HydrocarbonsPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.PhenanthrenesEnvironmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 188.8.131.52.Benzene DerivativesMutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.ButanesSex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.EthanePropaneGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.KetonesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)SmokeMice, Inbred C57BLMetallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedCooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chloracne: ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedAlkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Hydrophobic interaction of human, mouse, and rabbit interferons with immobilized hydrocarbons. (1/984)Interferons of human, mouse, and rabbit origin bind to straight chain hydrocarbons immobilized on agarose. The hydrophobic nature of binding is established by the following observations: (a) a positive correlation between the length of hydrocarbon ligand and the strength of interaction; (b) a stronger interaction with hydrocarbon ligands terminated with apolar rather than polar head groups; (c) a lack of dependence of binding on ionic strength and pH of the solvent; (d) a reversal of binding by ethylene glycol, a hydrophobic solute; (e) an increasing eluting efficacy of tetraalkylammonium ions with the length of their alkyl substituents. The hydrophobic interactions of human interferon underlie the efficiency of two-step chromatographic procedures. For example, human embryo kidney interferon can be purified about 3,600-fold by sequential chromatography on (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) octyl-agarose. Another two-step procedure: (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) L-tryptophan-agarose, gives about 10,000-fold purification. The overall recovery of interferon in both cases in close to 90%. (+info)
Hydrocarbon chain packing and the effect of ethanol on the thermotropic phase behavior of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerols. (2/984)Previous studies in this laboratory have delineated the relationship between the acyl chain asymmetry of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines and the effect of ethanol concentration ([EtOH]) on their melting behavior (Li et al., Biophys J., 70 (1996) 2784-2794). This present investigation extends these findings to another phospholipid family by using high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the effect of ethanol concentration on the main phase transition temperature (Tm) of five molecular species of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerol (PG). For C(14):C(18)PG, C(15):C(17)PG, C(16):C(16)PG, and C(17):C(15)PG, a biphasic profile in the Tm versus [EtOH] plot was observed, and the minimum in the plot for each PG occurred at 33, 15, 19, and 36 mg/ml, respectively. This biphasic behavior is typical of phospholipids whose acyl chain asymmetry is fairly small. For C(18):C(14)PG, only a linear decrease in the Tm was observed as a function of ethanol concentration; this effect is characteristic of highly asymmetric phospholipids. Our DSC results obtained with mixed-chain PG in the presence of ethanol demonstrate that the acyl chain asymmetry of the five lipids studied can be ranked as follows: C(15):C(17)PG
Resolution and purification of histones on homologous series of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses. (3/984)Hydrophobic chromatography on alkyl-agarose columns has been applied to the fractionation of histones. This paper describes: (a) a two-column method for the resolution of whole histone from calf thymus into its five main components (H1, H2a, H2b, H3 and H4), (b) a rapid one-step procedure for the isolation of the H3 fraction from whole histone, (c) an alternative one-step procedure for the resolution of H3 and H2a (which co-elute during gel exclusion chromatography on Biogel P-60). These experiments are also used for gaining further insight into the mechanism of action of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses. (+info)
Histone-hydrocarbon interaction. Partition of histones in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(ethylene glycol)-bound hydrocarbons. (4/984)The hydrophobic properties of histones have been examined with help of the two-phase partition technique using dextran-poly(ethylene glycol)-water systems. We have found that different fatty acid esters of poly(ethylene glycol) interact with total histones in a manner similar to proteins of the type beta-lactoglobulin and serum albumins. Thus the maximum interaction occurs when the fatty acid contains 16-18 carbon atoms. With less than eight carbon atoms in the polymer-bound fatty acid, no histone-hydrocarbon interaction is observed. The interaction of the five individual histone fractions with palmitate depends on the type of salt used and on its concentration. We suggest that the histones can be divided into three groups with decreasing hydrophobic properties: H3, H2a greater than H4, H2b greater than H1. (+info)
Toxic polyneuropathy of shoe-industry workers. A study of 122 cases. (5/984)The toxic polyneuropathy observed in a group of shoe-industry workers in Italy was clinically characterised by a symmetrical prevalently distal motor deficit, with occasional marked weakness of pelvic girdle muscles, and frequently by only subjective sensory symptoms; non-specific disturbances usually preceded neurological signs. Subclinical cases of 'minimal' chronic neuropathy, characterised by alterations of a neurogenic type in the EMG without a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity, were also observed. Worsening of the clinical picture, with further lowering of nerve conduction velocity, was noted in some cases up to four months after removal from the toxic environment. In the most severe cases clinical recovery took up to three years. The electromyographic and electroneurographic features were consistent with a mixed axonal neuropathy, with clear prevalence of the damage in the distal part of the nerve (dying-back neuropathy). Volatile substances, such as n-hexane and other low boiling point hydrocarbons found in high percentage in solvents and glues, are suggested as the causative agent. (+info)
Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (6/984)A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate. (+info)
Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis spore germination by various hydrophobic compounds: demonstration of hydrophobic character of the L-alanine receptor site. (7/984)L-Alanine-initiated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was inhibited by various kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Good correlation of inhibitory effect with hydrophobicity of the compound was demonstrated by using regression analysis in which the hydrophobic character was expressed by the partition coefficient in an octyl alcohol-water system. The correlation coefficient for 20 alcohols was 0.959, and that for 19 miscellaneous compounds was 0.906. Regression lines of the alcohols and other hydrophobic compounds were almost identical, showing that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in inhibition. Diphenylamine was one of the most effective inhibitors examined. n-Octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl alcohols were the most effective alcohols. The mode of inhibition by diphenylamine and n-octyl alcohol was a "mixed type" (competitive plus noncompetitive type) with respect to L-alanine; that by D-alanine was competitive inhibition. Sites for diphenylamine, n-octyl alcohol, and D-alanine may have overlapped. Inhibition was reversible by washing; heat resistance, stainability, and germination rate of the washed spores remained unaltered. Thus, we confirmed that the inhibition may occur before the initial trigger reaction of germination and that it may be due to the interaction between a hydrophobic compound and a hydrophobic region closely associated with the L-alanine receptor site on the spore. (+info)
Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers: field and laboratory microcosm experiments. (8/984)This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% alpha-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems. (+info)
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J.U.M. - 109L - Heated FID Analyzers - FIDs with Backpurge Filter - Heated Non Methane/ Methane/ Total Hydrocarbon FID Analyzer...
Alkanes, also known as paraffins or saturated hydrocarbons : Organic Chemistry
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 10008984 - Geochemical Aspects of the Saturated Hydrocarbon Constituents of Green River Oil...
Saturated hydrocarbons from 60 selected samples of a 2,300-foot Green River Formation oil-shale core (Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado) Were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography techniques. Emphasis was placed upon the distribution of normal alkanes and 15 key-branched and cyclic alkanes. The latter compounds consisted of the c15, c16, c18, c19, and c20 chain isoprenoids, the 5-a and 5-b c27, c28
Process for Producing Dimethyl Carbonate Containing Compositions - Patent application
1. A process for producing a composition consisting essentially of a binder component and a solvent component, said process comprising the steps of:(A) preparing the solvent component by mixing a solvent dimethyl carbonate with a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of aromatic hydrocarbon (135-146C), aromatic hydrocarbon (150-190C), aromatic hydrocarbon (182-219C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-150C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-163C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (115-149C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-177C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-185C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (145-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (155-190C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (170-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (180-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (182-266C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (90-110C), mineral spirit, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1-butoxy ethoxy 222-propanol, 1-methyl naphthalene, 1-nitro propane, ...
The Series 2400 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer is microprocessor-controlled designed to continuously measure concentrations of hydrocarbons. The Series 2400 utilizes a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) operating on the principle that the electrical conductivity of a gas is directly proportional to the concentration of charged particles within the gas. Designed to continuously measure and monitor concentrations of Hydrocarbons in a gas stream, it can also measure CO & CO2 using a methanizer. The instrument provides long term stability and accurate performance in a multitude of gas manufacturing facilities and laboratory applications.. ...
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Occupational hydrocarbon exposure and nephrotoxicity: a cohort study and literature review. | Postgraduate Medical Journal
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
Contribution of oenocytes and pheromones to courtship behaviour in Drosophila | BMC Biochemistry | Full Text
Results show that knock-down of desaturase genes in oenocytes is sufficient to suppress or at least largely inhibit pheromone biosynthesis. The effect is particularly clear in males, where desat1 knock-down under 1407-GAL4 led to a 96% decrease in monoenic hydrocarbons. In females, the decrease is less dramatic (78%). The biosynthesis of the saturated hydrocarbons was enhanced, as a consequence of the lack of desaturation of fatty acid precursors. Decreased levels of unsaturated hydrocarbons and increased levels of saturated ones have previously been described in P-desat1 mutant and resulting excision lines [12, 14]. However, the effects on hydrocarbons were relatively smaller, ranging from a 0 to about a 66% decrease in unsaturated hydrocarbons, depending on the lines. The fact that we never obtained an almost complete loss of hydrocarbons with desat1 mutants in former studies may be due to the pleiotropic nature of the mutation, which affects both fat body and hydrocarbons and also to the ...
Hydrocarbon Contamination Remediation (Hydrocarbon Contamination - Soil and Groundwater) Articles on Environmental XPRT
THC (Total Hydrocarbon) Monitoring
Signal Instruments microprocessor-based gas analyzers for CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, SO2 and Total Hydrocarbon monitoring featuring a common user interface, configurable alarm levels, powerful remote control, communications features and isolated voltage and current outputs. Standard EMI shielding and CE certification for safety. Signal Instruments Co.
Petro Chemical Division - Benzene International
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中国科学院大连化学物理研究所机构知识库(DICP OpenIR): THE STUDY OF THE REACTION RATE AND MECHANISM OF CN(V ''=0,1) RADICAL WITH HYDROCARBONS BY...
The rate constants of eleven hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons with CN (V"=0, 1) at 300K have been measured by using Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF) method. For the saturated hydrocarbons, the rate constants are chagned from (5.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(-13) for CH4 to (2.3 + 0.2) x 10(-10)cm(3) molecu(-1),8(-1) for C7H16. The rate constants of the reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes are close to the gas kinetic rate in spite of the structure of the molecules. The rate constants and mechanism of CN with the saturated hydrocarbons, H-2 and CH3OH can be explained satisfactorily by the long distance attractive potential. The reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes can only proceed through the addition into pi bond. The influence of vibrational energy on the reaction rate was not found in the reactions of CN radical with hydrocarbon compounds ...
Aliphatic hydrocarbon synonyms, Aliphatic hydrocarbon antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Hydrocarbon - Conservapedia
A hydrocarbon (HC) is a substance that is made of carbon and hydrogen in the gaseous, liquid, or solid phase. The molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest to the very heavy and very complex. The first structures are methane, ethane, propane (used for fuel), butane (used in lighters), pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane. Fossil fuels, thought by liberals to cause global warming, are comprised of HCs. Hydrocarbons can be divided into saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds. They are called alkanes. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double bounds (alkenes) or triple bounds (alkynes). HCs are highly flammable, and are the primary components of natural gas and petroleum (fuel). HCs are also useful to manufacturing plastics, solvents, rubbers, and a variety of chemicals used in industrial production. ...
Manufacture Of Gasoline And Benzene-toluene From Petroleum And Other Hydrocarbons, Issues 114-115..., Book by Walter Frank...
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Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Renewable Fuels Plant and Oxygenate Plant Net Production of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels)
Midwest (PADD 2) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail from Other PADDs of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand...
Patent US3460922 - Method of producing gelled hydrocarbons employing polyurethanes - Google Patents
United States Patent Ofice Int. Cl. C101 7/02 US. Cl. 44-7 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure describes a method of increasing the viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons, especially hydrocarbon fuels, by the in situ formation of cross-linked polyurethane polymers in liquid hydrocarbons by reaction between a hydroxyl terminated semipolymer which is soluble in the hydrocarbon, a semipolymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 and a polyisocyanate. This application is a continuation-in-part application of copending applications Ser. Nos. 544,416 and 544,418, both filed on Apr. 22, 1966 and both now abandoned. This invention is concerned with thixotropic-gelled, inflammable hydrocarbon compositions and processes for their preparation. More particularly it is concerned with inflammable compositions comprising hydrocarbon mixtures gelled by the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. Hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel and the like are widely employed as power ...
A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons for oil spill cleanup
Patent US7026416 - Fluoropolymer - Google Patents
To provide a fluoropolymer suitable for use as a base polymer for resist materials for excimer lasers having a wavelength of 250 nm or shorter. A fluoropolymer having a monomer unit formed by cyclopolymerization of a fluorinated diene compound represented by the following formula (3), CF2═CFCF2-C(CF3)(R5)-CH2CH═CH2 (3) wherein R5 is either a hydroxyl group blocked by -CHR7-O-R8 or an organic group having the hydroxyl group, and R8 is a cyclic saturated hydrocarbon such as a cycloalkyl group which may have a substituent, or an organic group having the cyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster...
Hydrocarbons Are Toxic To Pets | Pet Poison Helpline
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Count Geophysics - an independent geoscience consultancy, hydrocarbon-related geological and geophysical interpretation
SORPTION OF GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS AT FUEL CELL CATALYSTS OF THE PLATINUM METAL GROUP.
The chemisorption of propane and n-pentane on Raney platinum in the presence of varying amounts of pre-adsorbed water was studied at 100C by a combined gravimetric and mass spectrometric technique. It was found that the amount of saturated hydrocarbon chemisorbed is independent of the amount of pre-adsorbed water. If water is present on the surface, a portion of it is displaced upon chemisorption of hydrocarbons. At high coverages of the surface with pre-adsorbed water the amount of displaced water is constant. The ratio of displaced water molecules to chemisorbed propane molecules is about 1 with propane and 0.6 with n-pentane. If oxygen is chemisorbed on the catalyst surface before water and/or hydrocarbon is admitted, propane chemisorption is strongly enhanced. At a coverage of 1 oxygen atom for every 2 platinum surface atoms, the subsequent propane chemisorption is increased by a factor of about 2.5. Moreover, if on top of the oxygen layer water is adsorbed, the ratio of displaced water
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Asphalt (Bitumen) Fumes - Overview | Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Over a half-million workers are exposed to fumes from asphalt, a petroleum product used extensively in road paving, roofing, siding, and concrete work1. Health effects from exposure to asphalt fumes include headache, skin rash, sensitization, fatigue, reduced appetite, throat and eye irritation, cough, and skin cancer.. ...
Durability of Composite-Modified Asphalt Mixture Based on Inherent and Improved Performance | IntechOpen
The composite performance of modified asphalt and composite-modified asphalt mixture (CMAM) is divided into inherent performance and improved performance. The inherent performance refers to the original performance of the virgin asphalt and asphalt mixture. The improved performance refers to the performance obtained by modifying the virgin asphalt. In the study, the modified asphalt and asphalt mixture were tested through a series of experiments. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at high and low temperatures. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt mixture is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, based on inherent and improved performances, this chapter uses three kinds of CMAM (4% SBS/3% SBR, 4% SBS/15% rubber, and 4% SBR/15% rubber) as research objects to test the change rule of mechanical properties. This chapter outlines CMAM design,
Cephalopod Jet Propulsion
During jet propulsion, water is taken into the mantle cavity by expansion of the mantle. Water enters laterally at the sides of the head, passes over the collar, over the gills and leaves through the funnel when the mantle contracts. Mantle contraction causes water pressure in the mantle cavity to increase and forces the collar against the mantle wall. The collar, therefore, acts as a one-way valve to prevents water from leaving by the same route that it entered. The ventral wall of the funnel presses against the mantle during mantle contraction and seals that opening as well. Water, therefore, is forced through the funnel and out the funnel orifice. The force provided by the water leaving the funnel can be directed by movements of the funnel. Typically the water leaves the funnel anteriorly causing the cephalopod to jet backward (e.g. when escaping a predator) or the funnel is directed posteriorly causing the water to leave posteriorly and the animal to jet anteriorly (e.g. when pouncing on a ...
Podcasts | NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Twinkle twinkle, little star." (intro music) [4:10] Narrator: Welcome to "On a Mission," a podcast of NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Im Leslie Mullen, and this is season 2, episode 9: Hunting in the Dark for Monsters. (music) Vishnu Reddy, a professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson, is part of the planetary defense team that keeps track of near-Earth asteroids. In addition to studying what the various asteroids are like, he takes part in the planetary defense exercises that were featured in episode three. Vishnu Reddy: NASA traditionally does tabletop exercises. So these are exercises where they get key federal agencies, like FEMA and others, and they go into a conference room, and they play as if theres an asteroid headed in a certain way, and its going to impact in a certain location. How do you move people out of harms way? So theres no real asteroid, its a make-believe thing. But I said, "What about we do a real exercise? Not that were going to track an asteroid directly to ...
Space Mission and Science News | NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory wants you to build your own 'ROV-E' rover - BGR
Wiley: Hydrocarbon Chemistry, 3rd Edition - George A. Olah, Arpad Molnar, G. K. Surya Prakash
Volume 1. Preface to the Third Edition xiii. Preface to the Second Edition xv. Preface to the First Edition xvii. Introduction xix. Introduction and General Aspects 1. 1.1 Hydrocarbons and Their Classes 1. 1.2 Energy-Hydrocarbon Relationships 2. 1.3 Hydrocarbon Sources 4. Extraterrestrial Hydrocarbons 15. 1.4 Hydrocarbon Production from Natural Sources 16. 1.5 Hydrocarbon Synthesis 20. 1.6 Nonrenewable and Renewable Hydrocarbons 27. 1.7 Regenerative Hydrocarbons from CO2 Emission Capture and Recycling 29. 1.8 Hydrocarbon Functionalization Reactions 30. 1.9 Use of Hydrocarbons, Petroleum Oil 35. 1.9.1 Energy Generation, Storage, and Delivery: Heating 36. 1.9.2 Transportation Fuels 36. 1.9.3 Chemical Products, Plastics, and Pharmaceuticals 38. References 38. Hydrocarbons from Petroleum and Natural Gas 49. 2.1 Cracking 49. 2.2 Reforming 62. Hydroforming 64. Metal-Catalyzed Reforming 65. 2.3 Dehydrogenation with Olefin Production 71. Heterogeneous Catalysts 73. Homogeneous Catalysts 78. C2-C3 ...
Mineralisation of target hydrocarbons in three contaminated soils from former refinery facilities - Lancaster EPrints
This study investigated the microbial degradation of C-14-labelled hexadecane, octacosane, phenanthrene and pyrene and considered how degradation might be optimised in three genuinely hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from former petroleum refinery sites. Hydrocarbon mineralisation by the indigenous microbial community was monitored over 23 d. Hydrocarbon mineralisation enhancement by nutrient amendment (biostimulation), hydrocarbon degrader addition (bioaugmentation) and combined nutrient and degrader amendment, was also explored. The ability of indigenous soil microflora to mineralise C-14-target hydrocarbons was appreciable; ,= 16% mineralised in all soils. Generally, addition of nutrients or degraders increased the rates and extents of mineralisation of C-14-hydrocarbons. However, the addition of nutrients and degraders in combination had a negative effect upon C-14-octacosane mineralisation and resulted in lower extents of mineralisation in the three soils. In general, the rates and extents of ...
Science - Biomol-Med - Antioxidative barrier
Transition metal ions also catalyze the breakdown of lipid peroxides:. LOOH + Fe2+ → LO• + OH-Fe3+. LOOH + Fe3+ → LOO• + H+Fe2+. The stage of propagation is inhibited by the competitive termination occurring between reactive radical forms:. LOO• + L1 OO• → LOOL1 + O2. LOO• + L1OO• → LOOL1. L• + L1• → L - L1. The effect of the process is the formation of lipids with branched aliphatic chains or protein-lipid complexes. The breakdown of lipid peroxides leads to the formation of many compounds, such as saturated hydrocarbons (ethane, penthane, hexane) and unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes (saturated and unsaturated, hydroxyaldehydes), and dialdehydes (e.g. malone dialdehyde - MDA). Some of these compounds can be causes of pathologies or can be metabolized to other potential endogenous toxins.. Special attention should be paid to γ-diketones, which may cause the networking of lipids and proteins. Lipids networked by MDA have been found in blood cell membranes in sickle ...
Vesicles form block copolymers of ethylene glycol and propylene sulfide - Research Collection
POLYMERE ARZNEIMITTELTRÄGER; VESIKELN (PHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE); ETHYLENGLYCOL (ALIPHATISCHE GESÄTTIGTE KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE); ETHEN UND DERIVATE (ALIPHATISCHE UNGESÄTTIGTE KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE); SULFIDE + THIOETHER (ORGANISCHE CHEMIE); BLOCKPOLYMERE (KUNSTSTOFFE); COPOLYMERISATE AUS MEHREREN KOMPONENTEN (KUNSTSTOFFE); POLYMERIC DRUG CARRIERS (GALENICS); VESICLES (PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY); ETHYLENE GLYCOL (ALIPHATIC SATURATED HYDROCARBONS); ETHYLENE AND DERIVATIVES (ALIPHATIC UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS); SULFIDES + THIOETHERS (ORGANIC CHEMISTRY); BLOCKPOLYMERS (PLASTICS); MULTICOPOLYMERS (PLASTICS ...
Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential for hydrocarbons (C/H) - EVOCD
These MEAM parameters for elements C and H as well as the diatomic CH are appropriate for energy minimization and reactive molecular dynamics simulations of SATURATED hydrocarbons, where all carbon atoms have the sp3 hybridization (single C-C bonds). At the current state, MEAM cannot handle unsaturated compounds with great accuracy. Furthermore, these C and H parameters are not appropriate for diamond and graphite systems. Modification of the MEAM potential to include unsaturated C-C bonds, i.e., double and triple bonds, as well as its parameterization for elements oxygen and nitrogen is ongoing work. For the first time, MEAM can be used to simulate hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon/metal systems, since it has a large parameter database for major metals in the periodic table of elements. Since MEAM is a reactive potential, it can also be used to simulate fracture and fatigue in hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene and polypropylene and their composites with nanometals as well as ...
What We Monitor | Calgary Region Airshed Zone
The term "total hydrocarbons" (THC) refers to a broad family of chemicals that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. Methane (CH4), a non-reactive hydrocarbon, is the most common hydrocarbon in the earths atmosphere. Specific reactive hydrocarbons or non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) can react with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Health effects may result at varying concentrations depending on the hydrocarbon. Alberta has ambient air quality objectives for specific hydrocarbons. For more information on Albertas Ambient Air Quality Objectives please go to http://environment.alberta.ca/03116.html.. Sources of hydrocarbons include vegetation, vehicle emissions, gasoline marketing and storage tanks, petroleum and chemical industries, dry cleaning, fireplaces, natural gas combustion and aircraft traffic. Hydrocarbons are also emitted by fugitive sources such as evaporation of solvents, or leaking valves, flanges, pumps and compressors at industrial facilities. Incinerator ...
Microbial degradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in a marine sediment under different temperature regimes (Book, 1987) [WorldCat...
Get this from a library! Microbial degradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in a marine sediment under different temperature regimes. [J W Thorpe; K E Hellenbrand; Environmental Studies Research Funds (Canada)] -- Spills of petroleum hydrocarbons are major concern because of effects on marine life & beaches. In Canada most of offshore exploration takes place in Arctic or in areas where water tem peratures are ...
Fate of Hydrocarbons in Iron-Bearing Mineral Environments during Subduction
Subducted sediments play a key role in the evolution of the continental crust and upper mantle. As part of the deep carbon cycle, hydrocarbons are accumulated in sediments of subduction zones and could eventually be transported with the slab below the crust, thus affecting processes in the deep Earths interior. However, the behavior of hydrocarbons during subduction is poorly understood. We experimentally investigated the chemical interaction of model hydrocarbon mixtures or natural oil with ferrous iron-bearing silicates and oxides (representing possible rock-forming materials) at pressure-temperature conditions of the Earths lower crust and upper mantle (up to 2000(+/- 100) K and 10(+/- 0.2) GPa), and characterized the run products using Raman and Mossbauer spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction. Our results demonstrate that complex hydrocarbons are stable on their own at thermobaric conditions corresponding to depths exceeding 50 km. We also found that chemical reactions between hydrocarbons ...
12T 14T Asphalt Sprayer Heavy Duty Road - Henan FUMINE Machinery Co., ltd.
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market 2016-2021 Trends and Forecasts! | Business
Browse detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies mentioned in Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market research report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/global-aliphatic-hydrocarbon-solvents-market-research-report-2016-10446419. Table of Content Includes:. 1.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Competition by Manufacturers. 2.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. 3.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Manufacturing Cost Analysis. 4.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Effect Factors Analysis. Further in the report, the Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Industry for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise figures are also given.. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits ...
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) lesson plan | Spiral
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: chemistry,hydrocarbon,GCSE,Alkene (Chemical Classification),science,YouTube Editor,alkene,c3,c2,c1,Bromine (Chemical Element),Bromine Water,Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (Chemical Classification),unsaturated,alkali,bromine
Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.
Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame ionization detection (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS). Because the total GC detector response ... read more is labeled as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration and matrix compounds (lipids, organic matter) will contribute to this response, proper extract clean-up is crucial. Still, the choice for a specific clean-up material during open column chromatography often seems arbitrary, since no comparative study on clean-up agents for TPH analysis is available. Here, such a study is described and it is demonstrated that none of the commonly used agents fulfills the requirements of complete matrix compound removal and TPH recovery. A novel column filled with (top-down) 1g of 33% (w/w) 1 M ...
Effects of halofenozide (RH-0345) on cuticular hydrocarbons of mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens - Université de Bourgogne
Insect cuticular hydrocarbons are known to have a protection and a pheromonal role. Quantitative changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of Diptera occur over time and were used in a preliminary attempt to age-grade of mosquitoes. Halofenozide (RH-0345) is an insect growth regulator belonging to the class of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists. In a previous study, halofenozide was found to be effective against larvae of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and exerted its toxicity primarily by the induction of a precocious lethal molting (Boudjelida et al., 2005). In this study, newly molted 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens were exposed to halofenozide (23% EC) for 24 h at LC50 (12.58 µg/l) and LC90 (28.58µg/l) concentrations under standard laboratory conditions according to WHO recommendations. Then, to better understand the mode of action of halofenozide, the profiles of the cuticular hydrocarbons in treated and control larvae were evaluated using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass
C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market 2020- Demand, Insights, Analysis, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast To 2027 -...
The Global C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market report gives a detailed overview of the key market drivers, restraints, and trends and analyzes the way they will affect markets development over the forecast period 2020-2027.. This Global C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market 2020 report also gives comprehensive insight of, in-depth overview of the competitive landscape of the C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market, Industry Size, Share, Market Productions, Pricing, and Global Revenues Import-Export Figures & SWOT Analysis, PEST analysis, PORTER analysis and Forecast till 2027. Click here to get the short-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 on this Market:@ https://www.researchkraft.com/request-sample/1086599. The worldwide C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin market has been separated into a few essential sections, for example, item types, applications, areas, and end-clients. Moreover, it investigates locales including North America, Europe, South America, the Middle East, Asia, and the remainder ...
Chemwatch australian msds 4765-24
Boiling Point Gas oils do not have a single numerical value for boiling point, but rather a boiling or distillation range that reflects the individual components in the hydrocarbon mixture. Distillation rangesfor a variety of gas oils have been reported for a number of blended gas oil products production streams . Typical distillation ranges for blended fuels are 160 to 390 C for an automotive gas oil(diesel fuel), 160 to 400 C for a heating oil, and 170 to 420 C for a distillate marine fuel Typical low endand high end distillation temperatures for gas oil production streams were 172 and 344 C for ahydrodesulfurised middle distillate (65.6% -79.4% saturated hydrocarbons), 185 and 391 C for a straight-runmiddle distillate (78.8 saturated hydrocarbons), and 185 and 372 C for a light catalytic cracked distillate (60.8% -79.8% aromatic hydrocarbons). No substantial differences in boiling range were apparent for gas oilswith high concentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbonsVapor ...
Rapid Field Analytical Methods for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - OnePetro
ROS Detection in Botryococcus braunii Colonies with CellROX ...
We analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the colony-forming green microalga Botryococcus braunii in response to several stress inducers such as NaCl, NaHCO3, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and acetic acid. A staining assay using the fluorescent dye CellROX Green was used. CellROX Green is a fluorogenic probe used for measuring oxidative stress in live cells. The dye is weakly fluorescent inside cells in a reduced state but exhibits bright green photostable fluorescence upon oxidation by ROS and subsequent binding to DNA. The large amount of liquid hydrocarbons produced and excreted by B. braunii, creates a highly hydrophobic extracellular environment that makes difficult to study short times defense responses on this microalga. The procedure developed here allowed us to detect ROS in this microalga even within a short period of time (in minutes) after treatment of cells with different stress inducers.
Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (...
Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood) and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates). We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel
Intracluster anionic polymerization induced by electron transfer from alkali metal atom to unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules<...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Intracluster anionic polymerization induced by electron transfer from alkali metal atom to unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules. AU - Tsunoyama, Hironori. AU - Ohshimo, Keijiro. AU - Furuya, Ari. AU - Nakagawara, Wakana. AU - Misaizu, Fuminori. AU - Ohno, Koichi. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Size dependent stability and intracluster reactions have been investigated by photoionization mass spectrometry for alkali metal atom M (M=Na, K, and Cs)-methyl propiolate (HC=CCOOCH3; MP) clusters. The cluster ions with n=3 were predominantly observed in the M+(MP)n series. This intensity anomaly can be explained by a stable benzene derivative formation in intracluster anionic polymerization reaction induced by electron transfer from the metal. From the measurement of photoionization efficiency curves for Cs(MP)n, two different ionization threshold energies were obtained for Cs(MP)3. These two thresholds are concluded to correspond with the ionization energies of solvation type isomer and ...
Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Utilizing Bacteria Associated with Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant Grown in a Niger ...
Brevet US3304338 - Two-stage hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons - Google Brevets
c. E. PARISH 3,304,338 TWO-STAGE HYDROGENATION OF AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS I Feb. 14, 1967 Filed May 5, 1964 United States Patent O 3,304 338 TWO-STAGE HYDROGEATION F AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS Clyde E. Parish, Houston, Tex., assigner to Signal Oil and Gas Company, Los Angeles, Calif. Filed May 5, 1964, Ser. No. 366,220 11 Claims. (Cl. 260-667) This is a continuation-in-part of my -prior co-pending United States patent application Serial No. 135,516, iiled September 1, 1961, now abandoned, entitled Hydrogenaation Process. The present invention generally relates to a process for hydrogenatinig aromatic hydrocarbons and more particularly relates to an improved process for converting monocyclic aromatics into the corresponding cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons. Hydrogenation of aromatics in hydrocarbon streams frequently has been carried out to provide saturated hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogenation has been employed to convert benzene into cycloheX-ane, toluene into methyl cyclohexane and the aromatics in ...
Ideas For Putting in Colorbond Roofing - DIY House Decor
These days, colorbond roofing has introduced a revolution on the earth of roofing business. Just a few years again, metallic roofing was a finances pleasant choice, and so they have been generally used on industrial buildings and sheds. Nevertheless, issues modified after the introduction of colorbond roofing. The excellent news is that colorbond roofing is on the market in numerous colours. Lets know the way to set up colorbond roofing.Selecting Colorbond RoofingAfter the launch of the product, it continued to get higher. Quickly it included a whole lot of varieties. These days, youll find that this roofing materials can meet all of your wants:1. The product is on the market in tons of profile shapes for various kinds of houses.2. It consists of insulated roofing to forestall warmth from escaping. Furthermore, it dampens noise.. three. The good factor is that heat-reflective roofing may help you retain your premises cool.four. In case of patios the place both sides of the roof is uncovered, ...
n-alkanes as a tool for estimation of the biodegradation of oil-type pollutants in alluvial sediments (Danube, Yugoslavia)
An attempt was made to assess the microbial degradation degree of an oil-type pollutant in an alluvial sediment on the basis of n-alkane abundance changes in saturated hydrocarbon fractions within a ten-month period. For that purpose, oil-contaminated alluvial ground waters were investigated, taken from three drill-holes (three depths), three times each (winter 97/98, spring 98 and autumn 98) in the area of an oil refinery, in the immediate vicinity of the Danube (Yugoslavia). The results have unambiguously confirmed that depth-dependent, but obviously existing, biodegradation processes of oil-type pollutants occur in a very short time period ...
PHOTORESIST COMPOSITION - Patent application
wherein Rb4, Rb5 and Rb6 each independently represent a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a C1-C12 alkoxy group and a C6-C18 aromatic hydrocarbon group, a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, a C2-C4 acyl group and a glycidyloxy group, or a C6-C18 aromatic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, a hydroxyl group, a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group, a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group or a C1-C12 alkoxy group,Rb7 and Rb8 are independently in each occurrence a hydroxyl group, a C1-C12 aliphatic hydrocarbon group or a C1-C12 alkoxy group, m2 and n2 independently represents an integer of 0 to 5,Rb9 and Rb10 each independently represent a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group or a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group, or Rb9 ...
The fate of diesel hydrocarbons in soils and their effect on the germination of perennial ryegrass
Hydrocarbon contamination in soils may be toxic to plants and soil microorganisms and act as a source of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of diesel in soils with or without added nutrients. The soils examined either had or had not a previous history of hydrocarbon contamination. Particular aspects examined were soil respiration, changes in microbial population, breakdown of diesel hydrocarbons, and phytotoxicity to the germination of perennial ryegrass. Soil respiration was measured as evolved CO2. Bacterial population was determined as colony forming units in dilution plates and fungal activity was measured as hyphal length. The fate of individual hydrocarbons was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction with dichloromethane. When diesel was added to soil with no previous history of hydrocarbon contamination at rates up to 50 mg/g, the respiration response showed a lag phase of 6 days and maximum respiration occurred at ...
Asphaltene - Wikipedia
Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes). The word "asphaltene" was coined by Boussingault in 1837 when he noticed that the distillation residue of some bitumens had asphalt-like properties. Asphaltenes in the form of asphalt or bitumen products from oil refineries are used as paving materials on roads, shingles for roofs, and waterproof coatings on building foundations. Asphaltenes consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, as well as trace amounts of vanadium and nickel. The C:H ratio is approximately 1:1.2, depending on the asphaltene source. Asphaltenes are defined operationally as the n-heptane (C 7H 16)-insoluble, toluene (C 6H 5CH 3)-soluble component of a carbonaceous material such as crude oil, bitumen, or coal. Asphaltenes have been shown to have a distribution of molecular masses in the range of 400 u to 1500 u, but the average and ...
Chemistry Problem on Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes: Cyclobutane and Butene - Lakshan Dumpa | Brilliant
The above are the structural formulas of two compounds which have the same molecular formula. Which of following statements is correct?. a) The bond angle \(\alpha\) is the same as the bond angle \(\beta\).. b) Compound (A) is a saturated hydrocarbon and compound (B) is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.. c) The bond length between the carbon atoms is identical for all bonds. d) None of the above. ...
Oxidized asphalt 90/10 - South Bitumen
SBI Company guaranty the quality of SBI Oxidized asphalt 90/10 with the arrangement of the international inspector to check quality and quantity of the Oxidized asphalt 90/10 during the loading to the vessel and controlling the production by QC by batch test report before shipping. SBI Company guarantees the quality to meet with ASTM.. Uses of oxidized asphalt 90/10. Oxidized asphalt 90/10 uses in the chemical, fuel, lacquers, varnishes, paint paper-pulp-board, textile processing, road construction, pavement, civil works, roofing, construction industries; sealing and insulating buildings, adhesive, crack seal and repairmen, construction materials additive, dust-binding, insulating and impregnating agent, make rubber and plastic products. The asphalt 90/10 products are for paving. also used in asphalt-based paints for corrosion protection of metals, in lining public works structures, adhesives in electrical laminates, base for synthetic turf; typical uses for asphalt 90/10 used also for ...
Applied Sciences | Free Full-Text | Evaluation of Aging Resistance of Graphene Oxide Modified Asphalt
Graphene oxide (GO) has a unique layered structure with excellent gas and liquid blocking properties. It is widely used in many areas, such as gas sensors, carbon-based electronics, impermeable membranes, and polymeric composite materials. In order to evaluate whether GO (1% and 3% by weight of asphalt) can improve the aging resistance performance of the asphalt, 80/100 penetration grade asphalt (90 A) and styrene-butadiene-styrene modified asphalt (SBS MA) were used to prepare the GO modified asphalt by the melt blending method. The surface morphology of the GO was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV aging test was conducted to simulate the aging during the service period. After UV aging test, the physical performances of GO-modified asphalts were tested, and the IC=O and IS=O increments were tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the aging resistance performance of the GO modified asphalt. In addition, the rheological properties of GO modified asphalts
Identification of quantitative trait loci function through analysis of multiple cuticular hydrocarbons differing between...
The genetics of sexual isolation, behavioral differences between species that prevent mating, is understood poorly. Pheromonal differences between species can influence sexual isolation in many animals and in some cases a single locus can cause large functional changes in pheromonal mating signals. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can function as pheromones and consequently affect mate recognition. In a previous study of the two major CHCs in females that affect mating discrimination between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified on the X and third chromosome, and a few candidate genes were potentially implicated. Here we specifically test candidate genes for CHC biosynthesis and determine the genetic architecture of four additional CHCs that differ in abundance between D. simulans and D. sechellia females. The same QTL, and new ones, were found for additional CHCs. By examining all these CHCs and exploring their covariance, we were able to ascribe
Notes on Classification of Hydrocarbons | Grade 11 > Chemistry > Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry |...
If n=2, C2H2X2+2⇒ C2H6 (Ethane). They are also known as paraffin. Example- Propane.. •Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons, which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other with two (=C=C=), or three (-C≡C-) covalent bond and have the tendency to gain more hydrogen atoms are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. They are two types:. ...
Series 9000 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer
The analyzer is based on a flame ionization detector (FID) with FlowGuard electronic control that delivers a small portion of the sample gas to the detector flame. During the combustion process, organic or hydrocarbon-based gases in the sample are ionized then they are detected by the instrument and reported as a concentration ...
Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes,... - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Acute Fish Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not cause acute toxicity to fish with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). Chronic Fish Toxicity: Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)did not cause toxicity to fish ina 21-day toxicity study with Brachydanio rerio following standard test guidelines at a nominal loading of 5000 mg/l.These results indicate that hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)is not expected to be chronically toxic to fish.These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%). Acute Invertebrate Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not ...
Syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism under methanogenic conditions
Methanogenic metabolism of organic matter is a key process in both natural and engineered systems. Methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is an important biogeochemical process in the deep subsurface, and subsurface hydrocarbon contamination is frequently remediated by methanogenic processes. Despite the importance of methanogenic processes in hydrocarbon-impacted systems, we currently have an incomplete understanding of the hydrocarbon activation and degradation pathways used by the syntrophic bacteria, the roles of the non-hydrocarbon degrading syntrophs, which are often present in high abundance, and the ways in which syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea establish and maintain relationships that allow them to coordinate their metabolism. By studying methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading enrichment cultures, we remove many complicating features of natural systems and can gain a basic understanding of the primary factors governing hydrocarbon metabolism under methanogenic conditions. In this ...
Measurement of muon plus proton final states in νμ interactions on hydrocarbon at ν > = 4.2 GeV (Journal Article) | DOE...
A study of charged-current muon neutrino scattering on hydrocarbon in which the final state includes a muon, at least one proton, and no pions is presented. Although this signature has the topology of neutrino quasielastic scattering from neutrons, the event sample contains contributions from quasielastic and inelastic processes where pions are absorbed in the nucleus. The analysis accepts events with muon production angles up to 70° and proton kinetic energies greater than 110 MeV. The cross section, when based completely on hadronic kinematics, is well described by a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model including the neutrino event generator modeling for inelastic processes and particle transportation through the nucleus. This is in contrast to the quasielastic cross section based on muon kinematics, which is best described by an extended model that incorporates multinucleon correlations. As a result, this measurement guides the formulation of a complete description of neutrino-nucleus ...
US6547511B1 - Process of loading rolls of roofing material onto a pallet - Google Patents
An apparatus and process of loading rolls of roofing material onto a stationary pallet, wherein the process performs a series of operations, in accordance with the present invention. Each operation includes the steps of: (a) loading rolls of roofing material onto an upwardly inclined conveyor; (b) depositing the rolls of roofing material onto a downwardly inclined-table; (c) dropping the rolls of roofing material onto a sloped, rotating table until the desired number of rolls of roofing material are accumulated; (d) rotating the table and then tilting the plate until it is nearly upright into a vertical position; (e) traversing the rotating table over the pallet conveyor; and (f) unloading the roll of roofing material from the rotating table onto the pallet.
Tiler Slater, Roofing & Rooflines: 100% Feedback, Roofer, Fascias, Soffits and Guttering Specialist, Chimney & Fireplace...
Tiler Slater Roofing is a well-established, local, family run roofing company with a strong reputation for offering excellent service, promptly and within budget.. We have successfully repaired all kinds of pitched and flat roofs for houses, apartments and businesses over many years. Whether you require a Roof Repair or indeed a complete Roof Installation, regardless of the size of the roofing project, we guarantee that we will always complete your roofing project to the highest possible standard.. All of our materials are of the highest quality, and our work-force are fully qualified, courteous tradesmen. This has led to our success.. WHY CHOOSE US?. 1. We are a local, friendly, family run company with 20 years+ experience in all aspects of roofing.. 2. We offer free quotations with no obligation or pressure.. 3. We do not ask for payment until the work is complete and you are satisfied.. Aspects Of Roofing undertaken,. Slating, Tiling ...
US3116234A - Process for the catalytic desulfurization of hydrocarbon oils - Google Patents
United States Patent Filed Feb. 23, 1961, Ser. No. 90,941 (Ci. 2il-208) This invention relates to a process for the catalytic desulfurization of hydrocarbon oils containing cyclic and/or acyclic sulfur compounds. It is known to desulfurize hydrocarbon oils by contaoting these oils with a catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The drawback of this hydrosulfurization is that it requires hydrogen. It is also known to catalytically desulfurize hydrocarbon oils containing cyclic and acyclic sulfur compounds without using free hydrogen. Thus, US. Patent 2,151,721 describes a two-stage process for the desulfurizing of hydrocarbon fractions in which non-heteroeyclic sulfur compounds, for example aliphatic and aromatic mercaptans, are decomposed in the first stage by means of a catalyst of the clay type such as bauxite and fullers earth or of the metal oxide type, whereas in the second stage the heterooyclic sulfur compounds, for example thiophenes, are decomposed ...
Improvement of selectivity from lipid to jet fuel by rational integration of feedstock properties and catalytic strategy -...
C15 paraffin into multi-branched isomers and mono-branched isomers which satisfied the jet fuel specification. Based on this finding, by integration of feedstock selection, oxygen removing mechanism control and selective hydro-isomerization, a very high weight yield (60%) of algal lipid to jet fuel can be obtained. The obtained jet fuel satisfied the specification of ASTM 7566 standard. Such high jet fuel yield can obviously improve the economics of jet fuel production technology ...
Biodegradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon by Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Crude Oil Contaminated Brackish...
Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. Part 3. Halogenated Higher Hydrocarbons (C3 to C16). 94023 :...
Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resins | Gautam ZEN UK LTD
Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D. I. Engine - Chemical Analysis and Characterization of Diesel Fuel - SAE...
The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported. Based on the investigation and the simplified images, it was presumed that the amount and composition of the heavy fraction of diesel fuels are closely related to the ...
Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species - SAE International
The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.Focusing on these points, an examination was made of three catalyst systems: a three-way-catalyst (TWC), an ...
manual bitumen sprayer - manual bitumen sprayer online Wholesalers
NOPR: Hydrocarbon distribution in flat fish <i>Psettodes erumei</i> (Pleuronectiformes) and mussel <i>Modiolus striatulus</i> ...
The nature of hydrocarbons in flat fish Psettodes erumei and mussel Modiolus striatulus were studied to assess the extent of hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment. Concentration of group composition (aliphatic, aromatic and polar compounds) extracts in flat fish ranged from 427 ppm (w/w) to 435 ppm (w/w) for aliphatic, from 559 ppm (w/w) to 569 ppm (w/w) for aromatic and from 32992 ppm (w/w) to 33921 ppm (w/w) for polar compound. Whereas, the concentration in mussel ranged from 1415 ppm (w/w) to 1413 ppm (w/w) for aliphatic, from 479 ppm (w/w) to 496 ppm (w/w) for aromatic and from 43466 ppm (w/w) to 44066 ppm (w/w) for polar compound. Concentration of the total hydrocarbons in different extracts of flat fish and mussel were found in order of mussel > flat fish ...
Assessment Of The Biodegradation Potential Of Diluted Bitumen In Seawater, NC DOCKS (North Carolina Digital Online Collection...
Abstract: Diluted bitumen (dilbit) is a mixture of heavily weathered crude oil derived from oil sands and a lighter petroleum product diluent. Diluted bitumen is starting to comprise a greater proportion of oil imports to the U.S., and is the primary oil being transported by the Keystone XL Pipeline. Another common way to transport dilbit is by shipping tankers. Thus, it is critical to assess the extent of which it degrades in water. To test this, two different microcosm setups were prepared, one with autoclaved sand spiked with oil, and one with a water-accommodated fraction of oil. Three separate conditions for the water were prepared for the sand microcosm: water that has been autoclaved to kill microbes present (control), water with the natural flora present (alive), and water with natural flora and added nitrogen and phosphorus (N&P). The water-accommodated fraction microcosms utilized autoclaved water and natural seawater. At several time points, the remaining crude oil in the samples was ...
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (as Naphtha) by NIOSH 1550
Dynamic autoinoculation and the microbial ecology of a deep water hydrocarbon irruption | PNAS
The irruption of gas and oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon event fed a deep sea bacterial bloom that consumed hydrocarbons in the affected waters, formed a regional oxygen anomaly, and altered the microbiology of the region. In this work, we develop a coupled physical-metabolic model to assess the impact of mixing processes on these deep ocean bacterial communities and their capacity for hydrocarbon and oxygen use. We find that observed biodegradation patterns are well-described by exponential growth of bacteria from seed populations present at low abundance and that current oscillation and mixing processes played a critical role in distributing hydrocarbons and associated bacterial blooms within the northeast Gulf of Mexico. Mixing processes also accelerated hydrocarbon degradation through an autoinoculation effect, where water masses, in which the hydrocarbon irruption had caused blooms, later returned to the spill site with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria persisting at ...
Integrated carbon and chlorine isotope modeling: Applications to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons dechlorination<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrated carbon and chlorine isotope modeling. T2 - Applications to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons dechlorination. AU - Jin, Biao. AU - Haderlein, Stefan B.. AU - Rolle, Massimo. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - We propose a self-consistent method to predict the evolution of carbon and chlorine isotope ratios during degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The method treats explicitly the cleavage of isotopically different C-Cl bonds and thus considers, simultaneously, combined carbon-chlorine isotopologues. To illustrate the proposed modeling approach we focus on the reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. We compare our method with the currently available approach, in which carbon and chlorine isotopologues are treated separately. The new approach provides an accurate description of dual-isotope effects regardless of the extent of the isotope fractionation and physical characteristics of the experimental system. We successfully applied the new approach to published ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their...
ASMscience | Biodegradation of Hydroc
This chapter provides an update on the current knowledge about anaerobically hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, the reactions involved, and recent insights into the underlying genetics and regulatory mechanisms, and it describes the suitability of growth studies with crude oil as model systems. However, anoxic conditions prevail in many natural environments, such as soils, groundwater aquifers, freshwater and marine sediments, and oil reservoirs. Early reports of the anaerobic oxidation of alkylbenzenes in microcosms and enrichment cultures and in situ biodegradation of crude oil in anoxic reservoirs provided evidence that anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation indeed occurred. Anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation can also be coupled to phototrophic energy conservation, as was demonstrated with the toluene-degrading Blastochloris sulfoviridis ToP1. During anaerobic growth with crude oil, strain HxN1 formed succinate derivatives of C4 to C8 n-alkanes and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Identification of
US Patent for Process for removing polar impurities from hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbons Patent (Patent # 7,553,406...
This invention relates to a process for removing polarizable impurities from hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbons using ionic liquids as an extraction medium. By way of extraction, the degree of contamination of the hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons is reduced to a low or very low level. The specific ionic liquids are compounds of the Formula 1, which are organic salts that are liquid or can be melted to form a liquid and that can form at least a biphasic mixture with a hydrocarbon. The process is suitable for purifying a wide range of hydrocarbons under a wide range of process conditions.
Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. Main article: Microbial biodegradation. Microbes can affect the quality of oil and ... Leahy, J. G.; Colwell, R. R. (1990). "Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment". Microbiological Reviews. 54 (3 ... gas deposits through their metabolic processes. Microbes can influence the development of hydrocarbons by being present at ... or by dispersing through the rock column to colonize reservoir or source lithologies after the generation of hydrocarbons. ...
Mass spectral interpretation
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi ... Main article: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons that consist ... Other monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Other monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon include Cyclotetradecaheptaene or ... after the simplest possible such hydrocarbon, benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons can be monocyclic (MAH) or polycyclic (PAH). ...
... s are plants that follow certain metabolic pathways that produce hydrocarbon products similar to petroleum. ... These hydrocarbon products are called terpenoids. The plants that produce terpenoids in large enough quantities to be ... Most hydrocarbon plants are not trees, however, so this technique of tapping the tree is no longer feasible. Instead of tapping ... One particular tree, the Hevea tree, or more commonly known as the rubber tree, is probably the most famous hydrocarbon plant, ...
The cyclic hydrocarbons divide into alicyclics and aromatics (also called arenes).. Of the alicyclic compounds the cycloalkanes ... Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds. One of the simplest examples of these is benzene, the structure of which ... Referring to the hydrocarbon types below, many, if not all of the functional groups which are typically present within ... The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of homologous series according to their state of saturation: ...
Standard enthalpy of formation
Aegean Sea tanker oil spill
Friedel-Crafts test for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction of chloroform with aromatic compounds using an aluminium chloride ... In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... 25.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aryl Halides - Classification test. ISBN 978-1-4390-4914-3 ...
... is relatively toxic for an aromatic hydrocarbon, which tend to have low acute toxicities. The LD50 for intravenous ... Hydrocarbons obtained by the action of methyl chloride on benzene in the presence of aluminum chloride]. Chem. Ber. 12: 329-332 ... "Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227. Jannasch, Paul; Fittig, Rudolph ( ...
North Sea oil
List of environmental issues
Flame ionization detector
ASTM D7675-2015: Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen by FID-Based Total Hydrocarbon (THC) ... FID measurements are often labelled "total hydrocarbons" or "total hydrocarbon content" (THC), although a more accurate name ... Hydrocarbons generally have molar response factors that are equal to the number of carbon atoms in their molecule, while ... Another important disadvantage is that the FID flame oxidizes all oxidizable compounds that pass through it; all hydrocarbons ...
Extended Hückel method
China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau
... (C8H8) is a synthetic hydrocarbon molecule that consists of eight carbon atoms arranged at the corners of a cube, with ... A solid crystalline substance, cubane is one of the Platonic hydrocarbons and a member of the prismanes. It was first ... Strained Hydrocarbons. Wiley. p. 55. ISBN 9783527627141. Smith, Michael B.; March, Jerry (2001). March's Advanced Organic ... These compounds also typically have a very high density for hydrocarbon molecules. The resulting high energy density means a ...
Hydrocarbons , Textbooks". Textbook.s-anand.net. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. ... Hexane and other volatile hydrocarbons (petroleum ether) present an aspiration risk. n-Hexane is sometimes used as a denaturant ... Gad, Shayne C (2005), "Petroleum Hydrocarbons", Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3 (2nd ed.), Elsevier, pp. 377-379 Clough, Stephen ...
... (also known as Chayandinskoye field; Russian: Чаяндинское месторождение) is a large hydrocarbon resource field, ... "Chayandinskoye Field, Yakutia, Russia". Hydrocarbons Technology. Retrieved 2014-04-12. Howard, James P.; Bogolepova, Olga K.; ... Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of Neoproteozoic-Cambrian Basins in Asia. Geological Society of London special publication. ...
List of LNG terminals
North West Shelf Venture
Hydrocarbons from the Goodwyn field are transferred via a subsea pipeline to North Rankin before being transported to Karratha ... The Venture is underpinned by huge hydrocarbon reserves within the Carnarvon Basin, with only about one-third of the Venture's ... The facility also processes condensate which is extracted from the gaseous hydrocarbons during processing. A fleet of nine ... "North West Shelf Venture". Hydrocarbons Technology. Retrieved 2008-06-14. The Age, 30 September 2017, How Australia blew its ...
Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons having only single covalent bonds between their carbons. They can be: linear (general ... for the hydrocarbons CnH2n+2, CnH2n, CnH2n−2, CnH2n−4, CnH2n−6. Now, the first three name hydrocarbons with single, double and ... oil is a mixture of liquid alkanes and other hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were formed when marine animals and plants ( ... Saturated hydrocarbons can also combine any of the linear, cyclic (e.g., polycyclic) and branching structures; the general ...
Chevron and the Los Alamos National Laboratory started a cooperation in 2006 to improve the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil ... That same year, an Ecuadorean scientific team took water and soil samples after Texaco left and found petroleum hydrocarbons at ... Chevron is engaged in every aspect of the oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy industries, including hydrocarbon exploration ... "Chevron and Los Alamos Jointly Research Oil Shale Hydrocarbon Recovery". Green Car Congress. September 25, 2006. Retrieved ...
Hydrocarbon - Conservapedia
Hydrocarbons can be divided into saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single ... A hydrocarbon (HC) is a substance that is made of carbon and hydrogen in the gaseous, liquid, or solid phase. The molecular ... Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double bounds (alkenes) or triple bounds (alkynes). HCs are highly flammable, and are the ... structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest to the very heavy and very complex. The first structures are ...
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments.
Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity ... Hydrocarbon pollution background?. Salinity (g.L-1) applied in biodegradation assay. Hydrocarbons shown to be metabolized. ... Halophilic and halotolerant hydrocarbon-degraders and the hydrocarbons these microorganisms proved to degrade. ... How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in ...
Hydrocarbons Are Toxic To Pets | Pet Poison Helpline
Hydrocarbons are liquids that are commonly found in your garage. Examples are, engine oil, gasoline, diesel fuels, wood stains. ... Hydrocarbons are liquids that are commonly found in your garage. Examples include liquid fuels such as kerosene, engine oil, ... Hydrocarbons consist of chemicals containing a hydrogen and carbon group as their main constituents. Some of these products are ... If your dog or cat ingested hydrocarbons, one should never induce vomiting, as it can increase the risk for aspiration ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon - Wikipedia
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.. *ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... National Pollutant Inventory: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA ... total petroleum hydrocarbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl pollution records". Philosophical ...
Aromatic hydrocarbon - Wikipedia
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi ... Main article: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons that consist ... Other monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Other monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon include Cyclotetradecaheptaene or ... after the simplest possible such hydrocarbon, benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons can be monocyclic (MAH) or polycyclic (PAH). ...
Gulf Times - hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons depletion inescapable reality, al-Attiyah says. Hydrocarbons are a depleting resource and this is an inescapable ... Robust hydrocarbons, manufacturing sectors help boost Qatar industrial producers earnings in December. Robust hydrocarbons and ... Higher extraction of hydrocarbons and robust expansion in the production of beverages and refined petroleum products have led ... Natural gas will be the only form of hydrocarbons to increase its share during the next 30 years while fossil fuels will ...
hydrocarbons - EURACTIV.com
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Laboratory Capacity | CDC
Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as biomarkers of exposure to wood smoke in wildland firefighters. Adetona O, ... Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite concentrations and the effect of GST polymorphisms among US Air ... Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers to woodsmoke exposure - results from a controlled exposure ... Time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in New York City from 2001 to 2012: assessed by repeat air and urine ...
hydrocarbon | PNAS
Items tagged as hydrocarbons [WorldCat.org]
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) | ToxFAQs™ | ATSDR
What are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used to describe a large family of ... How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health?. *How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause ... What are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?. *What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). For more ...
Trapping Gaseous Hydrocarbons for Mutagenic Testing
... was developed and verified as a viable means for collecting gas phase hydrocarbons in the diesel fuel (C 10 +) range. The ... Trapping Gaseous Hydrocarbons for Mutagenic Testing 820776. A procedure using a porous polymer resin as a trapping medium, was ... The gasoline studies showed the gaseous hydrocarbon activity to be at or near background level. A comparison of the particle- ... Citation: Stump, F., Bradow, R., Ray, W., Dropkin, D. et al., "Trapping Gaseous Hydrocarbons for Mutagenic Testing," SAE ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) | ToxFAQs™ | ATSDR
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons usually occurs by breathing air contaminated by wild fires or coal tar, or by ... How might I be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. *How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect my ... What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. *What happens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when they enter the ... What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different ...
Hydrocarbon | Encyclopedia.com
The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of ... hydrocarbon (hī´drōkär´bən), any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. ... Aromatic hydrocarbons. An aromatic hydrocarbon is any hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings in its molecule. The ... Aromatic hydrocarbons. An aromatic hydrocarbon is any hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings in its molecule. The ...
hydrocarbons | NACLA
Liquid Hydrocarbons from Biomass Derived Ethanol | ORNL
... gaseous hydrocarbon are converted to liquid hydrocarbons. A second approach disclosed mixes gaseous hydrocarbon with alcohol to ... The approach uses a two-step process where in the second step after a first pass at converting alcohol to hydrocarbon, ... Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have reported a method to accomplish reduction of gaseous hydrocarbon in the ... UTB ID 201503541, Liquid hydrocarbons from biomass derived ethanol, U.S. Patent App. 15/178,046. ...
General Introduction: Hydrocarbons, Halogen Derivatives - 1st Edition
Hydrocarbons, Halogen Derivatives - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781483196299, 9781483221328 ... 1. Hydrocarbons, CnH2n. 2. Hydrocarbons Containing Several Double Bonds. 3. Acetylenes or Alkynes, CnH2N-2. 4. Hydrocarbons ... Chapter 1. the Saturated or Paraffin Hydrocarbons. Alkanes. 1. Introduction. 2. Natural Occurrence of Paraffin Hydrocarbons. 3 ... General Introduction: Hydrocarbons, Halogen Derivatives 1st Edition. A Modern Comprehensive Treatise. Write a review ...
Africa Hydrocarbons Announces Board Resignations
12, 2016) - Africa Hydrocarbons Inc. (NEX:NFK.H) (AHI or the Company) announces that John Nelson and... ... 12, 2016) - Africa Hydrocarbons Inc. (NEX:NFK.H) (AHI or the Company) announces that John Nelson and... ... Africa Hydrocarbons Announces Board Resignations. Email Print Friendly Share December 12, 2016 16:04 ET. , Source: Africa ... 12, 2016) - Africa Hydrocarbons Inc. (NEX:NFK.H) ("AHI" or the "Company") announces that John Nelson and Gord McKay have ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Factsheet | National Biomonitoring Program | CDC
Gaseous Automotive Fuels from Steam Reformed Liquid Hydrocarbons
Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons - 1st Edition
Purchase Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080238357, ... Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... This book begins with a brief review of the early work on the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis by polynuclear hydrocarbons ... The mechanism of binding of metabolites derived from polynuclear hydrocarbons to key cellular sites is also discussed. ...
Assessment for Learning Chemistry: Naming hydrocarbons- Learn Chemistry
MKE Stock Quote - Mako Hydrocarbons Ltd - Bloomberg Markets
Hydrocarbons Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Hydrocarbons are easily accessible in products such as gasoline, turpentine, furniture polish, household cleansers, propellants ... Exposure to hydrocarbons is common in modern society. ... hydrocarbons. Other hydrocarbons such as pine oil and ... encoded search term (Hydrocarbons Toxicity) and Hydrocarbons Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Exposure to hydrocarbons is common in modern society. Hydrocarbons are easily accessible in products such as gasoline, ...
Sonneborn, LLC, Global Leader in Specialty Hydrocarbons, Launches New Website
Sonneborn, LLC, leading manufacturer of specialty hydrocarbons, microcrystalline waxes and vegetable based emollients, launches ... Sonneborn is the worlds only specialty hydrocarbon producer that offers this global reach of expertise and depth of experience ... Sonneborn has been setting industry standards the world over for the finest possible specialty hydrocarbons in Personal Care, ...
Hydrocarbons Refining capability and experience brochure | WorleyParsons by WorleyParsons - issuu
Title: Hydrocarbons Refining capability and experience brochure , WorleyParsons, Author: WorleyParsons, Name: Hydrocarbons ... HYDROCARBONS INFRASTRUCTURE MINERALS, METALS & CHEMICALS. EcoNomics™ provides our customers with the systems, technologies and ... Gas WorleyParsons is developing solutions to the unique logistical challenges associated with unconventional hydrocarbons ...
Hydrocarbon pneumonia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
These hydrocarbons have a very low viscosity, which ... Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in ... These hydrocarbons have a very low viscosity, which means that they are very, very thin and slippery. If you tried to drink ... Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline, kerosene, furniture polish, paint thinner, or other oily ... Highly toxic hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death. Repeated ingestions may lead to permanent brain, ...
microbial hydrocarbons remediation Downloads | ...
Hydra - Bio HC Buster For Removes Hydrocarbon Wastes from Liquids and Solids Datasheet of hydrocarbons, a highly effective ... The HC-SERIES is our professional product line for the bio-remediation of deep soil and ground water hydrocarbon contamination ... EnviroLogic - Model OWS-200 - Concentrated Microbial-Enzymatic Hydrocarbon Remedi Ation Agent Brochure ; can & will help to ... NavalKleen - Concentrated Microbial Enzymatic Hydrocarbon Remediation Agent Brochure ; will help to overcome many of these ...
Hydrocarbons Revenue Law - Lexology
... a Decree promulgating the Hydrocarbons Revenue Law (the "HRL") was published in the Official Federal Gazette, as part of a… ... Hydrocarbons Revenue Law. On August 11th 2014, a Decree promulgating the Hydrocarbons Revenue Law (the "HRL") was published in ... New Tax on Hydrocarbon Exploration and Extraction Activities. A new tax is created to be levied on contractors and assignees as ... 3. A royalty to be calculated according to the type of hydrocarbon, with regard to its contractual value. The base amount for ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - WUR
... for research into environmental contaminants in food and feed such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for research into ... The EU-RL for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Feed and Food as laid down in Regulation (EU) 2017/625 contributes to the ... Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is involved in ...
Patent US3881551 - Method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons - Google Patents
... through the hydrocarbon formation so that the admixture of the solvent and hydrocarbon can be brought to the surface and ... passing a heated fluid through the wells and the hydrocarbon formation to obtain a predetermined temperature in the formation ... A method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons includes the steps of sinking spaced wells into the hydrocarbon formation, ... and finally passing a solvent material, having the ability to dissolve the immobile hydrocarbon, ...
Patent US4327805 - Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons - Google Patents
... migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and ... A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through ... Hydrocarbon recovery using fluids. US7798220. 18 Apr 2008. 21 Sep 2010. Shell Oil Company. In situ heat treatment of a tar ... Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale. US3814186 *. 27 Sep 1971. 4 Jun 1974. Texaco Inc. Secondary recovery for ...
Aromatic hydrocarbonsAlkanesAlkenesCompoundsReactionsAlkynesBenzeneLiquidsAtomsHydrogen and carbonAliphatic hydrocarbonMethaneReactiveCrude OilChemicalMethoxy-substitutedGaseousMixtureDouble bondsPolycyclicAromatic hydrocarbonPetroleumAliphatic hydrocarbonsFuels2018BiomassSimplest hydrocarbonTypes of hydrocarbonsExtractionGaseous hydrocarbonToxicityDifferent hydrocarbonsPolynuclearEmissionsIngestionSolventsEthaneAlkeneGasolineMoleculesWaxes2016Methane hydratesCrudeWorld'sContaminationHttpsTitanOffshoreBacterialFeedstockVolatileLungsLiquidContentScientistsInhalationImpurities
- Hydrocarbons can be divided into saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. (conservapedia.com)
- In the hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons , dimethlyformamide and dioxane were employed as a reaction solvent. (freethesaurus.com)
- Aromatic hydrocarbons have a closed ring of 6 carbon atoms in the shape of a hexagon with 3 of the carbon atoms having a double bond with one connected carbon atom and a single bond with another connected carbon. (libretexts.org)
- For nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons, two layers were occured.Heavy oil was the top layer. (foodelphi.com)
- The team next plans to synthesize other near infrared-absorbing aromatic hydrocarbons based on the design concepts garnered in this current study. (afarnews.com)
- Linear saturated hydrocarbons are referred to as paraffins or alkanes and their general formula is C n H n +2 . (libretexts.org)
- Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series.The alkanes are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. (foodelphi.com)
- Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double bounds ( alkenes ) or triple bounds ( alkynes ). (conservapedia.com)
- Linear unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a single double bond are referred to as olefins or alkenes . (libretexts.org)
- Other homologous series of hydrocarbons include the alkenes and the alkynes. (foodelphi.com)
- The molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest to the very heavy and very complex. (conservapedia.com)
- Such a ring is referred to as a benzene ring and all hydrocarbons containing one or more such rings are referred to as aromatics or aryl compounds . (libretexts.org)
- Many important compounds are derived from hydrocarbons, either by substitution or replacement by some other chemical group or element of one or more of the hydrogen atoms of the hydrocarbon molecule, or by the addition of some element or group to a double or triple bond (in an unsaturated hydrocarbon). (foodelphi.com)
- Manufacture Of Gasoline And Benzene-toluene From Petroleum And Other Hydrocarbons, Issues 114-115. (indigo.ca)
- Group composition of TBO (1 h, 380[degrees]C), % Compound group Symbol Solvent -- Benzene Aliphatic hydrocarbons AlHC 8. (freethesaurus.com)
- The aromatics are those hydrocarbons that contain one or more benzene rings or similar rings. (libretexts.org)
- For sulfuric acid test, hydrocarbon which is benzene didn't dissolved in cocentrated H 2 SO 4 .Heat is evolved. (foodelphi.com)
- In this experiment benzene and paraffin were used as hydrocarbon. (foodelphi.com)
- Hydrocarbons * are a class of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. (libretexts.org)
- The simplest hydrocarbons are linear molecules in which each carbon atoms is bonded to two other carbons atoms, in a linear fashion, except for the carbon atoms at the ends, which are only bonded to one other carbon atom. (libretexts.org)
- Cyclic saturated hydrocarbons have a closed ring of carbon atoms in a polygon configuration having the same number of vertices as the number of carbon atoms, with each carbon atom being bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to two other carbon atoms. (libretexts.org)
- Cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons have a closed ring of carbon atoms in a polygon configuration having the same number of vertices as the number of carbon atoms. (libretexts.org)
- The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. (foodelphi.com)
- Each successive member of a homologous series of hydrocarbons has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms in its molecule than the preceding member. (foodelphi.com)
- These MEAM parameters for elements C and H as well as the diatomic CH are appropriate for energy minimization and reactive molecular dynamics simulations of SATURATED hydrocarbons, where all carbon atoms have the sp3 hybridization (single C-C bonds). (msstate.edu)
Hydrogen and carbon2
- They consist of a fluid, thermodynamically stable dispersion of oil (in this case, aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent) and water, with domain sizes in the hundreds of angstroms range, and, as such, tend to form clear systems. (freethesaurus.com)
- In experimental studies, aliphatic hydrocarbon selectivities for [C. (freethesaurus.com)
- The ratios of aliphatic hydrocarbon recovery to total hydrocarbon recovery (selectivity) were found to be 0. (freethesaurus.com)
- Yes, you could speciate the various hydrocarbon components in a mixture by gas chromatography . (physicsforums.com)
- Black powder presents in wet and dry forms and is found to contain a mixture of iron and sulfur-based substances along with iron oxides in a fluid fraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons , compressor lubrication oils, glycol and amine. (freethesaurus.com)
- The coal tar obtained from coal by coking is also a mixture of hydrocarbons. (foodelphi.com)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs , also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ) are hydrocarbons - organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen-that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized ). (wikipedia.org)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed as possible starting materials for abiotic syntheses of materials required by the earliest forms of life . (wikipedia.org)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily found in natural sources such as creosote . (wikipedia.org)
- Aromatic hydrocarbons can be monocyclic (MAH) or polycyclic (PAH). (wikipedia.org)
- This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (cdc.gov)
- Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons usually occurs by breathing air contaminated by wild fires or coal tar, or by eating foods that have been grilled. (cdc.gov)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. (cdc.gov)
- What happens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
- How might I be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? (cdc.gov)
- How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect my health? (cdc.gov)
- How likely are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. (cdc.gov)
- Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pertaining to the 'Bay-region' theory is also presented. (elsevier.com)
- Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for research into environmental contaminants in food and feed such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (wur.nl)
- Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is involved in the analysis of PAHs in food and feed. (wur.nl)
- The EU-RL for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Feed and Food as laid down in Regulation (EU) 2017/625 contributes to the implementation of high quality implementation and uniform results. (wur.nl)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants of high environmental concern with known carcinogenic activity. (hindawi.com)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of frequently detected organic pollutants in urban stormwater runoff. (hindawi.com)
- This CSEM focuses on the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
- Take the Initial Check to assess your current knowledge about the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
- For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/change-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
- Bituminous asphalt and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) The most widespread medium used for pavement is asphalt. (bartleby.com)
- Once the more easily processed materials and their breakdown products have completed their complicated journeys through the Gulf ecosystems, that still leaves the toxins that don't break down easily, both the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals like arsenic that are associated with drilling accidents. (edf.org)
- Three representations of hexabenzocoronene , a polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
- An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon ) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle. (wikipedia.org)
- Benzene , C 6 H 6 , is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, and it was the first one named as such. (wikipedia.org)
- Aromatic hydrocarbons, or arenes: Each molecule of an aromatic hydrocarbon contains at least one aromatic ring, in which the bonds between carbon atoms are aromatic bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- A most probable number (MPN) procedure was developed to separately enumerate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, because most of the currently available methods are unable to distinguish between these two groups. (proz.com)
- Higher extraction of hydrocarbons and robust expansion in the production of beverages and refined petroleum products have led Qatar's industrial production report a marginal 0.3% year-on-year growth in December 2018, according to the official estimates. (gulf-times.com)
- This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). (cdc.gov)
- Scientists divide TPH into groups of petroleum hydrocarbons that act alike in soil or water. (cdc.gov)
- These groups are called petroleum hydrocarbon fractions. (cdc.gov)
- What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
- How might I be exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (cdc.gov)
- How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health? (cdc.gov)
- How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
- Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (cdc.gov)
- Most of the dangerous hydrocarbons are derived from petroleum distillates and include aliphatic (straight-chain) hydrocarbons and aromatic (benzene-containing) hydrocarbons. (medscape.com)
- Everyday, the world uses up large amounts of hydrocarbon fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum crude oil and natural gas for energy. (prweb.com)
- Some of the sets that they make are called the 'Oil Rock Set', 'Fossil Fuel Set', 'Coal Rank Set', 'Petroleum Set' and 'Crude Oil Set' which all come with different hydrocarbon fossil fuel geology specimens and educational information sheets. (prweb.com)
- The hydrocarbons can be derived from either petroleum or wood. (medscape.com)
- Petroleum distillates include kerosene, gasoline, and naphtha, whereas wood-derived hydrocarbons include turpentine and pine oil. (medscape.com)
- Hydrocarbons are obtained by refining petroleum at refineries such as this one. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum (literally, "rock oil"), also called "oil," and natural gas . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Petroleum is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, while natural gas is mainly constituted of methane gas. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Your primary role is to participate in the chromatography lab in support of the gas and petroleum hydrocarbon characterization team, develop analytical methods, mentor young scientists, and interact with proponents to solve their analytical and operational challenges through the available resources. (rigzone.com)
- Hydrocarbons are of prime economic importance because they encompass the constituents of the major fossil fuels ( coal , petroleum , natural gas , etc.) and plastics , paraffin, waxes , solvents and oils . (factbites.com)
- In fact, petroleum distillate refers to a type of hydrocarbon which results from the processing of crude oil , and may be aliphatic or aromatic . (factbites.com)
- His research focuses on molecular mechanisms of biogeochemical key reactions and metabolic pathways in microorganisms, the origin, fate and transformation of hydrocarbons and petroleum in the environment and in the geosphere, and the reconstruction of past environments and climates using organic-geochemical proxy parameters. (springer.com)
- In contrast, aliphatic hydrocarbons lack this delocalization. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, there can be three kinds of aliphatic hydrocarbons: those whose carbon skeletons contain only single bonds, those that contain some double bonds, and those that contain some triple bonds. (encyclopedia.com)
- Unlike the aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons, the halogenated hydrocarbons tend to cause a wider range of toxicity. (medscape.com)
- While most aliphatic hydrocarbons have little GI absorption, aspiration frequently occurs, either initially or in a semidelayed fashion as the patient coughs or vomits, thereby resulting in pulmonary effects. (medscape.com)
- A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. (google.co.uk)
- The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels. (google.co.uk)
- As a political historian, my initial objective when writing Hydrocarbon Nation was simply to investigate the role that fossil fuels have played in influencing America's political and economic advance. (jhu.edu)
- Thus, it is very important to appreciate, conserve and learn about hydrocarbon fossil fuels since we depend so much on them. (prweb.com)
- Most information that is learned about hydrocarbon fossil fuels comes from the many different books out there that can be read on this subject along with different articles in business, industry and academic journals. (prweb.com)
- This is being done by their making of hydrocarbon fossil fuel sets that consist of different geology specimens such as rocks, minerals and fossils that relate to hydrocarbon fossil fuels. (prweb.com)
- Robust hydrocarbons and manufacturing sector helped Qatar's industrial producers' earnings register an about 10% growth year-on-year in December 2018, according to official estimates. (gulf-times.com)
- AUSTIN, Texas , Sept. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- JP3 Measurement, LLC (JP3) is pleased to announce that it has received the Best Analyzer Technology award for 2018 by Hydrocarbon Processing magazine. (prnewswire.com)
Types of hydrocarbons1
- The purpose of the HRL is to establish the regime applicable to the revenue obtained by the Mexican State from contracts executed with private parties or from direct assignments to PEMEX to carry out the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, and to regulate the management and oversight of the financial aspects of such contracts. (lexology.com)
- The Law establishes the concepts and mechanisms whereby the Mexican State is to obtain revenue from hydrocarbon exploration and extraction activities, resulting from contracts models to be executed with private enterprises or assignments to state-owned enterprises (such as PEMEX). (lexology.com)
- While the tax regime for state-owned enterprises is of major importance in the national context, this alert summarizes key issues for the private sector interested in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction through contracts to be executed with the Mexican State. (lexology.com)
- The HRL provides the main concepts from which the Mexican State will obtain revenue from hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, defined as those activities specifically set forth in the Hydrocarbons Law, including the construction, location, operation, use, abandonment and winding up of facilities for the production, treatment and refining of oil and the processing of natural gas. (lexology.com)
- In general, hydrocarbon exploration and extraction agreements establish considerations corresponding to the State and private parties. (lexology.com)
- 13 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures METHOD GF EXTRACTING IMMOBILE HYDROCARBONS The present invention generally concerns a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth and more particularly concerns a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth by converting the hydrocarbons in situ into a flowable state and in a manner such that the resultant product of the extraction is a solid fuel composition. (google.com)
- The landowner must be notified in writing of the intention to acquire the land by way of one of the contracts specified in the Guidelines and Models of Contracts for the Use, Enjoyment, Affectation or Acquisition of Land, Property or Rights to Carry Out Hydrocarbon Exploration and Extraction and Pipeline Transport Activities. (lexology.com)
- Especially designed for air and water treatment on contaminated site, the double phases extraction unit allows to pump air, water and free hydrocarbon phase from contaminated underground site in order to treat all phases separately. (environmental-expert.com)
- The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from a number of sedimentary basins has been integral to modern energy development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The gasoline studies showed the gaseous hydrocarbon activity to be at or near background level. (sae.org)
- UT-Battelle, LLC, acting under its Prime Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is seeking a commercialization partner for a new method to reduce gaseous hydrocarbon content in the conversion of alcohol to hydrocarbon. (ornl.gov)
- Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have reported a method to accomplish reduction of gaseous hydrocarbon in the production of alcohol to hydrocarbon. (ornl.gov)
- The approach uses a two-step process where in the second step after a first pass at converting alcohol to hydrocarbon, gaseous hydrocarbon are converted to liquid hydrocarbons. (ornl.gov)
- A second approach disclosed mixes gaseous hydrocarbon with alcohol to accomplish conversion into hydrocarbons. (ornl.gov)
- Pulmonary toxicity is the result of hydrocarbon aspiration causing direct effects on lung parenchyma. (medscape.com)
- Hydrocarbon toxicity produces various CNS effects. (medscape.com)
- Toxicity from hydrocarbon ingestion can affect many different organs, but the lungs are the most commonly affected. (medscape.com)
- The chemical properties of the individual hydrocarbon determine the specific toxicity, while the dose and route of ingestion affect which organs are exposed to the toxicity. (medscape.com)
- The toxicity of hydrocarbons is directly related to their physical properties, specifically the viscosity, volatility, surface tension, and chemical activity of the side chains. (medscape.com)
- The amount of hydrocarbon ingested has not consistently been linked to the degree of aspiration and hence pulmonary toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Toxicity from hydrocarbon exposure can be thought of as different syndromes, depending on which organ system is predominately involved. (medscape.com)
- Because there is no apparent limit to the size and complexity of the carbon skeletons, there is in principle no limit to the number of different hydrocarbons that can exist. (encyclopedia.com)
- The role of the upper atmosphere in this organic "factory" of hydrocarbons is very intriguing to scientists, especially given the large number of different hydrocarbons detected by Cassini during the flyby. (universetoday.com)
- Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons deals with the metabolic activation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and covers topics ranging from the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of arene oxides to the role of secondary metabolites as ultimate carcinogens. (elsevier.com)
- The mechanism of binding of metabolites derived from polynuclear hydrocarbons to key cellular sites is also discussed. (elsevier.com)
- This book begins with a brief review of the early work on the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis by polynuclear hydrocarbons, followed by a detailed survey of pertinent literature in the field. (elsevier.com)
- Fate of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during anaerobic digest. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The fate of six polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during anaerobic digestion of municipal sludges was investigated in a two-stage pilot-scale digester system. (ingentaconnect.com)
- These hydrocarbons are particularly harmful in large cities where, through chemical reactions with emissions from cars, they form ozone - a greenhouse gas which is a key component of smog and directly linked to increases in mortality. (enn.com)
- This new study shows that global fossil fuel emissions of these hydrocarbons have been underestimated and are a factor of 2-3 times higher than previously thought. (enn.com)
- It is conspicuous that twice as many hydrocarbon emissions can be produced in residential areas with little traffic but many parked vehicles: stopped traffic can produce twice as much hydrocarbon emissions as moving traffic. (berlin.de)
- approximately 10 % of total hydrocarbon emissions. (berlin.de)
- Benzol emissions are proportional to hydrocarbon emissions due to their close relationship (see Map 03.09.1). (berlin.de)
- Aspiration pneumonitis is the most common complication of hydrocarbon ingestion, followed by central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular complications. (medscape.com)
- Local irritation is the usual GI manifestation of hydrocarbon ingestion. (medscape.com)
- Symptoms of aliphatic hydrocarbon ingestion, in the absence of toxic substituents, are confined to the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory tract. (factbites.com)
- Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline , kerosene , furniture polish , paint thinner, or other oily materials or solvents. (medlineplus.gov)
- Shell chemicals companies are leading suppliers of isoparaffins, a group of high purity, relatively high boiling synthetic hydrocarbon solvents. (shell.com)
- Special boiling point (SBP) solvents are versatile fast to medium evaporating aliphatic hydrocarbon fluids with very low impurities and aromatics content and narrow boiling ranges. (shell.com)
- The recreational use of inhaling hydrocarbons and other volatile solvents for the purposes of creating a euphoric state is becoming increasingly common. (medscape.com)
- In fact, Hydrocarbon was one of the first solvents to be used in the early days of drycleaning. (factbites.com)
- Now for the first time, scientists have found that ethane and heavier hydrocarbons can be synthesized under the pressure-temperature conditions of the upper mantle -the layer of Earth under the crust and on top of the core. (innovations-report.com)
- Methane and ethane are the two simplest hydrocarbons. (reference.com)
- Refineries and other processing plants that pump light hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethylene, propane, and butane, (specific gravity from 0.4 to 0.6) face a challenge. (machinedesign.com)
- The method was then used in a series of diesel and gasoline powered passenger car studies aimed at comparing the gas phase with the particle-bound hydrocarbon mutagenic activity. (sae.org)
- Arabian American will build the plant at its South Hampton Resources Inc. subsidiary in Silsbee, Texas, and will process up to 10,000 gallons of Gevo's isobutanol - a naturally occurring alcohol - into renewable hydrocarbons for use in jet fuel, gasoline and other materials. (bizjournals.com)
- The gasoline that serves as fuel for automobiles consists primarily of hydrocarbons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- However, it is surprising to find the plethora of complex hydrocarbon molecules in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
- Hydrocarbons are molecules composed only from hydrogen and carbon. (reference.com)
- Hydrocarbons are a heterogenous group of organic substances that are primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules. (medscape.com)
- Halogenated hydrocarbons are a subgroup of aromatic hydrocarbons, in which one of the hydrogen molecules is substituted by a halogen group. (medscape.com)
- Sonneborn, LLC, leading manufacturer of specialty hydrocarbons, microcrystalline waxes and vegetable based emollients, launches new interactive website, featuring detailed product information, chat line and industry resources. (prweb.com)
- most are liquid, but some short-chain hydrocarbons (eg, butane) are gas at room temperature, whereas other long-chain hydrocarbons (eg, waxes) are solid at room temperature. (medscape.com)
- TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Dec. 12, 2016) - Africa Hydrocarbons Inc. (NEX:NFK.H) (" AHI " or the " Company ") announces that John Nelson and Gord McKay have resigned effective immediately. (globenewswire.com)
- With manufacturing facilities in North America and Europe and offices in major cities throughout the world, Sonneborn is the world's only specialty hydrocarbon producer that offers this global reach of expertise and depth of experience. (prweb.com)
- He also stressed that Ukraine's cooperation with the world's leading companies in hydrocarbon production facilitated the introduction of modern technologies and experience in Ukraine while also strengthened energy security of the state. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- The HC-SERIES is our professional product line for the bio- remediation of deep soil and ground water hydrocarbon contamination. (environmental-expert.com)
- This product has the ability to significantly reduce hydrocarbon contamination in these separators thereby reducing the high cost of disposal & transportation. (environmental-expert.com)
- NavalKleen has the ability to significantly reduce hydrocarbon contamination in Bilges, Oily Waste Tanks and Oil Water Separators. (environmental-expert.com)
- Bioremediation is a critical component in keeping our planet safe from hydrocarbon-based contamination. (environmental-expert.com)
- Bacterial degradation of hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. (factbites.com)
- Trapping Gaseous Hydrocarbons for Mutagenic Testing," SAE Technical Paper 820776, 1982, https://doi.org/10.4271/820776 . (sae.org)
- During its closest flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on April 16, the Cassini spacecraft came within 1,027 kilometers (638 miles) of the moon's surface and found that the outer layer of the thick, hazy atmosphere is brimming with complex hydrocarbons. (universetoday.com)
- Titan is very cold, and complex hydrocarbons would be expected to condense and rain down to the surface. (universetoday.com)
- Scientists have found the first widespread evidence of giant hydrocarbon lakes on the surface of Saturn?s planet-size moon Titan. (hindustantimes.com)
- Various scientists have suggested that it is the closest thing on Earth to the kind of hydrocarbon lakes that we can see on Saturn's moon Titan. (technologyreview.com)
- As Schulze-Makuch and co put it: "Our research is a starting point on investigating what life's principle constraints are in a hydrocarbon matrix and whether the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan could possibly contain life. (technologyreview.com)
- Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field. (wikipedia.org)
- HANOI (Reuters) - Vietnamese state oil firm PetroVietnam made a significant offshore hydrocarbon find during recent exploration drilling, it said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
- After inhalation, hydrocarbons are absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream. (medscape.com)
- If you tried to drink these hydrocarbons, some would likely slip down your windpipe and into your lungs (aspiration) rather than going down your food pipe (esophagus) and into your stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
- lt is another object of the present invention to provide a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth by in situ conversion of the immobile hydrocarbon into a liquid state and flowing the hydrocarbon to a surface location where it is naturally solidified at atmospheric temperatures. (google.com)
- Traceable standards for the measurement of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures such as LPG and LNG are required in order to support this important industrial sector. (npl.co.uk)
- NPL's liquid hydrocarbon standards are typically provided in one litre constant pressure (piston) cylinders. (npl.co.uk)
- Examples of some typical components in NPL's liquid hydrocarbon standards are listed below. (npl.co.uk)
- Last year, Cassini found what appeared to be a liquid hydrocarbon lake about the size of Lake Ontario on Titan's south pole. (hindustantimes.com)
- For example, when one claim is to a solid resinous hydrocarbon polymer and another is to a liquid hydrocarbon polymer , the patent is classified as an original in the class which provides for the solid resinous polymer . (factbites.com)
- Advanced analytical instruments such as FPD GC analysis, mass spectrometry, XRF, XRD and SEM give us the tools to identify almost any naturally-occurring impurities in hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon deposits collected from the field. (sgs.com)
- Contact us now for more information on how we can help you understand the impurities in your hydrocarbons. (sgs.com)