Parietal Cells, Gastric
A acid-stable analogue of the 3-beta-D-ribofuranoside of Y-base. (1/745)A cyclonucleoside analogue of Y(TU) riboside has been prepared and shown to be relatively stable in M-hydrochloric acid solution at room temperature. (+info)
Experimental acid-aspiration pneumonia in the rabbit. A pathologic and morphometric study. (2/745)Four anesthetized rabbits given intratracheal injections of hydrochloric acid, pH 1.5, 2 ml/kg, were killed 4 h later. A fifth rabbit was an untreated control. Each lung had a few red-brown patches of compression atelectasis. Microscopically, treated lungs had a severe exudative necrotizing bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and alveolitis. There was also intra-alveolar hemorrhage and edema. Electron microscopy showed folds, projections and focal swellings of type I cells lining affected alveoli. A morphometric study showed 69% of parenchyma to be normal, 26% edematous and 5% hemorrhagic. In the airways 58% of the epithelium was damaged. (+info)
The magnitude of changes in guanidine-HCl unfolding m-values in the protein, iso-1-cytochrome c, depends upon the substructure containing the mutation. (3/745)Hydrophilic to hydrophobic mutations have been made at 11 solvent exposed sites on the surface of iso-1-cytochrome c. Most of these mutations involve the replacement of lysine with methionine, which is nearly isosteric with lysine. Minimal perturbation to the native structure is expected, and this expectation is confirmed by infrared amide I spectroscopy. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation studies demonstrate that these variants affect the magnitude of the m-value, the rate of change of free energy with respect to denaturant concentration, to different degrees. Changes in m-values are indicative of changes in the equilibrium folding mechanism of a protein. Decreases in m-values are normally thought to result either from an increased population of intermediates during unfolding or from a more compact denatured state. When cytochrome c is considered in terms of its thermodynamic substructures, the changes in the m-value for a given variant appear to depend upon the substructure in which the mutation is made. These data indicate that the relative stabilities and physical properties of substructures of cytochrome c play an important determining role in the equilibrium folding mechanism of this protein. (+info)
Preferential acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the formamide linkage of N'-formylkynurenine in frozen solution. (4/745)Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the formamide linkage of N-acetyl-N'-formyl-L-kynurenineamide in frozen dilute hydrochloric acid solution followed first-order kinetics, yielding N-acetyl-L-kynurenineamide as the sole reaction product. The maximum rate of reaction in the frozen solution was found at around -7.5 degrees and approximated that of the reaction in liquid solution at 40 degrees. By freezing the dilute acid solution at -8 degrees the reaction was accelerated by 60 times compared with that in super-cooled liquid solution at the same temperature. (+info)
Interference in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine. (5/745)The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) detection. An abnormal profile of methylated arsenic species characterized by the absence of the peak corresponding to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was observed in urine from some individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water and living in rural communities of northwestern Argentina. The absence of this peak persisted even after the addition of known amounts of DMA to the samples. However, the DMA peak appeared after urine digestion with hydrochloric acid (2M). Samples showing interferences were provided by individuals who had mate consumption and coca-leaf chewing habits. Because the relative proportions of methylated arsenic species present in urine have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the methylation process, interferences in the formation or detection of methylarsines may cause underestimation of As exposure and also lead to erroneous conclusions about relative biomethylation efficiencies. Therefore, we recommend that urine samples should be digested with 2M HCl before performing speciation analysis using HGAA techniques. Further studies on the impact of this type of interferences on other arsenic speciation methods are also required. (+info)
Larynx vs. esophagus as reflexogenic sites for acid-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs. (6/745)Bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients is frequently associated with gastroesophageal reflux. However, it is still unclear whether bronchoconstriction originates from the esophagus or from aspiration of the refluxate into the larynx and larger airway. We compared the effect of repeated esophageal and laryngeal instillations of HCl-pepsin (pH 1.0) on tracheal smooth muscle activity in eight anesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs. Saline was used as control. We used pressure in the cuff of an endotracheal tube (Pcuff) as a direct index of smooth muscle activity at the level of the larger airways controlled by vagal efferents. The Pcuff values of the first 60 s after instillations were averaged, and the difference from the baseline values was evaluated. Changes in Pcuff were significantly greater with laryngeal than with esophageal instillations (P = 0.0166). HCl-pepsin instillation into the larynx evoked greater responses than did saline (P = 0.00543), whereas no differences were detected with esophageal instillations. Repeated laryngeal exposure enhanced the responsiveness significantly (P < 0. 001). Our data indicate that the larynx is more important than the esophagus as a reflexogenic site for the elicitation of reflex bronchoconstriction in response to acidic solutions. (+info)
Vagal esophageal receptors in anesthetized dogs: mechanical and chemical responsiveness. (7/745)This study was performed to evaluate the characteristics of esophageal receptors in anesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs. The electrical activity of the esophageal afferents was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the cervical vagus nerve. A cuffed catheter was inserted into the esophagus at the level of the third tracheal ring and was used to establish the esophageal location of the endings. Most of the receptors were localized in the intrathoracic portion of the esophagus. The majority of the receptors studied (36 of 43) showed a slow adaptation to a maintained stretch of the esophageal wall. Vagal cooling blocked receptor activity at temperatures ranging from 3.5 to 25 degrees C. Twenty-eight of 43 receptors, including 4 rapidly adapting endings (RAR), were challenged with saline, HCl + pepsin (HCl-P; pH 1) and distilled water (8 ml, 37 degrees C). HCl-P solutions specifically stimulated only three receptors; saline or water did not. Five slowly adapting receptors and two RARs were also challenged with topically applied capsaicin; only one RAR was stimulated. To ascertain a possible effect of smooth muscle contraction, 17 receptors were tested with intravenous injections of ACh and/or asphyxia; only 4 were stimulated. These characteristics do not support an important reflexogenic role of the esophagus in response to chemical stimuli. (+info)
Extracellular acidification induces human neutrophil activation. (8/745)In the current work, we evaluated the effect of extracellular acidification on neutrophil physiology. Neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered RPMI 1640 medium adjusted to acidic pH values (pH 6.5-7.0) underwent: 1) a rapid transient increase in intracellular free calcium concentration levels; 2) an increase in the forward light scattering properties; and 3) the up-regulation of surface expression of CD18. By contrast, extracellular acidosis was unable to induce neither the production of H2O2 nor the release of myeloperoxidase. Acidic extracellular pH also modulated the functional profile of neutrophils in response to conventional agonists such as FMLP, precipiting immune complexes, and opsonized zymosan. It was found that not only calcium mobilization, shape change response, and up-regulation of CD18 expression but also production of H2O2 and release of myeloperoxidase were markedly enhanced in neutrophils stimulated in acidic pH medium. Moreover, extracellular acidosis significantly delayed neutrophil apoptosis and concomitantly extended neutrophil functional lifespan. Extracellular acidification induced an immediate and abrupt fall in the intracellular pH, which persisted over the 240-s analyzed. A similar abrupt drop in the intracellular pH was detected in cells suspended in bicarbonate-supplemented PBS but not in those suspended in bicarbonate-free PBS. A role for intracellular acidification in neutrophil activation is suggested by the fact that only neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered media (i.e., RPMI 1640 and bicarbonate-supplemented PBS) underwent significant shape changes in response to extracellular acidification. Together, our results support the notion that extracellular acidosis may intensify acute inflammatory responses by inducing neutrophil activation as well as by delaying spontaneous apoptosis and extending neutrophil functional lifespan. (+info)
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a clear, colorless liquid that has a strong, pungent odor and a sour taste. In the medical field, hydrochloric acid is used as a digestive aid to stimulate the production of stomach acid, which helps to break down food and absorb nutrients. It is also used as a disinfectant and antiseptic to clean wounds and prevent infection. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used in some medical tests and procedures, such as the measurement of gastric acid secretion and the treatment of certain digestive disorders. However, it is important to note that hydrochloric acid can be highly corrosive and can cause serious burns if it comes into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. Therefore, it should be handled with caution and used only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Pneumonia, aspiration is a type of pneumonia that occurs when bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances are inhaled into the lungs and cause an infection. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when a person inhales food, liquid, or other substances into their lungs, which can lead to the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms in the lungs. This can cause inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Aspiration pneumonia is more common in people who have difficulty swallowing or who have conditions that affect their ability to protect their airway, such as stroke or dementia. Treatment for aspiration pneumonia typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection and supportive care to help the person breathe more easily.
In the medical field, nitric acid is not typically used as a medication or treatment. Nitric acid is a highly reactive and corrosive chemical compound that is commonly used in various industrial and laboratory applications. However, nitric acid has some medical uses, such as in the treatment of certain types of anemia. Nitric oxide, which is produced from nitric acid, is a vasodilator that can help to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. In some cases, nitric oxide therapy may be used to treat patients with heart failure or other cardiovascular conditions. It's important to note that nitric acid is a highly toxic substance and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Ingestion or exposure to nitric acid can cause serious injury or death, so it's essential to take appropriate safety precautions when working with this chemical.
Decalcification technique refers to a process used in the medical field to remove calcium deposits from bones or other hard tissues. This process is often used in forensic pathology to prepare bones for examination or in dental procedures to remove tartar buildup from teeth. There are several methods of decalcification, including chemical decalcification, which involves soaking the bone in a solution that dissolves the calcium, and mechanical decalcification, which involves using a machine to grind away the calcium. Decalcification can also be used in medical research to prepare bones for study, such as in the analysis of bone density or the examination of bone microarchitecture. However, the process of decalcification can also cause damage to the bone tissue, so it must be done carefully and under controlled conditions.
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a colorless, highly corrosive liquid that is commonly used in the chemical industry as a solvent, reagent, and preservative. In the medical field, TFA is used as a chemical peel agent to remove dead skin cells and improve the appearance of the skin. It is also used in the production of certain medications and as a component in some laboratory reagents. However, TFA is highly toxic and can cause serious burns and other injuries if not handled properly. It is important to follow proper safety protocols when working with TFA in a medical or laboratory setting.
Countercurrent Distribution (CCD) is a process that occurs in the body's circulatory system, where substances are selectively transported from one compartment to another through the use of specialized transport proteins. In the medical field, CCD is often used to describe the distribution of drugs and other substances within the body. In the context of drug distribution, CCD refers to the process by which drugs are selectively transported from the bloodstream into tissues and organs, and then back into the bloodstream. This process is driven by the concentration gradient of the drug, which is the difference in concentration of the drug between the bloodstream and the tissue or organ. CCD is an important concept in pharmacology because it helps to explain why some drugs are more effective at treating certain conditions than others. For example, drugs that are highly lipophilic (fat-soluble) are more likely to be distributed into fatty tissues, while drugs that are highly hydrophilic (water-soluble) are more likely to be distributed into aqueous tissues. Overall, CCD is a complex process that plays a critical role in the distribution of drugs and other substances within the body. Understanding how CCD works can help healthcare professionals to design more effective treatments and to minimize the side effects of drugs.
In the medical field, acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are classified as either strong or weak acids, depending on how completely they ionize in water. Acids can have various effects on the body, depending on their concentration and duration of exposure. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is produced by the stomach to help break down food. However, if the stomach produces too much HCl, it can cause acid reflux, heartburn, and other digestive problems. Other acids that are commonly used in medicine include citric acid, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and salicylic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of conditions such as acne and psoriasis. In some cases, acids can be used to treat medical conditions. For example, hydrofluoric acid is used to treat certain types of bone cancer, and lactic acid is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, it is important to note that acids can also be harmful if they are not used properly. Exposure to high concentrations of acids can cause burns, corrosion of tissues, and other serious injuries. Therefore, it is important for medical professionals to use acids with caution and follow proper safety protocols.
Fluoroacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a fluoroacetate functional group. They are commonly found in plants, particularly in the leaves and stems of certain species, and can be toxic to animals, including humans, if ingested. In the medical field, fluoroacetates are primarily used as research tools to study the metabolism and biochemistry of the body. They are also used as antifungal agents and as a treatment for certain types of cancer. However, exposure to fluoroacetates can be dangerous and can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, and death. Therefore, it is important to handle fluoroacetates with caution and to seek medical attention immediately if exposure occurs.
Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or significantly reduced production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the stomach. Achlorhydria can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the stomach lining, certain medications, autoimmune disorders, and genetic mutations. It can also be a side effect of certain medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include heartburn, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and difficulty digesting certain foods. In severe cases, achlorhydria can lead to malnutrition and other complications. Treatment for achlorhydria typically involves dietary changes and the use of medications to help with digestion and absorption of nutrients. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damage to the stomach lining or to remove tumors that are causing the condition.
Sulfuric acid is a strong acid that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a colorless, odorless, and corrosive liquid that is highly soluble in water. In the medical field, sulfuric acid is used as a chemical reagent in various laboratory procedures, such as the preparation of buffers, the extraction of proteins, and the analysis of biological samples. It is also used as a component in some medications, such as certain antacids and laxatives. However, sulfuric acid is highly caustic and can cause severe burns and tissue damage if it comes into contact with the skin or eyes. Therefore, it is important to handle sulfuric acid with extreme caution and to follow proper safety protocols when working with it.
A gastric fistula is a abnormal connection between the stomach and another body cavity or organ, such as the esophagus, small intestine, colon, or chest. It can occur as a complication of surgery, trauma, or infection, and can lead to the leakage of stomach contents into the surrounding area, causing inflammation, infection, and other complications. Treatment options for gastric fistulas depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medications, and nutritional support.
Sodium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the formula NaOH. It is commonly known as lye and is a strong base that is used in various industrial and laboratory applications. In the medical field, sodium hydroxide is not commonly used. However, it can be used in some laboratory procedures to neutralize acidic solutions or to prepare buffer solutions. It is important to handle sodium hydroxide with caution as it is highly caustic and can cause severe burns if it comes into contact with skin or eyes.
Alkalosis is a medical condition characterized by an increased level of alkaline substances in the blood or other body fluids. This can occur when there is a decrease in the amount of acid in the body, or when there is an increase in the amount of alkaline substances such as bicarbonate ions. There are several types of alkalosis, including respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, and mixed alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when the body tries to compensate for low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood by breathing more deeply and rapidly, which leads to an increase in the amount of oxygen in the blood and a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an increase in the production of bicarbonate ions in the body, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as certain medications, kidney disease, or excessive vomiting or diarrhea. Mixed alkalosis occurs when both respiratory and metabolic factors are involved. Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include dizziness, lightheadedness, tingling or numbness in the extremities, muscle cramps, and nausea or vomiting. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as adjusting breathing patterns or treating the underlying medical condition.
Pentagastrin is a synthetic peptide that stimulates the release of gastric acid and other digestive enzymes from the stomach. It is commonly used in medical research and diagnostic testing to evaluate the function of the stomach and its digestive system. Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously or orally, and its effects can be measured through various methods, such as pH monitoring or enzyme assays. In some cases, pentagastrin may also be used to treat certain digestive disorders, although its use in this context is limited and typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Pepsin A is a digestive enzyme that is produced in the lining of the stomach. It is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which can then be absorbed by the body. Pepsin A is activated by hydrochloric acid, which is also produced in the stomach, and is typically secreted in an inactive form called pepsinogen. Once it is activated, pepsin A has a pH optimum of around 2, which is the acidic environment of the stomach. It is an important part of the digestive process and is involved in the breakdown of many different types of proteins, including those found in meat, dairy products, and eggs.
In the medical field, the appendix is a small, finger-like pouch that extends from the large intestine. It is located in the lower right side of the abdomen, near the cecum, which is the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix is about 9 cm (3.5 inches) long in adults and is usually about 2 cm (0.8 inches) in diameter. The function of the appendix is not fully understood, but it is thought to play a role in the immune system and the development of certain types of bacteria. In some cases, the appendix can become inflamed or infected, which is known as appendicitis. Appendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgical treatment to prevent the appendix from rupturing and causing serious complications.
Acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess of acid in the blood or other body fluids. This can occur when the body is unable to properly regulate the acid-base balance, leading to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood. Acidosis can be classified into two main types: respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the blood, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Metabolic acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the body produces too much acid or not enough base to neutralize it, leading to an increase in H+ concentration. Acidosis can have a range of symptoms, depending on the severity and underlying cause. These may include shortness of breath, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, acidosis can lead to organ damage and even death if left untreated. Treatment for acidosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms as needed.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Secretin is a hormone produced by the cells of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of food in the small intestine and plays a role in regulating the digestive process. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate, which helps to neutralize stomach acid and protect the lining of the small intestine. It also stimulates the gallbladder to release bile, which helps to break down fats in the small intestine. In addition to its role in digestion, secretin has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in a variety of medical conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and certain types of cancer.
A stomach ulcer is a sore or open wound in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is caused by a combination of factors, including the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, excessive production of stomach acid, and the use of certain medications, such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. In some cases, ulcers can lead to more serious complications, such as bleeding, perforation, and the formation of a stomach abscess. Treatment for stomach ulcers typically involves a combination of medications, such as antibiotics to kill H. pylori bacteria, acid-suppressing drugs to reduce stomach acid production, and pain relievers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair a perforated ulcer or remove a large abscess.
Bicarbonates, also known as bicarbonate ions or HCO3-, are a type of ion found in the blood and other body fluids. They play an important role in regulating the acid-base balance of the body and maintaining the proper pH of the blood. In the medical field, bicarbonate levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. Abnormal levels of bicarbonate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic acidosis (a condition in which the body produces too much acid), metabolic alkalosis (a condition in which the body produces too little acid), and respiratory acidosis (a condition in which the body is not able to remove enough carbon dioxide from the blood). Bicarbonate is also used in medicine to treat certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis. It is given intravenously (through a vein) or by mouth in the form of a salt, such as sodium bicarbonate.
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- GAB Neumann offers a complete range of processes in the field of hydrogen chloride (gaseous HCl) and hydrochloric acid (liquid HCl) treatment. (gab-neumann.com)
- Highly concentrated hydrogen chloride can be produced from 28 to 37% hydrochloric acid. (gab-neumann.com)
- Hydrochloric acid (hydrochloric acid) is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl), which is a strong monobasic inorganic acid and has a wide range of industrial uses. (hldlscc.com)
- Concentrated hydrochloric acid (about 37% by mass) is extremely volatile, so hydrogen chloride gas will volatilize after opening a container containing concentrated hydrochloric acid, and combine with water vapor in the air to produce small droplets of hydrochloric acid, causing acid to appear above the bottle mouth. (hldlscc.com)
- Both hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid are corrosive. (cdc.gov)
- Potable grade Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatic Acid) for pH reduction in Pool and Spa waters and Drinking water. (wilhelmsen.com)
- Sodium and potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, natural gas, and sulfuric acid were the most frequent substances in transportation-related incidents. (cdc.gov)
- Sulfuric Acid (UN2796). (usps.com)
- These include the manufacture of isopropanol, synthetic ethanol, phosphate fertilizers, lead batteries, soap and detergents, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid, and industries involving pickling and other acid treatment of metals. (who.int)
- In all studies considered, sulfuric acid mists were the most common exposure. (who.int)
- On the basis of these data, the monograph concludes that occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to humans. (who.int)
- This device prevents the entrainment of droplets with gaseous hydrochloric acid. (gab-neumann.com)
- The treatment consisted of 3 sessions, at intervals of one week between sessions, of the application of a microabrasive paste containing 6% hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide as the abrasive medium, followed by the application of 1.23% sodium fluoride. (bvsalud.org)
- A sample is typically dissolved in a pre-mixed solvent of chlorobenzene and acetic acid and titrated with standardised perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid for fresh oil samples. (wikipedia.org)
- Acids that produce corrosive gases/fumes e.g. perchloric acid, aqua regia and concentrated hydrochloric acid must only be handled in special, flushable fume hoods. (lu.se)
- The term "corrosive" includes all items commonly referred to as acids, as well as most batteries. (usps.com)
- Excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach cells. (rxlist.com)
- The H2 receptor antagonists are reversible competitive blockers of histamine at the H2 receptors, particularly those in the gastric parietal cells, where they inhibit acid secretion. (medscape.com)
- Ranitidine inhibits histamine stimulation of the H2 receptor in the gastric parietal cells, which, in turn, reduces gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen concentrations. (medscape.com)
- Cimetidine inhibits histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells, which results in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen concentrations. (medscape.com)
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibit gastric acid secretion by inhibition of the H + /K + ATPase enzyme system in the gastric parietal cells. (medscape.com)
- Lansoprazole inhibits gastric acid secretion. (medscape.com)
- It inhibits gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells. (medscape.com)
- The bleach decomposes to form hydrochloric acid, which reacts with ammonia to form toxic chloramine fumes. (naturalnews.com)
- Nitric Acid (UN2031, UN2032). (usps.com)
- Stone and his colleagues suspected the changes were caused by the way wildfire smoke affects the solubility of hydrochloric acid, which is in the stratosphere largely due to emissions of a now-banned class of long-lasting chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons . (newscientist.com)
- Mid-FTIR spectroscopy can be used to rapidly and quantitatively determine the TBN of hydrocarbon lubricating oils by spectroscopically measuring the carboxylate (COO-) functional group of the salt produced when trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) reacts with basic constituents present in an oil sample. (wikipedia.org)
- Hydrochloric acid is the main component of stomach acid, which can promote food digestion and resist microbial infections. (hldlscc.com)
- Acetic Acid (UN2790). (usps.com)
- An analysis of the chemistry at work finds the smoke may have enabled hydrochloric acid to dissolve at higher temperatures, generating more of the reactive chlorine molecules that destroy ozone. (newscientist.com)
- Particularly concerning was a decrease in hydrochloric acid and an increase in chlorine nitrate, changes that could deplete the thin layer of ozone molecules that blocks harmful UV radiation. (newscientist.com)
- In water, chlorine rapidly dissolves and forms hydrochloric and hypochlorous acids, which may be hazardous in high concentrations. (who.int)
- Primary metabolic acidoses that occur as a result of a marked increase in endogenous acid production (eg, lactic or keto acids) or progressive accumulation of endogenous acids when excretion is impaired by renal insufficiency are characterized by decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration and increased anion gap without hyperchloremia. (medscape.com)
- Hydrochloric acid can be used to pickle steel, and it is also a chemical reagent required for the large-scale preparation of many inorganic and organic compounds, such as vinyl chloride, the precursor of PVC plastics. (hldlscc.com)
- Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans which met in Lyon, 15-22 October 1991. (who.int)
- Evaluates the carcinogenic risk to humans posed by occupational exposure to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and by other industrial chemicals. (who.int)
- In the first and most extensive monograph, evaluations draw upon numerous studies of occupational exposures in industries where the use of strong inorganic acids is particularly heavy. (who.int)
- Hydrochloric acid is what digests food, not pepsin. (oneradionetwork.com)
- When water is added to Hydrochloric Acid heat is produced that can cause a hazardous situation. (wilhelmsen.com)
- Vomiting or nasogastric (NG) suction generates metabolic alkalosis by the loss of gastric secretions, which are rich in hydrochloric acid (HCl). (medscape.com)
- Most oil formulations contain basic additives and detergents, designed to react with and neutralise acids, preventing damage to engine parts, including corrosion of metal surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- Hydrochloric acid solution 5% pure p.a. 1 [l] Pure p. a. (n2o3.com)
- The solution is then titrated with trifluoro methane sulfonic acid (TFMSA) to a single thermometric endpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- The sample solution is titrated with alcoholic hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 ml of solution contains calcium folinate equivalent to 10 mg of folinic acid as active ingredient. (janusinfo.se)
- Leaching with a 20-pct hydrochloric acid solution released from 19.3 to 67.9 pct of the tin. (cdc.gov)
- Additional H2 blocker therapy has been reported to be useful in patients with severe disease (particularly those with Barrett esophagus) who have nocturnal acid breakthrough. (medscape.com)
- Potentiometric titration for used oils (Test method TBN ASTM D4739): a sample is dissolved in a solvent mixture of Toluene/ Propan-2-ol /Chloroform with 0.5% deionised water and then titrated with standardised alcoholic hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Normally, hydrochloric acid can only dissolve at the very cold temperatures that occur over Earth's poles. (newscientist.com)
- Based on laboratory studies, though, the researchers found organic particles like those in wildfire smoke can enable hydrochloric acid to dissolve at higher temperatures. (newscientist.com)
- Also experimented on digestive activity of butyric acid at greater temperatures than the termperature of the body. (darwinproject.ac.uk)
- It includes the absorption, cleaning, desorption, rectification, re-concentration (above the azeotropic point) and scrubbing of hydrochloric acid. (gab-neumann.com)
- In the chemical industry, hydrochloric acid has many important applications, which play a decisive role in the quality of products. (hldlscc.com)
- It is indicated for the reduction of cytotoxicity when used in combination with 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of colorectal cancer and for the treatment of megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency when folic acid cannot be replaced orally. (janusinfo.se)
- If the change in PaCO2 is not within this range, then a mixed acid-base disturbance occurs. (medscape.com)
- Hydrochloric acid regeneration or HCl regeneration is a chemical process for the reclamation of bound and unbound HCl from metal chloride solutions such as hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Acceptable in solutions that can qualify as a Limited Quantity air material or Limited Quantity surface material, contains less than 80 percent acid, and does not exceed 1 pint. (usps.com)
- Acceptable only in solutions not exceeding 10 percent acid that can qualify as a Limited Quantity air material or Limited Quantity surface material. (usps.com)
- 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 Contaminants such as asbestos, hydrochloric acid, PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), silica and heavy metals were found in the dust and ash resulting from the WTC collapse. (cdc.gov)
- Recent price trend of hydrochloric acid As can be seen from the above figure, the domestic market price of hydrochloric acid fell slightly this month. (sunsirs.com)
- Upper section of the hydrochloric acid (HCl) azeotrope graphite reboiler (left) and lower section of the HCl rectification graphite column (right) in an anhydreous HCl generation plant. (gab-neumann.com)
- Hydrochloric acid was included in the list of three types of carcinogens, that is, the evidence of carcinogenicity to humans was insufficient. (hldlscc.com)
- Is a good quality linoleic acid bad for you? (oneradionetwork.com)