular fundus vasculature induced by NaIO3. ERG analysis confirmed that HRW effectively reversed the decrease of a-wave and b-wave amplitude in NaIO3-mice. Mechanistically, HRW greatly reduced the oxidative stress reaction through decreased MDA levels, increased SOD production, and decreased ROS content. The OGG1 expression was downregulated which is a marker of oxidative stress. Involvement of oxidative stress was confirmed using oxidative stress inhibitor ALCAR. Moreover, oxidative stress reaction was associated with expression of Sirt1 level and HRW significantly inhibited the downregulation of Sirt1 expression. This result was further confirmed
Buildup of unreacted hydrogen gas in sealed electrochemical cells has been prevented by inserting a hydrogen absorbing device into the cell before sealing. This hydrogen absorbing device is preferably a discrete shaped body, e.g., cylindrical or ring shaped, encased in an electrolyte impermeable, but hydrogen gas permeable membrane and includes a material which will react chemically with hydrogen gas, a catalyst for the hydrogen consuming reaction, and a compatible binder which maintains the reactant and catalyst in the form of a discrete shaped body which is porous to hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen oxidation and nitrogen fixation in rhizobia, with special attention focused on strain ORS 571.: In this survey we describe the influence of hydrogen ox
evolved tremendously throughout the years.. Hydrogen is extremely unique, it is the smallest molecule in the universe. This gives it a higher cellularbio-availability above any other supplements, drug or nutriceutical.. Molecular Hydrogen can rapidly diffuse deep into all the human body cells and mitochondria, easily pass through the blood brain barrier. Currently about 150 different disease models have been studied, in which molecular hydrogen appears to exert a beneficial effect.. How does Molecular Hydrogen work?. Human, animal and cell studies shows that this hydrogen exerts beneficial effects via four primary methods.. 1. It can recognize toxic hydroxyl radicals in the body. 2. It instantaneously converts toxic hydroxyl radicals in your body to water.. 3. It maintains the homeostatic levels of our bodys own antioxidants.. 4. It also has a beneficial effect on cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression, which gives it anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and anti-aging effects. ...
We report the incorporation of a simple enzyme-inspired proton channel onto a hydrogen oxidation catalyst. This modification facilitates proton transfer and lowers the overpotential for oxidation of H2 by 300 mV when using water as a base.
Iron-iron hydrogenases are highly active hydrogen-producing enzymes. Hydrogenases mediate molecular processes of broad biological and medical significance: the...
Plastic and Aesthetic Research covers technical and clinical studies related to plastic and aesthetic surgery, such as plastic and aesthetic materials, plastic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, ophthalmoplasty, dentistry etc.
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Theres cucumber water, lemon water, tonic water, and theres heavy water. What is hydrogen water? Doesnt water already have hydrogen in it? Well, yes. But any guesses what this could be?
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Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. The application of this technique is becoming widespread due to its versatility for providing structural information about challenging biological macromolecules such as antibodies, flexible proteins and glycoproteins. Although the technique has been around for 25 years, this is the first definitive book devoted entirely to the topic.. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications brings into one comprehensive volume the theory, instrumentation and applications of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) - a technique relevant to bioanalytical chemistry, protein science and pharmaceuticals. The book provides a solid foundation in the basics of the technique and data interpretation to inform readers of current research in the method, and provides illustrative examples of its use in bio- and pharmaceutical chemistry and ...
Biohydrogen technology has drawn much attention due to its many advantages. However, it is still necessary to screen much more strains with stronger hydrogen-producing capacity for future commercialization processes. In this paper, a biohydrogen-producing strain Enterobacter aerogenes EB-06 was isolated, identified, and named. It could convert glycerol to biohydrogen by microorganism fermentation. The effects of oxygen content, initial pH, initial glycerol concentration, and initial nitrogen source content on biohydrogen production process were investigated. The results have shown that biohydrogen generation was more favorable under anaerobic conditions. The optimum specific biohydrogen production rate (QH2) was obtained as 41.47 mmol H2/g DCW h at 40 g/L initial glycerol concentration. The optimum volume H2 yield (CH2) was 83.76 mmol H2/L at initial pH 7.0. It was found that nitrogen source content (0-4 g/L) could promote biohydrogen production and cell growth. The biohydrogen production of
Inhalation of molecular hydrogen gas may be impractical for continuous H2 consumption in daily life. In contrast, solubilized H2 (hydrogen-infused water) is a portable, easily administered, and safe means to ingest H2.. H2 can be dissolved in water up to 0.8 mM (1.6 mg/L) under atmospheric pressure at room temperature without changing pH.. H2 water can be made by several methods: infusing H2 gas into water under pressure, electrolyzing water to producing H2, and reacting magnesium metal or its hydride with water.. Notably, H2 penetrates glass or plastic walls of vessels in a short time, yet aluminum containers retain hydrogen gas for a long time.. Water ionizers produce hydrogen gas via electrolysis. This method produces hydrogen concentrations from less than 0.05 ppm to more than 2.5 ppm. Typically 0.1 to 0.7 ppm hydrogen is produced, yet most companies manufacturing water ionizers neither know the concentration produced nor understand the significance of hydrogen for health.. In this regard, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Barrier heights for hydrogen atom transfer reactions. Evaluation of ab initio molecular orbital methods for the degenerate exchange HO• + H2O → H2O + •OH. AU - Nanayakkara, Asiri A.. AU - Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.. AU - Williams, Ian H.. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - Several different ab initio molecular electronic structure techniques are used to calculate the barrier height for the reaction HO• + H2O → H2O + •OH, which is a prototype for hydrogen abstraction processes involving open-shell radicals and the breaking and formation of strong covalent bonds. The objective of the study is to determine what practical methods are currently available for performing such calculations and to assess their reliability. Methods studied include self-consistent field (ROHF and UHF), multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF), Møller-Plesset perturbation calculations (up to full fourth order), configuration interaction (CISD), and quadratic configuration interaction ...
We measured breath H2 excretion in 122 neonates from birth to 1 month of age. The patients weighed less than 2000 g at birth and thus were at risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Hydrogen excretion was normalized for the quality of the expired air by dividing by the carbon dioxide pr …
In this paper we present the results of the investigations of nanostructured C-Pd films for hydrogen sensing applications. These C-Pd films were prepared by physical vapor deposition and then annealed in an argon flow at the temperature of 500°C. The structure and morphology of the prepared C-Pd films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We studied the infiuence of hydrogen on the electrical properties and crystal structure of C-Pd films. It was shown that film resistance changes depended on hydrogen concentration. At lower hydrogen concentration (up to 2 vol.%), the films response increased proportionally to [H2], while above 2 vol.% H2, it was almost constant. This is connected with the formation of a solid solution of hydrogen in palladium at lower H2 concentration and the creation of palladium hydride at higher H2 concentration. X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the formation of Pd-H solid solution and palladium hydride ...
Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. The application of this technique is becoming widespread due to its versatility for providing structural information about challenging biological macromolecules such as antibodies, flexible proteins and glycoproteins. Although the technique has been around for 25 years, this is the first definitive book devoted entirely to the topic. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications brings into one comprehensive volume the theory, instrumentation and applications of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) - a technique relevant to bioanalytical chemistry, protein science and pharmaceuticals. The book provides a solid foundation in the basics of the technique and data interpretation to inform readers of current research in the method, and provides illustrative examples of its use in bio- and pharmaceutical chemistry and biophysics. ...
Electrolysis of H20 and Hydrogen on demand generation Topics. (1/96) , ,, [1] Overunity electrolysis - 31 times more effective gas production than with DC. [2] Japanese Company Has A Car That Runs On Water.. [3] Peter Davey Heater. [4] Optimising HHO Dry Cell output at the same input power. [5] Cheap and Efficient hydrogen oxygen separation HHO cell design. [6] Electrolysis separation cell for pure Hydrogen production with high pressure. [7] Formular to calculate energy per liter of HHO gas. [8] HHO + air mix storage, the optimal green energy storage solution. [9] Final Draft - Linnard Griffin Hydrogen Reactor Experiment Report. Navigation. [0] Up one level. [#] Next page. Go to full version ...
Dr. Ohta gave a keynote lecture and introduced a number of hydrogens potent efficacies on a broad spectrum of diseases in animal and human models, as well as the emerging molecular bases of hydrogens effects. He emphasized the following points: (i) In the three and a half years since the first hydrogen paper was published in Nature Medicine, more than 70 original papers have been published in leading biological/medical journals. Based on cumulative knowledge, beneficial biological effects of hydrogen have been established with no doubt. (ii) There are several ways to intake or consume hydrogen, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking water dissolved with hydrogen (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting hydrogen saline, dropping hydrogen saline into the eye, and increasing production of intestinal hydrogen by bacteria. (iii) Hydrogen shows not only anti-oxidative stress effects, but also has various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. (iv) The primary molecular target of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of hydrogen on paramagnetic defects induced by UV laser exposure in natural silica. AU - Boscaino, Roberto. AU - Messina, Fabrizio. AU - Cannas, Marco. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Diffusion limited reactions of point defects were investigated in amorphous SiO2 exposed to UV laser light. Electron spin resonance and in situ absorption measurements at room temperature evidenced the annealing of E′ centers and the growth of H(II) centers both occurring in the post‐irradiation stage and lasting a few hours. These transients are caused by reactions involving molecular hydrogen H2, made available by dimerization of radiolytic H0.. AB - Diffusion limited reactions of point defects were investigated in amorphous SiO2 exposed to UV laser light. Electron spin resonance and in situ absorption measurements at room temperature evidenced the annealing of E′ centers and the growth of H(II) centers both occurring in the post‐irradiation stage and lasting a few hours. These ...
摘要. Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods ...
A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump. ...
The transformation of atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen through three-body reactions is a crucial stage in the collapse of primordial, metal-free halos, where the first generation of stars (Population III stars) in the universe is formed. However, in the published literature, the rate coefficient for this reaction is uncertain by nearly an order of magnitude. We report on the results of both adaptive mesh refinement and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of metal-free halos as a function of the value of this rate coefficient. For each simulation method, we have simulated a single halo three times, using three different values of the rate coefficient. We find that while variation between halo realizations may be greater than that caused by the three-body rate coefficient being used, both the accretion physics onto Population III protostars as well as the long-term stability of the disk and any potential fragmentation may depend strongly on this rate ...
Hydrogen is one of the most promising next-generation fuels. It has the highest energy content per unit weight of any known fuel and in comparison to the other known natural gases it is environmentally safe - in fact, its combustion results only in water vapour and energy. This book provides an overview of worldwide research in the use of hydrogen in energy development, its most innovative methods of production and the various steps necessary for the optimization of this product. Topics covered include structured catalysts for process intensification in hydrogen production by reforming processes; bimetallic supported catalysts for hydrocarbons and alcohols reforming reactions; catalysts for hydrogen production from renewable raw materials, by-products and waste; Ni and Cu-based catalysts for methanol and ethanol reforming; transition metal catalysts for hydrogen production by low temperature steam reforming of methane; supercritical water gasification of biomass to produce hydrogen; biofuel starting
The UK-based hydrogen generator company ITM Power has got its wide-ranging Hydrogen On Site Trial (HOST) program under way, with a well attended launch event yesterday at its inaugural partner, Stansted Airport.
The heme-based oxygen sensor histidine kinase AfGcHK is part of a two-component signal transduction system in bacteria. O2 binding to the Fe(II) heme complex of its N-terminal globin domain strongly stimulates autophosphorylation at His-183 in its C-terminal kinase domain. The 6-coordinate heme Fe(III)-OH- and -CN- complexes of AfGcHK are also active, but the 5-coordinate heme Fe(II) complex and the heme-free apo-form are inactive. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the isolated dimeric globin domains of the active Fe(III)-CN- and inactive 5-coordinate Fe(II) forms, revealing striking structural differences on the heme-proximal side of the globin domain ...
The major challenge for the protein chemist is to explain how proteins implement their limited repertoire of structural and biophysical properties to produce th...
Protein research has become important in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmaceutical research and drug design, driven by advances in understanding the human
Hydrogen production by membrane water splitting technologies is a sustainable method to synthesize hydrogen and provides an alternative to hydrogen production instead of conventional process of synthesizing hydrogen from steam methane reforming. A hybrid polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer operational at working temperature of above 80-200°C is advantageous for faster electrochemical kinetics, higher current exchange density, and more resistance to fuel impurities. Phosphoric acid (PA) doping onto polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane shows significant improvement in proton conductivities, permeability, and thermal stability. PBI-based electrolyzer is relatively new to the hydrogen production technologies as compared to Nafion-based electrolyzer. However, the high cost of purchasing Nafion membrane and inability to execute electrolysis operational above 90°C has sparked new interest on PBI-based membrane, which is known for its good thermal stability.
During this time, mobile generators were transported to the site and some power was restored. However, more water was boiling off and being vented than was being added to the reactor, thus decreasing the cooling ability of the remaining cooling systems. At some stage during this venting process, the water level may have dropped below the top of the fuel rods. Regardless, the temperature of some of the fuel rod cladding exceeded 1200 °C, initiating a reaction between the Zircaloy and water. This oxidizing reaction produces hydrogen gas, which mixes with the gas-steam mixture being vented. This is a known and anticipated process, but the amount of hydrogen gas produced was unknown because the operators didnt know the exact temperature of the fuel rods or the water level. Since hydrogen gas is extremely combustible, when enough hydrogen gas is mixed with air, it reacts with oxygen. If there is enough hydrogen gas, it will react rapidly, producing an explosion. At some point during the venting ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Adsorption of hydrogen on V(100) and a progress report on the construction of a time-of-flight unit. AU - Eibl, Christian. AU - Mauritsch, W. AU - Winkler, Adolf. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 36. EP - 36. BT - 1st JRP workshop. PB - .. ER - ...
We present a strategy to produce porous NiTiO3/TiO2 nanostructures with excellent photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation. In a first step, nickel-doped TiO2 needle bundles were synthesized by a hydrothermal procedure. Through the sintering in air of these nanostructures, porous NiTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured rods were obtained. Alternatively, the annealing in argon of the nickel-doped TiO2 needle bundles resulted in NiOx/TiO2 elongated nanostructures. Porous NiTiO3/TiO2 structures were tested for hydrogen evolution in the presence of ethanol. Such porous heterostructures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation, with hydrogen production rates up to 11.5 mmol h-1 g-1 at room temperature. This excellent performance is related here to the optoelectronic properties and geometric parameters of the material ...
China Methanol Cracking Plant for Hydrogen Generation, Find details about China H2 Generator, Hydrogen Generator from Methanol Cracking Plant for Hydrogen Generation - Suzhou Since Gas System Co., Ltd.
SEQUEIRA, César A. C. e SANTOS, Diogo M. F.. Hydrogen production. C.Tecn. Mat. [online]. 2010, vol.22, n.3-4, pp.76-86. ISSN 0870-8312.. Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered.. Palavras-chave : Hydrogen production; Electrolyser; Electrolytic hydrogen; Renewable electricity; Fuel cells. ...
The researchers compared the results of prior single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the β2AR-Gs complex to the structure predicted by their model and found good agreement. They also used continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (CW-EPR) and peptide amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry data to calculate changes in the solvent accessibility of key residues in the free versus receptor-bound Gα subunit. The results of these calculations agreed well with predictions based on the model. To further test the models validity, they selected an amino acid in the GTPase domain and another in the helical domain of Gi. They expressed a Gi protein bearing mutations in both of these amino acids to cysteine and then attached a sulfur-accessible nitroxide probe to each cysteine. The altered protein allowed them to use DEER to assess the changes in the distance between the GTPase and helical domains upon interaction of Gα with the activated receptor. The results, ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Cobalt bis(acetylacetonate) mediates hydrogen atom transfer to a broad range of functionalized alkenes. In situ oxidation of the resulting alkylradical intermediates, followed by hydrolysis, provides expedient access to ketones and esters. This method is compatible with a number of functional groups and provides a mild and practical alternative to the Tamao-Fleming oxidation of vinylsilanes and the Arndt-Eistert homologation.. ...
R. The PEC oxidation of methanol is energetically downhill, producing CO2 and protons. The protons are reduced to hydrogen on the cathode. Experimental PEC measurements were also performed for several polyalcoholic compounds, glycerol, erythritol, and xylitol, on α-Fe2O3 as the photocatalyst and showed high incident-photon-to-current-efficiencies (IPCE) that were much greater than those of water splitting. Interestingly, high IPCEs were observed for hydrogen production from polyalcohols in the absence of any applied bias, which was not thought to be possible on hematite. These results support the potential application of PEC for hydrogen production by using widely available hematite for the PEC oxidation of selected components of organic wastewater present in large quantities from anthropogenic and industrial sources. ...
Frontier Economics was commissioned by BEIS to develop business models to support low carbon hydrogen production.. Our research focusses on incentivising near term investments to deliver largescale low carbon hydrogen production for supply to industry. It covers both green hydrogen (from renewables) and blue hydrogen (from methane reformation).. Based on a literature review, stakeholder consultation and case studies from other sectors, we developed a longlist of business models that could potentially be used. Our assessment of these business models concluded that both contractual payments to producers (e.g. contracts for difference) or regulatory returns models could be designed to deliver low carbon hydrogen production in the 2020s.. We also found that including a split structure in the models (with separate compensation for fixed and variable costs) may be an effective way of managing demand risk for investors, while reducing the risk of excessive costs for taxpayers and consumers.. For more ...
Researchers at Penn State University have coaxed common bacteria to produce hydrogen in a new, efficient way. Using starter material that could theoretically be sourced from a salad bar, the team has charmed bacteria from wastewater into generating abundant, clean hydrogen from cellulose or vinegar with a little zap of electricity. In a table-top reactor, no less.. Other systems produce hydrogen on a larger scale, reports the National Science Foundation, but few if any match the new system for energy efficiency. Even with the small jolt of electricity, the hydrogen provides more energy as fuel than the electricity needed to drive the reactor. The overall efficiency of the vinegar-fueled system is better than 80 percent, far better than the efficiency generating the leading alternative, ethanol. By perfecting the environment for the bacteria to do what they already do in nature, the new approach can be three to ten times more efficient than standard electrolysis.. Good news. And further proof ...
According to the Molecular Hydrogen Institute…. Although the research is early, the 1000+ scientific articles suggest that H2 has therapeutic potential in over 170 different human and animal disease models, and essentially every organ of the human body.. Molecular hydrogen (H2) or diatomic hydrogen is a tasteless, odorless, flammable gas.. H2 reduces oxidative stress and improves redox homeostasis partly mediated via Nrf2 pathway, which regulates levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.. H2, like other gaseous-signaling molecules (e.g., NO*, CO, H2 S), modulates signal transduction, protein phosphorylation and gene expression, which provides its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-apoptotic protective effects.. ...
THE behaviour of molecular hydrogen at high pressures has implications for the interiors of the giant planets, which consist mainly of hydrogen. In particular, the question of whether solid hydrogen becomes metallic under these conditions has been much debated1-9, in part because the structure that molecular hydrogen adopts at high pressure is not known. Here we report the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of solid hydrogen at pressures up to 270 GPa. We find that at 77 K, hydrogen exists as a stable, orientationally disordered phase up to 60 GPa, consistent with experimental results1,10. As the presssure is raised, a gradual transformation to an ordered orthorhombic structure begins at 160 GPa, and by 260 GPa the solid becomes semi-conducting, with an indirect band gap of 1.4eV. The calculated vibrational density of states of this phase is consistent with infrared and Raman spectra measured up to 160 GPa (ref. 11). Although limitations on the simulation time and size may result
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Read this full essay on Effect of Catalese on Hydrogen Peroxide - Science Lab. Effect of Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide INTRODUCTION: Hydrogen Peroxide (H...
Hydrogen Water Ceramic Balls are formulated with all natural minerals to naturally enhance and revitalize your water. Balls should increase the pH and reduce the ORP to create alkaline anti-oxidant water for more effective hydration. The main ingredi
Alex Tarnava, CEO and founder of Drink HRW, embarked on a mission to create the most advanced and positive benefit yielding hydrogen water technology possible
Get an answer for You collect 6.36 moles of hydrogen gas from your lab experiment involving the decomposition of water by electrolysis. The pressure inside your rigid collection vessel is at 1.00 atm. Another lab group adds their collected gas to yours, giving it an additional 1.28 moles. What is the new pressure inside the container? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
JSC ForteInvest subsidiary JSC Orsknefteorgsintez has let a contract to Amec Foster Wheeler PLC for engineering and material supply of a steam reformer heater for hydrogen production for its 6 million-tonne/year refinery at Orsk, Russia.. Amec Foster Wheeler will complete its scope of work on the heater, which will be based on its proprietary Terrace Wall reformer design, by Mar. 31, 2017, the service company.. A value of the contract was not disclosed.. This latest award follows a June 2014 contract award to former Foster Wheeler AG to deliver a separate Terrace Wall steam reformer heater for hydrogen production at the Orsk refinery by second-quarter 2015 (OGJ Online, June 24, 2014).. The new heater and proposed hydrogen production plant comes as part of Forteinvests modernization and development program to bring the Orsk refinery into compliance with a July 2011 quadripartite agreement on modernization of Russias oil processing industry between oil companies; the Federal Antimonopoly Service ...
The aim of this study was to examine volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from a proteinaceous substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) for a pH range of 5 - 9, and to further assess its impact on hydrogen production in a co-fermentation process using starch and BSA at different ratios. The established optimum conditions for VFA production from BSA were an initial pH of 8, incubation time of 3 days and an operating temperature of 37 ℃. Using these fermentation conditions, the stoichiometric reactions that describe the anaerobic degradation of BSA were investigated. A methodology that describes organic acid production from BSA by using a single stoichiometric reaction was developed. With the amino acid content of BSA and by selecting the dominant amino acid fermentation reaction pathways, it was feasible to determine the stoichiometric coefficients of the dominant VFA in the single reaction step. Hydrogen production from the co-fermentation of starch and BSA in batch system was studied for five different
3 One More Step (Application) - Hydrogen-based Steelmaking Technology. The second part was released on 8 February 2021. In this part, POSCO looks at steel products for hydrogen transport applied according to the different states of hydrogen and the key material in hydrogen production and application technology - the stainless steel separator.. To read the story in full, go to ...
Hydrogen gas has long been proposed as a promising energy carrier for future energy applications, but generating the gas from water has proved inefficient. In an article in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, scientists at Uppsala University now present an alternative, interdisciplinary method based on principles from nature.
Transafe Logistics specializes in the transportation of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, and Hydrogen gases. Weve spent more than a decade transporting hazardous goods around the region and became reliable partners to Oil & Gas industry, Industrial Gas Sector, and Petrochemical Industry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catheter survival and comparison of catheter exchange methods in children on hemodialysis. AU - Onder, Ali Mirza. AU - Chandar, Jayanthi. AU - Saint-Vil, Marie. AU - Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela. AU - Abitbol, Carolyn L.. AU - Zilleruelo, Gaston. PY - 2007/9/1. Y1 - 2007/9/1. N2 - This retrospective study was done to compare the infection-free and overall survival of first and subsequent tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters in children. Subsequent catheters were exchanged by two different methods (a) removal and replacement (R&R), or (b) wire-guided exchange (WGE) using the same tunnel and vessel. The study involved 59 children (27 male, 32 female; mean age 13.9±4.6 years) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a pediatric unit over a period of 60 months. From a total of 175 catheters (57 first catheters, 81 WGE, 37 R&R) and 38,888 catheter days, 74/175 (42%) catheters were exchanged because of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) and 43/175 (25%) for malfunction or cuff extrusion. ... 0 0 admin admin2020-07-29 06:42:382020-07-29 06:42:380.4 of hydrogen gas was obtained when calcium reacted with hydrochloric acid. calculate the mass of calcium used ...
In 2019, a total of 83 new hydrogen gas stations began operation around the globe, according to the 12th annual evaluation report from
Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element found on Earth and the most abundant one in the Universe. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen exists as a diatomic gas, H2. Because it is lighter than air, hydrogen gas rises in the atmosphere and does not occur in appreciable quantities on Earth. However, quite contrary, it is… Read More». ...
Biological formation and consumption of molecular hydrogen (H2) are catalyzed by hydrogenases, of which three phylogenetically unrelated types are known: [NiFe]-hydrogenases, [FeFe]-hydrogenases, and [Fe]-hydrogenase. We present a crystal structure of [Fe]-hydrogenase at 1.75 angstrom resolution, showing a mononuclear iron coordinated by the sulfur of cysteine 176, two carbon monoxide (CO) molecules, and the sp2-hybridized nitrogen of a 2-pyridinol compound with back-bonding properties similar to those of cyanide. The three-dimensional arrangement of the ligands is similar to that of thiolate, CO, and cyanide ligated to the low-spin iron in binuclear [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases, although the enzymes have evolved independently and the CO and cyanide ligands are not found in any other metalloenzyme. The related iron ligation pattern of hydrogenases exemplifies convergent evolution and presumably plays an essential role in H2 activation. This finding may stimulate the ongoing synthesis of ...
OAO-2 ('Stargazer') discovered large halos of hydrogen gas around comets.[14] Space probe Giotto detected hydrogen ions at ... A hydrogen gas halo three times the size of the Sun was detected by Skylab around Comet Kohoutek in the 1970s.[19] SOHO ... hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide.[22] ... In 2015, it was noted that the ALICE instrument on the ESA Rosetta spacecraft to comet 67/P, detected hydrogen, oxygen, carbon ...
Hydrogen breath test[edit]. In a hydrogen breath test, the most accurate lactose intolerance test, after an overnight fast, 25 ... An intestinal biopsy must confirm lactase deficiency following discovery of elevated hydrogen in the hydrogen breath test.[42] ... If the hydrogen levels in the patient's breath are high, they may have lactose intolerance. This test is not usually done on ... "Hydrogen Breath Test and Lactose Intolerance". WebMD - Better Information, Better Health. Archived from the original on 2017-08 ...
A hydrogen bond is identified if E in the following equation is less than -0.5 kcal/mol: E. =. 0.084. {. 1. r. O. N. +. 1. r. C ... The 310 helix, α helix and π helix have symbols G, H and I and are recognized by having a repetitive sequence of hydrogen bonds ... Two types of beta sheet structures exist; a beta bridge has symbol B while longer sets of hydrogen bonds and beta bulges have ... T is used for turns, featuring hydrogen bonds typical of helices, S is used for regions of high curvature (where the angle ...
... to hydrogen-cell power[edit]. A microreactor has been developed to convert biodiesel into hydrogen steam to power ... The downside of hydrogen powered fuel cells is the high cost and dangers of storing highly combustible hydrogen under pressure. ... This produces up to 160 gallons of hydrogen/minute and gives the potential of powering hydrogen refueling stations, or even an ... Furthermore, a higher yield of hydrogen gas can be harnessed by further oxidizing carbon monoxide to produce more hydrogen and ...
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange[edit]. Main article: Hydrogen-deuterium exchange. NMR spectroscopy is nucleus specific. Thus it can ... Thus amide exchange rates can give information on which parts of the protein are buried, hydrogen bonded etc. A common ... which has no amide-hydrogen due to the cyclic nature of its backbone. Tryptophan and certain other residues with N-containing ... distinguish between hydrogen and deuterium. The amide protons in the protein exchange readily with the solvent, and, if the ...
Hydrogen catalysts[edit]. Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to synthesize, since it involves only the transference of two ... The simplest photocatalytic hydrogen production unit consists of a hydrogen-evolving catalyst linked to a photosensitizer.[74] ... These are enzymes that can either reduce protons to molecular hydrogen or oxidize hydrogen to protons and electrons. ... efficient ways of obtaining hydrogen from water.[7] The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via a water-splitting process ...
Hydrogen[edit]. Water ionizes into hydronium (H3O+) cations and hydroxide (OH−) anions. The concentration of ionized hydrogen ( ...
A hydrogen radio frequency discharge, the first element inside a hydrogen maser (see description below) ... This maser used deeply refrigerated hydrogen[citation needed] to chill the amplifier down to a temperature of four kelvin. ... "The Hydrogen Maser Clock Project". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Archived from the original on 2006-10-10.. ... As of 2012[update], the most important type of maser is the hydrogen maser which is currently used as an atomic frequency ...
History of China's hydrogen bomb[edit]. China successfully tested a hydrogen bomb on June 17, 1967 at Lop Nur Nuclear Weapon ... It was a fully functional, full-scale, three-stage hydrogen bomb, tested 32 months after China had made its first fission ... which led to breakthrough of the unique hydrogen bomb. ...
See also: Hydrogen economy and Hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen is not an energy resource,[111] except in the hypothetical ... Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen,[13] also called diprotium[14] when consisting specifically of a pair of protium ... Atomic hydrogen. NASA has investigated the use of atomic hydrogen as a rocket propellant. It could be stored in liquid helium ... The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.[5] Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable ...
Hydrogen sulfide emissions[edit]. A severe anoxic event at the end of the Permian would have allowed sulfate-reducing bacteria ... Evidence for widespread ocean anoxia (severe deficiency of oxygen) and euxinia (presence of hydrogen sulfide) is found from the ... Models also show that anoxic events can cause catastrophic hydrogen sulfide emissions into the atmosphere (see below).[138] ... Upwelling of this water may have released massive hydrogen sulfide emissions into the atmosphere and would poison terrestrial ...
Hydrogen peroxide[edit]. One study found that vaginal irrigations with hydrogen peroxide (3%) resulted in a slight improvement ...
Silicon/germanium/hydrogen[edit]. A normal silicon wafer coated with a layer of germanium (Ge) dipped in dilute hydrofluoric ... 4.2 Silicon/germanium/hydrogen. *4.3 Metal single crystal substrates *4.3.1 Preparation methods of metal single crystal ... Reduction of graphite oxide monolayer films, e.g. by hydrazine with annealing in argon/hydrogen also yielded graphene films. ... Graphite particles can be corroded in molten salts to form a variety of carbon nanostructures including graphene.[17] Hydrogen ...
... can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer. Hydrogen has many applications ... and hydrogen, and variable trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes. If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so ... Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H. 2S). This untreated gas is toxic. Amine gas treating, an ... Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium (rarely), and hydrogen sulfide must also be removed before the ...
Hydrogen gas[edit]. Main article: Fermentative hydrogen production. Hydrogen gas is produced in many types of fermentation ( ... which keep the concentration of hydrogen low and favor the production of such an energy-rich compound,[23] but hydrogen gas at ... They produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formate and acetate and carboxylic acids; and then consortia of microbes convert the ... Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is oxidized by hydrogenase, producing H2.[13] Hydrogen gas is a ...
... like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride, since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger ... weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride ... Unlike hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous liquid hydrogen chloride is difficult to work with as a solvent, because its boiling point ... 2) due to the very weak hydrogen bonding between hydrogen and chlorine, though its salts with very large and weakly polarising ...
Liquid hydrogen tank car[edit]. Main articles: Liquid hydrogen tank car, DOT-113 tank car, AAR-204W tank car, and AAR-204XT ... Tank cars of this type are designed to carry cryogenic liquid Hydrogen (LH2). North American cars are classified as DOT113, ... Further information: Tank container and Liquid hydrogen tanktainer. A tank container, also known as ISO tank, is a specialized ... type of container designed to carry bulk liquids, such as chemicals, liquid hydrogen, gases and foodgrade products. Both ...
The conjugate base of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)-a dense, colourless, oily, corrosive liquid-is the hydrogen sulfate ion (HSO−. 4), ... Hydrogen sulfate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa ... The sulfate ion carries an overall charge of −2 and it is the conjugate base of the bisulfate (or hydrogen sulfate) ion, HSO−. ... In dilute solutions the hydrogen sulfate ions also dissociate, forming more hydronium ions and sulfate ions (SO2−. 4). The CAS ...
Detailed example: the hydrogen-bromine reaction[edit]. The reaction H2 + Br2 → 2 HBr proceeds by the following mechanism:[4][5] ... In 1918, Walther Nernst proposed that the photochemical reaction between hydrogen and chlorine is a chain reaction in order to ...
Power to hydrogen[edit]. In this method, electricity is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis. ... The hydrogen produced can be used in an internal combustion engine or can be injected into the local gas grid. The hydrogen ... It produces about 60 cubic meters per hour of hydrogen and thus in one hour can feed 3,000 cubic meters of hydrogen-enriched ... 2nd step: Conversion Reactor (RWGSR) −hydrogen and carbon dioxide are inputs to the Conversion Reactor that outputs hydrogen, ...
Hydrogen, null-scattering and contrast variation[edit]. Neutron diffraction can be used to establish the structure of low ... The greater scattering power of protons and deuterons means that the position of hydrogen in a crystal and its thermal motions ... Hydrogen is inexpensive and particularly interesting, because it plays an exceptionally large role in biochemical structures ... regular hydrogen and deuterium contribute differently. It is also often the case that light (low Z) atoms contribute strongly ...
Nickel-hydrogen and nickel metal-hydride[edit]. The nickel-hydrogen battery entered the market as an energy-storage subsystem ... "Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Technology-Development and Status" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-18. Retrieved ... Bush, D.M. (2011-09-27). "A nickel/hydrogen battery for PV systems". IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine. IEEE ... An English professor of chemistry named John Frederic Daniell found a way to solve the hydrogen bubble problem in the Voltaic ...
Banks, Iain M. (2012) The Hydrogen Sonata. *^ Speck, Emilee (June 25, 2015). "SpaceX resupply launch, barge landing attempt set ... Class possibly downgraded from VFP (designated as such in Excession, set ten centuries earlier, and in The Hydrogen Sonata, set ...
Hydrogen-like orbitals[edit]. Main article: Hydrogen-like atom. The simplest atomic orbitals are those that are calculated for ... Atomic orbitals can be the hydrogen-like "orbitals" which are exact solutions to the Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen-like " ... A given (hydrogen-like) atomic orbital is identified by unique values of three quantum numbers: n, ℓ, and mℓ. The rules ... The hydrogen-like atomic orbitals are derived from the exact solution of the Schrödinger Equation for one electron and a ...
Isotopes of hydrogen Complete table of nuclides. Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol 2. H. or D. , also known as heavy hydrogen) ... hydrogen-1 Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen Heavier: hydrogen-3 Decay product of: - Decay chain of deuterium Decays to: ... Thus, all artificial fusion, including the hydrogen fusion that occurs in so-called hydrogen bombs, requires heavy hydrogen ( ... The amount inferred for normal abundance of this heavy isotope of hydrogen was so small (only about 1 atom in 6400 hydrogen ...
Reaction with hydrogen chloride[edit]. Alkenes react with hydrogen chloride (HCl) to give alkyl chlorides. For example, the ... In oxychlorination, hydrogen chloride instead of the more expensive chlorine for the same purpose: CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + ​1⁄2 O2 → ... The chloroalkane class (alkanes with one or more hydrogens substituted by chlorine) provides common examples. The wide ... The compounds are typically denser than water due to the higher atomic weight of chlorine versus hydrogen. Aliphatic ...
Hydrogen infrastructure[edit]. Main articles: Hydrogen infrastructure, Hydrogen highway, and Hydrogen station ... "Hydrogen Fuel Cars Now", accessed August 2, 2011 *^ "Hydrogen Storage Technology for the Hydrogen Economy"[permanent dead link] ... Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association. Notes[edit]. *^ "How Do Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Work?", Union of Concerned ... "Hydrogen View. Retrieved November 25, 2019.. *^ Jung, Ryu (July 7, 2020). "Hyundai Starts Mass Production of Hydrogen Trucks". ...
... they were forced to re-engineer Hindenburg to use hydrogen for lift.[11] Flammable hydrogen was the only alternative lighter- ... Use of hydrogen instead of helium[edit]. Helium was initially selected for the lifting gas because it was the safest to use in ... Escaping hydrogen gas (in this specific case from incomplete or damaged vents along the top of the vessel and especially near ... Timeline of hydrogen technologies. *The Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen displays a reconstruction of a 33 m section of the ...
Limitations on efficient hydrogen adsorption[edit]. The biggest obstacle to efficient hydrogen storage using CNTs is the purity ... The effectiveness of hydrogen storage is integral to its use as a primary fuel source since hydrogen only contains about one ... Moreover, the highest hydrogen concentration measured was ~0.18%; significantly lower than commercially viable hydrogen storage ... Hydrogen storage[edit]. In addition to being able to store electrical energy, there has been some research in using carbon ...
Hydrogen bonds ("hbonds") are non-covalent bonds that occur when a donor atom donates its covalently bonded hydrogen atom to an ... Since many PDB files lack hydrogen atoms, the possibility of an energetically significant hydrogen bond exists when donor and ... A hydrogen bond (dotted white line) between a nitrogen donor and an oxygen acceptor. Distances shown in Å are typical for those ... The hydrogen atoms in moderate hbonds often do not lie on the straight line connecting the donor to acceptor, so donor-acceptor ...
See also: Hydrogen economy and Hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen is not an energy resource,[111] except in the hypothetical ... Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen,[13] also called diprotium[14] when consisting specifically of a pair of protium ... Atomic hydrogen. NASA has investigated the use of atomic hydrogen as a rocket propellant. It could be stored in liquid helium ... The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.[5] Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable ...
... (. /ˈhaɪdrɵdʒ. ɪ. n/ HYE-dro-jin)[4] is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. ... With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for Hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical ... Naturally occurring elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth.. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name ... Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds. It plays a particularly ...
Hydrogen isocyanide on NIST Chemistry WebBook. References[edit]. *^ The suffix ylidyne refers to the loss of three hydrogen ... Hydrogen isocyanide is a chemical with the molecular formula HNC. It is a minor tautomer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Its ... It is a zwitterion and an isomer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN).[2] Both HNC and HCN have large, similar dipole moments, with μHNC ... Both hydrogen isocyanide and azanylidyniummethanide are correct IUPAC names for HNC. There is no preferred IUPAC name. The ...
But here on Earth, hydrogen and helium are only a small part of the world we inhabit. By mass, hydrogen and helium combined ... they can only burn hydrogen into deuterium. Lets go over what the differences here are. A hydrogen nucleus is just a proton, ... theres no doubt that theres plenty of hydrogen and helium around; after all, its the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium ... Instead of burning hydrogen into helium for their fuel, brown dwarfs dont generate enough pressure to make that happen; ...
Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory system. It can also cause apnea, coma, ... Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. ... Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation ... EPA Acute Exposure Guideline Levels: Hydrogen Sulfideexternal icon. *EPA Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Sulfidepdf icon ...
Exposure to liquid hydrogen chloride may cause frostbite. Workers may be harmed from exposure to hydrogen chloride. The level ... Hydrogen chloride can irritate the skin, nose, eyes, throat, and larynx. ... Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a colorless to slightly yellow gas with a pungent odor. ... Useful search terms for hydrogen chloride include "anhydrous hydrogen chloride" "aqueous hydrogen chloride," and "hydrochloric ...
Activation of cyclic electron flow by hydrogen peroxide in vivo Deserah D. Strand, Aaron K. Livingston, Mio Satoh-Cruz, John E ... Aquaporins facilitate hydrogen peroxide entry into guard cells to mediate ABA- and pathogen-triggered stomatal closure Olivier ... Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide-dependent responses to environmental stress in colonic epithelia Jay R. Thiagarajah, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae secretes hydrogen peroxide leading to DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cells Prashant Rai, Marcus ...
hydrogen chloride. hydrogen chloride, chemical compound, HCl, a colorless, poisonous gas with an unpleasant, acrid odor. It is ... In dilute solutions of the acid the hydrogen chloride is almost completely dissociated into hydrogen and chloride ions . A ... Hydrogen chloride also forms monohydrates, dihydrates, and trihydrates that are liquids at room temperature. The Columbia ... Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt) niter cake, a ...
Although pure hydrogen peroxide is fairly stable, it ... hydrogen peroxide. hydrogen peroxide, chemical compound, H 2O 2 ... Hydrogen peroxide was discovered (1818) by L. J. Thenard. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, ... Hydrogen peroxide has many uses. It is available for household use as a 3% (by weight) water solution it is used as a mild ... Although pure hydrogen peroxide is fairly stable, it decomposes into water and oxygen when heated above about 80°C it also ...
A comprehensive fungicidal activity was not seen with 3% hydrogen peroxide in 6 h, similar to a lack of a... ... Hydrogen peroxide is mostly bactericidal at 0.5% in 30 min and yeasticidal at 3% in 30 min. ... hydrogen peroxide in 1 h. High MIC values indicating resistance to hydrogen peroxide have so far not been reported. An ... Hydrogen peroxide increases biofilm formation in A. oleivorans, P. aeruginosa and S. parasanguinis, whereas it is inhibited in ...
This is a Gallery page from the category Hydrogen, more....... en: Hydrogen - de: Wasserstoff - es: Hidrógeno - fr: Hydrogène ... Hydrogen (so); väte (sv); 氫 (zh-hk); Wætertimber (ang); Idrôgen (eml); 氫 (zh-hant); hido (io); Idrògen (pms); 수소 (ko); Hydrogen ... hydrogen (nb); Hidrogen (az); Hydrogen (hif); 氫 (lzh); هيدروجين (ar); Ваувтыр (koi); ဟိုက်ဒရိုဂျင် (my); 氫 (yue); Суутек (ky); ... hydrogen (en); Háídrójìn (yo); Hidroheno (ceb); hidrogénio (pt); Hidrin (vo); hydrogen (sco); hidrogênio (pt-br); हाइड्रोजन ( ...
... hydrogen is truly in a class by itself. It does not belong to any family of elements, and though it is a nonmetal, it appears ... HYDROGEN CONCEPT First element on the periodic table [1], ... Hydrogen: Hot Cool Science-Journey to a World of the Hydrogen ... Hydrogen reacts with all the halogens to form hydrogen halides, such as hydrogen chloride HCl and hydrogen fluoride HF. These ... Hydrogen Alternative Energy COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Hydrogen. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS HYDROGEN ENERGY?. Hydrogen, the first ...
Hydrogen gas can be easily produced by splitting water into its constituent elements - hydrogen and oxygen. ... Hydrogen is a significant source of energy which can be burned to produce power with no negative impact on the environment, ... Hydrogen is no exception. Used by industry for over a hundred years, hydrogen has a different outlook today with new market ... What does this mean for the hydrogen industry ? Is the hydrogen age finally upon us ? ISOfocus sits down with Dr. Andrei ...
where R = n2/l with n = 2. The parameter RH is now called Rydbergs constant for hydrogen, and the best empirical value is ... Therefore we have f0 = (pa03)-1/2, and the complete wave function for the ground state of the hydrogen atom is ... Then the coefficient in the above expression is identified with Rydbergs constant RH for the hydrogen atom, and using the ... The superiority of the wave mechanical model of the hydrogen atom over Bohrs model is immense, because it not only duplicates ...
Measure hydrogen concentrations with suitable gas detector (a normal flammable gas detector is NOT suitable for the purpose). ...
Demand for hydrogen. Supplying hydrogen to industrial users is now a major business around the world. Demand for hydrogen, ... Hydrogen production. Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels and biomass, from water, or from a mix of both. Natural gas is ... Various uses for hydrogen. *. Hydrogen use today is dominated by industry, namely: oil refining, ammonia production, methanol ... The Future of Hydrogen provides an extensive and independent survey of hydrogen that lays out where things stand now; the ways ...
... or smell hydrogen, yet this element makes up over 90 per cent of matter. The Sun and stars are made of hydrogen gas. On Earth, ... HYDROGEN. HYDROGEN IN STARS. SPACE SHUTTLE. HYDROGENATION. HYDROGEN-FUELLED CAR. BIOGRAPHY: ANTOINE LAVOISIER French, 1743-1794 ... The space shuttle uses liquid hydrogen fuel because hydrogen gives out a lot of power for very little weight. Hydrogen, like ... Hydrogen gas is used to make chemicals such as ammonia, which is needed to make fertilizers. Hydrogen is also used to increase ...
... has secured a technology that generates hydrogen from water in the presence ... Seigel said the system would be fitted with a pressure release valve to prevent the build-up of hydrogen in the case of a ... The intake on their engine designed to run on hydrogen requires less than one atmosphere of pressure. A build-up of pressure ... Though AEC is satisfied with the testing they have done on the hydrogen generating system, they are in process of finishing the ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in ... People working in occupations in which hydrogen chloride is used have the highest risk of being exposed to this compound. ... What happens to hydrogen chloride when it enters the environment?. *Hydrogen chloride released to the atmosphere will be ... How can hydrogen chloride affect my health?. Hydrogen chloride is irritating and corrosive to any tissue it contacts. Brief ...
... is a nitrogen hydride (CHEBI:35106) hydrogen azide (CHEBI:29449) is conjugate acid of azide anion ... CHEBI:29449 - hydrogen azide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... azide anion (CHEBI:40910) is conjugate base of hydrogen azide (CHEBI:29449). ...
North Korea could test hydrogen bomb in the Pacific: former CIA analyst ...
... hydrogen peroxide solutions are preservative-free, which makes them a suitable option for those who are allergic or sensitive ... Hydrogen peroxide and multipurpose solutions both clean and disinfect contact lenses by breaking up and removing trapped debris ... How to use Hydrogen Peroxide correctly. Hydrogen peroxide placed directly into the eyes or on your contact lenses can cause ... NEVER rinse your lenses with hydrogen peroxide solutions or put hydrogen peroxide solutions in your eyes. You will experience ...
Exposure to hydrogen peroxide can cause irritation of the eyes, throat, respiratory airway, and skin. Drinking concentrated ... although small amounts of hydrogen peroxide gas may occur naturally in the air. Low exposure may occur from use at home; higher ... How can hydrogen peroxide affect my health?. Hydrogen peroxide can be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or by contact with the skin ... What is hydrogen peroxide?. Hydrogen peroxide is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a bitter taste. Small amounts of ...
hydrogen chloride, chemical compound, HCl, a colorless, poisonous gas with an unpleasant, acrid odor. It is very soluble in ... Hydrogen Chloride Chemical Compounds COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Hydrogen Chloride. OVERVIEW. Hydrogen chloride (HY-druh-jin ... Hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride is a chemical compound composed of the elements hydrogen and chlorine . It readily ... Like most acids, hydrogen chloride forms hydrogen ions in water. These are positively charged atoms of hydrogen that are very ...
Figure 5.2 - Hydrogenase-mediated hydrogen production. Figure 5.3 Nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production in heterocystous ... Chapter 5 - Hydrogen production. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Biophotolysis of water by microalgae and cyanobacteria. 5.3 Hydrogen ... 5.3 Hydrogen from organic compounds. 5.3.1 Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria. 5.3.2 Combined photosynthetic and ... Biological hydrogen production has several advantages over hydrogen production by photoelectrochemical or thermochemical ...
... hydrogen (nb); hidrogen (az); Hydrogen (fj); 氫 (lzh); Vety (smn); هيدروجين (ar); Ваувтыр (koi); ဟိုက်ဒရိုဂျင် (my); 氫 (yue); ... Hydrogen (so); väte (sv); idwojèn (ht); Wassastoff (bar); Idrôgen (eml); 氫 (zh-hant); hido (io); vodík (cs); 수소 (ko); hydrogen ... hydrogen (en-ca); Hydrogen (ki); هيدروجين (ary); Woaterstof (vls); вадарод (be-tarask); hidrogen (id); сутуар (tt-cyrl); ... hydrogen chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1; lightest and most abundant chemical substance in the universe ...
Army today unveiled a modified Ford Escape that runs on hydrogen and electric batteries. The vehicle uses compressed hydrogen ... Quantum Fuel Systems is partnering in developing the hydrogen vehicle so that it is cheaper than fuel cell vehicles. Ive read ... Army Marches Out Hydrogen Hybrid. The U.S. Army today unveiled a modified Ford Escape that runs on hydrogen and electric ... Quantum Fuel Systems is partnering in developing the hydrogen vehicle so that it is cheaper than fuel cell vehicles. ...
A Cold War center for hydrogen bomb development repositions itself to lead hydrogen production for auto fuel and other energy ... The lab is moving all its unclassified, nonradioactive hydrogen work into the Center for Hydrogen Research, which opened in ... S.C. Pushes Hydrogen Economy. NEW ELLENTON, South Carolina - Years ago, engineers for the federal government here studied ... Using hydrogen as a fuel means cars will emit water rather than exhaust fumes, making it a clean, widely available alternative ...
  • Carbon atoms lack sufficient electronegativity to serve as energetically significant hydrogen bond donors or acceptors. (
  • The hydrogen atoms in moderate hbonds often do not lie on the straight line connecting the donor to acceptor, so donor-acceptor distance slightly underestimates the length of the hbond (Jeffrey [1] , p. 14). (
  • PyMOL likewise displays "polar contacts" using dashed bonds between the involved atoms, leaving further assessment of hydrogen bonding to the user. (
  • Since many PDB files lack hydrogen atoms , the possibility of an energetically significant hydrogen bond exists when donor and acceptor atoms are within about 3.5 Å of each other. (
  • Hydrogen gas ( dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen, [13] also called diprotium [14] when consisting specifically of a pair of protium atoms) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. (
  • The sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Where hydrogen is built into helium At a temperature of millions of degrees" -They Might Be Giants It's so ingrained in us that the Sun is a nuclear furnace powered by hydrogen atoms fusing into heavier elements that it's difficult to remember that, just 100 years ago, we didn't even know what the Sun was made out of! (
  • Together, these two elements make up 99.9% of all known matter in the entire universe, because hydrogen atoms in stars fuse to create helium. (
  • The second stable isotope, deuterium, has one neutron, and makes up 0.015% of all hydrogen atoms. (
  • Normally hydrogen is diatomic, meaning that its molecules are formed by two atoms. (
  • Having just one electron, hydrogen can bond to other atoms in one of two ways. (
  • Hydrogen is unusual in this regard, because most atoms conform to the octet rule, ending up with eight valence electrons. (
  • At incredibly high temperatures inside stars, hydrogen atoms smash into one another and fuse (join) together to create helium atoms. (
  • Hydrogen atoms were probably the first atoms to form in the Universe and fuse together to create other, heavier atoms. (
  • Extra hydrogen atoms bond (join) with the oil molecules, and the oil changes from a liquid to a more solid form. (
  • They've calculated that these soccer ball-like structures - ranging from 60 to 2,000 atoms in size - can hold hydrogen under such intense pressure that the hydrogen nearly turns into a metal. (
  • In the hydrogen maser, hydrogen atoms are produced in a discharge and, like the molecules of the ammonia maser, are formed into a beam from which those in excited states are selected and admitted to a resonator. (
  • Because the bare nucleus can readily combine with other particles (electrons, atoms, and molecules), the isolated hydrogen ion can exist only in a nearly particle-free space (high vacuum) and in the gaseous state . (
  • The basic principle behind hydrogen fuel cells is fairly simple: Hydrogen atoms are stripped of their electrons to generate electricity and then combined with oxygen to form water as a by-product. (
  • There are many methods of producing hydrogen, the most popular at present being from the methane contained in natural gas, methane having one carbon atom and four atoms of hydrogen. (
  • The exchange of individual hydrogen atoms can be followed using 1 H-NMR which, because of its high resolution, allows the assignment of resonances to individual protons. (
  • The most common form of hydrogen is molecular hydrogen, consisting of two atoms bonded by a single covalent bond. (
  • Well over 90% of all atoms in the universe are hydrogen. (
  • Identifying the atomic structures of the different phases of molecular solid hydrogen is extremely challenging, because hydrogen atoms interact with X-rays very weakly and only small samples of solid hydrogen can be achieved in diamond anvil cells, so that X-ray diffraction provides very limited information about the structures. (
  • The proteins in our synthetic pathway work to make hydrogen by transferring high-energy electrons from pyruvate, a common metabolite, to protons that are freely floating in the watery cytoplasm. (
  • Experts heralded the importance of this discovery, saying it could make hydrogen a more practical source of energy. (
  • Among the many daunting challenges to replacing fossil fuels with hydrogen is how to make hydrogen cheaply in ways that don't pollute the environment. (
  • it may not be the only way to make hydrogen, but it's an important piece. (
  • Hydrogen and Hindenburg are commonly associated, but Miftakhov and others working to make hydrogen-fueled aviation a reality argue that physics is on their side. (
  • There are two main ways to make hydrogen from fossil fuels. (
  • The others make hydrogen as a byproduct of their core businesses - typically the manufacturing of fertiliser or crude oil. (
  • Pragma also sells refueling stations that produce hydrogen through the electrolysis of water as well cheaper tank-based stations. (
  • Hydrogen will be generated by electrolysis of water and stored in tanks for dispensing to fuel cell vehicles. (
  • Then, during periods of lower electricity demand, the excess power could be used to produce hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. (
  • What many people don't realize is that standardization faces the same chicken-and-egg dilemma experienced by hydrogen vehicles and its infrastructure roll-out. (
  • Hydrogen remains a long way from viability for several reasons, not the least of which is the relative lack of a distribution infrastructure. (
  • It must choose between developing an interim system that produces and delivers methanol, from which hydrogen can be later extracted, or developing a full infrastructure for directly transporting and using hydrogen. (
  • Utilizing our city's existing Natural Gas based utilities infrastructure this project will generate a highly affordable & renewable based system centered completely on Hydrogen. (
  • Low-cost off-board bulk stationary storage of hydrogen is a critical part in the hydrogen infrastructure, which is well recognized in the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research Development and Demonstration Plan. (
  • While natural gas pipelines can be used to carry hydrogen, the cost of retrofitting infrastructure combined with end-user requirements at the local level, will determine whether blended or pure hydrogen is delivered to the final consumer, industry experts say. (
  • Spain approved on Tuesday (6 October) a plan to boost clean hydrogen production, aiming to build enough infrastructure to give it a major role in Europe's market for a fuel seen as key to meeting international carbon emissions targets. (
  • In addition to the expansion of renewables and an extensive hydrogen infrastructure, this includes the construction of electrolysers on an industrial scale. (
  • Transitioning from today's Grey Hydrogen production to Blue and then Green production will also see advancements in not only production processes, but also the addition of complementary solutions such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), significant growth in renewable power generation , and expansion of current assets and infrastructure such as converting existing pipelines from natural gas to hydrogen. (
  • And without a meaningful number of vehicles on the road, there's been no incentive to build hydrogen fuel infrastructure. (
  • Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn agrees: "Knowing all the problems we have with charging [EVs], where is the hydrogen infrastructure? (
  • It includes highlights of international programme and research efforts on nuclear hydrogen production as well as information on hydrogen uses and infrastructure, and provides an introduction to the economic analysis of hydrogen production. (
  • Untold billions would be needed to build an infrastructure of hydrogen pipelines and fueling stations. (
  • General Motors is part of an effort to test FCVs and implement a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure in Hawaii, currently one of the most fossil fuel dependent states in the U.S. The Hawaii Hydrogen Initiative aims to bring upwards of 20 hydrogen refueling stations to Hawaii by 2015. (
  • There is also the matter of creating the fueling infrastructure that hydrogen will require, but ZeroAvia plans to sell airlines a package that includes the fuel storage and distribution network. (
  • The UK government is currently developing the infrastructure to get hydrogen from renewable energy such as windfarms, which would make it a completely green source of fuel in the future. (
  • The automobile manufacturers and oil producers agree that, in order to be ready for a hydrogen-based fuel infrastructure, steps must be made now toward that goal, currently years away. (
  • Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that it is renewable, does not evolve the "greenhouse gas" CO 2 in combustion, liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion, and is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. (
  • That cranks on a hydrogen fuel cell stack that instantly produces enough electricity to power six houses-or to propel the Equinox like a rocket. (
  • I, too, have traveled here on a journey of sorts to a new world-a world that is powered not by oil, coal, and other polluting fossil fuels, but one that relies primarily on renewable resources for energy and on hydrogen as an energy carrier, producing electricity with only water and heat as byproducts. (
  • Today at the American Chemical Society meeting in Boston, researchers announced progress on one option: using electricity from solar panels or other sources to split water, producing hydrogen fuel that can be used to produce electricity anytime by means of a fuel cell or generator. (
  • The researchers, led by MIT chemistry professor Daniel Nocera , say they've improved a system that uses potentially low-cost catalysts to facilitate a reaction in which electricity is used to break down water into hydrogen and oxygen, a process called electrolysis. (
  • In many sectors, hydrogen is needed as an alternative to the direct use of electricity. (
  • RWE is currently the only German company involved in all stages of the green hydrogen value chain, ranging from electricity generation from renewables to hydrogen generation and storage, through to distribution to industrial customers. (
  • As one of the largest generators of electricity from renewables, we are already pushing ahead with numerous hydrogen projects. (
  • Splitting water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity from energy sources such as wind turbines is one possibility - but it's still far too expensive to be widely practical. (
  • Electricity causes the water molecules to split into hydrogen and oxygen gases, which bubble out of the solution. (
  • A machine of that scale could be attached to small electricity sources to produce hydrogen on the side. (
  • Here's the abridged version: Compressed hydrogen from the storage tank (A) is stripped of its electrons in the fuel-cell stack (B) , creating electricity. (
  • The European Commission unveiled plans on Wednesday (8 July) to promote hydrogen based entirely on renewable electricity like wind and solar, but said low-carbon hydrogen derived from fossil fuels will also be supported in order to scale up production in the short term. (
  • In an FCV, a stack of fuel cells under the hood converts hydrogen stored on-board with oxygen in the air to make electricity that propels the drive train. (
  • Another half of the resulting energy is taken up by the conversion of hydrogen back into electricity within fuel cells. (
  • There are numerous methods of producing hydrogen, most of which consume varying amounts of electricity. (
  • Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen and oxygen in a chemical reaction with catalysts to produce electricity. (
  • The DOE will build a pilot high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which theoretically can co-generate electricity and hydrogen, side by side, inside a cheap modular unit. (
  • Batteries weigh a lot more than a tank containing enough hydrogen to produce the electricity required for a given amount of range, for one thing. (
  • The favored method is to use hydrogen in a fuel cell, a device first used in the Apollo spacecraft, to produce electricity. (
  • In 1992, he was involved in a joint study with the Mexican Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and the U.S. Department of Energy to study the feasibility of increasing the productivity of geothermal power plants by having them generate hydrogen and electricity. (
  • The fuel cell combines hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the atmosphere to form pure water and electricity. (
  • Hydrogen fuel cells create electricity to power a battery and motor by mixing hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • Electrolysis is the process of converting water to oxygen and hydrogen using electricity. (
  • Small scale electrolysers for hydrogen production are ideal for the conversion of electricity from renewable energy sources to hydrogen for storage. (
  • Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a colorless to slightly yellow gas with a pungent odor. (
  • Exposure to liquid hydrogen chloride may cause frostbite. (
  • Useful search terms for hydrogen chloride include "anhydrous hydrogen chloride" "aqueous hydrogen chloride," and "hydrochloric acid. (
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Hydrogen Chloride -NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (
  • Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt) niter cake, a mixture of sodium bisulfite and sulfuric acid that is a byproduct of nitric acid manufacture, is sometimes used in place of sulfuric acid. (
  • Hydrogen chloride is also produced as a byproduct of the manufacture of chlorinated organic chemicals. (
  • Although anhydrous (water-free) hydrogen chloride is commercially available as a high-pressure compressed gas in steel cylinders, most of the gas produced is dissolved in water to form hydrochloric acid (see acids and bases ), a commercially important chemical. (
  • Most hydrochloric acid produced has a concentration of 30% to 35% hydrogen chloride by weight. (
  • It reacts with most common metals, releasing hydrogen and forming the metal chloride with most metal oxides and hydroxides it reacts to form water and the metal chloride. (
  • In dilute solutions of the acid the hydrogen chloride is almost completely dissociated into hydrogen and chloride ions . (
  • A solution containing 20.24% hydrogen chloride by weight is azeotropic, boiling at a constant temperature of 110°C at atmospheric pressure. (
  • Hydrogen chloride also forms monohydrates, dihydrates, and trihydrates that are liquids at room temperature. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about hydrogen chloride. (
  • People working in occupations in which hydrogen chloride is used have the highest risk of being exposed to this compound. (
  • Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. (
  • What is hydrogen chloride? (
  • At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colorless to slightly yellow, corrosive, nonflammable gas that is heavier than air and has a strong irritating odor. (
  • On exposure to air, hydrogen chloride forms dense white corrosive vapors. (
  • Hydrogen chloride can be released from volcanoes. (
  • Hydrogen chloride can be formed during the burning of many plastics. (
  • Both hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid are corrosive. (
  • What happens to hydrogen chloride when it enters the environment? (
  • Hydrogen chloride released to the atmosphere will be removed by rainfall. (
  • Hydrogen chloride dissociates readily in water to chloride and hydronium ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule), which ultimately lowers the pH of the water (makes it more acidic). (
  • If released to soil, hydrogen chloride will evaporate from dry soil surfaces and dissociate into chloride anions and hydronium ions in moist soil. (
  • Hydrogen chloride does not accumulate in the food chain. (
  • How might I be exposed to hydrogen chloride? (
  • You may breathe in air that contains very low levels of hydrogen chloride gas. (
  • Naturally-occurring (i.e., from volcanic eruptions) and other releases of hydrogen chloride are removed by rainfall, limiting the chances of exposure to high levels of this compound by breathing ambient air. (
  • Hydrogen chloride is used to produce other chemicals, or for applications such as a metal pickling, ore refining, food processing, manufacture of fertilizers and dyes, and in the rubber and textile industries. (
  • Workers in these occupations may inhale hydrogen chloride or get it on their skin. (
  • Soldering materials often contain hydrogen chloride and you may be exposed if you use these products during soldering. (
  • How can hydrogen chloride affect my health? (
  • Hydrogen chloride is irritating and corrosive to any tissue it contacts. (
  • Some people may develop an inflammatory reaction to hydrogen chloride. (
  • Depending on the concentration, hydrogen chloride can produce from mild irritation to severe burns of the eyes and skin. (
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen chloride can result in reproductive effects. (
  • How likely is hydrogen chloride to cause cancer? (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified hydrogen chloride as to its carcinogenicity. (
  • How does hydrogen chloride affect children? (
  • Hydrogen chloride is a chemical compound composed of the elements hydrogen and chlorine. (
  • It spontaneously reacts with chlorine and fluorine to form hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, respectively. (
  • Although pure hydrogen peroxide is fairly stable, it decomposes into water and oxygen when heated above about 80°C it also decomposes in the presence of numerous catalysts, e.g., most metals, acids, or oxidizable organic materials. (
  • And here is the result: pure hydrogen with almost no fossil fuels burnt! (
  • The oxygen inside the water recombines with the Zn to produce ZnO once again and the by-product is pure hydrogen. (
  • There is also the issue of obtaining the pure hydrogen needed. (
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (
  • At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H 2 . (
  • Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds . (
  • Hydrogen isocyanide is a chemical with the molecular formula HNC. (
  • A molecular entity that can undergo oxidation by the loss of hydrogen atom(s). (
  • Gaffron and Rubin (3) reported that a green alga, Scenedesmus, produced molecular hydrogen under light conditions after being kept under anaerobic and dark conditions. (
  • A similar effect was observed using other gases such as molecular hydrogen (H2) and helium. (
  • However, hydrogen can also be produced biologically through anoxygenic photosynthesis where a specialist bacteria is used, or from biophotolysis which produces molecular hydrogen from microalgae. (
  • molecular hydrogen generated from biochemical energy. (
  • The process has now been modified to produce molecular hydrogen, through the elimination of oxygen and a reduction in sulphur in an innovative biotechnological process of microalgae in a photobioreactor. (
  • The molecular hydrogen is further processed to produce hydrogen gas. (
  • The chemical symbol for molecular hydrogen is H 2 . (
  • Play media Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen) is highly flammable: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol) The enthalpy of combustion is −286 kJ/mol. (
  • In ionic compounds , hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion ) when it is known as a hydride , or as a positively charged (i.e., cation ) species denoted by the symbol H + . The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. (
  • In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H − ), or as a positively charged species H + . The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. (
  • Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds . (
  • HNC is intricately linked to the formation and destruction of numerous other molecules of importance in the interstellar medium-aside from the obvious partners HCN, protonated hydrogen cyanide (HCNH + ) , and cyanide (CN) , HNC is linked to the abundances of many other compounds, either directly or through a few degrees of separation. (
  • On Earth, hydrogen forms compounds (mixture of elements), and is found in almost every living thing. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide released to the atmosphere will react very rapidly with other compounds found in air. (
  • If released to soil, hydrogen peroxide will be broken down by reacting with other compounds. (
  • Following Gaffron and Rubin's work, basic studies on the mechanisms involved in hydrogen production have determined that the reducing power (electron donation) of hydrogenase does not always come from water, but may sometimes originate intracellularly from organic compounds such as starch. (
  • The contribution of the decomposition of organic compounds to hydrogen production, is dependent on the algal species concerned, and on culture conditions. (
  • Even when organic compounds are involved in hydrogen production, an electron source can be derived from water, since organic compounds are synthesized by oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • compounds that give rise to hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. (
  • This is analogous to related compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, and deuterium oxide (heavy water). (
  • Hydrogen can be found in the vast majority of organic compounds, as well as many inorganic compounds. (
  • In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion) when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged (i.e., cation) species denoted by the symbol H+. (
  • The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. (
  • Researchers describe progress on technology for storing energy in the form of hydrogen fuel. (
  • For example, the cleanest form of hydrogen production - using renewable energy to split water into its constituent elements - is still the most expensive. (
  • The most common form of hydrogen is protium, although this name is rarely used and it is generally known simply as hydrogen. (
  • During the Second World War, a form of hydrogen cyanide (Zyklon B) was used in the Nazi gas chambers. (
  • Recent progress demonstrates the potential of hydrogen as a vector for decarbonization in different sectors of the energy system, but continued support is required to avoid losing momentum in delivering solutions to climate and energy goals. (
  • The destructive potential of hydrogen was spectacularly demonstrated in the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger two years ago and in the 1937 crash of the airship Hindenburg. (
  • Since that time, new regulations, automaker commitments, and technology advancements have enhanced the potential of hydrogen. (
  • He began studying the potential of hydrogen fuel as a result of his research on geothermal energy. (
  • Water can be separated into oxygen and hydrogen through a process called electrolysis. (
  • The third, and cleanest, hydrogen manufacturing method uses renewable energy to create an electric current that splits water into oxygen and hydrogen. (
  • Small towers of gallium nitride generate an electric field to turn photons into free charges, which divide water into its two component elements, oxygen and hydrogen. (
  • The emerging hydrogen mission will help build Australia's clean hydrogen industry by scaling demand and driving down hydrogen cost to under $2 per kilogram to deliver a secure and resilient energy system and support our transition to a low emissions future. (
  • It is estimated that a clean hydrogen industry will create more than 8,000 jobs, generate $11 billion a year in GDP, and result in avoided greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to a third of Australia's current fossil fuel emissions by 2050. (
  • Just as Australia's iron ore, coal and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries were created in response to demand signals from Japan, so too has Japanese demand been the biggest influence on Australia's nascent clean hydrogen industry. (
  • Both those methods need to be complemented by carbon capture and storage if they are to play in the emerging market for clean hydrogen, where Dr Finkel expects carbon capture rates of at least 90 per cent will be the minimum expectation. (
  • Small amounts of gaseous hydrogen peroxide occur naturally in the air. (
  • Trucks that haul gaseous hydrogen are called tube trailers. (
  • Gaseous hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 180 bar (~2,600 psig) or higher into long cylinders that are stacked on a trailer that the truck hauls. (
  • Gaseous hydrogen system is one in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored and discharged in the gaseous form to consumer's piping. (
  • Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to gaseous hydrogen systems having a total hydrogen content of less than 400 cubic feet, nor to hydrogen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the hydrogen supplier or his agent for the purpose of storing hydrogen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars. (
  • This is why we are proactively developing a hydrogen economy, both in Germany and beyond. (
  • The major automakers have developed hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but they've said little about them in recent months and shifted their attention to hybrids and battery electric vehicles. (
  • But BMW, with Honda and its FCX Clarity fuel cell car, remains an industry leader in developing hydrogen technology and believes there is a place for it. (
  • I knew that GM had built real, road-ready hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. (
  • NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell research and development (R&D) focuses on developing, integrating, and demonstrating hydrogen production and delivery, hydrogen storage, and fuel cell technologies for transportation, stationary, and portable applications. (
  • NREL offers industry, academia, and government agencies opportunities to work with us and leverage our research expertise to advance the science behind emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and to validate new technologies and systems in real-world operation. (
  • Also learn about hydrogen and fuel cell basics and compare vehicle technologies . (
  • NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell research bridges technologies via work with NREL's Transportation , Bioenergy , Chemistry and Nanoscience , Energy Analysis , and Energy Systems Integration Facility research areas and supports the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office . (
  • From functional safety and performance testing to material and fuel cell testing, regulatory support, integrity management software, engineering consulting, technical inspection services, hydrogen purity testing and quality monitoring, Intertek's broad-based Assurance, Testing, Inspection and Certification services are delivered globally by our extensive network of industry experts. (
  • It is estimated that the global hydrogen & fuel cell market will reach US$200bn by 2027. (
  • That could make it economically practical for future fuel-cell vehicles that run on hydrogen. (
  • The company also recently contributed to a report developed by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association entitled Road Map to a US Hydrogen Economy . (
  • Pierre Forte (R), founder and CEO of Pragma Industries, and Alexandre Blanc (L), operations director, check an Alpha bike, first industrialized bicycle to use a hydrogen fuel cell at the Pragma Industries factory in Biarritz, France, Jan. 15, 2018. (
  • An employee holds an hydrogen fuel battery of an Alpha bike, first industrialized bicycle to use a hydrogen fuel cell at the Pragma Industries factory in Biarritz, France, Jan. 15, 2018. (
  • Honda, Hyundai, and Toyota are rolling out new hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles for 2014. (
  • And with the debut of three promising hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles from Honda, Hyundai, and Toyota, consumers will have new options beginning in 2014. (
  • The current hydrogen push has less to do with consumer demand than with government incentives that treat fuel-cell vehicles (FCV) as equal to or better than electric vehicles. (
  • Under the hood of Honda's FCX, a stylish and smooth-running hydrogen-powered fuel cell compact SUV. (
  • The fuel cell sits in the center of GM's Hydrogen 3 minivan. (
  • Staff of the California Fuel Cell Partnership's 2005 Road Rally help the media and public into a rotating cadre of hydrogen-powered cars so they can test-drive the vehicles in the Golden Gate Fields parking lot. (
  • Promoting fuel-cell technology, major car makers showed off 20 prototypes of hydrogen-fueled vehicles at Golden Gate Fields in Berkeley, Calif. (
  • Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. (
  • Electrolytic processes take place in an electrolyzer, which functions much like a fuel cell in reverse-instead of using the energy of a hydrogen molecule, like a fuel cell does, an electrolyzer creates hydrogen from water molecules. (
  • But first, last week, Daimler, Ford and Nissan announced an alliance to work together on hydrogen fuel-cell technology for their passenger vehicles. (
  • Jennifer Kurtz is a senior engineer and the leader of the Technology Validation Group in the NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. (
  • PALCA: So what's the advantage, do you think, of using a hydrogen-powered, full-cell-driven, fuel-cell energy care over, say, you know, one that you just plug in? (
  • Test drive: Hydrogen fuel cell Toyota Mirai cruises 300 miles, costs $45K - can your EV do that? (
  • Fuel cell cars can run on infinitely renewable hydrogen gas and emit no harmful tailpipe emissions whatsoever. (
  • A 2005 Scientific American article bullishly reported that car company executives "foresee no better option to the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle in the long run. (
  • Also, the lack of hydrogen refueling stations around the country limits the practicality of driving a fuel cell vehicle. (
  • BMW, Daimler, Honda, Hyundai and Toyota are deploying over a hundred fuel cell vehicles and the project will develop the hydrogen refuelling stations needed to serve them. (
  • Some local residents may be able to participate in the project and experience for themselves the benefits of hydrogen fuel cell technology. (
  • NPL already carries out cutting-edge research in hydrogen, fuel cell and electrolyser technologies. (
  • Fuel cell electric vehicles (fuelled by hydrogen, a gas that can be produced from a range of renewable energy sources) have been identified as a promising technology to help achieve these strategic goals with minimal impact on the driver in terms of functionality or convenience. (
  • ZeroAvia flew a Piper M350 powered by batteries in 2019, and plans to fly a similar aircraft with hydrogen fuel cell power in 2020. (
  • Miftakhov said the upcoming flight tests in the single-engine Piper testbed are a precursor to adapting the hydrogen fuel cell power system for use in aircraft with up to 20 seats. (
  • Unlike burning gasoline, which produces a wide variety of pollutants - including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and a variety of hydrocarbons - an auto that is powered by a hydrogen fuel cell has extremely low emissions. (
  • Hydrogen can be obtained from distilled water through electrolysis, but this requires the same amount of energy the Hydrogen's use in a fuel cell would yield. (
  • According to new patent filings, Apple is researching hydrogen fuel cell technology that could be used on smartphones and other portable devices. (
  • A hydrogen fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electrical energy. (
  • [10] Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking ) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (
  • Hydrogen is a significant source of energy which can be burned to produce power with no negative impact on the environment, unlike power produced by burning fossil fuels. (
  • Demand for hydrogen, which has grown more than threefold since 1975, continues to rise - almost entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production. (
  • Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels and biomass, from water, or from a mix of both. (
  • Today, many experts are watching Iceland closely as a 'planetary laboratory' for the anticipated global energy transition from an economy based predominantly on finite fossil fuels to one fueled by virtually unlimited renewable resources and hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. (
  • The third is the accelerating worldwide movement to combat climate change by reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning, which in its current configuration places constraints on Iceland that make a hydrogen transition particularly palatable. (
  • We, the undersigned public of Philadelphia, require the City, at this present moment of time, to switch from our present fossil fuel based system to that of River City to Hydrogen, being a clean green renewable source of energy. (
  • Water may serve as a renewable hydrogen fuel source to replace fossil fuels, although such electrolysis requires highly active catalysts. (
  • Hydrogen will replace fossil fuels in many industrial processes and will be used in transportation in cases where batteries are unsuitable. (
  • Making hydrogen by reforming natural gas is also highly inefficient and relies on a fossil fuel from the get-go. (
  • Braun believes if we could shift from fossil fuels to hydrogen, many of the Earth's most dire problems such as pollution would be alleviated. (
  • The project is designed to produce the technical and economic advances necessary to replace fossil fuels with hydrogen fuel, particularly for transportation. (
  • There are five businesses around the world which commercially produce hydrogen from fossil fuels, with carbon capture and storage attached. (
  • With its single electron, hydrogen is the simplest element of all. (
  • In classical terms a hydrogen atom consists of a proton and an electron bound together by their mutual electrical attraction. (
  • Hydrogen ion , strictly, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom separated from its accompanying electron . (
  • The reason for the variation of R is that for hydrogen the mass of the orbiting electron is not negligible compared to the proton at the high accuracy at which spectral measurement is done. (
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (
  • Hydrogen bonds ("hbonds") are non-covalent bonds that occur when a donor atom donates its covalently bonded hydrogen atom to an electronegative acceptor atom. (
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, [8] study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics . (
  • As the simplest atom known, the hydrogen atom has been of theoretical use. (
  • For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation , the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics . (
  • This is an outstanding example of a successful empirical fit (like Bode's Law in astronomy) for a class of physical phenomena that was not based on any underlying physical model or theory, i.e., no reason was known for why wavelengths of light emitted from a hydrogen atom should exhibit this pattern. (
  • In 1913 Niels Bohr developed a new representation of the hydrogen atom by combining classical ideas with a few additional postulates that were suggested by the nascent quantum concepts of Planck and Einstein. (
  • Joint research programs were initiated within academia and the fastener industry to better understand the fundamentals of hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. (
  • Presented in the eminent journal Physical Review A, the researchers' calculations show that the hydrogen at a given concentration affects the atomic van der Waals forces and becomes repulsive instead of attractive. (
  • the higher the concentration of hydrogen ion the more acidic the solution and the lower the pH. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide in a 3 percent concentration is safe for use as a wound-cleaning agent in almost any environment. (
  • For example, if an individual digests and absorbs the sugar in milk (lactose) normally, then none of the lactose that is given for the lactose hydrogen breath test reaches the colon, and no increase in the concentration of hydrogen in the breath is seen during the breath test. (
  • Note: Household hydrogen peroxide has a 3% concentration. (
  • On the other hand, the concentration of hydrogen cyanide may rapidly reach lethal levels if it is released in confined spaces. (
  • When he first proposed this hydrogen economy decades ago, many thought he was crazy. (
  • I am not alone in my expedition to ground zero of the hydrogen economy: hundreds of scientists, politicians, investors, and journalists have visited over the past year to learn more about Iceland's plans. (
  • Top-down investment alone will not be enough to make the European hydrogen economy a reality, writes Andreas Schierenbeck. (
  • The idea of a 'hydrogen economy' to replace the hydrocarbon-fueled economies of the 20th century has been discussed for at least the past 50 years. (
  • We hope to apply our wealth of expertise so that the EU and Germany can achieve their ambitious vision of a European hydrogen economy. (
  • GE says its new machine could make the hydrogen economy affordable, by slashing the cost of water-splitting technology. (
  • You can talk about transitioning to a hydrogen economy, but really these things don't move unless the economics are there," Bourgeois says. (
  • Paul Bakke, an electrical engineer and program manager at the U.S. Department of Energy in Golden, CO, says a cheap electrolyzer could be a key component of the future hydrogen economy. (
  • This publication presents the state of the art in the nuclear production of hydrogen and describes the areas of research to be undertaken for establishing a hydrogen economy regime. (
  • We're in 2026 and the Netherlands gives the world a preview of what a "hydrogen economy" could look like. (
  • The hydrogen economy will at least in part be based on nukes . (
  • STANFORD -- It's time to revisit the idea of creating a hydrogen economy. (
  • If hydrogen could be used in cars, it would be important in establishing the hydrogen economy . (
  • This represents a significant step in a long journey that will enable the eventual realization of a hydrogen-based economy," said Bentham. (
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. (
  • Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory system. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to hydrogen sulfide. (
  • Hydrogen sulfide is used in many industries. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses hydrogen sulfide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide. (
  • Useful search terms for hydrogen sulfide include "hydrosulfuric acid," "sewer gas," and "sulfuretted hydrogen. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results for hydrogen sulfide -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Hydrogen sulfide -The IDLH documents the criteria and information sources used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations. (
  • Contains a standard for mitigation of exposure to hydrogen sulfide to prevent adverse effects over a working lifetime. (
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-158. (
  • Two Individuals Overcome By Hydrogen Sulfide Gas While Cleaning a Farm Facility Water Well With 28% Liquid Muriatic Acid. (
  • Hog Farm Co-Owner and Employee Die of Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning in Manure Pit-Minnesota. (
  • Two Maintenance Workers Die After Inhaling Hydrogen Sulfide in Manhole. (
  • Here, authors engineer specific catalytic sites into molybdenum sulfide to improve and elucidate hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis. (
  • hydrogen peroxide, chemical compound, H 2 O 2 , a colorless, syrupy liquid that is a strong oxidizing agent and, in water solution, a weak acid. (
  • A gas at ordinary temperatures, hydrogen turns to a liquid at − 423.2 ° F ( − 252.9 ° C), and to a solid at − 434. (
  • The space shuttle uses liquid hydrogen fuel because hydrogen gives out a lot of power for very little weight. (
  • Hydrogen, like all fuel, needs oxygen to burn, so the shuttle has a tank of liquid hydrogen and a tank of liquid oxygen. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a bitter taste. (
  • Moscow disclosed that a special fuel tank installed in the aft part of the plane's cabin had been engineered to hold liquid hydrogen at a temperature below minus 423 degrees Fahrenheit. (
  • As the liquid is warmed, it boils into hydrogen gas, which is ducted to the combustion chambers of a turbojet engine. (
  • Mr. Tupolev added that the same propulsion system could use liquefied natural gas instead of hydrogen and that liquid natural gas, which can be stored at room temperature, would be much easier to handle. (
  • Railcars, ships, and barges can also be used to deliver hydrogen as a compressed gas or cryogenic liquid, or within novel liquid or solid carrier materials. (
  • 1 These methods are currently uncommon and typically are not economical unless the hydrogen is in liquid form. (
  • Compared with liquid fuels, hydrogen is tough to transport and store. (
  • General Motors' Hydrogen 3, a compact minivan that seats five, operates on liquid and compressed hydrogen. (
  • It can store the hydrogen at up to 10,000 PSI, at which pressure hydrogen is a liquid. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid commonly used to fight germs. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide poisoning occurs when large amounts of the liquid are swallowed or get in the lungs or eyes. (
  • By comparison, a 25 percent reduction in these pollutants could be obtained by replacing roughly one million gasoline-powered or liquid propane-powered autos with hydrogen-powered ones. (
  • At room temperature, hydrogen cyanide is a colourless liquid which boils at 26 oC. (
  • Both gaseous and liquid hydrogen cyanide, as well as cyanide salts in solution, can also be taken up through the skin. (
  • The gaseous fuels, hydrogen and methane, are fuels that will likely be in adequate supply when crude oil sourced liquid fuels are scarce. (
  • The energy efficiency of using methane and hydrogen in dedicated engines is compared with liquid fuelled engines. (
  • The storage of Methane in compressed or liquid form and Hydrogen in metal hydrides are compared. (
  • Compressed hydrogen Liquid hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Slush hydrogen Timeline of hydrogen technologies Correspondence and General A-I DEWAR/Box D I Dewar, James (1899). (
  • My two great thesis project loves are hydrogen and symbiosis, and as such, the recent news of a multicellular organism that lives in a completely oxygen free environment and gets its energy from hydrogenosomes instead of mitochondria is totally fascinating. (
  • The only element whose isotopes have names, hydrogen has long been considered as a potential source of power and transportation: once upon a time for airships, later as a component in nuclear reactions - and, perhaps in the future, as a source of abundant clean energy. (
  • In a new paper in the journal Nature Chemistry published earlier this year, scientists at the University of Glasgow outline how they managed to replicate the way plants use the sun's energy to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen at separate times and at separate physical locations. (
  • The speed of hydrogen age - to use hydrogen scientist and engineer David Sanborn Scott's term - will depend largely on energy and environment policies at the local, regional and international levels. (
  • The recent resurgence of natural gas as the bridging technology (to hydrogen) for energy needs indicates that positive changes are on the horizon. (
  • Hydrogen and energy have a long shared history - powering the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to becoming an integral part of the modern refining industry. (
  • But for hydrogen to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and power generation. (
  • Over the past few years, global spending on hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration by national governments has risen, although it remains lower than the peak in 2008. (
  • Alternate Energy Corporation has derived a means of generating hydrogen through a proprietary metallurgic alloy composed of readily available elements. (
  • Alternate Energy Corporation (AEC), ticker symbol ARGY, has secured a technology that generates hydrogen from water in the presence of a proprietary alloy that is made from abundant and inexpensive raw materials. (
  • Biological hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms for example, requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements. (
  • Electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting on the hand, requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. (
  • The oil crisis in 1973 prompted research on biological hydrogen production, including photosynthetic production, as part of the search for alternative energy technologies. (
  • My quest has brought me to the cluttered office of Bragi Árnason, a chemistry professor at the University of Iceland whose 30-year-old plan to run his country on hydrogen energy has recently become an official objective of his government, to be achieved over the next 30 years. (
  • The subject is increasingly important with regard to recent requirements for hydrogen energy equipment. (
  • Most workshop participants were members of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) Task 38, which examines hydrogen as a key energy carrier for clean energy systems and currently comprises over 50 experts from 15 countries, coordinated by the French CEA/I-tésé and supported by the French ADEME. (
  • Participants from all over the world attending, including representatives from Air Liquide (France), Bristol Energy (UK), CEA (France), Clean Horizon (France), De Montfort University (UK), Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (Belgium), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany), ICSI Rm. (
  • Valcea (Romania), Institute for Public Policy Research (UK), ITM Power (UK), National Hydrogen Center (Spain), PersEE (France), Process System Enterprise Ltd. (UK), Institute of Applied Energy (Japan), University of Bath (UK), Université de Lorraine (France), University of Manchester (UK) and WaterstofNet (Belgium). (
  • Dr Sheila Samsatli commented: "Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can complement renewable energy. (
  • However, there are many challenges that need to be addressed and this workshop took a big step towards determining the true role for hydrogen in the future energy systems. (
  • The importance of hydrogen as a future sustainable energy carrier cannot be underestimated, and it was fascinating to welcome experts from around the world to debate and consider the options. (
  • Iddo Genuth, the author of the article, offers a background about why we need renewable sources of energy and says that producing hydrogen from zinc by extracting oxygen from water was discovered many years ago. (
  • This project has also been covered in August 2005 by this news release from WIS, " Solar energy project at the Weizmann Institute promises to advance the use of hydrogen fuel " and by Nature , in " Sunlight used to smelt zinc . (
  • This research has also been published in Solar Energy under the name "Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen -- a review" (Volume 78, Issue 5, May 2005, Pages 603-615). (
  • UT-Battelle, LLC, acting under its Prime Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is seeking a commercialization partner for a hydrogen storage container technology. (
  • A chemical traditionally used in the fertiliser industry, ammonia is now also entering the realm of energy as a way to store and transport hydrogen, or as an alternative transport fuel in its own right. (
  • French energy company Engie is teaming up with aerospace firm the ArianeGroup to steal a march on its rivals in the hydrogen production business, by drawing on expertise gained through Europe's space programme. (
  • While China currently produces the cheapest electrolysers in the world, Europe leads on innovative technologies which are better suited to produce green hydrogen seen by many as a silver bullet to decarbonise the energy system. (
  • Europe's hydrogen strategy mostly points in the right direction by identifying renewable hydrogen as a key energy vector and necessary storage solution for delivering a zero-carbon EU, but it side-steps several key problems that go to the core of what. (
  • Senator Spark M. Matsunaga, Democrat of Hawaii, has long advocated the exploitation of hydrogen, a gas that can be generated from water using solar energy, ocean thermal power and other renewable energy sources. (
  • RWE believes that green hydrogen will be an important factor in the success of the energy transition, as well as being crucial to the further expansion of renewables. (
  • There is still much to be done before hydrogen can become a green energy source. (
  • Hydrogen is a versatile, clean and safe energy carrier that can be used as a fuel for power or within industry as a feedstock. (
  • The rapidly expanding demand for hydrogen is being driven by environmental policies, commercialization of fuel cells, falling cost of renewables, energy independence and the increase in public and private investment. (
  • As companies navigate the rapid energy evolution and keep pace with global energy demands, while fulfilling sustainability goals and ensuring profitability, hydrogen sector stakeholders need a trusted partner to help ensure quality and safety from production through to end use applications. (
  • SAN RAMON, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) today announced it has joined the Hydrogen Council, a global advisory body providing a long-term vision for the role of hydrogen in the energy transition. (
  • From 2005 to 2010, Chevron operated five hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site generation, storage and dispensing as part of a U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen demonstration project that included AC Transit in Northern California. (
  • Our support for the Hydrogen Council reflects our view that hydrogen can play a role in a lower carbon future as a transportation fuel, an industrial feedstock and an energy storage medium. (
  • Hydrogen Council membership supports Chevron's approach to the energy transition and is an example of the company's ongoing commitment to innovate and to pursue ever-cleaner energy sources. (
  • One kilo of hydrogen holds about 600 times more energy than a one-kilo lithium battery. (
  • 1 See the National Renewable Energy Laboratory report Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen . (
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-4.2, IAEA, Vienna (2013). (
  • Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable source of energy in the 21st century. (
  • Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. (
  • In microbial biomass conversion, the microbes break down organic matter like biomass or wastewater to produce hydrogen, while in photobiological processes the microbes use sunlight as the energy source. (
  • Why?The money was stripped because the president and Steven Chu, his energy secretary, said hydrogen fueled cars are still decades away and that they'd rather concentrate on more immediate energy-saving solutions. (
  • This book provides an insight into solar hydrogen, renewable hydrogen that is produced using solar energy. (
  • Not long ago we were reading a lot about hydrogen's role in a clean energy future, with cars transitioning from gasoline-powered engines to hydrogen-powered fuel cells. (
  • Likewise, the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggested, also in 2005, that some 30 percent of the global stock of vehicles-700 million cars and trucks-could be powered by hydrogen fuel cells by 2050. (
  • According to Richard Gilbert, co-author of the book, Transport Revolutions: Moving People and Freight without Oil , another big issue for hydrogen-powered fuel cells is their energy inefficiency. (
  • Creating hydrogen gas by splitting water molecules via electrolysis ends up using up about half of the energy it creates. (
  • The Hydrogen Safety Panel was created to address concerns about hydrogen as a safe and sustainable energy carrier. (
  • Electrolysis is one of the most expensive methods of hydrogen production, as to achieve a worthwhile output of hydrogen excess electrical current must be passed through the cell, to increase potential energy. (
  • Hydrogen is no more or less hazardous than other high energy content fuel such as petrol or methane. (
  • ITM Power is a UK company, based in Sheffield, which designs and manufactures hydrogen energy systems for energy storage and clean fuel production. (
  • In addition to much higher energy density, hydrogen has other advantages over batteries, including the lithium-based batteries used on laptops, drones, electric cars, and aircraft, which combine fuel and oxidizer in a single package, so they are far more likely to create a catastrophic fire in the event they are compromised in a crash, he noted. (
  • Spruiked as the energy sector's next big thing for decades, hydrogen may be about to have its day in the sun as the world gets increasingly serious about emissions reduction targets. (
  • The cheapest - using gas or coal - releases carbon dioxide that has to be buried if the hydrogen is to pass as clean energy. (
  • Up until that time Japan had been looking to reduce its emissions and beef up its energy supply through nuclear, but then we had the Fukushima accident in 2011 and we have had to change course and develop a hydrogen strategy,' said Jeremy Stone, a director of Japanese energy giant J-Power's Australian subsidiary. (
  • If hydrogen is to secure a niche in Australia's domestic energy market, Dr Finkel reckons renewable electrolysis will likely be the first manufacturing method to get traction. (
  • The basic hydrogen energy level structure is in agreement with the Bohr model . (
  • The basic structure of the hydrogen energy levels can be calculated from the Schrodinger equation. (
  • If you look at the hydrogen energy levels at extremely high resolution, you do find evidence of some other small effects on the energy. (
  • Hydrogen is one of two fuels needed for fuel cells (the other being oxygen), which have the potential to be a major form of alternative energy in the future. (
  • it would simply move the problem to the power plants providing the energy to obtain the hydrogen through electrolysis. (
  • As free hydrogen does not exist on Earth, hydrogen is not actually a source of energy but rather a carrier of it: its value as a fuel is that it provides a clean and efficient way to use energy produced by some other source. (
  • Due to the Second Law of thermodynamics the energy used to produce free hydrogen must be at least equal to the energy contained within it, meaning that at present it is not a viable fuel for most applications. (
  • Potential solutions include the use of bacteria that produce hydrogen through photosynthesis, which would effectively allow solar energy to be stored in hydrogen and used as fuel. (
  • Unlike solar panels, which can only store energy if they are attached to a battery, the artificial photosynthesis device uses splits water to store solar energy as hydrogen fuel. (
  • Hydrogen is viewed by nearly all energy experts as the fuel of the future. (
  • A glimpse into that future, the vehicles of tomorrow, occurred on Wednesday with the opening of the first combined gas station/hydrogen refueling center in the U.S. The Benning Road, NE center, operated by Shell, features a state-of-the-art hydrogen fueling pump that will fuel vehicles equipped with fuel cells or internal combustion engines that use hydrogen as their energy source. (
  • ISOfocus sits down with Dr. Andrei Tchouvelev, the new Chair of ISO/TC 197, Hydrogen technologies , to discuss thought-provoking ideas about the future of hydrogen and the most pressing challenges for standards. (
  • GM's Vice President for Research, Planning and Development, Larry Burns, explained that industry and government will have to work together to educate the public toward an awareness of the future of hydrogen as a primary fuel. (
  • Why did the Universe start off with Hydrogen, Helium, and not much else? (
  • after all, it's the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium that powers the vast majority of stars illuminating the entire cosmos! (
  • But here on Earth, hydrogen and helium are only a small part of the world we inhabit. (
  • Indeed, if there is any element similar to hydrogen in simplicity and abundance, it is the only other one on the first row, or period, of the periodic table: helium. (
  • Yet whereas helium is a noble gas, and therefore chemically unreactive, hydrogen bonds with all sorts of other elements. (
  • Physicists at Linköping University have shown that a dose of hydrogen or helium can render the "super material" graphene even more useful. (
  • The properties of hydrogen and helium under extreme conditions" (PDF). (
  • Inhalation of household strength hydrogen peroxide (3%) can cause respiratory irritation. (
  • Exposure to household strength hydrogen peroxide can cause mild ocular irritation. (
  • Most contact with household-strength hydrogen peroxide is fairly harmless. (
  • AEC has secured the rights to an internal combustion engine that is designed to run on hydrogen. (
  • In the same issue: Formula Zero � hydrogen-powered go-kart evangelism with fuel cells where internal combustion used to be. (
  • The German automaker isn't giving up on hydrogen and says its latest hydrogen combustion engine matches the efficiency of the best turbodiesels. (
  • The company's emphasis has been not on fuel cells but on internal combustion engines that burn liquefied hydrogen. (
  • The cylinder head geometry is similar to that of a diesel engine, and progressive H2 high-pressure direct injection sends hydrogen into the combustion chamber at up to 4,500 PSI. (
  • When hydrogen burns in air, the combustion product consists entirely of steam. (
  • The primary byproduct of hydrogen combustion is water. (
  • The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. (
  • Hydrogenase and nitrogenase enzymes are both capable of hydrogen production. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a manufactured chemical, although small amounts of hydrogen peroxide gas may occur naturally in the air. (
  • Experiments had established that buckyballs could hold tiny amounts of hydrogen. (
  • Although limited hydrogen is produced from the small amounts of unabsorbed food that normally reach the colon, large amounts of hydrogen may be produced when there is a problem with the digestion or absorption of food in the small intestine, that allows more unabsorbed food to reach the colon. (
  • Large amounts of hydrogen also may be produced when the colon bacteria move back into the small intestine, a condition called bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel. (
  • The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1 H), has one proton and no neutrons . (
  • The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol 1 H) with a single proton and no neutrons . (
  • The atomic number of hydrogen is 1, meaning that it has a single proton in its nucleus. (
  • The hydrogen nucleus is made up of a particle carrying a unit positive electric charge , called a proton ( q.v. ). The isolated hydrogen ion , represented by the symbol H + , is therefore customarily used to represent a proton. (
  • EX 1 generally occurs only at high pH in proteins, where the proton activity makes hydrogen exchange very fast. (
  • They have no tailpipe emissions and, if hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, can provide truly emission-free mobility. (
  • As a consequence, production of hydrogen is responsible for CO 2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, equivalent to the CO 2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined. (
  • It sets the vision for a clean, innovative, safe and competitive hydrogen industry that helps our nation transition to a sustainable and affordable low emissions future. (
  • The Hydrogen Industry Mission will contribute to a low emissions future for Australia. (
  • Hydrogen-fuelled cars produce no harmful exhaust emissions - only water vapour. (
  • It is evident that hydrogen will be a key to reduce greenhouse gas emissions not only in transport but in a wide range of sectors, including power production and industrial processes. (
  • Natural gas is currently the primary source of hydrogen production, accounting for around three quarters of the annual global dedicated hydrogen production of around 70 million tonnes. (
  • The production cost of hydrogen from natural gas is influenced by a range of technical and economic factors, with gas prices and capital expenditures being the two most important. (
  • Low gas prices in the Middle East, Russia and North America give rise to some of the lowest hydrogen production costs. (
  • He envisions a bladder system that would add or remove water from the reaction in order to start and stop the production of hydrogen. (
  • Biological hydrogen production has several advantages over hydrogen production by photoelectrochemical or thermochemical processes. (
  • The basic characteristics of biological hydrogen production and experiments designed to improve the feasibility of biological hydrogen production, particularly through the use of photosynthetic microorganisms, are described in this Chapter. (
  • Green algae were known as light-dependent, water-splitting catalysts, but the characteristics of their hydrogen production were not practical for exploitation. (
  • Hydrogenase is too oxygen-labile for sustainable hydrogen production: light-dependent hydrogen production ceases within a few to several tens of minutes since photosynthetically produced oxygen inhibits or inactivates hydrogenases. (
  • His assessment is that with the backing of the industry, full-scale production of hydrogen from Zn using the industrial Solzinc facility could begin within 8-10 years. (
  • Not only does production need ramping up, Europe must also establish a framework for a functioning hydrogen market, he argues. (
  • Sectors such as hydrogen production, transport, storage and application as well as stationary and portable fuel cells will contribute the most to this significant growth. (
  • GE has demonstrated the technology in a prototype, and is now building a larger production module - one that can produce 1 kilogram of hydrogen per hour - for testing in its labs later this year. (
  • A French start-up has become the first company to start factory production of hydrogen-powered bicycles for use in corporate or municipal fleets. (
  • Many others have made hydrogen bike prototypes, but we are the first to move to series production,' said founder and chief executive Pierre Forte. (
  • The three new FCVs slated for production this year and next will increase the volume to thousands, but they will be available primarily in California, where most of the country's hydrogen stations exist. (
  • Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam reforming, a high-temperature process in which steam reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel to produce hydrogen. (
  • Learn more about electrolytic hydrogen production . (
  • Solar-driven processes use light as the agent for hydrogen production. (
  • Solar thermochemical hydrogen production uses concentrated solar power to drive water splitting reactions often along with other species such as metal oxides. (
  • Learn more about biological hydrogen production from microbial biomass conversion and photobiological processes . (
  • Other problems include hydrogen storage and the production of hydrogen. (
  • Year 3 - Showcase a hydrogen technology demonstration facility including a hydrogen refueller on a CSIRO site to demonstrate hydrogen production technologies. (
  • CSIRO hydrogen production technology deployed commercially. (
  • Hyundai sees a big future for hydrogen-powered vehicles because volume production might push down the cost of hydrogen fuel technology down faster than with the lithium-ion battery technology necessary for EVs and plug-in hybrids. (
  • This is an article on the production of hydrogen and in particular from the use of renewable sources as opposed the more conventional methods. (
  • However, only one of those - the Port Arthur facility in Texas owned by Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated - is dedicated to hydrogen production. (
  • SINTEF provides high level research, technology development as well as decision support along the entire value chain from hydrogen production via transport and distribution to end use. (
  • Exposure to hydrogen peroxide can cause irritation of the eyes, throat, respiratory airway, and skin. (
  • Eye exposure to 3% hydrogen peroxide may result in pain and irritation, but severe injury is rare. (
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen peroxide may affect reproduction in humans. (
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen peroxide may result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (
  • Exposure to industrial-strength hydrogen peroxide can be dangerous. (
  • 7000100800000000000♠ 1.008 , hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . (
  • The lightest element on the periodic table, hydrogen dissipates very quickly if it escapes a container, so if a fuel tank ruptures the likelihood of a fire is actually very low. (
  • Due to having the lowest possible atomic number hydrogen is the lightest element. (
  • With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. (
  • This book is the first comprehensive treatment of hydrogen embrittlement of metallic materials, mainly of steels. (
  • Recent progress in revealing the nature of hydrogen embrittlement is remarkable, and this book provides students and researchers engaging in hydrogen problems with a comprehensive view of hydrogen embrittlement covering basic behaviors of hydrogen in materials and their various manifestations in degradation of mechanical properties. (
  • Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. (
  • This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. (
  • One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. (
  • The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. (
  • Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. (
  • Daniel Nocera watches an apparatus that makes hydrogen and oxygen from water. (
  • Its high volatility probably makes hydrogen cyanide difficult to use in warfare since there are problems in achieving sufficiently high concentrations outdoors. (
  • A bilateral agreement aimed at increasing German imports of hydrogen produced from solar power plants in Australia could set a milestone in efforts to establish a global hydrogen market. (
  • Australia's chief scientist, Alan Finkel, published a strategy in November 2019 which forecast the global hydrogen market would grow from its current size (about 70 million tonnes per year) to between 72 million and 79 million tonnes by 2030. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is available for commercial use in several concentrations. (
  • Measure hydrogen concentrations with suitable gas detector (a normal flammable gas detector is NOT suitable for the purpose). (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is found in many households at low concentrations (3-9%) for medicinal applications and as a clothes and hair bleach. (
  • In industry, hydrogen peroxide in higher concentrations is used as a bleach for textiles and paper, as a component of rocket fuels, and for producing foam rubber and organic chemicals. (
  • Hydrogen is much more difficult to ignite than jet fuel, requiring far higher temperatures, and very high concentrations of hydrogen gas in order for it to oxidize. (
  • Hydrogen cyanide has high toxicity and in sufficient concentrations it rapidly leads to death. (
  • The research program concentrated on the effects of hydrogen adsorption during electrochemical processing, hydrogen evolution during baking as functions of fastener-material and coating-process variation, and new multi-phase cold-heading steels. (
  • Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. (
  • In contrast with previous solar splitters, which had only reached 1 percent efficiency, Mi's team managed to achieve a 3 percent solar-to-hydrogen efficiency. (
  • Photoelectrochemical processes use specialized semiconductors to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • A hilly landscape of gallium nitride towers, which generate the electric field necessary for the device to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • The first of these, protium, is simply hydrogen in its most common form, with no neutrons in its nucleus. (
  • Protium (the name is only used to distinguish it from the other isotopes) accounts for 99.985% of all the hydrogen that appears in nature. (
  • BMW is pushing H2 technology in the Hydrogen 7, which so far has been driven mostly by celebrities (although Wired got behind the wheel of one a few years ago). (
  • Aerospace giant Airbus has announced plans to build zero-emission aircraft using hydrogen power technology. (
  • Nikola Corporation (NASDAQ: NKLA) founder Trevor Milton is keen on a collaboration with Hyundai Motor Co (OTC: HYMTF) on hydrogen technology, a spokesperson for the electric vehicles company told Reuters. (
  • The technology also has the potential to be massively scaled up to create a hydrogen gas station. (
  • UC Davis, which has a school for transportation studies and hosts a hydrogen fueling station, shows how the technology works in miniature form. (
  • Jennifer Kurtz discusses the current state of hydrogen fuel technology. (
  • Delivering science and technology solutions and socio-economic analysis to remove barriers to hydrogen industry scale-up. (
  • A California firm plans to begin test flights this month of a hydrogen-powered Piper in the United Kingdom, where climate change has prompted government investment in the technology. (
  • Dr Stuart Hillmansen, senior lecturer at UoB's Centre for Railway Research and Education, said: 'Our prototype shows how hydrogen powered technology can be incorporated within existing trains, without needing to modify the drivers' controls. (
  • Because it is such a basic elemental building block, figures for the mass of other elements were once based on hydrogen, but the standard today is set by 12 C or carbon-12, the most common isotope of carbon. (
  • and on its own, hydrogen is extremely flammable. (
  • Hydrogen is also extremely flammable and suitable safeguards are needed to reduce the chances of a fatal explosion in an accident. (
  • By 2050 hydrogen consumption was forecast to be anywhere between 90 million tonnes per year and 300 million tonnes. (
  • Hydrogen-fuelled cars produce water instead of polluting exhaust gases. (
  • This clever recipe might be used to produce the hydrogen needed by your next car in about ten years. (
  • In order to produce hydrogen from the Zn powder a much simpler process is performed where the Zn is mixed with water at a temperature of 350°C (662F). (
  • The objective of the European hydrogen strategy is to provide a total of 40 gigawatts of electrolyser capacity to produce green hydrogen by 2030. (
  • Now researchers at GE say they've come up with a prototype version of an easy-to-manufacture apparatus that they believe could lead to a commercial machine able to produce hydrogen via electrolysis for about $3 per kilogram - a quantity roughly comparable to a gallon of gasoline - down from today's $8 per kilogram. (
  • With bike's range limited by the size of the hydrogen tank, Pragma is also working on a bike that will convert plain water into hydrogen aboard the bike, using a chemical reaction between water and aluminum or magnesium powder to produce hydrogen gas. (
  • Photobiological processes use the natural photosynthetic activity of bacteria and green algae to produce hydrogen. (
  • Biological processes use microbes such as bacteria and microalgae and can produce hydrogen through biological reactions. (
  • The bacteria produce hydrogen when they are exposed to unabsorbed food, particularly sugars and carbohydrates, but not proteins or fats . (
  • On the other hand, if the individual does not digest and absorb the lactose completely, that is, he or she is lactose intolerant, the lactose travels through the small intestine and enters the colon where the bacteria digest it and produce hydrogen. (
  • This is achieved by a process known as steam reformation where methane is subjected to steam injection to produce carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. (
  • To produce hydrogen economically, however, would require a fundamental change in the way that electric utilities around the world operate. (
  • Using this method, it should be possible to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with gasoline, he said. (
  • Hydrogen, including hydrogen fuel cells, presents an obvious solution to both economic and environmental challenges. (