HydrocarbonsPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.PhenanthrenesEnvironmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC DerivativesMutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.ButanesSex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.EthanePropaneGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.KetonesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)SmokeMice, Inbred C57BLMetallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedCooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chloracne: ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedAlkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

Hydrophobic interaction of human, mouse, and rabbit interferons with immobilized hydrocarbons. (1/984)

Interferons of human, mouse, and rabbit origin bind to straight chain hydrocarbons immobilized on agarose. The hydrophobic nature of binding is established by the following observations: (a) a positive correlation between the length of hydrocarbon ligand and the strength of interaction; (b) a stronger interaction with hydrocarbon ligands terminated with apolar rather than polar head groups; (c) a lack of dependence of binding on ionic strength and pH of the solvent; (d) a reversal of binding by ethylene glycol, a hydrophobic solute; (e) an increasing eluting efficacy of tetraalkylammonium ions with the length of their alkyl substituents. The hydrophobic interactions of human interferon underlie the efficiency of two-step chromatographic procedures. For example, human embryo kidney interferon can be purified about 3,600-fold by sequential chromatography on (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) octyl-agarose. Another two-step procedure: (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) L-tryptophan-agarose, gives about 10,000-fold purification. The overall recovery of interferon in both cases in close to 90%.  (+info)

Hydrocarbon chain packing and the effect of ethanol on the thermotropic phase behavior of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerols. (2/984)

Previous studies in this laboratory have delineated the relationship between the acyl chain asymmetry of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines and the effect of ethanol concentration ([EtOH]) on their melting behavior (Li et al., Biophys J., 70 (1996) 2784-2794). This present investigation extends these findings to another phospholipid family by using high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the effect of ethanol concentration on the main phase transition temperature (Tm) of five molecular species of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerol (PG). For C(14):C(18)PG, C(15):C(17)PG, C(16):C(16)PG, and C(17):C(15)PG, a biphasic profile in the Tm versus [EtOH] plot was observed, and the minimum in the plot for each PG occurred at 33, 15, 19, and 36 mg/ml, respectively. This biphasic behavior is typical of phospholipids whose acyl chain asymmetry is fairly small. For C(18):C(14)PG, only a linear decrease in the Tm was observed as a function of ethanol concentration; this effect is characteristic of highly asymmetric phospholipids. Our DSC results obtained with mixed-chain PG in the presence of ethanol demonstrate that the acyl chain asymmetry of the five lipids studied can be ranked as follows: C(15):C(17)PG+info)

Resolution and purification of histones on homologous series of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses. (3/984)

Hydrophobic chromatography on alkyl-agarose columns has been applied to the fractionation of histones. This paper describes: (a) a two-column method for the resolution of whole histone from calf thymus into its five main components (H1, H2a, H2b, H3 and H4), (b) a rapid one-step procedure for the isolation of the H3 fraction from whole histone, (c) an alternative one-step procedure for the resolution of H3 and H2a (which co-elute during gel exclusion chromatography on Biogel P-60). These experiments are also used for gaining further insight into the mechanism of action of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses.  (+info)

Histone-hydrocarbon interaction. Partition of histones in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(ethylene glycol)-bound hydrocarbons. (4/984)

The hydrophobic properties of histones have been examined with help of the two-phase partition technique using dextran-poly(ethylene glycol)-water systems. We have found that different fatty acid esters of poly(ethylene glycol) interact with total histones in a manner similar to proteins of the type beta-lactoglobulin and serum albumins. Thus the maximum interaction occurs when the fatty acid contains 16-18 carbon atoms. With less than eight carbon atoms in the polymer-bound fatty acid, no histone-hydrocarbon interaction is observed. The interaction of the five individual histone fractions with palmitate depends on the type of salt used and on its concentration. We suggest that the histones can be divided into three groups with decreasing hydrophobic properties: H3, H2a greater than H4, H2b greater than H1.  (+info)

Toxic polyneuropathy of shoe-industry workers. A study of 122 cases. (5/984)

The toxic polyneuropathy observed in a group of shoe-industry workers in Italy was clinically characterised by a symmetrical prevalently distal motor deficit, with occasional marked weakness of pelvic girdle muscles, and frequently by only subjective sensory symptoms; non-specific disturbances usually preceded neurological signs. Subclinical cases of 'minimal' chronic neuropathy, characterised by alterations of a neurogenic type in the EMG without a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity, were also observed. Worsening of the clinical picture, with further lowering of nerve conduction velocity, was noted in some cases up to four months after removal from the toxic environment. In the most severe cases clinical recovery took up to three years. The electromyographic and electroneurographic features were consistent with a mixed axonal neuropathy, with clear prevalence of the damage in the distal part of the nerve (dying-back neuropathy). Volatile substances, such as n-hexane and other low boiling point hydrocarbons found in high percentage in solvents and glues, are suggested as the causative agent.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (6/984)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis spore germination by various hydrophobic compounds: demonstration of hydrophobic character of the L-alanine receptor site. (7/984)

L-Alanine-initiated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was inhibited by various kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Good correlation of inhibitory effect with hydrophobicity of the compound was demonstrated by using regression analysis in which the hydrophobic character was expressed by the partition coefficient in an octyl alcohol-water system. The correlation coefficient for 20 alcohols was 0.959, and that for 19 miscellaneous compounds was 0.906. Regression lines of the alcohols and other hydrophobic compounds were almost identical, showing that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in inhibition. Diphenylamine was one of the most effective inhibitors examined. n-Octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl alcohols were the most effective alcohols. The mode of inhibition by diphenylamine and n-octyl alcohol was a "mixed type" (competitive plus noncompetitive type) with respect to L-alanine; that by D-alanine was competitive inhibition. Sites for diphenylamine, n-octyl alcohol, and D-alanine may have overlapped. Inhibition was reversible by washing; heat resistance, stainability, and germination rate of the washed spores remained unaltered. Thus, we confirmed that the inhibition may occur before the initial trigger reaction of germination and that it may be due to the interaction between a hydrophobic compound and a hydrophobic region closely associated with the L-alanine receptor site on the spore.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers: field and laboratory microcosm experiments. (8/984)

This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% alpha-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.  (+info)

  • Linear saturated hydrocarbons are referred to as paraffins or alkanes and their general formula is C n H n +2 . (libretexts.org)
  • Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series.The alkanes are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. (foodelphi.com)
  • Since MEAM is a reactive potential, it can also be used to simulate fracture and fatigue in hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene and polypropylene and their composites with nanometals as well as polymer/metal interfaces. (msstate.edu)
  • A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. (google.co.uk)
  • The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels. (google.co.uk)
  • As a political historian, my initial objective when writing Hydrocarbon Nation was simply to investigate the role that fossil fuels have played in influencing America's political and economic advance. (jhu.edu)
  • Thus, it is very important to appreciate, conserve and learn about hydrocarbon fossil fuels since we depend so much on them. (prweb.com)
  • Most information that is learned about hydrocarbon fossil fuels comes from the many different books out there that can be read on this subject along with different articles in business, industry and academic journals. (prweb.com)
  • This is being done by their making of hydrocarbon fossil fuel sets that consist of different geology specimens such as rocks, minerals and fossils that relate to hydrocarbon fossil fuels. (prweb.com)
  • Robust hydrocarbons and manufacturing sector helped Qatar's industrial producers' earnings register an about 10% growth year-on-year in December 2018, according to official estimates. (gulf-times.com)
  • AUSTIN, Texas , Sept. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- JP3 Measurement, LLC (JP3) is pleased to announce that it has received the Best Analyzer Technology award for 2018 by Hydrocarbon Processing magazine. (prnewswire.com)
  • This book describes the structural features and properties of important types of hydrocarbons and lipids and gives an overview of their analytical characterization in biological and environmental matrices. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the HRL is to establish the regime applicable to the revenue obtained by the Mexican State from contracts executed with private parties or from direct assignments to PEMEX to carry out the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, and to regulate the management and oversight of the financial aspects of such contracts. (lexology.com)
  • The Law establishes the concepts and mechanisms whereby the Mexican State is to obtain revenue from hydrocarbon exploration and extraction activities, resulting from contracts models to be executed with private enterprises or assignments to state-owned enterprises (such as PEMEX). (lexology.com)
  • While the tax regime for state-owned enterprises is of major importance in the national context, this alert summarizes key issues for the private sector interested in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction through contracts to be executed with the Mexican State. (lexology.com)
  • The HRL provides the main concepts from which the Mexican State will obtain revenue from hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, defined as those activities specifically set forth in the Hydrocarbons Law, including the construction, location, operation, use, abandonment and winding up of facilities for the production, treatment and refining of oil and the processing of natural gas. (lexology.com)
  • In general, hydrocarbon exploration and extraction agreements establish considerations corresponding to the State and private parties. (lexology.com)
  • 13 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures METHOD GF EXTRACTING IMMOBILE HYDROCARBONS The present invention generally concerns a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth and more particularly concerns a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth by converting the hydrocarbons in situ into a flowable state and in a manner such that the resultant product of the extraction is a solid fuel composition. (google.com)
  • The landowner must be notified in writing of the intention to acquire the land by way of one of the contracts specified in the Guidelines and Models of Contracts for the Use, Enjoyment, Affectation or Acquisition of Land, Property or Rights to Carry Out Hydrocarbon Exploration and Extraction and Pipeline Transport Activities. (lexology.com)
  • Especially designed for air and water treatment on contaminated site, the double phases extraction unit allows to pump air, water and free hydrocarbon phase from contaminated underground site in order to treat all phases separately. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from a number of sedimentary basins has been integral to modern energy development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Because there is no apparent limit to the size and complexity of the carbon skeletons, there is in principle no limit to the number of different hydrocarbons that can exist. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The role of the upper atmosphere in this organic "factory" of hydrocarbons is very intriguing to scientists, especially given the large number of different hydrocarbons detected by Cassini during the flyby. (universetoday.com)
  • These hydrocarbons are particularly harmful in large cities where, through chemical reactions with emissions from cars, they form ozone - a greenhouse gas which is a key component of smog and directly linked to increases in mortality. (enn.com)
  • This new study shows that global fossil fuel emissions of these hydrocarbons have been underestimated and are a factor of 2-3 times higher than previously thought. (enn.com)
  • It is conspicuous that twice as many hydrocarbon emissions can be produced in residential areas with little traffic but many parked vehicles: stopped traffic can produce twice as much hydrocarbon emissions as moving traffic. (berlin.de)
  • approximately 10 % of total hydrocarbon emissions. (berlin.de)
  • Benzol emissions are proportional to hydrocarbon emissions due to their close relationship (see Map 03.09.1). (berlin.de)
  • The method was then used in a series of diesel and gasoline powered passenger car studies aimed at comparing the gas phase with the particle-bound hydrocarbon mutagenic activity. (sae.org)
  • Arabian American will build the plant at its South Hampton Resources Inc. subsidiary in Silsbee, Texas, and will process up to 10,000 gallons of Gevo's isobutanol - a naturally occurring alcohol - into renewable hydrocarbons for use in jet fuel, gasoline and other materials. (bizjournals.com)
  • The gasoline that serves as fuel for automobiles consists primarily of hydrocarbons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sonneborn, LLC, leading manufacturer of specialty hydrocarbons, microcrystalline waxes and vegetable based emollients, launches new interactive website, featuring detailed product information, chat line and industry resources. (prweb.com)
  • most are liquid, but some short-chain hydrocarbons (eg, butane) are gas at room temperature, whereas other long-chain hydrocarbons (eg, waxes) are solid at room temperature. (medscape.com)
  • TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Dec. 12, 2016) - Africa Hydrocarbons Inc. (NEX:NFK.H) (" AHI " or the " Company ") announces that John Nelson and Gord McKay have resigned effective immediately. (globenewswire.com)
  • Hydrocarbons are mined from tar sands, oil shale and potentially extracted from sedimentary methane hydrates. (factbites.com)
  • The JP3 Digital Crude Signature (DCS) technology utilizes data from its Verax analyzer systems and software solutions to provide a composite picture of crude oil properties, including True Boiling Pointcuts, hydrocarbon composition, API gravity, RVP, and contaminants. (prnewswire.com)
  • With manufacturing facilities in North America and Europe and offices in major cities throughout the world, Sonneborn is the world's only specialty hydrocarbon producer that offers this global reach of expertise and depth of experience. (prweb.com)
  • He also stressed that Ukraine's cooperation with the world's leading companies in hydrocarbon production facilitated the introduction of modern technologies and experience in Ukraine while also strengthened energy security of the state. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Trapping Gaseous Hydrocarbons for Mutagenic Testing," SAE Technical Paper 820776, 1982, https://doi.org/10.4271/820776 . (sae.org)
  • During its closest flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on April 16, the Cassini spacecraft came within 1,027 kilometers (638 miles) of the moon's surface and found that the outer layer of the thick, hazy atmosphere is brimming with complex hydrocarbons. (universetoday.com)
  • Titan is very cold, and complex hydrocarbons would be expected to condense and rain down to the surface. (universetoday.com)
  • Scientists have found the first widespread evidence of giant hydrocarbon lakes on the surface of Saturn?s planet-size moon Titan. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Various scientists have suggested that it is the closest thing on Earth to the kind of hydrocarbon lakes that we can see on Saturn's moon Titan. (technologyreview.com)
  • As Schulze-Makuch and co put it: "Our research is a starting point on investigating what life's principle constraints are in a hydrocarbon matrix and whether the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan could possibly contain life. (technologyreview.com)
  • Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field. (wikipedia.org)
  • HANOI (Reuters) - Vietnamese state oil firm PetroVietnam made a significant offshore hydrocarbon find during recent exploration drilling, it said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • Its formula contains biodegradable surfactants and a specialized blend of micro organisms, nutrients and growth stimulants that enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous bacterial populations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • After inhalation, hydrocarbons are absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream. (medscape.com)
  • If you tried to drink these hydrocarbons, some would likely slip down your windpipe and into your lungs (aspiration) rather than going down your food pipe (esophagus) and into your stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • lt is another object of the present invention to provide a method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons from the earth by in situ conversion of the immobile hydrocarbon into a liquid state and flowing the hydrocarbon to a surface location where it is naturally solidified at atmospheric temperatures. (google.com)
  • Traceable standards for the measurement of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures such as LPG and LNG are required in order to support this important industrial sector. (npl.co.uk)
  • NPL's liquid hydrocarbon standards are typically provided in one litre constant pressure (piston) cylinders. (npl.co.uk)
  • Examples of some typical components in NPL's liquid hydrocarbon standards are listed below. (npl.co.uk)
  • Last year, Cassini found what appeared to be a liquid hydrocarbon lake about the size of Lake Ontario on Titan's south pole. (hindustantimes.com)
  • For example, when one claim is to a solid resinous hydrocarbon polymer and another is to a liquid hydrocarbon polymer , the patent is classified as an original in the class which provides for the solid resinous polymer . (factbites.com)
  • Carbon dioxide and nitrogen content in natural hydrocarbons, important for controlling greenhouse gas emission levels and for process equipment design, are measured by conventional GPA GC methods. (sgs.com)
  • Scientists have debated for years whether some of these hydrocarbons could also have been created deeper in the Earth and formed without organic matter. (innovations-report.com)
  • Advanced analytical instruments such as FPD GC analysis, mass spectrometry, XRF, XRD and SEM give us the tools to identify almost any naturally-occurring impurities in hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon deposits collected from the field. (sgs.com)
  • Contact us now for more information on how we can help you understand the impurities in your hydrocarbons. (sgs.com)