A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
The contamination of indoor air.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
Sexual activities of animals.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/589)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (2/589)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin. (3/589)

Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor.  (+info)

Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics. (4/589)

An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products.  (+info)

Dose-dependent protein adduct formation in kidney, liver, and blood of rats and in human blood after perchloroethene inhalation. (5/589)

Perchloroethene (PER) was a widely used solvent and is an environmental contaminant. In bioassays for carcinogenicity, PER was found to increase the incidence of liver tumors in mice and of renal tumors in male rats. Toxic effects of PER after repeated administration are likely caused by bioactivation. PER bioactivation occurs by two pathways. Oxidation by cytochrome P450 results in trichloroacetyl chloride, which binds to lipids and proteins. Glutathione S-conjugate formation from PER and further processing of the formed S-(trichlorovinyl)glutathione to S-(trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, followed by cysteine conjugate beta-lyase catalyzed cleavage, resulted in the reactive dichlorothioketene, which binds to proteins under formation of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins. The objective of this study was to comparatively quantify the dose-dependent formation of protein adducts from PER in rats and humans using antibodies with high specificity for either N epsilon-(trichloroacetyl)-L-lysine or N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins. Male and female rats (n = 2, per concentration and time point) were exposed to 400, 40, and 10 ppm PER for 6 h and killed at various time points. Formation of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine and N epsilon-(trichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins was comparatively quantified in subcellular fractions from liver and kidney and in blood. In addition, three male and three female human volunteers were exposed to 10 and 40 ppm PER, and formation of protein adducts in blood was analyzed using the antibodies and GC/MS after immunoaffinity enrichment of modified proteins. In liver and kidney subcellular fractions and blood of PER-exposed rats, dose-dependent formation of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine and N epsilon-(trichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins was observed. Highest concentrations of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins were formed in kidney mitochondria, followed by kidney cytosol. Only low concentrations of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins were present in liver proteins; blood concentrations of N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in proteins were 5 to 10 fold lower than in kidney mitochondria. Highest concentrations of N epsilon-(trichloroacetyl)-L-lysine were found in microsomal and cytosolic proteins from the liver of rats exposed to PER. A higher protein adduct formation was seen in PER-exposed-male than -female rats for N epsilon-(dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine in renal mitochondrial proteins, after exposure to 400 ppm PER. In human blood samples taken 0 and 24 h after the 6 h exposures to PER, N epsilon-(trichloroacetyl)-L-lysine-containing proteins were present in low concentrations. N epsilon-(Dichloroacetyl)-L-lysine-containing proteins were not detected either by Western blotting or GC/MS after immunoaffinity chromatography. The obtained results indicate a dose-dependent covalent binding of PER metabolites to proteins in rat liver, kidney, and blood and suggest that the concentration of covalent protein adducts is much lower in blood of humans as compared to the blood of rats exposed under identical conditions.  (+info)

A myb-related protein required for culmination in Dictyostelium. (6/589)

The avian retroviral v-myb gene and its cellular homologues throughout the animal and plant kingdoms contain a conserved DNA binding domain. We have isolated an insertional mutant of Dictyostelium unable to switch from slug migration to fruiting body formation i.e. unable to culminate. The gene that is disrupted, mybC, codes for a protein with a myb-like domain that is recognized by an antibody against the v-myb repeat domain. During development of myb+ cells, mybC is expressed only in prestalk cells. When developed together with wild-type cells mybC- cells are able to form both spores and stalk cells very efficiently. Their developmental defect is also bypassed by overexpressing cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However even when their defect is bypassed, mybC null slugs and culminates produce little if any of the intercellular signalling peptides SDF-1 and SDF-2 that are believed to be released by prestalk cells at culmination. We propose that the mybC gene product is required for an intercellular signaling process controlling maturation of stalk cells and spores and that SDF-1 and/or SDF-2 may be implicated in this process.  (+info)

Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine. (7/589)

Reports of environmental problems in the former Soviet Union, including excess use of pesticides, have led to concerns about high levels of contamination in humans, but little information is available to assess whether these concerns are warranted. Samples of breast milk from 197 women from two cities in Ukraine were analyzed for p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and results were compared to previous reports from Europe. The median ss-HCH concentration was 731 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than other reports from Europe but lower than reports from other parts of the world. The median DDE concentration was 2,457 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than most but not all other reports from Europe. Concentrations of other chemicals were comparable to or lower than other reports from Europe. Concentrations from the city of Kyiv were generally lower than those from Dniprodzerzhinsk, but the magnitudes of these differences were modest.  (+info)

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes and 1, 2-dichloroethane by "Dehalococcoides ethenogenes" 195. (8/589)

"Dehalococcoides ethenogenes" 195 can reductively dechlorinate tetrachloroethene (PCE) completely to ethene (ETH). When PCE-grown strain 195 was transferred (2% [vol/vol] inoculum) into growth medium amended with trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (DCE), 1,1-DCE, or 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) as an electron acceptor, these chlorinated compounds were consumed at increasing rates over time, which indicated that growth occurred. Moreover, the number of cells increased when TCE, 1,1-DCE, or DCA was present. PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE, and cis-DCE were converted mainly to vinyl chloride (VC) and then to ETH, while DCA was converted to ca. 99% ETH and 1% VC. cis-DCE was used at lower rates than PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE, or DCA was used. When PCE-grown cultures were transferred to media containing VC or trans-DCE, products accumulated slowly, and there was no increase in the rate, which indicated that these two compounds did not support growth. When the intermediates in PCE dechlorination by strain 195 were monitored, TCE was detected first, followed by cis-DCE. After a lag, VC, 1,1-DCE, and trans-DCE accumulated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that cis-DCE is the precursor of these compounds. Both cis-DCE and 1,1-DCE were eventually consumed, and both of these compounds could be considered intermediates in PCE dechlorination, whereas the small amount of trans-DCE that was produced persisted. Cultures grown on TCE, 1,1-DCE, or DCA could immediately dechlorinate PCE, which indicated that PCE reductive dehalogenase activity was constitutive when these electron acceptors were used.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens. AU - Lavoie, E. T.. AU - Wiley, F.. AU - Grasman, K. A.. AU - Tillitt, D. E.. AU - Sikarskie, J. G.. AU - Bowerman, W. W.. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of ...
Concentrations of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue from many eastern Iowa streams and rivers indicate the long-term effects of previous human activities, which are not often detected by chemical analyses of water or sediment. With the exception of McLoud Run at Cedar Rapids, streams and rivers sampled during the study drain agricultural lands. Land use has not changed substantially since these compounds were commonly used, although prior coal mining activities upstream from Cedar Creek near Oakland Mills (site 14) have ceased. Despite similar land-use characteristics throughout the study unit, concentrations of organochlorine compounds in fish tissue vary widely. In the graph above, organochlorine concentrations are presented in micrograms per kilogram (mg/kg), units that are equivalent to parts per billion.. Fish tissue from the Wapsipinicon River near Tripoli (site 1) was comparatively uncontaminated, containing only a small amount of a DDT degradation product. This condition ...
BACKGROUND: We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between personal characteristics and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of certain PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 323 pregnant primiparous women from Uppsala County (age 18-41 years) sampled 1996-1999. METHODS: Extensive personal interviews and questionnaires about personal characteristics were performed both during and after pregnancy. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in serum lipids in late pregnancy were analysed by gas chromatography. Associations between personal characteristics and serum levels of organochlorine compounds were analysed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Participation rate was 82% (325 of 395 women). Serum concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 105 and 167, and o, p-DDT and -DDE, p, p-DDT and -DDD, oxychlordane, and gamma- and alpha-HCH were in many cases below the limit of quantification (LOQ). No statistical analysis of associations with personal ...
BACKGROUND: In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development; however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. METHODS: In Chapaevsk, Russ
The report generally describes 2-chloropropionic acid methyl ester, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 2-Chloropropionic acid methyl ester
This application note from Cecil Instruments describes an effective method for organochlorine pesticide analysis in the environment by reversed phase chromatography with UV-Vis detection. The method was performed using the Adept HPLC Series System 2. The experimental conditions and subsequent results are presented.
Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE] are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship betwee …
This standard is formulated for the purposes of enforcing the Environment Protection Law of the Peoples Republic of China, protecting the environment, safeguarding the human health, and setting standards for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in soils and sediments. This standard specifies the gas chromatography used to determine 23 organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air. The appendix A to this standard is normative, and the appendixes B and C are referential. This standard is the original version.. ...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. Recently concerns about POPs resulted in the international protocol called the Stockholm Conve
PAHs were examined because these compounds are known to cause breast cancer in rodents, and a few small human studies have suggested a possible association between these chemicals and increased risk of breast cancer. Women can be exposed to PAHs by breathing in cigarette smoke, and exhaust from cars, trucks and planes, and by eating grilled and smoked foods. Starting in 1996, Gammon and her colleagues collected blood samples from 1,508 women in Nassau and Suffolk counties who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer, and a similar number of women who did not have cancer. The blood samples were checked for direct evidence of exposure to organochlorine compounds and PAHs, both of which leave traces in the body for months or years.. Study participants also completed a questionnaire, and at some of the womens homes, researchers collected samples of house dust, tap water and yard soil to test for organochlorine compounds and PAHs. Exposure to PAHs causes the chemicals attach to DNA, creating ...
Organochlorines are lipophylic molecules that accumulate in the fat where they remain for years. During weight loss, they are mobilized and their concentration increases in blood. The present work tests, in transgenic estrogen-reporter mice (ERE-tK-LUC), whether this increase is sufficient to modulate the estrogen receptors (ERs) in the whole body. Three weak estrogens were studied: p,p DDT [1,1,1-trichloro2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], p,p DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and betaBHC [beta-benzene-hexachloride]. Dose-dependent analysis of reporter expression (luciferase) were performed in tissues of acutely treated mice. A body snap of ER activation was obtained. All these chemicals modulated the reporter, although with a different efficiency and depending upon the tissue analyzed. Induction was confirmed in the liver by determining the expression of the endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) gene, at the dose and time point at which the luciferase gene was maximally ...
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and its etiology is linked to multiple risk factors. There are shreds of controversial evidence that exposure to organ...
Printing tips! To print chromatograms full page, change the print settings in the print dialogue window of your PDF reader software: 1) fit or fit to page, 2) landscape for wide chromatograms or portrait for tall chromatograms.. ...
This topic contains 9 study abstracts on Hypertensive chemicals such as Organochlorine compounds, Organochlorine pesticides, and Pesticides
The data comes from registration dossiers submitted to ECHA by the date indicated as last update. The Total Tonnage Band is compiled from all the dossiers with two exceptions; any tonnages claimed confidential and any quantity used as an intermediate to produce a different chemical. The Total Tonnage band published does not necessarily reflect the registered tonnage band(s).. Please note that some of the information on registered substances may belong to third parties. The use of such information may therefore require the prior permission of the third party owners. Please consult the Legal Notice for further information.. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
One or more organochlorine compounds were detected in all women in the LIBCSP, although median levels were as much as 10-fold lower than those reported earlier in the 20th century. Multivariate models reconciled the different directions of correlations of DDE and PCB with BMI that were found in simple or age-adjusted correlations (Tables 1 and 2; Fig. 2), in a manner consistent with the pharmacokinetic models. When both BMI and weight gain were included in multivariate models, the direction of the associations was identical for DDE and PCB. Therefore, the statistical models corrected the apparent positive association of DDE with BMI-gain (e.g., Fig. 3) to a negative coefficient in the model (e.g., Table 4), whereas at the same time, after multivariate adjustment, the inverse correlation of PCBs with BMI became positive.. From predicted organochlorine model shown in Fig. 3, highest DDE levels were in women who were heaviest, had the least adult weight gain, and did not lactate. Lowest levels were ...
Ethyl 3-chloropropionate 623-71-2 NMR spectrum, Ethyl 3-chloropropionate H-NMR spectral analysis, Ethyl 3-chloropropionate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The dangers of organochlorines and a proposed solution. Pandoras Poison presents a solution to one of the most insidious environmental problems of our time: the global build-up of toxic chemicals. Everywhere on the planet, hundreds of industrial chemicals called organochlorines are accumulating in the environment, the food supply, and our bodies. These substances-such infamous pollutants as dioxins, PCBs, and DDT, along with thousands of lesser-known hazards-are produced when chlorine gas is used to make plastics, paper, pesticides, and many industrial chemicals. In a thorough and accessible analysis, biologist Joe Thornton shows how global organochlorine pollution is already contributing to infertility, immune suppression, cancer, and developmental disorders in humans and wildlife.Thornton proposes a major shift in environmental science and policy. He shows that the current framework radically overestimates the ability of science and technology to address the
ABSTRACT. Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association among serum organochlorine pesticide residues, glutathione S-transferase M1 genetic polymorphism and female breast cancer. Methods: A 1:1 matched case-control study of 140 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and 140 non-cancer female patients who consulted the five largest hospitals in the Tangshan city from September 2006 to October 2007. Results: The result showed higher risk of breast cancer among subjects with higher levels of serum DDT and HCH residue, the OR was 3.18 (95%CI, 1.11 - 9.07) and 5.02 (95%CI, 1.64 - 16.56).The value of ORe associated with single environmental factor DDT high residues, and ORg associated with single GSTM1 deletion genotype were respectively 3.86 (1.20 - 12.47) and 1.34 (0.36 - 5.08). The OReg associated with combined action of two factors was 5.59 (1.63 - 18.90), and the value of interaction parameters (γ) equaled 1.24. The value of ORe associated with single environmental factor ...
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An emulsion polymerized vinylidene chloride copolymer latex having polymerized therein vinylidene chloride and one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers copolymerizable therewith. The latex contains both an anionic and a nonionic surfactant. The latex remains stable following addition of about 2 percent by weight of a cationic antistatic agent on a polymer solids basis.
Beyond Pesticides, June 20, 2011) In a study published this week in the journal Pediatrics, researchers report findings that link mothers exposure to organochlorine pesticides during pregnancy with infants sizes at birth. The trend shows that the more mothers are exposed to the pesticides during pregnancy, the higher the chances are for reduced birth weight and length of their newborns. Comprising a total of 494 women and infants in Valencia, Spain from the years 2003-2006, the study evaluates umbilical cord blood for residues of four pesticides or pesticide degradates: DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. The results show that a 10-fold increase in pesticide concentrations in the blood corresponds to a reduction in birth weight of 2-4 ounces.. Additional results are correlated to specific pesticides. Higher concentrations of DDT results in a reduction in head circumference of 0.26cm, which the researchers call a significant decrease. Additionally, a decrease of ...
We are constantly exposed to these toxins in our own lifestyles but they are also found in the soil and within the animals and animal products we eat. Aside from overly acidifying the bodys blood when these toxins are released, th accumulation of these toxins can also depress the function of thyroid which greatly affects metabolism on its own. The Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory in Canada did a study on this here:http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/1/46.full where it showed: Organochlorine compounds are released from body fat into the bloodstream during weight loss. Because these compounds may impair thyroid status, which is implicated in the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR), the aim of this study was to determine if the augmentation in plasma organochlorine concentrations might be associated with the decrease in serum T(3) concentration and RMR observed in response to body weight loss. Plasma organochlorine concentrations, serum T(3) concentration, and RMR were measured ...
May cause cancer based on animal data. CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Methylene chloride Solvent-based strippers utilize potent methylene chloride (MC) to work in as little as 15 to 30 minutes. Product summary. Emergency Overview Possible cancer hazard. Product # METHYLENE CHLORIDE SOLVENT _____ Revision Date: November, 2019 _____ Page 7 / 10 Component Information Chemical Name Algae/aquatic plants Fish Toxicity to microorganisms Crustacea Dichloromethane 75-09-2 500: 96 h Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata mg/L EC50 500: 72 h Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata mg/L EC50 140.8 - 277.8: 96 h It is used in the production of photographic films, synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, inks, and printed circuit boards. Methylene chloride is used mainly as a solvent in paint removers, aerosol mixtures, chemical reaction processes and as a blowing agent for flexible foams. [Solvent] Methylene Chloride. [Note: A gas above 104°F.] Methylene chloride is manufactured using AGCs ...
The most common technique used for the analysis of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace level is gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Click to read more...
Vinylidene Chloride its chemical name is 1,1-dichloroethylene, a colourless, dense, toxic, volatile, flammable liquid belonging to the family of organic halogen compounds.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and prostate cancer risk. T2 - A case-cohort study. AU - Lim, Jung eun. AU - Nam, Chungmo. AU - Yang, Jiyeon. AU - Rha, KoonHo. AU - Lim, Kyung Min. AU - Jee, Sun Ha. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - It is still unclear whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure increases the prostate cancer incidence risk. This prospective cohort study evaluated the associations between serum POPs concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Within a case-cohort study, we identified 110 people diagnosed with prostate cancer and randomly selected 256 sub-cohort participants without prostate cancer. Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for determining the associations between POPs and risk of prostate cancer were estimated using the weighted Cox regression model. Compared to the lowest tertile, ...
Earlier this week, Slate reported that the EPA is considering a new rule for 2016 that could impact the use of methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane), a chemical commonly found in paint strippers. The rule could result in anything from new warning label requirements to an outright ban.. According to OSHA, workers using methylene chloride are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, central nervous system and liver, and skin or eye irritation. While the Slate piece emphasized the risk of sudden, fatal heart attacks, methylene chloride can also pose serious health dangers when absorbed through the skin. (Methylene chloride will eat through latex gloves, so workers need rubber or PVA gloves to stay protected.) In recent years, OSHA has issued hazard alerts for methylene chloride, with a special focus on the dangers it poses for workers engaged in bathtub refinishing. According to OSHA, at least 14 American workers died refinishing bathtubs due to methylene ...
Business Directory for Methylene Chloride Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Methylene Chloride Manufacturers, Wholesale Methylene Chloride Exporters, Best Methylene Chloride Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Phospholipid and phosphoinositide phosphorylation pathways have been shown to be of crucial importance on producing lipid mediators. The earlier findings reported on lipid molecules playing roles in different metabolic pathways used to assign them the exclusive role of second messenger generators. Several researchers have recently described how direct interaction of phospholipids and phosphoinositides with molecules or organelles, without the need for producing second messenger molecules, is responsible for their mechanism of action. Organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide toxicity mechanisms have been extensively studied in relation to their well known effects on cholinesterase activities and on the alterations of electric activity in the nervous system of different organisms respectively. There is little but consistent evidence that some compounds, including in both groups of pesticides, are also able to interact with phospholipid and phosphoinositide phosphorylation pathways in
Organochlorine contaminants including 12 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 insecticides were determined in water, pore water and sediments of the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China. The results showed that the levels of the total PCBs ranged from non-detectable to 1500 ng l-1 in water, from 209 to 3870 ng l-1 in pore water, and from 2.78 to 14.8 ng g-1 dry weight in sediments. Total organochlorine insecticide concentrations were from below the limit of detection to 2480 ng l-1 in water, from 267 to 33400 ng l-1 in pore water, and from 4.22 to 46.3 ng g-1 dry weight in sediments. Concentrations of PCBs and insecticides in pore water were significantly higher than those in surface water, due to the high affinity of these hydrophobic compounds for sediment phase. The PCB congeners with the highest concentrations were CB153, CB180 and CB194, which together accounted for 6887% of total PCBs in water, pore water and sediment. Among the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) ...
EWGs Tap Water Database trans-Nonachlor results for Klondike Independent School District | trans-Nonachlor. Find out what is in your tap water
Exposure to methylene chloride occurs mostly from breathing contaminated air, but may also occur through skin contact or by drinking contaminated water. Breathing in large amounts of methylene chloride can damage the central nervous system. Contact of eyes or skin with methylene chloride can result in burns. Methylene chloride has been found in at least 882 of 1,569 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Disclosed is a process for the preparation of a coated oriented plastic container, which comprises coating an aqueous latex or organic solvent solution of a vinylidene chloride copolymer on at least one surface of a parison, preform or sheet for formation of container which is formed by hot molding of a molecularly orientable thermoplastic resin, drying the coated parison, preform or sheet to form a coating layer, and subjecting the formed coated structure to draw molding such as biaxial draw blow molding or draw forming, wherein the coating layer of the vinylidene chloride copolymer is crystallized at the step of forming the coating layer or the draw molding step. In the coated oriented plastic container prepared according to this process, the adhesion of the coating layer of the vinylidene chloride copolymer to the plastic container substrate is highly improved, and even under severe conditions, peeling of the coating layer is prevented. Moreover, the gas barrier property, strength and chemical
What is 1,1-Dichloroethylene? 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) is a man-made substance used to make fire retardant fibers and polyethylene food wraps. It is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a mild, sweet smell. Dichloroethylene evaporates quickly at room temperature and can pollute the air. When 1,1-DCE gets into water or on soil it evaporates quickly. However, in groundwater or soil, it breaks down very slowly. Most 1,1-DCE in the environment results from industrial use and improper disposal.
The impact of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs)[4], of which PCBs and DDT are two, on human fertility is still unknown and there are limited and contradictory findings so far as to whether PCBs and DDT/DDE damage human sperm. This study, which is part of a wide-ranging project known as INUENDO[5], set out also to see whether these two POPs damage sperm by altering its chromatin integrity. (Chromatin is the DNA and associated proteins that make up a chromosome ...
Methylene Chloride (MC). Familiarization with MC. MC is used as a solvent, especially where quick evaporation is needed Methylene chloride dissolves oils, fats, waxes, resins, rubber. 1a. Familiarization with MC. Methylene chloride is used: in paint strippers as an ingredient in adhesives...
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The organochlorine o,p-DDT plays a role in coactivator-mediated MAPK crosstalk in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. AU - Bratton, Melyssa R.. AU - Frigo, Daniel E.. AU - Chris Segar, H.. AU - Nephew, Kenneth P.. AU - McLachlan, John A.. AU - Wiese, Thomas E.. AU - Burow, Matthew E.. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Background: The organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a known estrogen mimic and endocrine disruptor, has been linked to animal and human disorders. However, the detailed mechanism(s) by which DDT affects cellular physiology remains incompletely defined. Objectives: We and others have shown that DDT activates cell-signaling cascades, culminating in the activation of estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent gene expression. Here, we identify a mechanism by which DDT alters cellular signaling and gene expression, independent of the estrogen receptor. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction array analysis of gene expression in MCF-7 breast ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 39765-80-5 TRANS-NONACHLOR (13C10, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN NONANE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
EWGs Tap Water Database Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) results for Greenville City PWS | Dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Find out what is in your tap water
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marta G Commendatore, Marcos A Franco, Patricia Gomes Costa, Italo B Castro, Gilberto Fillmann, Gregorio Bigatti, José L Esteves, Marina L Nievas].
LABDHI CHEMICALS - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Supplier, Trading Company & Producer of Methylene Chloride based in Mumbai, India
Understand ICIS coverage of the Methylene chloride US market. Use the ICIS price assessments and market coverage to track the Methylene chloride US market.
Find Leading Methylene Chloride Manufacturers, Suppliers, Exporters and Traders at one place. Contact Exporters India for more information about Methylene Chloride manufacturers
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule. The chloroalkane class (alkanes with one or more hydrogens substituted by chlorine) provides common examples. The wide structural variety and divergent chemical properties of organochlorides lead to a broad range of names and applications. Organochlorides are very useful compounds in many applications, but some are of profound environmental concern. Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways. The compounds are typically denser than water due to the higher atomic weight of chlorine versus hydrogen. Aliphatic organochlorides are alkylating agents because chloride is a leaving group. Many organochlorine compounds have been isolated from natural sources ranging from bacteria to humans. Chlorinated organic compounds are found in nearly every ...
BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases. OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles. METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls ...
A Persistent Organic Pollutant (or POP) is a carbon-based chemical substance which deteriorates slowly and therefore remains in the environment fo...
Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency unveiled a rule that leaves workers across the United States exposed to methylene chloride, a lethal chemical used in paint strippers that has already caused dozens of worker deaths.
Extent-of-exposure survey of methylene chloride. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies ; Washington, D.C.
Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) is a colorless liquid that can harm the eyes, skin, liver, and heart. Exposure can cause drowsiness, dizziness, numbness and tingling limbs, and nausea. It may cause cancer
Indian Customs ADD Notification 58/2015-Cus (ADD),Seeks to levy provisional anti dumping duty on Methylene Chloride originating in or exported from the People?s Republic of China and Russia for a period not exceeding six months ,Indian Customs ADD Notification No. 58/2015-Cus (ADD)
Looking for a pump that can handle methylene chloride? Youre in luck. T-Mag magnetic drive pumps are the best solution on the market.
A novel role of differentiation-inducing factor-1 in Dictyostelium development, assessed by the restoration of a developmental defect in a mutant lacking mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2 ...
This topic contains 76 study abstracts on Endocrine Disruptor chemicals such as Statin Drugs, Organochlorine pesticides, and Simvastatin
Women who live near California farm fields sprayed with organochlorine pesticides may be more likely to give birth to children with autism, according to a study by state health officials to be
Use of pesticides continues to be indiscriminate, and birds are one of the worst affected non-targeted organisms. Information on the ill effects of pesticides on birds far from desired in India. Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in colonial nesting birds in sanctuaries of India. A total of 76 indi ...
The Centre for Science & Environment checks pesticide levels in blood from people of four Punjab villages and finds the levels of organochlorine pesticides shocking. Harjinder Sidhu reports.
Non-polar HP-PAS5 columns specifically designed and processed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides. With an operating temperature range of -60...
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"Formation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Weathering Plant Material" article at SLAC website "The oxidation of chlorinated ... In addition, a variety of simple chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride have ... An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ...
Alkyl chlorides Some low molecular weight chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, dichloromethane, dichloroethene, and ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... Chlorinated or fluorinated alkenes undergo polymerization. Important halogenated polymers include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ... Several million tons of chlorinated methanes are produced annually. Chloromethane is a precursor to chlorosilanes and silicones ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... Chloromethane is employed as a methylating and chlorinating agent, e.g. the production of methylcellulose. It is also used in a ... This method, however, also produces more highly chlorinated compounds such as dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon ... "Long term trend of selected halogenated hydrocarbons": 259-262. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Crutzen PJ, Gidel LT ( ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... Like many hydrocarbons, p-DCB is lipophilic and will accumulate in fatty tissues if consumed by a person or animal. The United ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... also appears to have produced chloroform in 1831 by reacting chlorinated lime with ethanol, as well as noting its anaesthetic ... appears to have produced chloroform in 1830 by mixing chlorinated lime with ethanol; however, he mistook it for Chloräther ( ... converting these precursors to progressively more chlorinated compounds: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN 3527306730 ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN 3527306730. ... Hydrocarbon solvents absorb only at short wavelengths and are thus preferred for photochemical experiments requiring high ... Solvents are potential reactants and for this reason, chlorinated solvents are avoided because the C-Cl bond can lead to ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: 139. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ...
In the 1930s, the toxicity associated with PCBs and other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including polychlorinated naphthalenes, was ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... and a number of publications referring to the toxicity of various chlorinated hydrocarbons were published before 1940. In 1947 ... "The problem of possible systemic effects from certain chlorinated hydrocarbons". Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. ...
"Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2012 ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN 3527306730. ...
... is an unstable, colorless (to yellowish), viscous, chlorinated hydrocarbon with a penetrating odor. ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: 139. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN ... In other chemical reactions, BTC reacts at the chlorinated α-carbon, for example in substitution reactions. BTC is a poorly ...
Like other chlorinated hydrocarbons, it is a central nervous system depressant, albeit a less potent one than many similar ... Like other chlorinated hydrocarbons, chloroethane has been used as a refrigerant, an aerosol spray propellant, an anesthetic, ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... which is composed of fluorinated low-weight hydrocarbons such as tetrafluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane or another similar ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233. ... 6th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds: Monterey, CA (PDF). Paper C-047. ... as a by-product also is produced in significant quantities as an unwanted by-product of the production of other chlorinated ...
2006). "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
2006). "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
"Chlorinated hydrocarbons. 6.4. 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene", in Gerhartz, W.; Yamamoto, Y. S. (eds.), Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... 1,4-Dichlorobut-2-ene is a chlorinated butene. It is an intermediate in the industrial production of chloroprene, and the main ... 1993), "Chlorocarbons, -hydrocarbons (chloroprene)", in Kroschwitz, J. I.; Howe-Grant, M. (eds.), Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of ...
Soluble in chloroform and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. Biocompatible and hence is suitable for medical applications. Melting ...
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ISBN 3527306730. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ... "The problem of possible systemic effects from certain chlorinated hydrocarbons". Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. ... Chlorinated naphthalenes, International Programme on Chemical Safety CICAD, 2001, volume 34 Neoprene FB Archived 2007-09-27 at ... Flinn, F.B.; Jarvik, N.E. (1936). "Action of certain chlorinated naphthalenes on the liver". Proceedings of the Society for ...
"Chlorinated Benzenes and Other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... Trichlorobenzene (TCB) may refer to any of three isomeric chlorinated derivatives of benzene with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3 ...
"Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Chlorinated Benzenes and Other Nucleus-Chlorinated ... Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.o06_o03. ISBN ...
"Chlorinated Benzenes and Other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
ISBN 978-0-13-643669-0. Beck, U.; Löser, E. (2011). "Chlorinated Benzenes and Other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... Chlorinated and brominated aromatic compounds are also numerous, e.g. derivatives of tyrosine, tryptophan, and various pyrrole ...
These insecticides were primarily organochlorines, organophosphates, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. However, the chemicals used ...
"Benzyl Chloride and Other Side-Chain Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
Beck, U.; Löser, E. "Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Non-chlorinated brake cleaners use hydrocarbons as a main component; it will either be a low-boiling aliphatic compound or ... The hydrocarbons used are sometimes made by hydrogenation from naphtha. The lipophilic liquids dissolve fat-soluble lubricants ... Chlorinated brake cleaner containing tetrachloroethylene will, on exposure to high temperatures (above 500 °F (260 °C)) or ... Chlorinated brake cleaners (often sold as non-flammable) use organochlorides like tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane. ...
It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon. As a refrigerant, it is used under the name R-130. It was once ... 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is a chlorinated derivative of ethane. ...
... is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless oily liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is not easily ...
... is not very soluble in chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. Carnauba is used in melt/castable explosives to ...
Contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and lead in Steller's Sea Eagle and White-tailed Sea Eagle from Hokkaido, Japan. In ... The avifauna of Sweden as indicators of environmental contamination with mercury and chlorinated hydrocarbons . -Proc . XV Int ...
Friedel-Crafts test for aromatic hydrocarbons[edit]. Reaction of chloroform with aromatic compounds using an aluminium chloride ... "Su alcuni derivati clorurati de trossimetilene" (On some chlorinated derivatives of 1,3,5-trioxane), Gazzetta Chimica Italiana ... In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... 25.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aryl Halides - Classification test. ISBN 978-1-4390-4914-3 ...
It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to ... "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06 ... it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. ...
The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo ... Many chlorinated solvents induce liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system. There is an entire ... The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. ... In addition to lead, coal ash typically contains variable but significant concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ...
... including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds ( ... While such research involved mostly chlorinated compounds initially, recent studies have revealed reductive dehalogenation of ... Some microorganisms, such as A. borkumensis, are able to use hydrocarbons as their source for carbon in metabolism. They are ... Further genomes of anaerobic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were recently completed for the iron-reducing species Geobacter ...
Mechanistic aspects - the dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor (2000). "Mechanistic aspects-the dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) ... Mutagenic effects have been established for some lower chlorinated chemicals such as 3-chlorodibenzofuran, which is neither ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ...
Rossberg, M.; et al., "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi: ... Moldenhawer, a German pharmacist from Frankfurt an der Oder, appears to have produced chloroform in 1830 by mixing chlorinated ... converting these precursors to progressively more chlorinated compounds: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl. CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl. ... also appears to have produced chloroform in 1831 by reacting chlorinated lime with ethanol, as well as noting its anaesthetic ...
The carbon source for in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. *Blended with magnesium chloride and used for de-icing ...
Regnault distinguished himself in the nascent field of organic chemistry by synthesizing several chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g ...
Polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, Saran, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated rubber (e.g. Parlon), hexachloroethane, ... should not be combined with hydrocarbon fuels/binders, e.g. asphalt or gum arabic; should be replaced with safer perchlorates ...
Contaminants monitored in fish include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), certain ... Chlorinated pesticides like DDT are toxic to fish and persist for decades in the environment. Metals such as mercury can damage ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. English Sole, the first species studied for the Toxics in ... Since 1989 fish indicator species have been used to monitor contamination of Puget Sound by chemicals such as poly-chlorinated ...
Wilson, John T. Jr; Wilson, Barbara H. (Dec 15, 1987), Biodegradation of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, retrieved 2016-11- ... Pre-chlorination - In many plants the incoming water was chlorinated to minimize the growth of fouling organisms on the pipe- ... William Soper also used chlorinated lime to treat the sewage produced by typhoid patients in 1879. ...
1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 M. Rossberg in drugi (2006). Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Chlorinated trisodium phosphate[edit]. With the formula Na. 3. PO. 4. ⋅. 1. 4. NaOCl. ⋅. 11. H. 2. O. {\displaystyle {\ce { ... TSP is commonly used after cleaning a surface with mineral spirits to remove hydrocarbon residues and may be used with ... the material called chlorinated trisodium phosphate is used as a disinfectant and bleach, like sodium hypochlorite. It is ...
U. Beck, E. Löser "Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... 2006). "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2. ...
It is readily dissoluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, and is undergone to gelation in the presence of amines, ...
... (PS) /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/ is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.[5] Polystyrene can ... Polystyrene is chemically very inert, being resistant to acids and bases but is easily dissolved by many chlorinated solvents, ... In chemical terms, polystyrene is a long chain hydrocarbon wherein alternating carbon centers are attached to phenyl groups (a ... This intermolecular weakness (versus the high intramolecular strength due to the hydrocarbon backbone) confers flexibility and ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through ... Most tetrachloroethylene is produced by high temperature chlorinolysis of light hydrocarbons. The method is related to ... and Chlorinated Phenols Induce Toluene-o-xylene Monooxoygenase Activity in Pseudomonas Stutzeri OX1". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ...
Hickey, J.J. & Anderson, D.W. (1968). "Chlorinated hydrocarbons and eggshell changes in raptorial and fish-eating birds". ...
"Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada, East Greenland, and ... Polar bears accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and chlorinated ...
... is soluble in organic solvents such as toluene, xylene, mineral spirits, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is ... Additionally, silicone grease does not swell or soften the rubber, which can be a problem with hydrocarbon based greases. It ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06 ...
"Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06 ... It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons. Another approach ... a variety of simple chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride have been isolated ... wash their hands in chlorinated lime, and even sprinkle chlorinated lime about the patients' beds in cases of "contagious ...
Yaws CL (2015). The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals (2nd ed.). Gulf Professional Publishing ... The increase in chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations was the lowest for plain bleach and the highest for the ... NTP Study Report TR-392: Chlorinated & Chloraminated Water (US NIH). *Guidelines for the Use of Chlorine Bleach as a Sanitizer ... Surfaces must be rinsed with sterilized (boiled) water to avoid imparting flavors to the brew; the chlorinated byproducts of ...
The liquids can be HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), and hydrocarbons such as ... although chlorinated blowing agents remained in use in many developing countries.[5] ...
Waste organic solvents are separated into chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvent waste. Chlorinated solvent waste is usually ... This list includes:[3] compounds with transitional metals, biocides, cyanides, mineral oils and hydrocarbons, poisonous ... incinerated at high temperature to minimize the formation of dioxins.[4][5] Non-chlorinated solvent waste can be burned for ...
"For example, how will it ever be possible to recycle the numerous chlorinated organic hydrocarbons that have bioaccumulated in ...
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is produced through exposing PVC to the continued free-radical chlorination reaction that ... The chlorination reaction continues to add chlorine atoms to the polymer hydrocarbon backbone until most commercial ...
Additionally, exposure to chlorinated cyclic hydrocarbons can lead to a deficiency in the activity of uroporphyrinogen ... as well as estrogen and chlorinated cyclic hydrocarbons, all of which can potentially exacerbate the disorder. Additionally, ... and exposure to chlorinated cyclic hydrocarbons and Agent Orange. ...
Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel ... Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids, may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix ...
Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) are a group of compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ... "Relative Potencies of Individual Chlorinated and Brominated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon ... Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated by combustion of organic compounds. Cl-PAHs enter the environment ... One of the well-established mechanisms by which chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can exert their toxic effects is ...
The human and environmental health risks of chlorinated hydrocarbons depend on the compound in question. As a general statement ... exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon has been associated with suppression of the immune system and cancer. ... Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) is a generic term given to compounds containing chlorine, carbon and hydrogen. The term can be ... chlorinated hydrocarbon This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript is enabled in ...
"Differential Action of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Breast ... "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," Chemical Research In Toxicology, ... "Simultaneous detection of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by gas ... Xianli Wang, Haiyan Kang, and Junfeng Wu, "Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid- ...
Learn how petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons behave differently in the subsurface and how these differences can influence ... Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents Differ in Their Potential for Vapor Intrusion (pdf) ... Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents Differ in Their Potential for Vapor Intrusion ... This document describes how petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents behave differently in the subsurface and how these ...
Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in ...
Hydrocarbons that contain chlorine. These include a class of persistent insecticides that accumulate in the aquatic food chain ...
Chlorinated hydrocarbons. Posted: Monday, September 14th, 2015 in « Back to Glossary Index. Hydrocarbons that contain chlorine ...
Chlorinated hydrocarbons reference standards from Joint Research Centre (JRC). Available to purchase online at LGC Standards. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Compounds (Toxicity). Find specific details on this topic and ... Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Compounds (Toxicity) By Ramesh C. Gupta, DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, ... The chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides are general CNS stimulants. They produce a great variety of signs-the most obvious are ... Residues limit its application, and it is one of the most toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The oral LD50 in rats is ...
Browse by Exposure: Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated (6 articles). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China.. [Yanli Zhang, Chunlei Li, ... Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with ... vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels ...
... aiming at determining the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in marine organisms (fish flesh of red mullet (Mullus ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine organisms of the Aegean and Ionian Seas (1986-1992). ... aiming at determining the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in marine organisms (fish flesh of red mullet (Mullus ...
Concern exists that game birds in the Province of British Columbia are contaminated with residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon ... Keywords: game birds, chlorinated hydrocarbon, insecticides, pesticides, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, toxicity. ISSN: Scientific ... Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticide Residues in Game Birds. Fish and Wildlife Branch. R4 ... Concern exists that game birds in the Province of British Columbia are contaminated with residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds 2(1) by Battelle Memorial Institute available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read ... Bioreclamation of Chlorinated Compounds & Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds 2(1) by Battelle Memorial Institute ... This timely reference presents the state of the art of the emerging and rapidly changing field of bioremediation of chlorinated ... No other reference source gives you access to the most current techniques and methods for the bioremediation of chlorinated and ...
Chromatographic method for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) ... Leather -- Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in leather -- Part 1: Chromatographic method for short-chain chlorinated ... Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in leather -- Part 1: ...
highest level of chlorinated hydrocarbons was found in liver followed by kidney and gut tissues, while the lowest was found in ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons in some fishes from Gizan area, Southern Red Sea. 2nd International Conference on Oceanography. ... It is necessary to point out that this is the first attempt to measure the levels of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Red Sea fishes ... They were subjected to study the presence of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in liver, muscle, gill, gut and kidney tissues of these ...
The hazardous chlorinated hydrocarbons are completely destroyed without residue. There is no generation of ... ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons - Chemical & Pharmaceuticals - Pharmaceutical by Chemisch Thermische Prozesstechnik GmbH / CTP Air ... The hazardous chlorinated hydrocarbons are completely destroyed without residue. There is no generation of hazardous by- ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons - among others - are converted into hydrogen chloride which produces a hydrochloric acid solution ...
... chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), nanomaterials, contaminated groundwater Progress and ... Task 2 will characterize and test the nanoparticles for dechlorination of select chlorinated hydrocarbons such as TCE and PCBs ... Given the known health risks of chlorinated hydrocarbons, the extent of such contamination and the associated tremendous ... remediation technology based on the new materials will be developed for in-situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons at ...
Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a diverse group of persistent environmental contaminants that include polychlorinated biphenyls ( ... Once in the digestive tract, chlorinated hydrocarbons may be taken up into intestinal cells by several processes including ... While the contribution of diffusion has been recognized as important for absorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons, less is known ... Bioavailability of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Diet. Release Date: 07/14/1999 ...
Residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the adipose tissue of the antarctic pinnipeds ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the fat of poultry. 2. Residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the storage fat of young fattening ... Contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the adipose tissue and the brain of partridges (Perdix erdix L.). Roczniki Panstwowego ... Contamination of the soil in apple orchards with residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons and of apples with residues of carbaryl, ...
Development of passive samplers for the detection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sewers. Katrin Vorkamp, Bettina S. Haas, ... In this work a system of passive samplers was developed to examine volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in the gas phase of sewer ... Development of passive samplers for the detection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sewers ... Development of passive samplers for the detection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sewers ...
Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in activated carbon barriers. Water Supply (2002) 2 (2 ...
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Analysis of microorganisms, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hyaluronic acid gel using Raman based optofluidic techniques and SERS ... Analysis of microorganisms, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hyaluronic acid gel using Raman based optofluidic techniques and SERS ... gels of hyaluronic acid and selected halogenated hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy, Raman tweezers and surface-enhanced ...
Chlorinated hydrocarbons in sediments of the Elbe River and the Elbe Estuary Eder, G., Sturm, R. and Ernst, W. ; ... Eder, G. , Sturm, R. and Ernst, W. (1987): Chlorinated hydrocarbons in sediments of the Elbe River and the Elbe Estuary , ...
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... to degrade the hydrocarbons and which is readily degraded in the environment so that the halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon is ... A process for degrading volatile halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms using Pseudomonas ... Method for the degradation of volatile chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons using pseudomonas fluorescens Download PDF Info. ... US07186962 1988-04-27 1988-04-27 Method for the degradation of volatile chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons using pseudomonas ...
Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, Chlorinated ethenes, Chlorinated hydrocarbon, Experimental system, Isotope fractionation, ... Hydrocarbons, Isotopes, Mass transfer, Models, Chlorine, carbon, carbon 13, chlorinated hydrocarbon, chlorine, ethylene, ... Integrated carbon and chlorine isotope modeling : Applications to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons dechlorination. In: ... Integrated carbon and chlorine isotope modeling: Applications to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons dechlorination. ...
Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster ... Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster ... A meta-analysis of historic groundwater chlorinated hydrocarbon plume data from approximately 17,000 monitoring wells across ...
  • This document describes how petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents behave differently in the subsurface and how these differences can influence whether there is a potential for vapor intrusion to occur. (epa.gov)
  • This timely reference presents the state of the art of the emerging and rapidly changing field of bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, and other chlorinated compounds, as well as PAHs, both in situ and on site. (powells.com)
  • The site is situated on gently dipping sandstones, adjacent to a linear lagoon historically used to dispose of industrial wastes containing chlorinated solvents. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Monitoring of in-situ remediation of chlorinated solvents contamination with the use of the Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization method, 5th International Workshop on Induced Polarization Rutgers University, Newark. (mirachl.com)
  • are chlorinated solvents and hydrocarbons. (coursera.org)
  • A chlorinated hydrocarbon manufactured at the former solvents plant at the BIP until closure in 1991. (orica.com)
  • The recreational use of inhaling hydrocarbons and other volatile solvents for the purposes of creating a euphoric state is becoming increasingly common. (medscape.com)
  • Abstract Chlorinated solvents have been used for a number of years for parts cleaning and maintenance work on trucks and heavy equipment in the oil field industry. (onepetro.org)
  • The loss of organic chemicals via volatilization (vapor) from unconfined groundwater contamination sites is demonstrated for chlorinated solvents at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., and for crude oil components at the Bemidji site. (google.ca)
  • Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) are a group of compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more aromatic rings and one or more chlorine atoms attached to the ring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated by combustion of organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) is a generic term given to compounds containing chlorine, carbon and hydrogen. (europa.eu)
  • Because of persistent tissue residues and chronic toxicity, use of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds has been drastically curtailed. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • No other reference source gives you access to the most current techniques and methods for the bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. (powells.com)
  • For animals that depend on contaminated bodies of water for food, the diet can be a significant source of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, to identify any organic compounds that have survived, we have to deal with oxychlorine compounds and possibly other strong oxidants in the sample which will react with and combust organic compounds to carbon dioxide and chlorinated hydrocarbons when the samples are heated by SAM. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chlorinated compounds highlighted by SAM on Mars could have several origins: from perchlorate and/or MTBSTFA oxidation, from Tenax® degradation with or without presence of perchlorate and/or Martian organics. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This solution is dedicated to the measurement of impurities (e.g hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Because of the continuing and increasing use of chlorinated hydrocarbons in products for agricultural, domestic, and industrial uses, and because of the growing concern about these compounds in the environment, more complete information on the sources and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Bay-Delta was required before recommendations for a regional water quality policy for these compounds could be formulated. (purdue.edu)
  • This requires a reduction of the complex multi-component system of degradation of PCE or TCE to non-chlorinated compounds to the one-component system (chlorinated compound reacts to non-chlorinated compound) for which the mass preservation is given. (hydroisotop.de)
  • The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. (osti.gov)
  • The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. (osti.gov)
  • The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. (osti.gov)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. (oecd.org)
  • Detectable residues of some chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, including BHC, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane , and oxychlordane, can be found in fatty tissue after acute or chronic exposure. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Residues limit its application, and it is one of the most toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Statements pertaining to dieldrin also apply, in general, to endrin , the most toxic of the three chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Concern exists that game birds in the Province of British Columbia are contaminated with residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides suck as DDT, Dieldrin and Heptachlor. (gov.bc.ca)
  • Residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides in human blood from Jaipur (India). (bvsalud.org)
  • One of the well-established mechanisms by which chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can exert their toxic effects is via the function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of 1.1-9.5, whereas no significant indoor/outdoor differences were found except for benzene and TrCE. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (powells.com)
  • However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13 C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aromatic (BTEX), the petroleum hydrocarbons (PH), and the chlorinated hydrocarbons (HCH) are widely spread. (hydroisotop.de)
  • Hydrocarbons can be classified as being aliphatic, in which the carbon moieties are arranged in a linear or branched chain, or aromatic, in which the carbon moieties are arranged in a ring. (medscape.com)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons are a subgroup of aromatic hydrocarbons, in which one of the hydrogen molecules is substituted by a halogen group. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike the aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons, the halogenated hydrocarbons tend to cause a wider range of toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • DNA reactions, mutagenic action and stealth properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens [review]. (wiley.com)
  • Because chlorinated hydrocarbons are highly lipid-soluble, the duration of toxicity may be prolonged. (mhmedical.com)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons undergo significant metabolism in the body, and these changes in chemical structure usually result in an increase of the solvent's toxicity. (doctorabel.us)
  • Toxicity from hydrocarbon ingestion can affect many different organs, but the lungs are the most commonly affected. (medscape.com)
  • The chemical properties of the individual hydrocarbon determine the specific toxicity, while the dose and route of ingestion affect which organs are exposed to the toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • The toxicity of hydrocarbons is directly related to their physical properties, specifically the viscosity, volatility, surface tension, and chemical activity of the side chains. (medscape.com)
  • The amount of hydrocarbon ingested has not consistently been linked to the degree of aspiration and hence pulmonary toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicity from hydrocarbon exposure can be thought of as different syndromes, depending on which organ system is predominately involved. (medscape.com)
  • Data have been collected within the framework of national and international research projects, aiming at determining the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in marine organisms (fish flesh of red mullet (Mullus barbatus)) and subsequently estimating the level of marine pollution. (bodc.ac.uk)
  • The method preferably uses a carbon source, such as glucose or molasses, which stimulates the bacterium to degrade the hydrocarbons and which is readily degraded in the environment so that the halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon is degraded to carbon dioxide, water and hydrochloric acid so that no toxic residues are produced. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method for degrading volatile halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms without producing toxic residues from the degradation. (google.com)
  • Two cores of more than 100 m length were recovered and measurements of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), inorganic chemistry, lithology, fracturing and aquifer properties were made. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Extensive use of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCS) in various industries has resulted in enormous chlorinated waste accumulation everywhere from groundwater reservoirs to stratosphere, contributing to a wide range of health and environmental problems. (tamu.edu)
  • Many remediation technologies have been developed to treat extensive subsurface contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs). (wright.edu)
  • Cu/Zn increased degradation kinetics compared to ZVZ for all CHCs investigated, but only slight enhancement in kinetics was observed for chlorinated propanes. (wright.edu)
  • A chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) that historically was generated as a byproduct in the production of other CHCs on the BIP. (orica.com)
  • Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (NZVI) has shown limited effectiveness in degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), like 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and Trichloroethene (TCE), in aqueous solution. (wright.edu)
  • It is necessary to point out that this is the first attempt to measure the levels of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Red Sea fishes, therefore similar studies in the Red Sea environment should be carried out in the near future in order to confirm the present results and to identify the sources of such contamination. (omicsonline.org)
  • Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals in shellfish tissue were very low in all areas, which is evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. (marine.ie)
  • The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop estimates of chlorinated hydrocarbon emissions in municipal and industrial wastewaters, 2) to update and expand data on levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water and sediments in the Bay-Delta region, and 3) to formulate a mass balance of pesticide transport into and from the San Francisco Bay System. (purdue.edu)
  • 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is low in Irish shellfish products. (marine.ie)
  • In 2001, a total of 23 samples from 20 different shellfish sites were analysed for trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. (marine.ie)
  • There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in shellfish. (marine.ie)
  • 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is low in Irish shellfish aquaculture. (marine.ie)
  • The human and environmental health risks of chlorinated hydrocarbons depend on the compound in question. (europa.eu)
  • Given the known health risks of chlorinated hydrocarbons, the extent of such contamination and the associated tremendous economical burdens, the resulting technology will benefit millions of affected people and thousands of contaminated sites. (epa.gov)
  • abstract = "We propose a self-consistent method to predict the evolution of carbon and chlorine isotope ratios during degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. (dtu.dk)
  • The overall goal of this research is to develop a cost-effective, in-situ remediation technology that employs a new class of highly dispersive iron-based nanoparticles for the rapid destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater. (epa.gov)
  • A new class of physically stable, chemically powerful, and environmentally friendly nanoparticles will be synthesized and characterized, and a cost-effective remediation technology based on the new materials will be developed for in-situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons at various contaminated sites. (epa.gov)
  • A process for degrading volatile halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms using Pseudomonas fluorescens NRRL-B-18296 is described. (google.com)
  • In particular the present invention relates to the use of Pseudomonas fluorescens NRRL-B-18296 combined with a carbon source so that halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon is degraded to non-toxic products (carbon dioxide, water and hydrochloric acid). (google.com)
  • While most aliphatic hydrocarbons have little GI absorption, aspiration frequently occurs, either initially or in a semidelayed fashion as the patient coughs or vomits, thereby resulting in pulmonary effects. (medscape.com)
  • To illustrate the proposed modeling approach we focus on the reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. (dtu.dk)
  • We successfully applied the new approach to published experimental results on dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes both in well-mixed systems and in situations where mass-transfer limitations control the overall rate of biodegradation. (dtu.dk)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as chlorinated methanes and ethenes, are large-scale industrial products and frequently detected in the environment as toxic contaminants. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Chlorine isotope measurement for chlorinated ethenes (CEs) became accessible in 2006 and is frequently used to follow the fate of CEs in groundwater and to identify their reaction mechanisms. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Therefore, often simplified model systems such as degradation of chlorinated ethenes by pure enzymes or the enzymatic cofactor vitamin B12 are used. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Reductive β-elimination was an important degradation pathway observed for chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, with reduction of chlorinated ethenes via this pathway resulting in the formation of highly reactive chlorinated acetylene intermediates, thus preventing the formation of VC. (wright.edu)
  • It appears that ZVI will reduce chlorinated ethenes via reductive β-elimination more readily than Zn reductants, suggesting an advantage of ZVI in the reduction of chlorinated ethenes. (wright.edu)
  • For a more detailed evaluation the 13 C balance sum is derived from the mol fractions and the analysed δ 13 C values of the single substances of the chlorinated ethenes. (hydroisotop.de)
  • Task 2 will characterize and test the nanoparticles for dechlorination of select chlorinated hydrocarbons such as TCE and PCBs. (epa.gov)
  • In this work a system of passive samplers was developed to examine volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in the gas phase of sewer systems. (iwaponline.com)
  • In addition, many volatile substances that contain hydrocarbons (eg, glue, propellants) are commonly abused for their euphoric effects. (medscape.com)
  • Groundwater contaminated with a mixture of 14 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) discharges to an estuarine embayment in Sydney, Australia. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. (marine.ie)
  • The hydrocarbons can be derived from either petroleum or wood. (medscape.com)
  • Petroleum distillates include kerosene, gasoline, and naphtha, whereas wood-derived hydrocarbons include turpentine and pine oil. (medscape.com)
  • Pollutants such as heavy metals, PAHs, and chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to a range of physiological problems in fishes, including reproductive impairment (Hose et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • while trichloroethylene (TrCE), tetrachloroethylene (TeCE) and para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB), vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels of (3.6 +/- 1.3), (1.3 +/- 0.5), (4.1 +/- 1.1), (2.2 +/- 1.1) and (1.2 +/- 0.3) microg/m3, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • They include oily sludge and contaminants dangerous to inhale or touch: perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene and chlorinated hydrocarbons , to name a few. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) the chlorinated organic contaminants are destroyed at high temperature. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Among the topics are spatial and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, the environmental contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls in China, chlorinated hydrocarbons in animal tissues and products of animal origin from Poland, contamination profiles and temporal trends of POC in oysters from the Gulf of Mexico, and the contamination profile and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctic biota. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrocarbons are a heterogenous group of organic substances that are primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules. (medscape.com)
  • The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. (osti.gov)
  • It has been made clear that injected free chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce chlorinated by-products. (osti.gov)
  • The sources of organic matter which is the cause for production of chlorinated by-products vary according to the kinds and conditions of the water source for drinking water. (osti.gov)
  • As a general statement, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon has been associated with suppression of the immune system and cancer. (europa.eu)
  • Pulmonary complications, especially aspiration, are the most frequently reported adverse effect of hydrocarbon exposure. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, a variety of simple chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride have been isolated from marine algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are structurally similar to other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes for the production of chlorinated propenes are provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The process does not require the use of catalysts and yet, process conditions less extreme than many conventional processes for the production of chlorinated propenes are suitable, so that raw material and utility cost savings are also possible. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The pH, temperature and salt (NaCl) concentration of water did not appear to exert significant effects on the sorption and desorption of the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides by the clay minerals"--Abstract, page ii. (mst.edu)
  • This includes hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and heavy metals effects, build-up and depuration as well as other toxicants accumulation in water, sediments and living organisms and oil pollution in open and closed water bodies. (omicsonline.org)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons - among others - are converted into hydrogen chloride which produces a hydrochloric acid solution after quick cooling in the quencher. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this study, catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane in water, generating chlorine free hydrocarbon and hydrogen chloride, has been demonstrated as a viable wastewater remediation technique with a half-inch co-current down flow trickle bed reactor. (tamu.edu)
  • Method of hydrodechlorinating nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes and recovering o-xylene, forming hydrogen chloride, the nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes being hydrogenated in the gas phase at a noble-metal-containing catalyst at a temperature in the range from 220 to 360 C. The catalyst preferably comprises. (google.co.uk)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a diverse group of persistent environmental contaminants that include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-TCDD and a number of pesticides. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides are used widely in agriculture, structural pest control, and malaria control programs around the world. (mhmedical.com)
  • This thesis describes the sorption and desorption of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides by clay minerals under laboratory controlled environmental systems. (mst.edu)
  • We report on the development of a set of Raman based techniques to monitor a large variety of biological and chemical analytes, such as various microorganisms, gels of hyaluronic acid and selected halogenated hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy, Raman tweezers and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). (muni.cz)
  • With the rise of the modern chemical industry it was possible to form organochlorides, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. (bionity.com)
  • A theoretical model including a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for hydrogen and hydrocarbon oxidation is used to examine the effects of variations in initial pressure and temperature on the detonation properties of gaseous fuel-oxidizer mixtures. (unt.edu)
  • This study targets on a new remediation technology for chlorinated industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. (tamu.edu)
  • However, an established and verified method for chlorine isotope measurement of chlorinated methanes was not available. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • EPA reports soil and groundwater at the site are contaminated with high concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), other chlorinated hydrocarbons and freons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Data for physicochemical parameters in water, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish are presented. (marine.ie)
  • Bench-scale experiments with variable concentrations of PAC (0.1-0.8 g/L) and NZVI (0.2-0.6 g/L) showed that PAC/NZVI composite can be highly efficient in rapid 1,1,1-TCA removal by adsorption, and effective in overall degradation leading to production of non-chlorinated daughter products. (wright.edu)
  • 4. The method as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen is fed to said single reactor in at least an equimolar equivalent of the molar content of nuclear-chlorinated o-xylene in the starting material. (google.co.uk)
  • Installation of soil-vapor extraction system (blue perforated pipes, left to right) in crushed stone bedding prior to pouring floor slab for a new pharmacy/convenience store built atop a chlorinated solvent plume from a former dry cleaner. (americon.com)
  • Alkanes and aryl alkanes may be chlorinated under free radical conditions, with UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterisation of chlorinated-hydrocarbon-degrading genes of bacteria. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a cytosolic, ligand-activated transcription receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hazardous chlorinated hydrocarbons are completely destroyed without residue. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The product will remove oils and other hazardous hydrocarbon based materials from fresh or salt water. (epa.gov)
  • A meta-analysis of historic groundwater chlorinated hydrocarbon plume data from approximately 17,000 monitoring wells across California, represented in the state's publically-accessible Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) database, was conducted with the assistance of a machine learning approach, density (DBSCAN), that divided the data into individual sites and plumes. (figshare.com)