A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
The contamination of indoor air.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
Sexual activities of animals.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

Hydrophobic interaction of human, mouse, and rabbit interferons with immobilized hydrocarbons. (1/984)

Interferons of human, mouse, and rabbit origin bind to straight chain hydrocarbons immobilized on agarose. The hydrophobic nature of binding is established by the following observations: (a) a positive correlation between the length of hydrocarbon ligand and the strength of interaction; (b) a stronger interaction with hydrocarbon ligands terminated with apolar rather than polar head groups; (c) a lack of dependence of binding on ionic strength and pH of the solvent; (d) a reversal of binding by ethylene glycol, a hydrophobic solute; (e) an increasing eluting efficacy of tetraalkylammonium ions with the length of their alkyl substituents. The hydrophobic interactions of human interferon underlie the efficiency of two-step chromatographic procedures. For example, human embryo kidney interferon can be purified about 3,600-fold by sequential chromatography on (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) octyl-agarose. Another two-step procedure: (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) L-tryptophan-agarose, gives about 10,000-fold purification. The overall recovery of interferon in both cases in close to 90%.  (+info)

Hydrocarbon chain packing and the effect of ethanol on the thermotropic phase behavior of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerols. (2/984)

Previous studies in this laboratory have delineated the relationship between the acyl chain asymmetry of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines and the effect of ethanol concentration ([EtOH]) on their melting behavior (Li et al., Biophys J., 70 (1996) 2784-2794). This present investigation extends these findings to another phospholipid family by using high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the effect of ethanol concentration on the main phase transition temperature (Tm) of five molecular species of mixed-chain phosphatidylglycerol (PG). For C(14):C(18)PG, C(15):C(17)PG, C(16):C(16)PG, and C(17):C(15)PG, a biphasic profile in the Tm versus [EtOH] plot was observed, and the minimum in the plot for each PG occurred at 33, 15, 19, and 36 mg/ml, respectively. This biphasic behavior is typical of phospholipids whose acyl chain asymmetry is fairly small. For C(18):C(14)PG, only a linear decrease in the Tm was observed as a function of ethanol concentration; this effect is characteristic of highly asymmetric phospholipids. Our DSC results obtained with mixed-chain PG in the presence of ethanol demonstrate that the acyl chain asymmetry of the five lipids studied can be ranked as follows: C(15):C(17)PG+info)

Resolution and purification of histones on homologous series of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses. (3/984)

Hydrophobic chromatography on alkyl-agarose columns has been applied to the fractionation of histones. This paper describes: (a) a two-column method for the resolution of whole histone from calf thymus into its five main components (H1, H2a, H2b, H3 and H4), (b) a rapid one-step procedure for the isolation of the H3 fraction from whole histone, (c) an alternative one-step procedure for the resolution of H3 and H2a (which co-elute during gel exclusion chromatography on Biogel P-60). These experiments are also used for gaining further insight into the mechanism of action of hydrocarbon-coated agaroses.  (+info)

Histone-hydrocarbon interaction. Partition of histones in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(ethylene glycol)-bound hydrocarbons. (4/984)

The hydrophobic properties of histones have been examined with help of the two-phase partition technique using dextran-poly(ethylene glycol)-water systems. We have found that different fatty acid esters of poly(ethylene glycol) interact with total histones in a manner similar to proteins of the type beta-lactoglobulin and serum albumins. Thus the maximum interaction occurs when the fatty acid contains 16-18 carbon atoms. With less than eight carbon atoms in the polymer-bound fatty acid, no histone-hydrocarbon interaction is observed. The interaction of the five individual histone fractions with palmitate depends on the type of salt used and on its concentration. We suggest that the histones can be divided into three groups with decreasing hydrophobic properties: H3, H2a greater than H4, H2b greater than H1.  (+info)

Toxic polyneuropathy of shoe-industry workers. A study of 122 cases. (5/984)

The toxic polyneuropathy observed in a group of shoe-industry workers in Italy was clinically characterised by a symmetrical prevalently distal motor deficit, with occasional marked weakness of pelvic girdle muscles, and frequently by only subjective sensory symptoms; non-specific disturbances usually preceded neurological signs. Subclinical cases of 'minimal' chronic neuropathy, characterised by alterations of a neurogenic type in the EMG without a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity, were also observed. Worsening of the clinical picture, with further lowering of nerve conduction velocity, was noted in some cases up to four months after removal from the toxic environment. In the most severe cases clinical recovery took up to three years. The electromyographic and electroneurographic features were consistent with a mixed axonal neuropathy, with clear prevalence of the damage in the distal part of the nerve (dying-back neuropathy). Volatile substances, such as n-hexane and other low boiling point hydrocarbons found in high percentage in solvents and glues, are suggested as the causative agent.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (6/984)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis spore germination by various hydrophobic compounds: demonstration of hydrophobic character of the L-alanine receptor site. (7/984)

L-Alanine-initiated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was inhibited by various kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Good correlation of inhibitory effect with hydrophobicity of the compound was demonstrated by using regression analysis in which the hydrophobic character was expressed by the partition coefficient in an octyl alcohol-water system. The correlation coefficient for 20 alcohols was 0.959, and that for 19 miscellaneous compounds was 0.906. Regression lines of the alcohols and other hydrophobic compounds were almost identical, showing that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in inhibition. Diphenylamine was one of the most effective inhibitors examined. n-Octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl alcohols were the most effective alcohols. The mode of inhibition by diphenylamine and n-octyl alcohol was a "mixed type" (competitive plus noncompetitive type) with respect to L-alanine; that by D-alanine was competitive inhibition. Sites for diphenylamine, n-octyl alcohol, and D-alanine may have overlapped. Inhibition was reversible by washing; heat resistance, stainability, and germination rate of the washed spores remained unaltered. Thus, we confirmed that the inhibition may occur before the initial trigger reaction of germination and that it may be due to the interaction between a hydrophobic compound and a hydrophobic region closely associated with the L-alanine receptor site on the spore.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers: field and laboratory microcosm experiments. (8/984)

This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% alpha-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.  (+info)

The condition is caused by an adverse reaction to certain medications, specifically chlorpromazine and other related drugs. The exact mechanism of how these medications cause chloracne is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the immune system and hormone levels.

Chloracne typically appears within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with chlorpromazine or another related medication. It may present as a mild, moderate, or severe form of acne, with papules, pustules, nodules, or cysts on the skin. In some cases, the condition may resolve once the medication is discontinued, but in other cases, it may persist for several months after stopping the medication.

There is no specific treatment for chloracne, and management of the condition involves discontinuing the offending medication and using topical or systemic therapies to control symptoms. Treatment options may include antibiotics, retinoids, corticosteroids, and other medications that are commonly used to treat acne. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove large cysts or scarring.

Preventing chloracne involves monitoring patients for signs of the condition while they are taking chlorpromazine or other related medications, and stopping the medication if any signs of the condition appear. In addition, alternative medications that do not carry the risk of chloracne may be considered for patients who require treatment with these drugs.

Overall, chloracne is a relatively rare but potentially serious side effect of certain medications, and prompt recognition and management are essential to prevent long-term scarring and other complications.

Onshore, when used in relation to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the land or to ... The hydrocarbon dewpoint changes with the prevailing ambient temperature, the seasonal variation is: Petroleum refining ... Separator vessels and coalescers stabilise the crude and remove any sediments, produced water and allow light hydrocarbons to ... Such processes may include glycol dehydration, gas sweetening, hydrocarbon dew-point control, fractionation, natural gas ...
"Offshore", when used in relation to hydrocarbons, refers to operations undertaken at, or under the, sea in association with an ... Other facilities include storage vessels, tanker ships, and pipelines to transport hydrocarbons onshore for further treatment ... commissioned and operated to process and treat the hydrocarbon oil and gas. Permanent oil and gas installations and plant ...
The National Hydrocarbons Institute (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Hidrocarburos, INH) was a Spanish state-owned oil and gas ...
... operating research projects on hydrocarbons, and regulating the prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons. CNH is run by the ... The National Hydrocarbons Commission (Spanish: Comision Nacional de Hidrocarburos) (CNH) is an agency of the Mexican Federal ... Also given powers of supervision and promotion of hydrocarbon activities . In early April 2014 the drafting of the amendments ... Flaring and Venting of Gas in the Exploration and Exploitation of Hydrocarbons Technical Guidelines for Designing Hydrocarbon ...
The Ministry of Hydrocarbons (MoH) is a ministry of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is responsible ...
"Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH), Noida, India". Dghindia.org. Retrieved 2 October 2012. Dgindina.org (Articles ... The Directorate General of Hydrocarbon (DGH) is the Indian governmental regulatory body under the Ministry of Petroleum and ... To promote exploration and sound management of the petroleum and natural gas resources as also non-conventional hydrocarbon ... The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) was established in 1993 under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum ...
These hydrocarbons consist of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, or combinations of the two. Missing in petroleum ... Hydrocarbons are also abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Burning hydrocarbons as fuel ... Hydrocarbons such as ethylene, isoprene, and monoterpenes are emitted by living vegetation. Some hydrocarbons also are ... Note that halogenating a hydrocarbon produces something that is not a hydrocarbon. It is a very common and useful process. ...
Many of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be tumorigenic or mutagenic are found in atmospheric aerosols, which is ... Scott, L. T.; Tsang, T.-H.; Levy, L. A. Automerizations in Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. New Mechanistic Insights from the Thermal ... Indications of thermal rearrangements of aromatic hydrocarbons were first noted in the early 20th century by natural products ... Thermal rearrangements of aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to be important in areas of chemical research and industry ...
The Hydrocarbons Licensing Directive Regulations 1995 (SI 1995/1434) is a UK Statutory Instrument that implements the ... Hydrocarbons Directive 94/22/EC. It is relevant for UK enterprise law by determining the procedural steps that ought to be ...
A hydrocarbon keratosis (also known as "pitch keratosis", "tar keratosis", and "tar wart") is a precancerous keratotic skin ... lesion that occurs in people who have been occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.: 728 Freedberg, et al. ( ...
In organic chemistry, a Platonic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon (molecule) whose structure matches one of the five Platonic ... The regular convex 4-polytopes may also have hydrocarbon analogues; hypercubane has been proposed. Tetrahedrane Cubane ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Platonic hydrocarbons. (All articles with incomplete citations, Articles with incomplete ... Some stable derivatives, including tetra(tert-butyl)tetrahedrane (a hydrocarbon) and tetra(trimethylsilyl)tetrahedrane, have ...
... is either the swallowing or breathing in of hydrocarbons. Swallowing hydrocarbons may result in symptoms ... Breathing in hydrocarbons may result in low blood oxygen and shortness of breath. Complications may include confusion or ... Hydrocarbons may include gasoline, mineral oil, or paint thinner. Treatment is supportive care. Efforts to empty the stomach ... "Hydrocarbon Poisoning - Injuries; Poisoning". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 21 December 2019. (Articles with ...
Compared to saturated hydrocarbons, the unsaturated hydrocarbons not only contains the C−C bonds and C−H bonds, but also have C ... Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. The term " ... Like most other hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons can go under combustion reactions that produces carbon dioxide and water ... Below is a table of some common commercial unsaturated hydrocarbons. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are also used in many chemical ...
An alternant hydrocarbon is any conjugated hydrocarbon system which does not possess an odd-membered ring. For such systems it ... Moreover, if the alternant hydrocarbon contains an odd number of atoms then there must be an unpaired orbital with zero bonding ... Alternant hydrocarbons display three very interesting properties: The molecular orbital energies for the π system are paired, ...
... are composed of petroleum ethers and other hydrocarbons. Petroleum ether should not be confused with the ... Often the term is used as a shortened form of the term aliphatic hydrocarbon. Most hydrocarbons are combustible. Petroleum ... Hydrocarbon mixtures are a group of various volatile, highly flammable, mixtures used chiefly as nonpolar solvents. ... Benzine is a mixture of alkanes, such as pentane, hexane, and heptane; whereas benzene is a cyclic, aromatic hydrocarbon.) A ...
Unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) are the hydrocarbons emitted after petroleum is burned in an engine. When unburned fuel is emitted ... The hydrocarbon is an auspicious way to reach low NOx (nitrogen oxide) emissions in diesel engines but one of its disadvantages ... Hydrocarbons, All stub articles, Environment stubs, Chemistry stubs, Energy stubs). ... is drastic increasing amount of unburned hydrocarbons. E standard, one is all metal single-cylinder diesel engine and another ...
A hydrocarbon indicator (HCI) or direct hydrocarbon indicator (DHI), is an anomalous seismic attribute value or pattern that ... Some geoscientists regard amplitude versus offset anomalies as a type of direct hydrocarbon indicator. For example, the ... DHIs are particularly useful in hydrocarbon exploration for reducing the geological risk of exploration wells. Broadly, ... Flat spots: nearly horizontal reflectors that cross existing stratigraphy, possibly indicating a hydrocarbon fluid level within ...
The hydrocarbon trap has to be covered by an impermeable rock known as a seal or cap-rock in order to prevent hydrocarbons ... Most hydrocarbons migrate to the surface as oil seeps, but some will get trapped. Reservoir The hydrocarbons are contained in a ... Hydrocarbon in place Amount of hydrocarbon likely to be contained in the prospect. This is calculated using the volumetric ... Recoverable hydrocarbons Amount of hydrocarbon likely to be recovered during production. This is typically 10-50% in an oil ...
... is a term referencing the global hydrocarbon industry and its relationship to world markets. Energy used ... Hydrocarbon economy is often used when talking about possible alternatives like the hydrogen economy. "Google Scholar". https ... mostly comes from three hydrocarbons: petroleum, coal, and natural gas. ...
... is a kind of chemical pneumonitis which occurs with oral ingestion of hydrocarbons and associated ... Pneumatocele is a complication of hydrocarbon pneumonitis. In both childhood and adult pneumonitis, hydrocarbon aspiration ... Contrary to aspiration hydrocarbon pneumonitis, hydrocarbon (solvent) vapor inhalation manifests primarily in either central ... Symptoms of chemical (hydrocarbon) pneumonia may include: burning of the nose, eyes, lips, mouth, and throat dry cough wet ...
... s are plants that follow certain metabolic pathways that produce hydrocarbon products similar to petroleum. ... Most hydrocarbon plants are not trees, so this technique of tapping the tree is no longer feasible. Instead of tapping the tree ... These hydrocarbon products are called terpenoids. The plants that produce terpenoids in large enough quantities to be harvested ... One particular tree of the genus Hevea, more commonly known as the rubber tree, is probably the most famous hydrocarbon plant, ...
... is fuel that consists mostly of hydrocarbons. It may refer to: Fossil fuel, derived from coal, oil, or natural ...
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used for any mixture of hydrocarbons that are found in crude oil. There are ... Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,. CDC [1] Petroleum Hydrocarbon Ranges https ... TPH is the sum of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPH) and extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPH). VPH is also known as ... Petroleum Hydrocarbon ranges are monitored at various levels depending on the state and testing site. ...
The Bangladesh Hydrocarbon Unit traces its origin to a project called Strengthening of the Hydrocarbon Unit in the Ministry of ... The Bangladesh Hydrocarbon Unit is a government agency in the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources responsible for ... "Hydrocarbon Unit, Energy and Mineral Resources Division". hcu.org.bd. Retrieved 25 December 2017. "Consultant considered, 'poor ... providing the government of Bangladesh technical recommendation on the extraction of hydrocarbon resources and is located in ...
The hydrocarbon dew point is the temperature (at a given pressure) at which the hydrocarbon components of any hydrocarbon-rich ... The hydrocarbon dew point is a function of the gas composition as well as the pressure. The hydrocarbon dew point is ... Natural gas processing Natural gas condensate Hydrocarbon Dew Point White Paper on Liquid Hydrocarbon Drop Out in Natural Gas ... Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement Using a Gas Chromatograph Emerson Hydrocarbon Dew Point Application Note Natural Gas ...
Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act 1979 Hydrocarbon Oils Duty Rates UK HM Revenue & Customs website Hydrocarbon Oils: Customs Duty UK ... Hydrocarbon Oil Duty (also fuel duty and fuel tax) is a fuel tax levied on some fuels used by most road motor vehicles in the ... "Hydrocarbon Oils: Duty Rates" (PDF). HMRC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2011. Leroux, Marcus (24 November 2008 ... HM Revenue & Customs website 2011 Hydrocarbon Oil Duty Rates UK HM Revenue & Customs website You think fuel prices are bad? ...
The terms polyaromatic hydrocarbon or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon are also used for this concept. By definition, ... The benzenoid hydrocarbons have been defined as condensed polycyclic unsaturated fully-conjugated hydrocarbons whose molecules ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ( ... Dipple, A. (1985). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis". Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis. ACS Symposium ...
"Recruitment of the NCoA/SRC-1/p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon ... "Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein in aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor action". Molecular ... The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (also known as AhR, AHR, ahr, ahR, or dioxin receptor) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. AHR binds several ...
The Ministry of Energy, Hydropower and Hydrocarbons is a Guinean government ministry whose current minister is Ibrahima Abé ...
... is on the campus of the University of Southern California. G. K. Surya Prakash serves as ... Retrieved 2006-07-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute Coordinates: ... The institute conducts research in polymer science, materials chemistry, and hydrocarbon chemistry. "Archived copy". Archived ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b) ...
Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as biomarkers of exposure to wood smoke in wildland firefighters. Adetona O, ... Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite concentrations and the effect of GST polymorphisms among US Air ... Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers to woodsmoke exposure - results from a controlled exposure ... Time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in New York City from 2001 to 2012: assessed by repeat air and urine ...
What are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used to describe a large family of ... How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health?. *How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause ... What are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?. *What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). For more ...
Many of these hydrocarbons are thin liquids. If you ... Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in ... Many of these hydrocarbons are thin liquids. If you drank one of these hydrocarbons, it is likely some will slip down your ... Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline, kerosene, furniture polish, paint thinner, or other oily ... Highly toxic hydrocarbons may rapidly cause respiratory failure and death. Repeated ingestions or inhalations may lead to ...
First was the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these organic compounds are commonplace, found ... Other articles where polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is discussed: David S. McKay: ... In hydrocarbon: Cycloalkanes. Polycyclic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain more than one ring. They are classified as ... In hydrocarbon: Nomenclature. …a common side are called polycyclic aromatic compounds. Each such assembly has a unique name, as ...
... [Abstract Classifying ... Synopsis Classifying Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Carcinogenic Potency Using In Vitro Biosignatures] Chang Y, Huynh CTT ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Carcinogenic Potency Using In Vitro Biosignatures] [ ...
Environmental scientists warn frequently that the world is drowning in plastic. Here is some unexpected good news.. ...
A hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that is constituted of just the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Each hydrocarbon ... Some simple hydrocarbons. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, the main constituent of natural gas. Its chemical formula, CH4, ... If a hydrocarbon molecule contains "n" carbon atoms, and the type of hydrocarbon is known, its general chemical formula can be ... Hydrocarbon vapors can be harmful if inhaled. Moreover, hydrocarbons contribute to the formation of ozone in the troposphere. ...
Inhalant abuse, the deliberate inhalation of hydrocarbons as a form of recreational drug use, has become a significant health ... Inhalation injury due to hydrocarbons can occur as a result of either accidental or intentional exposure. ... encoded search term (Hydrocarbon Inhalation Injury) and Hydrocarbon Inhalation Injury What to Read Next on Medscape ... This injury differs from hydrocarbon inhalation injury. The most common clinical scenario of hydrocarbon aspiration is a young ...
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... Substance Overview. PAHs are defined as compounds containing at least ...
Comprehending the nature of vaporization and condensation of hydrocarbon in such confined media is important for accurate ... This paper studies the vaporization of single- and multicomponent hydrocarbons in different types of rocks (namely sandstones, ... with the hydrocarbon mixtures. The vaporization temperatures, obtained from the experiments, were also compared with the ... modelling of two-phase envelopes and thereby the performance of energy production from hydrocarbon reservoirs. ...
Persistent organic pollutants (‎POPs)‎ are organic compounds of anthropogenic origin that resist degradation and accumulate in the food-chain. They can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere, resulting in ...
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No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data ...
... for risk assessment is evaluation of chemicals that predominately co-occur in mixtures like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... Classifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carcinogenic potency using in vitro biosignatures Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Dec;69 ... including aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition, regulation of angiogenesis, and ... for risk assessment is evaluation of chemicals that predominately co-occur in mixtures like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( ...
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Fission-track annealing experiments will be realized on natural and synthtic
Structural basis for aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated gene activation ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor. A, C. 254. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: AHR, BHLHE76. ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. B, D. 239. Mus musculus. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: ARNT. ... Structural Basis for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Gene Activation.. Schulte, K.W., Green, E., Wilz, A., Platten, M., ...
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NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. This search feature obtains best-matches with the terms you choose, and shows an overall score based on the scientific rankings.. View our page to search various areas of interest and methodology.. ...
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Cytotoxicity and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activity of N-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Structure- ... KW - Cytotoxicity;Aromatic Hydrocarbons. N2 - This study presents results of cytotoxicity and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor- ... Cytotoxicity and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activity of N-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Structure- ... Cytotoxicity and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activity of N-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Structure- ...
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... TOPICS:AstronomyAtmospheric ScienceNew HorizonsPlanetary SciencePlutoUC Santa ... "We believe these hydrocarbon particles are related to the reddish and brownish stuff seen in images of Plutos surface," Zhang ... Be the first to comment on Hydrocarbon Haze Keeps Pluto Cooler Than Expected. ... which react to form tiny hydrocarbon particles tens of nanometers in diameter. As these tiny particles sink down through the ...
  • First was the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (britannica.com)
  • heart defects after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the oil. (britannica.com)
  • One of the most difficult challenges for risk assessment is evaluation of chemicals that predominately co-occur in mixtures like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (nih.gov)
  • Cigarette smoking has been known as the prominent cause of lung cancer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, have been suggested as being responsible for the initiation and development of lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic pollutants that are commonly found in the environment, largely due to combustion or processing of hydrocarbon fuels. (who.int)
  • Food can be contaminated by PAHs because of the contamination of air, water or soil, and during industrial process, as heating, drying and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 200 smoking process. (bvsalud.org)
  • carcinogens for humans are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which require metabolic activation for becoming reactive. (britannica.com)
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbons affect many target organs and usually produce cancers at the site of exposure. (britannica.com)
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain more than one ring. (britannica.com)
  • Classifying Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Carcinogenic Potency Using In Vitro Biosignatures [ Abstract Classifying Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Carcinogenic Potency Using In Vitro Biosignatures ] [ Synopsis Classifying Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Carcinogenic Potency Using In Vitro Biosignatures ] Chang Y, Huynh CTT, Bastin KM, Rivera BN, Siddens LK, Tilton SC. (nih.gov)
  • N2 - This study presents results of cytotoxicity and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activity of N-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons along with their parental compounds determined in a model in vitro system. (muni.cz)
  • Chromium(VI) exposure enhances polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA binding at the p53 gene in human lung cells. (nih.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air at Agra: distribution and toxicity assessment. (who.int)
  • Rajput N, Khemani LD, Lakhani A. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air at Agra: distribution and toxicity assessment. (who.int)
  • Inhalation injury due to hydrocarbons can occur as a result of either accidental or intentional exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Petroleum is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, while natural gas is mainly constituted of methane gas. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The simplest hydrocarbon is methane , the main constituent of natural gas . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Direct non-oxidative methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons is a potential approach to convert natural gas into valuable hydrocarbons. (aiche.org)
  • The haze results from chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere, where ultraviolet radiation from the sun ionizes nitrogen and methane, which react to form tiny hydrocarbon particles tens of nanometers in diameter. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Experiments reported some years ago subjected methane to high pressures and temperatures and found that heavier hydrocarbons formed from methane under very similar pressure and temperature conditions. (science20.com)
  • Two primary organ systems are affected by inhalation hydrocarbon toxicity: the CNS and the cardiopulmonary system. (medscape.com)
  • Deliberate inhalation of volatile hydrocarbons for their mood-altering effects is popular among adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • Most inhalants are composed of several compounds, and almost all pressurized aerosol products can be abused because the propellants are volatile hydrocarbons. (medscape.com)
  • Volatile hydrocarbons are highly lipid soluble and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. (medscape.com)
  • Users discouraged by the fact that hydrocarbons like propane and butane are often used as fuels and are designated volatile should keep two points in mind: volatile refers to how easily a substance will vaporize, not it's instability, and the FDA confirmed hydrocarbon extractions as GRAS (generally regarded as safe) several decades ago. (weedmaps.com)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). (cdc.gov)
  • Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used to describe a large family of several hundred chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists divide TPH into groups of petroleum hydrocarbons that act alike in soil or water. (cdc.gov)
  • These groups are called petroleum hydrocarbon fractions. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (cdc.gov)
  • How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrocarbons are obtained by refining petroleum at refineries such as this one. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum (literally, "rock oil"), also called "oil," and natural gas . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sorption and desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on biodegradable and nondegradable microplastics. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, their interactions with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) have not been sufficiently studied. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) constitute a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) domain containing transcription factor with central functions in development and cellular homeostasis. (rcsb.org)
  • We also show that Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR), a transcription factor, is a major regulator of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons, or arenes: Each molecule of an aromatic hydrocarbon contains at least one aromatic ring, in which the bonds between carbon atoms are aromatic bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When organic compounds are considered in general, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons are placed in the category known as aliphatic compounds , while aromatic hydrocarbons are categorized as aromatic compounds . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The minimum observation period after inhalation of a hydrocarbon is 6 hours. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inhalant abuse, the deliberate inhalation of hydrocarbons as a form of recreational drug use, has become a significant health issue affecting children. (medscape.com)
  • Death from intentional inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes is not uncommon and is usually due to sudden cardiac events or CNS depression. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of intoxication reports of hydrocarbons are due to inhalation or ingestion, but a few case reports have described intravenous ingestion of gasoline for suicide. (medscape.com)
  • Recreational abuse of hydrocarbons by inhalation is accomplished in 3 ways: sniffing, huffing, and bagging. (medscape.com)
  • The deviation between the measured vaporization temperatures and the bulk measurements ranged from 4.4% (1.6% in Kelvin unit) to 19.7% (5.2% in Kelvin unit) with single-component solvents and 1.4% (0.4% in Kelvin unit) to 27.6% (5.3% in Kelvin unit) with the hydrocarbon mixtures. (nature.com)
  • The deviation percentages of measured vaporization temperatures from the computed values were at least 4.4% (1.6% in Kelvin unit) with single-component solvents and 2.1% (0.7% in Kelvin unit) with the hydrocarbon mixtures. (nature.com)
  • In addition, many hydrocarbons serve as base materials for the synthesis of organic chemicals used in the production of consumer products and industrial materials. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The reversibility implies that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is thermodynamically controlled and does not require organic matter. (science20.com)
  • The synthesis and stability of the compounds studied here as well as heavier hydrocarbons over the full range of conditions within the Earth's mantle now need to be explored. (science20.com)
  • Hydrocarbons may be inhaled intentionally for intoxication, especially by adolescents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hydrocarbon pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline , kerosene , furniture polish , paint thinner, or other oily materials or solvents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is because a small number of hydrocarbons are organic solvents, capable of dissolution and dispersal of carbon-based substances - namely plant matter. (weedmaps.com)
  • Hydrocarbons like butane, propane, and hexane have been used for food extractions since the 1970s. (weedmaps.com)
  • Some halogenated hydrocarbons / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, which met in Lyon, 6-13 June 1978. (who.int)
  • Hydrocarbon Processing also features new and improved licensed product/process methodologies in the petrochemical, refining and LNG/gas processing industries. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop chemical pneumonitis (lung inflammation without infection) recover fully following treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that is constituted of just the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Each hydrocarbon molecule consists of a carbon backbone, or "carbon skeleton," with hydrogen atoms attached to that backbone. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hydrocarbon products did not change for many hours, but the tell-tale chemical signatures began to fade after a few days. (science20.com)
  • Apatite fission-track annealing: experimentation and applications for hydrocarbons exploration. (europa.eu)
  • New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) was formulated by the Government of India, during 1997-98 to provide a level playing field to both Public and Private sector companies in exploration and production of hydrocarbons with Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) as a nodal agency for its implementation. (dghindia.org)
  • NELP has not only accelerated the quest for hydrocarbon exploration, but has also brought the state of the art technology and efficiency of operations /management to the country. (dghindia.org)
  • The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from a number of sedimentary basins has been integral to modern energy development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Compared to more traditional, ancestral methods of extraction (like grain alcohol or cold water), hydrocarbon extraction is technically a new science. (weedmaps.com)
  • What is hydrocarbon extraction? (weedmaps.com)
  • Like any extraction process, the goal of hydrocarbon extraction is to separate essential oils from plant matter in order to concentrate the active components of the plant. (weedmaps.com)
  • Hydrocarbon extraction, specifically, is notably efficient due to its negative polarity (it will dissolve some parts of the plant while keeping others intact) and super-low boiling points (-43 degrees Farenheit for propane and 30 degrees for butane). (weedmaps.com)
  • How does hydrocarbon extraction work? (weedmaps.com)
  • Primary extraction involves washing cannabis with cold hydrocarbons in the pressurized main chamber of a multi-chamber extractor. (weedmaps.com)
  • Once the hydrocarbon has been purged from the extracted waxes, fats, and lipids, it can travel back to the main chamber to be used repeatedly (little to no gas escapes into the atmosphere), a system commonly referred to as closed-loop extraction. (weedmaps.com)
  • Overall, the process of hydrocarbon extraction is widely considered one of the safest, cleanest, most efficient methods of extraction. (weedmaps.com)
  • Hydrocarbon extraction is prized for its purity and efficacy. (weedmaps.com)
  • TPH is a mixture of chemicals, but they are all made mainly from hydrogen and carbon, called hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethane , with the formula C 2 H 6 , is a hydrocarbon (more specifically, an alkane ) in which each molecule has two carbon atoms held together with a single covalent bond , and three hydrogen atoms are bound to each carbon atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both of these hydrocarbons, and others associated with fuel, are called saturated hydrocarbons because they have simple, single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. (science20.com)
  • Scientists have debated for years whether some of these hydrocarbons could also have been created deeper in the Earth and formed without organic matter. (science20.com)
  • hydrocarbon found among all types of oils, with the highest median values. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article featuring ExxonMobil in Hydrocarbon Engineering magazine highlights how our team helped offshore North Sea JV license-holders monetize 20 years of reliable operations, by using the built-in flexibility on FELEXORB SE solvent to handle new gas nominations without a solvent changeover. (exxonmobilchemical.com)
  • Highly toxic hydrocarbons may rapidly cause respiratory failure and death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the highly common physical phenomena in hydrocarbon reservoirs, during production or injection stages, is the fluid phase alteration due to the change of regional pressure or temperature. (nature.com)
  • This paper studies the vaporization of single- and multicomponent hydrocarbons in different types of rocks (namely sandstones, limestones, tight sandstones, and shales). (nature.com)
  • Hydrocarbon Processing brings readers first-hand knowledge on plant safety and the environment, utilities-cogeneration, pump, valves and compressors, heat transfer and water management. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • Since 2001, The US Consumer Product Safety Commission has required child-resistant packing of products that have low viscosity and contain greater than 10% hydrocarbon by weight. (medscape.com)
  • If you have young children, be sure to identify and carefully store materials containing hydrocarbons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Singled out for his 'vast experience in regulatory, contractual and M&A matters' , Nilton Mattos is another name to note for hydrocarbons work. (legal500.com)