The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (1/3487)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (2/3487)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Solid-state NMR and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a bilayer-solubilized peptide: structural and mechanistic implications. (3/3487)

Hydrogen-deuterium exchange has been monitored by solid-state NMR to investigate the structure of gramicidin M in a lipid bilayer and to investigate the mechanisms for polypeptide insertion into a lipid bilayer. Through exchange it is possible to observe 15N-2H dipolar interactions in oriented samples that yield precise structural constraints. In separate experiments the pulse sequence SFAM was used to measure dipolar distances in this structure, showing that the dimer is antiparallel. The combined use of orientational and distance constraints is shown to be a powerful structural approach. By monitoring the hydrogen-deuterium exchange at different stages in the insertion of peptides into a bilayer environment it is shown that dimeric gramicidin is inserted into the bilayer intact, i.e., without separating into monomer units. The exchange mechanism is investigated for various sites and support for a relayed imidic acid mechanism is presented. Both acid and base catalyzed mechanisms may be operable. The nonexchangeable sites clearly define a central core to which water is inaccessible or hydroxide or hydronium ion is not even momentarily stable. This provides strong evidence that this is a nonconducting state.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (4/3487)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

Incubation of OKP cells in low-K+ media increases NHE3 activity after early decrease in intracellular pH. (5/3487)

Chronic hypokalemia increases the activity of proximal tubule apical membrane Na+/H+ antiporter NHE3. The present study examined the effect of the incubation of OKP cells (an opossum kidney, clone P cell line) in control medium (K+ concn ([K+]) = 5.4 mM) or low-K+ medium ([K+] = 2.7 mM) on NHE3. The activity of an ethylisopropyl amiloride-resistant Na+/H+ antiporter, whose characteristics were consistent with those of NHE3, was increased in low-K+ cells beginning at 8 h. NHE3 mRNA and NHE3 protein abundance were increased 2.2-fold and 62%, respectively, at 24 h but not at 8 h. After incubation in low-K+ medium, intracellular pH (pHi) decreased by 0.27 pH units (maximum at 27 min) and then recovered to the control level. Intracellular acidosis induced by 5 mM sodium propionate increased Na+/H+ antiporter activity at 8 and 24 h. Herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked low-K+- and sodium propionate-induced activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter at 8 and 24 h. Our results demonstrate that low-K+ medium causes an early decrease in pHi, which leads to an increase in NHE3 activity via a tyrosine kinase pathway.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (6/3487)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Chromatium vinosum with H2 and CO. (7/3487)

Results are presented of the first rapid-mixing/rapid-freezing studies with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The enzyme from Chromatium vinosum was used. In particular the reactions of active enzyme with H2 and CO were monitored. The conversion from fully reduced, active hydrogenase (Nia-SR state) to the Nia-C* state was completed in less than 8 ms, a rate consistent with the H2-evolution activity of the enzyme. The reaction of CO with fully reduced enzyme was followed from 8 to 200 ms. The Nia-SR state did not react with CO. It was discovered, contrary to expectations, that the Nia-C* state did not react with CO when reactions were performed in the dark. When H2 was replaced by CO, a Nia-C* EPR signal appeared within 11 ms; this was also the case when H2 was replaced by Ar. With CO, however, the Nia-C* state decayed within 40 ms, due to the generation of the Nia-S.CO state (the EPR-silent state of the enzyme with bound CO). The Nia-C* state, induced after 11 ms by replacing H2 by CO in the dark, could be converted, in the frozen enzyme, into the EPR-detectable state with CO bound to nickel (Nia*.CO) by illumination at 30 K (evoking the Nia-L* state), followed by dark adaptation at 200 K. This can be explained by assuming that the Nia-C* state represents a formally trivalent state of nickel, which is unable to bind CO, whereas nickel in the Nia-L* and the Nia*.CO states is formally monovalent.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (8/3487)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy, which is an immune system reaction to milk proteins and can be life-threatening. Lactose intolerance is more common and typically affects adults of northern European ancestry, as they tend to have lower levels of lactase enzyme activity.

Symptoms of lactose intolerance typically occur within 30 minutes to 2 hours after consuming lactose-containing products and may include:

1. Bloating
2. Gas
3. Diarrhea
4. Stomach cramps
5. Nausea
6. Vomiting

If you suspect that you or someone else has lactose intolerance, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional may perform tests such as hydrogen breath tests or blood tests to determine the level of lactase enzyme activity in the body.

There is no cure for lactose intolerance, but individuals can manage their symptoms by limiting or avoiding lactose-containing products, taking lactase enzyme supplements, or using lactose-free alternatives. It is important to note that not all dairy products are high in lactose, and some may be better tolerated than others. For example, hard cheeses and yogurt contain less lactose than milk.

In summary, lactose intolerance is a common condition that affects individuals who have a deficiency of the enzyme lactase in their small intestine, leading to symptoms such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, and stomach cramps after consuming lactose-containing products. Proper diagnosis and management of lactose intolerance can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

There are several possible causes of flatulence, including:

1. Eating certain types of food, such as beans, cabbage, and broccoli, that are difficult for the body to digest
2. Swallowing air, which can occur when eating or drinking too quickly
3. A condition called irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects the large intestine
4. A food intolerance, such as lactose intolerance or gluten intolerance
5. Gastrointestinal infections, such as giardiasis or amoebiasis
6. Hormonal changes, such as during pregnancy or menstruation
7. Medications, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs
8. Other medical conditions, such as diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease.

Flatulence can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Gas and bloating in the abdomen
2. Pain or discomfort in the abdomen
3. Passing wind or farting
4. Abdominal cramps
5. Diarrhea or constipation
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Headaches
8. Fatigue

While flatulence is generally not a serious condition, it can be embarrassing and disruptive to daily life. Treatment for flatulence depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, over-the-counter medications, or medical treatment for any underlying conditions.

Gaseous hydrogen Liquid hydrogen Slush hydrogen Solid hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Plasma hydrogen While H2 is not very reactive ... use of hydrogen Hydrogen transport Liquid hydrogen - Liquid state of the element hydrogen Methane pyrolysis (for hydrogen) ... Natural hydrogen - Natural hydrogen, often called white hydrogen, is molecular hydrogen occurring in natural deposits Pyrolysis ... Staff (2003). "Hydrogen (H2) Properties, Uses, Applications: Hydrogen Gas and Liquid Hydrogen". Universal Industrial Gases, Inc ...
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... or ditellane is an unstable hydrogen dichalcogenide containing two tellurium atoms per molecule, with ... Awad, S. A. (May 1962). "Poisoning Effect of Telluride Ions on Hydrogen Evolution and Cathodic Formation of Hydrogen ... Hydrogen ditelluride can possibly be formed at the tellurium cathode in electrolysis in acid. When electrolysed in alkaline ... Hydrogen ditelluride is one of the simplest possible unsymmetrical molecules; any simpler molecule will not have the required ...
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... is a chemical with the molecular formula HNC. It is a minor tautomer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Its ... Isocyanide Hydrogen isocyanide on NIST Chemistry WebBook The suffix ylidyne refers to the loss of three hydrogen atoms from the ... Both hydrogen isocyanide and azanylidyniummethanide are correct IUPAC names for HNC. There is no preferred IUPAC name. The ... It is a zwitterion and an isomer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Both HNC and HCN have large, similar dipole moments, with μHNC = ...
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The structure of hydrogen disulfide is similar to that of hydrogen peroxide, with C2 point group symmetry. Both molecules are ... This hydrogen chalcogenide is a pale yellow volatile liquid with a camphor-like odor. It decomposes readily to hydrogen sulfide ... In organosulfur chemistry, hydrogen disulfide adds to alkenes to give disulfides and thiols. The deuterated form of hydrogen ... Fractional distillation of this oil gives hydrogen disulfide separate from any other polysulfides (mostly trisulfide). Hydrogen ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula H2Te. A hydrogen chalcogenide and the simplest hydride of ... H2Te is chemically and structurally similar to hydrogen selenide, both are acidic. The H-Te-H angle is about 90°. Volatile ... NaHTe, can be made by reducing tellurium with NaBH 4. Hydrogen telluride cannot be efficiently prepared from its constituent ... ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. F. Fehér, "Hydrogen Telluride" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer ...
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In the 1930s active hydrogen was found to be hydrogen with hydrogen sulfide contamination, and scientists stopped believing in ... Triatomic hydrogen or H3 is an unstable triatomic molecule containing only hydrogen. Since this molecule contains only three ... Triatomic hydrogen will be formed during the neutralization of H+ 3. This ion will be neutralised in the presence of gasses ... In those days no one knew that ozone was triatomic so he did not announce triatomic hydrogen. This was later shown to be a ...
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A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron. A positively charged hydrogen ion (or proton) can ... The hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes. Depending on the charge ... Hydrogen forms the only cation that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) still retain one or more ... In connection with acids, "hydrogen ions" typically refers to hydrons. In the image at left the hydrogen atom (center) contains ...
A hydrogen valve is a special type of valve that is used for hydrogen at very low temperatures or high pressures in hydrogen ... Diaphragm valve Gate valve Hydrogen tank Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inconel valves. Hydrogen ball valve Hydrogen ... Valves used in industrial hydrogen and oxygen applications, such as petrochemical processes, are often made of inconel. ... storage or for example hydrogen vehicles. High pressure ball valves up to 6000 psig (413 bar) at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) ...
... may refer to: Ferredoxin hydrogenase, an enzyme Hydrogenase (acceptor), an enzyme This set index page lists ...
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... (s) (HSQ, H-SiOx, THn, H-resin) are inorganic compounds with the empirical formula [HSiO3/2]n. The cubic ... When exposed to electrons or extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV), HSQ cross-links via hydrogen evolution concomitant with Si-O ... Namatsu, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nagase, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Kurihara, K. (1998-03-01). "Nano-patterning of a hydrogen silsesquioxane ... Chen, Huiping; Tecklenburg, Ron E. (October 2006). "Characterization of low and intermediate molecular weight hydrogen ...
A hydrogen purifier is a device to purify hydrogen if hydrogen production is done from hydrocarbon sources, the ultra-high ... Hydrogen purification membranes Dense metal membranes for hydrogen purifying Development of Pd Alloy hydrogen separation ... Hydrogen purifiers are used in metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy reactors for LED production. Gas separation Hydrogen pinch ... Setting a new benchmark for hydrogen delivery (Hydrogen technologies, Chemical equipment, Industrial gases, Gas technologies). ...
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... (known as white hydrogen), is naturally occurring molecular hydrogen on or in Earth (as opposed to hydrogen ... Yellow hydrogen produced from nuclear energy Hydrogen production Truche, Laurent; Bazarkina, Elena F. (2019). "Natural hydrogen ... Natural hydrogen is generated continuously from a variety of natural sources. There are many known hydrogen emergences on mid- ... Natural hydrogen may be renewable, non-polluting and allows for lower cost operation compared to industrial hydrogen. Natural ...
C Compressed hydrogen Hydrogen safety Metallic hydrogen Timeline of hydrogen technologies Liquefaction of gases "Slush hydrogen ... Slush hydrogen is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher ... Webarchive template wayback links, Hydrogen physics, Hydrogen technologies, Hydrogen storage, Liquid fuels, Rocket fuels, ... The resulting hydrogen slush has an increased density of 16-20% when compared to liquid hydrogen. It is proposed as a rocket ...
Any use of hydrogen cryomagnetics requires careful consideration of hydrogen safety. Hydrogen cryomagnetics is concept distinct ... Hydrogen cryomagnetics is a term used to denote the use of cryogenic liquid hydrogen to cool the windings of an electromagnet. ... Hydrogen wins out over batteries for the largest quantitites of energy stored over the longest period. Hydrogen fuel cells are ... The boil off gas from a tank of liquid hydrogen can be expected to be extremely pure and clean. In a sense the liquid hydrogen ...
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Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory system. ... Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. ... Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation ... EPA Acute Exposure Guideline Levels: Hydrogen Sulfideexternal icon. *EPA Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Sulfidepdf icon ...
Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in ... People working in occupations in which hydrogen chloride is used have the highest risk of being exposed to this compound. ... What happens to hydrogen chloride when it enters the environment?. *Hydrogen chloride released to the atmosphere will be ... How can hydrogen chloride affect my health?. Hydrogen chloride is irritating and corrosive to any tissue it contacts. Brief ...
... various OEMs put their latest hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles on stage. Engineers developing FCEVs are working against ... These will serve as the foundation of a hydrogen highway for the Northeastern states. All the other hydrogen station ... The front-wheel-drive SportWagen HyMotion accelerates from 0 to 100 kph (62 mph) in a claimed 10 s. Hydrogen gas is stored in ... At the recent 2014 show, various OEMs put their latest hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles on stage. Clearly the FCEVs from ...
Opponents of development of the hydrogen bomb included J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the fathers of the atomic bomb. He and ... The United States detonates the worlds first thermonuclear weapon, the hydrogen bomb, on Eniwetok atoll in the Pacific. The ... Popularly known as the hydrogen bomb, this new weapon was approximately 1,000 times more powerful than conventional nuclear ... seven nations had constructed hydrogen bombs. The nuclear arms race had taken a fearful step forward. ...
Bob: di-Hydrogen monoxide is gonna destroy the world. Joe: idiot... (takes a large gulp of water) ...
Chinas Hydrogen Society Beginning to Take Shape. Last year, we detailed how Chinas government had promoted ambitious plans ... Hydrogen 2020: Engaging with Innovation. Green industries are about to be flooded with billions in investments from governments ... Interview with Sylfen, the Hydrogen Storage Start-Up and Recipient of #1000solutions Label. Addressing environmental challenges ... This month, Europe unveiled its hydrogen strategy including: Plans increase production capacity six-fold by… ...
Category: Hydrogen. Japan to invest $107 billion in hydrogen supply. June 8, 2023 , Juan Pedro Tomas ... China produces hydrogen by direct seawater electrolysis. June 8, 2023 , Juan Pedro Tomas ... Equatic inks hydrogen deal with Boeing. June 8, 2023 , Juan Pedro Tomas ... Mitsubishi Power to develop hydrogen-ready power plant for Sembcorp Industries. June 1, 2023 , Juan Pedro Tomas ...
... but sheer abundance of makes hydrogen the holy grail of alternative fuel. ... Hydrogen fuel has years to go before becoming economically viable for cars, ... Most Recent Hydrogen Fuel Articles *. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells vs. Other Gasoline and Electric Powered Vehicles. Hydrogen and ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cells vs. Other Gasoline and Electric Powered Vehicles. Hydrogen and fuel cells have been hailed as the ...
Hydrogen could be a vital bridge in the transition to renewables, but is there enough investment and commitment at a government ... Tom also discusses the opportunities and challenges in using hydrogen with Clare Jackson, chief executive of Hydrogen UK, and ... Hydrogen could be a vital bridge in the transition to renewables, but is there enough investment and commitment at a government ... On Sky News ClimateCast, Tom Heap is at the UK Hydrogen Summit exploring how it could be used, and he is joined by the director ...
Nikola Tre is a hydrogen semi for Europe. Nikola has announced a third fuel-cell semi. ... Nikola Motor Company has been working on its hydrogen-powered semi trucks for years now, starting with the Nikola One with a ... The company plans to have European hydrogen stations go into service in 2022, with a network covering most of that market by ... including hydrogen fuel, warranty and scheduled maintenance. Customers can trade in for a new vehicle every seven years. Whie ...
This protocol imparts a new bottom-up strategy for enzyme encapsulation using a hydrogen-bonded organic framework (HOF-101). In ... We present a protocol for the encapsulation and stabilization of enzymes by using hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs)- ... short, the surface residues of the enzyme can trigger the nucleation of HOF-101 around its surface through the hydrogen-bonded ... Design rules of hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks with high chemical and thermal stabilities. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 144, 10663- ...
Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride)plus icon *Facts about Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid) ... Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid)plus icon *Facts about Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid) ...
BEIS has today released another series of documents supporting the low carbon hydrogen economy: ...
Bronx Shell Hydrogen Open. Home , News , Industry. 11 Dec 2009, 07:36 UTC. • By: Alex Vasile ... General Motors, Shell Hydrogen and the Department of Sanitation in New York City have engaged in a project to see if fuel cell ... A Shell Hydrogen station was just opened in Bronx, so users of the Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles now have a ... The development of hydrogen fueling stations and fuel cell vehicles will bring our nation one step closer towards a sustainable ...
Dont miss the ACHEMA 2024 special show on hyperscaling hydrogen production, infrastructure and ecosystems. ... hydrogen innovation at ACHEMA 2024 Hyperscaling hydrogen production and infrastructure is one of the key enablers for a clean ... hydrogen technology and solutions from all disciplines will be on display at the Hydrogen Special Show and in ACHEMA exhibition ... The #hydrogen innovation stage will cover all aspects relevant to the process industry community and beyond:. *Hyperscaling ...
Weiss, M. and Walls, F. (1994), Preliminary Evaluation of Time Scales Based on Hydrogen Masers, 8^uth^ European Frequency and ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/preliminary-evaluation-time-scales-based-hydrogen-masers ...
The Hydrogen One smartphone has a 4-View holographic display that doesnt require 3D glasses and is paired with multi- ... To take advantage of the capabilities of the Hydrogen One handsets, Red is also set to launch what it calls its Hydrogen ... "Red Hydrogen One was designed with cutting-edge technology that simply cant be described. You have to hold it in your hands ... The Hydrogen One smartphone, which features 4-View holographic display will be sold by Verizon and AT&T for use on their 4G ...
"The cost of hydrogen has skyrocketed in the last two months," says Sen. Josh Newman, D-Fullerton, who drives a hydrogen vehicle ... Skelton: Hydrogen cars should be bigger part of… Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... A hydrogen vehicle can be refilled at a service station in about the same time it takes to top off a gas tank. ... Skelton: Hydrogen cars should be bigger part of Californias future California - and the nation - shouldnt be putting all its ...
Woodsides biggest hydrogen investment in Australia to date, a $1 billion plant south of Perth, will expand gradually to meet ... WA is reviewing about 30 hydrogen project proposals.. H2Perth will produce hydrogen and ammonia using electrolysis technologies ... that aims to make up to 1500 tonnes of hydrogen every day to export in the form of ammonia and liquid hydrogen. ... The new hydrogen plant will be built on about 130 hectares of industrial land leased from the WA government in the Kwinana ...
BP and Rio Tinto formed a joint venture, Hydrogen Energy, to develop technology for producing power from coal, oil and natural ... Rio will pay $32 million to BP to form the equally owned venture, which includes two planned BP hydrogen-fuel projects in ... Using natural gas as a feedstock, the plant will separate hydrogen, which will be used to make clean power, from carbon dioxide ... BP & Rio Tinto Partner On Hydrogen-Fuel Projects. May 18, 2007. by Sarah Roberts ...
Where does hydrogen come from?. Using technology available today, hydrogen fuel can be made from many sources, including wind, ... Hydrogen faces challenges. Currently, only a few hydrogen fueling stations exist in the United States, supported financially by ... Take hydrogen fuel cell cars. Visitors at the Global Citizen 2015 Earth Day will see a prototype of the Toyota Mirai on the ... With an adapter in its trunk, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is capable of supplying enough energy to power home essentials in ...
The one-atom-thick layer of carbon known as graphene can split hydrogen 100 times more efficiently than an equivalent mass of ... Graphene can split hydrogen 100 times better than any known chemical catalyst thanks to tiny ripples on its surface. It could ... Graphene with ripples could help make better hydrogen fuel cells. The one-atom-thick layer of carbon known as graphene can ... Representation of nanoripples in sheets of graphene, which make it react well with hydrogen (shown in yellow) ...
Hyundai X Bloomberg Media Group explore the potential for a hydrogen-powered future by looking at the state of the H2 economy ... Hydrogen, the most abundant element on earth is a powerful clean energy carrier when used in a hydrogen fuel cell - highly ... In this study, we explore the potential for a hydrogen-powered future by looking at the state of the hydrogen economy today. ... Countries around the world are already betting on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels. We examined the 14 countries at ...
Hydrogen Car Funding: Another Bush Administration Ruse. Statement by Wenonah Hauter, Director, Public Citizens Critical Mass ... In his State of the Union address, President Bush pledged $240 million a year to develop hydrogen fuel cell technology. While ... As more proof that Bushs announcement is merely window dressing, both Toyota and Honda have hydrogen fuel cell automobiles on ... As long as Bushs financial support for fossil fuels and nuclear power continues to dwarf assistance for hydrogen fuel cells, ...
The planets and life-essential elements are the burned-up remains-i.e., ashes-of hydrogen gas. Thus, the big bang manifests, ... Thus, hydrogen, the simplest chemical element, is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas which, given ten billion years or so, ... Thus we are left with hydrogen as the originator of everything else, even though we dont know how it did this. As an article ... One of the great successes of evolutionary cosmology is the supposed ability of the Big Bang to explain the origin of hydrogen ...
10 billion green hydrogen project that will export to Europe once complete, the two parties said on Wednesday. ... Hyphen Hydrogen Energy has agreed a deal with the government of Namibia for the next phase of a $ ... Green hydrogen is made using renewable energy.. Namibia, one of the worlds sunniest and most sparsely populated countries, ... CAPE TOWN, May 24 (Reuters) - Hyphen Hydrogen Energy has agreed a deal with the government of Namibia for the next phase of a $ ...
The Hydrogen in the sample is extracted as Hydrogen gas (H2) and its concentration is determined by a thermal conductivity ... Hydrogen: Thermal Conductivity detector (TCD)as H2. Measurement range*:. Hydrogen: 0-0.02%. *Possible to increase the range by ... Sensitivity (Minimum reading): Hydrogen: 0.001 ppm.. Accuracy** (Repeatability). Hydrogen. σn-1≦0.04 ppm or RSD≦0.5% whichever ... Wide measurement range Hydrogen: Up to 0.02% *Optimized TCD design for hydrogen. ...
b,Report Scope:,/b,,br,,br,In this report, the green hydrogen market is segmented based on technology, power source and region ... Green Hydrogen: Global Market Outlook. Abstract Report Scope:. In this report, the green hydrogen market is segmented based on ... 3.1.1 Concept of Green Hydrogen. 3.2 The Production Cost of Green Hydrogen. 3.3 End-User Sector Overview. 3.4 Technological ... 3.1.1 Concept of Green Hydrogen. 3.2 The Production Cost of Green Hydrogen. 3.3 End-User Sector Overview. 3.4 Technological ...
hydrogen Blogs, Comments and Archive News on Economictimes.com ... hydrogen Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special ... Green hydrogen: State oil firms target 38,000 tonnes/year capacity by 2024-25. India is placing a big thrust on green hydrogen ... India plans green hydrogen incentives of at least 10% of cost-source. India plans green hydrogen incentives of at least 10% of ... Storing hydrogen in coal may help power clean energy economy: Study. However, much work remains to build a hydrogen ...
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory system. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to hydrogen sulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is used in many industries. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses hydrogen sulfide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Useful search terms for hydrogen sulfide include "hydrosulfuric acid," "sewer gas," and "sulfuretted hydrogen. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results for hydrogen sulfide -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Hydrogen sulfide -The IDLH documents the criteria and information sources used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Contains a standard for mitigation of exposure to hydrogen sulfide to prevent adverse effects over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-158. (cdc.gov)
  • Two Individuals Overcome By Hydrogen Sulfide Gas While Cleaning a Farm Facility Water Well With 28% Liquid Muriatic Acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Hog Farm Co-Owner and Employee Die of Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning in Manure Pit-Minnesota. (cdc.gov)
  • Two Maintenance Workers Die After Inhaling Hydrogen Sulfide in Manhole. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen sulfide : human health aspects. (who.int)
  • Pharmacological Inhibition of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Breast Cancer Progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, is associated with the development of various malignancies via modulating various cellular signaling cascades. (bvsalud.org)
  • HIGHLIGHTS: Hydrogen peroxide is a manufactured chemical, although small amounts of hydrogen peroxide gas may occur naturally in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to hydrogen peroxide can cause irritation of the eyes, throat, respiratory airway, and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a colorless liquid at room temperature by reacting with other compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of gaseous hydrogen peroxide occur naturally in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • You can be exposed to hydrogen peroxide through its use as a general disinfectant. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is found in many households at low for this purpose are sold at almost all drugstores or concentrations (3-9%) for medicinal applications and as a supermarkets. (cdc.gov)
  • In industry, hydrogen peroxide in higher concentrations is used as a bleach for textiles and ` Because hydrogen peroxide is used in many industries for paper, as a component of rocket fuels, and for producing a variety of purposes, workers in such industries may be foam rubber and organic chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or by very rapidly with other compounds found in air. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide breaks down rapidly in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation of children being accidently exposed to hydrogen peroxide have vapors from concentrated (higher than 10%) solutions may described effects similar to those observed in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of dilute solutions of hydrogen peroxide may result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of even more ` Most families may be exposed to household strength concentrated solutions, in addition to the above, may also hydrogen peroxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide should not be stored in containers that may appear attractive to children, such as soda bottles. (cdc.gov)
  • Containers with hydrogen peroxide should be stored out of and irritation, but severe injury is rare. (cdc.gov)
  • exposed to hydrogen peroxide? (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen peroxide may affect There are no clinical tests that show that you have been reproduction in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid commonly used to fight germs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide poisoning occurs when large amounts of the liquid are swallowed or get in the lungs or eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be poisonous if it is not used correctly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Note: Household hydrogen peroxide has a 3% concentration. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That means it contains 97% water and 3% hydrogen peroxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some industrial-strength solutions contain more than 10% hydrogen peroxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most contact with household-strength hydrogen peroxide is fairly harmless. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exposure to industrial-strength hydrogen peroxide can be dangerous. (medlineplus.gov)
  • creases hydrogen peroxide levels [ 7 ]. (who.int)
  • The refuelling stations proposed by Woodside could be providing hydrogen by 2023. (afr.com)
  • The company plans to have European hydrogen stations go into service in 2022, with a network covering most of that market by 2030. (autoblog.com)
  • His privately owned Squadron Energy has received a $30 million federal grant towards a proposed Port Kembla power station, which will shift completely to green hydrogen by 2030. (afr.com)
  • At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colorless to slightly yellow, corrosive, nonflammable gas that is heavier than air and has a strong irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • On exposure to air, hydrogen chloride forms dense white corrosive vapors. (cdc.gov)
  • Naturally-occurring (i.e., from volcanic eruptions) and other releases of hydrogen chloride are removed by rainfall, limiting the chances of exposure to high levels of this compound by breathing ambient air. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to hydrogen chloride can result in reproductive effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by hydrogen fluoride depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the person exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with hydrogen fluoride may not cause immediate pain or visible skin damage(signs of exposure). (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to hydrogen fluoride can result in severe electrolyte problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Eye exposure to hydrogen fluoride may cause prolonged or permanent visual defects, blindness, or total destruction of the eye. (cdc.gov)
  • You may breathe in air that contains very low levels of hydrogen chloride gas. (cdc.gov)
  • In a natural disaster, you could be exposed to high levels of hydrogen fluoride when storage facilities or containers are damaged and the chemical is released. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to hydrogen chloride when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Don't miss the hydrogen special show at ACHEMA 2024! (achema.de)
  • Over the years, the commission says it has invested $166 million in hydrogen infrastructure - including incentives for developing fueling stations - and plans to spend a total of $279 million by the end of 2024. (mercurynews.com)
  • If you work in an occupation that uses hydrogen fluoride, you may be exposed to this chemical in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on the concentration, hydrogen chloride can produce from mild irritation to severe burns of the eyes and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • The Hydrogen in the sample is extracted as Hydrogen gas (H 2) and its concentration is determined by a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (horiba.com)
  • Even small splashes of high-concentration hydrogen fluoride products on the skin can be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about hydrogen chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • People working in occupations in which hydrogen chloride is used have the highest risk of being exposed to this compound. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride gas can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • What is hydrogen chloride? (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride can be released from volcanoes. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride can be formed during the burning of many plastics. (cdc.gov)
  • Both hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid are corrosive. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride released to the atmosphere will be removed by rainfall. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride dissociates readily in water to chloride and hydronium ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule), which ultimately lowers the pH of the water (makes it more acidic). (cdc.gov)
  • If released to soil, hydrogen chloride will evaporate from dry soil surfaces and dissociate into chloride anions and hydronium ions in moist soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride does not accumulate in the food chain. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to hydrogen chloride? (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride is used to produce other chemicals, or for applications such as a metal pickling, ore refining, food processing, manufacture of fertilizers and dyes, and in the rubber and textile industries. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers in these occupations may inhale hydrogen chloride or get it on their skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Soldering materials often contain hydrogen chloride and you may be exposed if you use these products during soldering. (cdc.gov)
  • How can hydrogen chloride affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen chloride is irritating and corrosive to any tissue it contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people may develop an inflammatory reaction to hydrogen chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is hydrogen chloride to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified hydrogen chloride as to its carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • How does hydrogen chloride affect children? (cdc.gov)
  • In China, CGTN reported that China tested its hydrogen production technology at sea with a direct seawater electrolysis method y at the Xinghua Bay offshore wind farm, in China's Fujian Province. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • H2Perth will produce hydrogen and ammonia using electrolysis technologies and natural gas reforming, and will abate or offset all carbon emissions. (afr.com)
  • The acquisition of the port is an important step toward the shipping of green hydrogen and green ammonia to global markets, the firm said. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • We can scale over time and invest as customer demand grows," Ms O'Neill told The Australian Financial Review after revealing plans to build the new plant, named H2Perth, that aims to make up to 1500 tonnes of hydrogen every day to export in the form of ammonia and liquid hydrogen. (afr.com)
  • Drivers fill the vehicle with hydrogen that later combines with oxygen in a chemical reaction to create electricity that powers the car. (earthday.org)
  • For example, water is a chemical bond of oxygen and hydrogen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They want the state to invest more money into nurturing the use of hydrogen vehicles, just as California is pouring funds into plug-in electric cars. (mercurynews.com)
  • But WA's solar and wind resources meant the state was also a good place to invest in hydrogen projects, she said. (afr.com)
  • The Hydrogen One smartphone, which features 4-View holographic display will be sold by Verizon and AT&T for use on their 4G cellular networks starting later in 2018. (eweek.com)
  • Popularly known as the hydrogen bomb, this new weapon was approximately 1,000 times more powerful than conventional nuclear devices. (history.com)
  • But the ultimate goal of hydrogen advocates is 1,000 stations. (mercurynews.com)
  • We examined the 14 countries at the forefront of hydrogen innovation to understand the ways they are already adopting and investing in H2 across sectors, and to what extent they are doing so. (hyundai.com)
  • To help ease the ramp-up burden until 2017, OEMs are allowed to "travel" credits for ZEVs sold in California in a sales-proportional basis to the Northeastern states, since the Golden State already has a lead in this area and is installing battery-charging and hydrogen refueling stations at a much faster pace than the other ZEV states. (sae.org)
  • All the other hydrogen station deployments announced to date have been in California. (sae.org)
  • In California, Equatic said it has entered into a pre-purchase option agreement with Boeing, under which the former will remove 62,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide and will deliver 2,100 metric tons of carbon-negative hydrogen to Boeing. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • We've turned way off course from the "hydrogen highway" that former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger tried to chart for California two decades ago. (mercurynews.com)
  • There are roughly 12,000 hydrogen cars on the road in California, a tiny fraction of the more than 14 million total vehicles. (mercurynews.com)
  • The California Energy Commission spends $20 million annually trying to bolster the hydrogen vehicle industry. (mercurynews.com)
  • Rio will pay $32 million to BP to form the equally owned venture, which includes two planned BP hydrogen-fuel projects in Scotland and California that will cost at least $1 billion each. (environmentalleader.com)
  • A second experimental plant at BP's Carson refinery in California will make hydrogen from coke. (environmentalleader.com)
  • This 'remarkable chain of events' is in reality nothing but a remarkable statement of faith in the great god Hydrogen, the elemental substance which is supposed to be the father and mother of us all! (icr.org)
  • This is an hydrogen elemental analyzer with high accuracy and repeatability suiting to cutting-edge technology's R&D as well as quality control in the market of steel, new materials, catalyst and so on. (horiba.com)
  • The company is already working with Countrywide Renewable Energy to build a pilot renewable hydrogen plant named H2TA S at Bell Bay in Tasmania, which Ms O'Neill claims is the "natural cradle" of Australia's hydrogen industry due to its hydropower resources. (afr.com)
  • Green hydrogen is made using renewable energy. (reuters.com)
  • Namibia, one of the world's sunniest and most sparsely populated countries, wants to harness its potential for solar and wind energy to produce green hydrogen and position itself as a renewable energy hub in Africa. (reuters.com)
  • Liquid hydrogen for ground transportation is going to be one of the breakthrough areas for this energy source," she said. (afr.com)
  • Hydrogen fluoride can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds such as ammonium fluoride are combined with water. (cdc.gov)
  • Often, patients exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen fluoride on the skin do not show effects or experience pain immediately. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to hydrogen fluoride. (cdc.gov)
  • In India, Construction World reported that Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) plans to help establish a 1 megawatt electrolyzer manufacturing facility in the country by 2025 using the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre's (BARC) technology for green hydrogen. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • BPCL's research and development department is working with BARC to scale up alkaline electrolyzer technology for green hydrogen production. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • On Sky News ClimateCast, Tom Heap is at the UK Hydrogen Summit exploring how it could be used, and he is joined by the director of created hydrogen technology company FusionBlu, Fred Davey. (sky.com)
  • Red Hydrogen One was designed with cutting-edge technology that simply can't be described. (eweek.com)
  • BP and Rio Tinto formed a joint venture , Hydrogen Energy, to develop technology for producing power from coal, oil and natural gas without emitting the gases blamed for global warming, Bloomberg reports . (environmentalleader.com)
  • In his State of the Union address, President Bush pledged $240 million a year to develop hydrogen fuel cell technology. (citizen.org)
  • In this report, the green hydrogen market is segmented based on technology, power source and region. (bharatbook.com)
  • Audi's A7 HyMotion is currently the flagship of VW AG's hydrogen FCEV development program. (sae.org)
  • EMGA-921 Hydrogen analyzer: It's a "New flagship model" for H analyzer and user friendly product. (horiba.com)
  • Breathing hydrogen fluoride can damage lung tissue and cause swelling and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema). (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing in hydrogen fluoride at high levels or in combination with skin contact can cause death from an irregular heartbeat or from fluid buildup in the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • People who survive after being severely injured by breathing in hydrogen fluoride may suffer lingering chronic lung disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with hydrogen fluoride may cause severe burns that develop after several hours and form skin ulcers. (cdc.gov)
  • Unique to the Red Hydrogen One is its 5.7-inch holographic display, which will allow users to view images and capture video with new capabilities, making it a tool for video content creators, business social media personnel, enterprise marketing professionals and other business content creation workers who want to promote their brands in new ways. (eweek.com)
  • To take advantage of the capabilities of the Hydrogen One handsets, Red is also set to launch what it calls its Hydrogen Network, which will feature 4-View video content channel displaying films, music and games created by developers, musicians and directors, alongside independent creators, according to Verizon. (eweek.com)
  • In Australia, Energy Magazine reported that the Tasmanian Government has welcomed a proposal to redevelop the decommissioned Bell Bay Power Station into a $800 million green methanol and hydrogen plant. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Hydrogen: The future of energy? (sky.com)
  • Tom also discusses the opportunities and challenges in using hydrogen with Clare Jackson, chief executive of Hydrogen UK, and Michael Liebreich, who provides advisory services and speaks on clean energy. (sky.com)
  • 'The development of hydrogen fueling stations and fuel cell vehicles will bring our nation one step closer towards a sustainable and energy independent future," said Sanitation Commissioner John J. Doherty. (autoevolution.com)
  • Hyperscaling hydrogen production and infrastructure is one of the key enablers for a clean energy transition. (achema.de)
  • The company also hopes to feed energy from the hydrogen plant into WA's electricity grid. (afr.com)
  • WA iron ore billionaire Andrew Forrest this month committed Fortescue Future Industries - the clean energy arm of his Fortescue Metals Group - to build the first stage of a large hydrogen electrolyser factory in Gladstone in Central Queensland. (afr.com)
  • With an adapter in its trunk, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is capable of supplying enough energy to power home essentials in an average house for up to a week in an emergency. (earthday.org)
  • Hydrogen, the most abundant element on earth is a powerful clean energy carrier when used in a hydrogen fuel cell - highly efficient and flexible, emitting only electricity, heat and water. (hyundai.com)
  • Unpacking how hydrogen energy works, and spotlighting the many different ways countries, companies, and even individuals are making advances in H 2 across industries. (hyundai.com)
  • CAPE TOWN, May 24 (Reuters) - Hyphen Hydrogen Energy has agreed a deal with the government of Namibia for the next phase of a $10 billion green hydrogen project that will export to Europe once complete, the two parties said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • To support Mirai's North American debut in 2016, Toyota is collaborating with Air Liquide to develop and supply a phased network of 12 hydrogen stations targeted for New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. (sae.org)
  • In Singapore, a consortium comprising Mitsubishi Power, a power solutions brand of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), and Jurong Engineering Limited (JEL) has been awarded an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract to develop a new 600MW hydrogen-ready combined cycle power plant (CCPP) for Sembcorp Industries' fully owned subsidiary Sembcorp Cogen. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • It could potentially be used to develop more effective hydrogen fuel cells and make many industrial processes more efficient. (newscientist.com)
  • A driver fuels a vehicle at a hydrogen fuel station along Norris Canyon Road in San Ramon. (mercurynews.com)
  • Countries around the world are already betting on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels. (hyundai.com)
  • "In many ways, this cluster of stations represents what is needed on a wider scale to make hydrogen-powered vehicles viable as alternative transportation in this country," said Charles Freese, GM executive director of Fuel Cell Activities. (autoevolution.com)
  • The government says it wants to make hydrogen more affordable to help the state reach net zero emissions by 2050. (afr.com)
  • Using natural gas as a feedstock, the plant will separate hydrogen, which will be used to make clean power, from carbon dioxide, which will be piped to the North Sea and buried in an oil field 2.5 miles below the seabed. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Sixty percent of the hydrogen fluoride used in manufacturing is for processes to make refrigerants. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin damage caused by concentrated hydrogen fluoride may take a long time to heal and may result in severe scarring. (cdc.gov)
  • Project Driveway" has another two Shell Hydrogen filling stations: one in White Plains and one at the JFK International Airport on Long Island. (autoevolution.com)
  • Sacramento [hydrogen] fueling stations have been down almost as much as they've been up," says John White, a longtime environmental activist who drives a Toyota hydrogen car. (mercurynews.com)
  • Woodside will export hydrogen from WA and will also build refuelling stations for vehicles. (afr.com)
  • Currently, only a few hydrogen fueling stations exist in the United States, supported financially by companies, government and other stakeholders. (earthday.org)
  • Graphene can split hydrogen 100 times better than any known chemical catalyst thanks to tiny ripples on its surface. (newscientist.com)
  • Apes and reptiles and vertebrates and invertebrates and chemical elements, (including hydrogen), still are here in abundance, but none of them are changing into anything else. (icr.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound that contains fluorine. (cdc.gov)
  • You could be exposed to hydrogen fluoride if it is used as a chemical terrorism agent. (cdc.gov)
  • First, if the hydrogen fluoride was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the chemical was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If the hydrogen fluoride release was outside, move away from the area where the chemical was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are near a release of fluorine or hydrogen fluoride, emergency coordinators may tell you either to evacuate the area or "shelter in place" inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen and fuel cells have been hailed as the future of automotive power. (carsdirect.com)
  • In China, Global Times reported that companies from China and Australia are stepping up exchanges in green hydrogen after the two countries resumed high-level economic dialogue in May. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The report provides an overview of the global green hydrogen market and analyzes market trends. (bharatbook.com)
  • To ascertain the global market demand for green hydrogen, we have considered the production route, assuming demand and supply to remain the same for green hydrogen in 2021. (bharatbook.com)
  • This protocol imparts a new bottom-up strategy for enzyme encapsulation using a hydrogen-bonded organic framework (HOF-101). (nature.com)
  • Fingertip injuries from hydrogen fluoride may result in persistent pain, bone loss, and injury to the nail bed. (cdc.gov)
  • But it remains to be seen whether the water-scarce country, relatively far away from key export markets, will be able to deliver a cost competitive product in an emerging global hydrogen sector, said analysts. (reuters.com)
  • When hydrogen fluoride is dissolved in water, it may be called hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Woodside, which is expanding through the acquisition of BHP's petroleum business and is under pressure to reduce its carbon emissions , has been trying to get a foothold in the emerging hydrogen market in Asia and has been considering various options. (afr.com)
  • Opponents of development of the hydrogen bomb included J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the fathers of the atomic bomb. (history.com)