Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

Spontaneous heterosis in larval life-history traits of hemiclonal frog hybrids. (1/2497)

European water frog hybrids Rana esculenta (Rana ridibunda x Rana lessonae) reproduce hemiclonally, transmitting only their ridibunda genome to gametes. We compared fitness-related larval life-history traits of natural R. esculenta from Poland with those of the two sympatric parental species and of newly generated F1 hybrids. Compared with either parental species, F1 hybrid offspring had higher survival, higher early growth rates, a more advanced developmental stage by day 49, and earlier metamorphosis, but similar mass at metamorphosis. R. esculenta from natural lineages had trait values intermediate between those of F1 offspring and of the two parental species. The data support earlier observations on natural R. esculenta that had faster larval growth, earlier metamorphosis, and higher resistance to hypoxic conditions compared with either parental species. Observing larval heterosis in F1 hybrids in survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphosis, however, at an even higher degree than in hybrids from natural lineages, demonstrates that heterosis is spontaneous and results from hybridity per se rather than from subsequent interclonal selection; in natural lineages the effects of hybridity and of clonal history are confounded. This is compelling evidence for spontaneous heterosis in hybrid clonals. Results on hemiclonal fish hybrids (Poeciliopsis) showed no spontaneous heterosis; thus, our frog data are not applicable to all hybrid clonals. Our data do show, however, that heterosis is an important potential source for the extensively observed ecological success of hybrid clonals. We suggest that heterosis and interclonal selection together shape fitness of natural R. esculenta lineages.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of two endogenous double-stranded RNAs in rice and their inheritance by interspecific hybrids. (2/2497)

We completely sequenced 13,936 nucleotides (nt) of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of wild rice (W-dsRNA). A single long open reading frame (13,719 nt) containing the conserved motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase was located in the coding strand. The identity between entire nucleotide sequence of W-dsRNA and that of the dsRNA of temperate japonica rice (J-dsRNA, 13,952 nt) was 75.5%. A site-specific discontinuity (nick) was identified at nt 1,197 from the 5' end of the coding strand of W-dsRNA. This nick is also located at nt 1,211 from the 5' end in the coding strand of J-dsRNA. The dsRNA copy number was increased more than 10-fold in pollen grains of both rice plants. This remarkable increase may be responsible for the highly efficient transmission of J-dsRNA via pollen that we already reported. J-dsRNA and W-dsRNA were also efficiently transmitted to interspecific F1 hybrids. Seed-mediated dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was also highly efficient when the maternal parent was wild rice. The efficiency of dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was reduced when the maternal parent was temperate japonica rice; however, the reduced rates in F2 plants were returned to high levels in F3 plants.  (+info)

Construction and analysis of hybrid Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis dnaK genes. (3/2497)

The highly conserved DnaK chaperones consist of an N-terminal ATPase domain, a central substrate-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain whose function is not known. Since Bacillus subtilis dnaK was not able to complement an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, we performed domain element swap experiments to identify the regions responsible for this finding. It turned out that the B. subtilis DnaK protein needed approximately normal amounts of the cochaperone DnaJ to be functional in E. coli. The ATPase domain and the substrate-binding domain form a species-specific functional unit, while the C-terminal domains, although less conserved, are exchangeable. Deletion of the C-terminal domain in E. coli DnaK affected neither complementation of growth at high temperatures nor propagation of phage lambda but abolished degradation of sigma32.  (+info)

A novel ontogenetic pathway in hybrid embryos between species with different modes of development. (4/2497)

To investigate the bases for evolutionary changes in developmental mode, we fertilized eggs of a direct-developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, with sperm from a closely related species, H. tuberculata, that undergoes indirect development via a feeding larva. The resulting hybrids completed development to form juvenile adult sea urchins. Hybrids exhibited restoration of feeding larval structures and paternal gene expression that have been lost in the evolution of the direct-developing maternal species. However, the developmental outcome of the hybrids was not a simple reversion to the paternal pluteus larval form. An unexpected result was that the ontogeny of the hybrids was distinct from either parental species. Early hybrid larvae exhibited a novel morphology similar to that of the dipleurula-type larva typical of other classes of echinoderms and considered to represent the ancestral echinoderm larval form. In the hybrid developmental program, therefore, both recent and ancient ancestral features were restored. That is, the hybrids exhibited features of the pluteus larval form that is present in both the paternal species and in the immediate common ancestor of the two species, but they also exhibited general developmental features of very distantly related echinoderms. Thus in the hybrids, the interaction of two genomes that normally encode two disparate developmental modes produces a novel but harmonious ontongeny.  (+info)

Introgression through rare hybridization: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus) in Argyll, Scotland. (5/2497)

In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and introduced Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red-like phenotype. Introgression is rare at any one locus, but where the taxa overlap up to 40% of deer carry apparently introgressed alleles. While most putative hybrids are heterozygous at only one locus, there are rare multiple heterozygotes, reflecting significant linkage disequilibrium within both sika- and red-like populations. The rate of backcrossing into the sika population is estimated as H = 0.002 per generation and into red, H = 0.001 per generation. On the basis of historical evidence that red deer entered Kintyre only recently, a diffusion model evaluated by maximum likelihood shows that sika have increased at approximately 9.2% yr-1 from low frequency and disperse at a rate of approximately 3.7 km yr-1. Introgression into the red-like population is greater in the south, while introgression into sika varies little along the transect. For both sika- and red-like populations, the degree of introgression is 30-40% of that predicted from the rates of current hybridization inferred from linkage disequilibria; however, in neither case is this statistically significant evidence for selection against introgression.  (+info)

A dynamically regulated 14-3-3, Slob, and Slowpoke potassium channel complex in Drosophila presynaptic nerve terminals. (6/2497)

Slob is a novel protein that binds to the carboxy-terminal domain of the Drosophila Slowpoke (dSlo) calcium-dependent potassium (K(Ca)) channel. A yeast two-hybrid screen with Slob as bait identifies the zeta isoform of 14-3-3 as a Slob-binding protein. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments from Drosophila heads and transfected cells confirm that 14-3-3 interacts with dSlo via Slob. All three proteins are colocalized presynaptically at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Two serine residues in Slob are required for 14-3-3 binding, and the binding is dynamically regulated in Drosophila by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation. 14-3-3 coexpression dramatically alters dSlo channel properties when wild-type Slob is present but not when a double serine mutant Slob that is incapable of binding 14-3-3 is present. The results provide evidence for a dSlo/Slob/14-3-3 regulatory protein complex.  (+info)

Genetics of graft-versus-host disease, I. A locus on chromosome 1 influences development of acute graft-versus-host disease in a major histocompatibility complex mismatched murine model. (7/2497)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major complication occurring after bone marrow transplantation. The severity of GVHD varies widely, with this variation generally being attributed to variation in the degree of disparity between host and donor for minor histocompatibility antigens. However, it is also possible that other forms of polymorphism, such as polymorphisms in immune effector molecules, might play a significant role in determining GVHD severity. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we are studying the genetic factors that influence GVHD development in a murine model. We here report the first results of this analysis, which demonstrate that a locus on Chromosome 1 of the mouse, and possibly also a locus on Chromosome 4, exert considerable influence over the development of one aspect of acute GVHD - splenomegaly - in a parent-->F1 murine model. These results demonstrate that non-MHC genes can exert quite significant effects on the development of GVHD-associated pathology and that gene mapping can be used as a tool to identify these loci. Further analysis of such loci will allow identification of the mechanism whereby they influence GVHD and may lead in the future to improved selection of donors for human bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Suppressor T-cell activity in responder X nonresponder (C57BL/10 X DBA/1)F1 spleen cells responsive to L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10. (8/2497)

The ability of spleen cells from (responder X nonresponder)F(1) mice immunized with various GAT-Mphi, GAT-MBSA, and soluble GAT to develop IgG GAT-specific PFC responses in vitro after stimulation with responder and nonresponder parental and F(1) GAT-Mphi, was investigated. F(1) spleen cells from mice immunized with F(1) GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA developed secondary responses to responder and nonresponder parental and F(1) GAT- Mphi, but not to unrelated third party GAT-Mphi. Spleen cells from F(1) mice immunized with either parental GAT-Mphi developed secondary responses to F(1) GAT-Mphi and only the parental GAT-Mphi used for immunization in vivo. Soluble GAT-primed F(1) spleen cells responded to F(1) and responder parental, but not nonresponder parental, GAT-Mphi. Simultaneous immunization in vivo with the various GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA plus soluble GAT modulated the response pattern of these F(1) spleen cells such that they developed secondary responses only to F(1) and parental responder GAT-Mphi regardless of the response pattern observed after immunization with the various GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA alone. These observations demonstrate the critical importance of the physical state of the GAT used for immunization in determining the subsequent response pattern of immune F(1) spleen cells to the parental and F(1) GAT-Mphi. Further, suppressor T cells, capable of inhibiting primary responses to GAT by virgin F(1) spleen cells stimulated by nonresponder parental GAT-Mphi, were demonstrated in spleens of F(1) mice immunized with soluble GAT, but not those primed with F(1) GAT-Mphi. Because responder parental mice develop both helper and suppressor T cells after immunization with GAT-Mphi, and soluble GAT preferentially stimulates suppressor T cells whereas GAT-Mphi stimulate helper T cells in nonresponder parental mice, these observations suggest that distinct subsets of T cells exist in F(1) mice which behave phenotypically as responder and nonresponder parental T cells after immunization with soluble GAT and GAT- Mphi.  (+info)

In genetics, transgressive segregation is the formation of extreme phenotypes, or transgressive phenotypes, observed in segregated hybrid populations compared to phenotypes observed in the parental lines. The appearance of these trangressive (extreme) phenotypes can be either positive or negative in terms of fitness. If both parents favorable alleles come together, it will result in a hybrid having a higher fitness than the two parents. The hybrid species will show more genetic variation and variation in gene expression than their parents. As a result, the hybrid species will have some traits that are transgressive (extreme) in nature. Transgressive segregation can allow a hybrid species to populate different environments/niches in which the parent species do not reside, or compete in the existing environment with the parental species. Genetic There are many causes for transgressive segregation in hybrids. One cause can be due to recombination of additive alleles. Recombination results in new ...
Since Darwin, researchers have made tremendous progress towards understanding how ecological, genetic and evolutionary factors acting within species lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and ultimately the origin of new species (Coyne & Orr 2004). One problem that remains largely unresolved concerns the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. Investigating early stages in the evolution of postzygotic isolation in species, where alleles underlying postzygotic isolation are still polymorphic, is one promising approach.. Previous studies of postzygotic isolation between M. guttatus and M. nasutus have found reduced seed germination and male infertility in hybrids (Vickery 1956, 1973, 1978; Fishman & Willis 2001, 2006; Martin & Willis 2007). Vickery (1956, 1973, 1978) and Sweigart et al. (2007) provided evidence that postzygotic isolation within and among populations of both species varied geographically, though biometrical line crosses were not used to determine the genetic basis. ...
THE evolutionary significance of natural hybridization has been debated for decades (Mayr 1942; Anderson 1949; Harrison 1993; Arnold 1997). At one extreme, it has been argued that natural hybridization is an evolutionary dead end due to formation of inviable and/or infertile hybrids (Mayr 1942; Barton and Hewitt 1985, 1989). At the other extreme, it has been suggested that natural hybridization may lead to new evolutionary lineages due to formation of relatively fit hybrids that expand into novel habitats (Anderson 1948; Arnold 1997; Ellstrand and Schierenbeck 2000; Bleeker 2003). A third potential evolutionary outcome is expansion of an intermixed form within the resident progenitors habitat, in which case the degree of mixing between hybridizing forms may range from formation of a hybrid swarm to genetic assimilation of one form by the other (Childs et al. 1996; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996; Perry et al. 2001). Natural hybridization and introgression have been reported in a growing number of ...
HALDANEs rule states that, if species hybrids of one sex only are inviable or sterile, the afflicted sex is much more likely to be heterogametic (XY) than homogametic (XX). We show that most or all of the phenomena associated with HALDANEs rule can be explained by the simple hypothesis that alleles decreasing hybrid fitness are partially recessive. Under this hypothesis, the XY sex suffers more than the XX because X-linked alleles causing postzygotic isolation tend to have greater cumulative effects when hemizygous than when heterozygous, even though the XX sex carries twice as many such alleles. The dominance hypothesis can also account for the large X effect, the disproportionate effect of the X chromosome on hybrid inviability/sterility. In addition, the dominance theory is consistent with: the long temporal lag between the evolution of heterogametic and homogametic postzygotic isolation, the frequency of exceptions to HALDANEs rule, puzzling Drosophila experiments in which unbalanced ...
According to Sipiczki [26], genomes from each parental species interact in the new hybrid genome. This interaction can be observed in the loss of large parts of one or both genomes as well as in the presence of chimerical chromosomes that make the hybrid genome as stable as possible to future genetic modifications. Additionally, adaptive evolution of these hybrid genomes under fermentative environmental conditions could make hybrid genome to conserve the chromosomes, or part of them, which grant a selective advantage [27]. According to the results obtained in this work as well as in our previous studies [2, 13, 19], S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids seem to have the common trend to lose the S. kudriavevii parental chromosomes maintaining the S. cerevisiae ones. The reduction of the non-S. cerevisiae genome observed in both wine and brewing S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids was already reported for artificial S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum hybrids genetically stabilized by successive ...
Hybrid zones are of great interest to behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists because these areas provide natural systems for studies of characters and processes involved in divergence, reproductive isolation and speciation (Abbott et al., 2013). Hybridization may be a more prevalent phenomenon than is generally believed. Indeed, a literature review (Mallet, 2005) estimated that at least 10% of animal species (usually species that diverged from each other relatively recently) hybridize with heterospecifics. The generation and maintenance of a hybrid zone requires mismatings and at least partially successful reproduction between individuals that differ in one or more heritable traits. Natural hybridization may occur sporadically between closely related, broadly syntopic species or be confined to particular contact zones (Jiggins & Mallet, 2000). Species that only hybridize in parts of their overlapping ranges provide an excellent opportunity to investigate possible mechanisms ...
Earlier this week, the HFEA published its public consultation on the subject. This revealed that, although many people found the idea of human-animal hybrid embryos to be repugnant, most approved of it when they better understood the reasons for it. Researchers can create hybrid embryos by the transferring nuclei from human cells into animal egg cells from which the nucleus has been removed. This technique, called nuclear transfer, is very similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep, the main difference being that Dolly was cloned using a cell and a nucleus from the same species. Creating hybrid embryos would bypass the shortage in human eggs, and will enable researchers to use stem cells from the embryos to develop treatments for conditions such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. If the HFEA approves the use of hybrid embryos, researchers proposals will then be considered individually. Ian Wilmut, who led the team that cloned Dolly, is waiting for the HFEAs decision so that he can apply to ...
Reciprocal hybrids showing different phenotypes have been well documented in previous studies, and many factors accounting for different phenotypes have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about whether the profiles of small RNAs differ between reciprocal hybrids and how these small RNAs affect gene expression and phenotypes. To better understand this mechanism, the role of small RNAs on phenotypes in reciprocal hybrids was analysed. Reciprocal hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom and S. pimpinellifolium line WVa700 were generated. Significantly different phenotypes between the reciprocal hybrids were observed, including fruit shape index, single fruit weight and plant height. Then, through the high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, we found that the expression levels of 76 known miRNAs were highly variable between the reciprocal hybrids. Subsequently, a total of 410 target genes were predicted to correspond with these differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, gene
Certain biophysical characteristics of the DNA from each of the five nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid viruses (Ad2+ND1, Ad2+ND2, Ad2+ND3, Ad2+ND4, Ad2+ND5) have been determined. The guanine plus cytosine content varied from 55 to 57% and was not significantly different from that of nonhybrid Ad2 (56%), and the hybrid DNA molecules had mean molecular lengths which were similar to that of the standard, Ad2. The Ad2 and SV40 components of each hybrid were linked by alkali-resistant, presumably covalent bonds. The percentage of SV40 DNA in each hybrid virus was determined by hybridization with SV40 complementary RNA in a calibrated system. The results indicate that each hybrid virus DNA contains a different percentage of SV40 nucleotide sequences. The estimated size of the SV40 DNA component varies from 48,000 daltons for Ad2+ND3 to 840,000 daltons for Ad2+ND4, the latter being equivalent to between one-fourth and one-third of the SV40 genome. ...
The term hybridogenesis was coined by R. J. Schultz and indicates a reproductional mode which is found in a few animal groups (e.g. the topminnow Poeciliopsis, a small fish in desert streams in Mexico and Soutwestern USA; water frogs; Bacillus, stick insects in Italy). This mode marks hybrids between two parental species (A,B) who are able to reproduce by backcrossing which one of the parent. These hybrid normally contain two chromosome sets (AB, one from each parent species) in their body cells, but in the gonads (ovar or testicles) the chromosome set of one parent is lost, so that only one set remains (A or B), with A in their gonads, hybrids can backcross with B and vice versa. ...
Detection of natural hybrids is of great significance for plant taxonomy, reproductive biology, and population genetic studies. Compared with methods depending on morphological characters, molecular markers provide reliable and much more accurate results. This protocol describes approaches employing microsatellite (SSR) markers to identify inter-specific hybrids in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae).
Hybrid speciation is an example of sympatric speciation that can occur in plants.. Interspecies hybrids are usually sterile because the chromosome pairs, which consist of one chromosome from one species and another from the second species, do not segregate regularly at meiosis. When a hybrid species evolves, sterility may be overcome by polyploidy: the chromosome numbers are doubled. Each chromosome pair at meiosis contains two chromosomes from one species, and regular segregation is restored. Polyploidization is encouraged by applying the chemical colchicine in the commercial production of new species, but it can also occur naturally at a low rate. In this case, a new hybrid species may evolve. The polyploidy hybrids are interfertile among themselves, but reproductively isolated (by the mismatch in chromosome numbers) from the parental species; they are therefore well defined new species.. Many popular species of flower such as tulips (opposite) and orchids are created through artificial ...
A method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances was developed for a two-breed crossbreeding system. The method allows information from crossbred animals to be incorporated in a coherent manner for such crossbreeding systems.
Free Online Library: The effect of the relative location of laser beam with arc in different hybrid welding processes/Lazerinio-lankinio suvirinimo siuliu santykinio isdestymo efektas naudojant ivairius hibridinio suvirinimo procesus.(Report) by Mechanika; Engineering and manufacturing Laser beams Properties Welding Analysis Equipment and supplies Management Technology application
Hybridogenesis in an interspecific hybrid frog is a coupling mechanism in the gametogenic cell line that eliminates the genome of one parental species with endoduplication of the remaining genome of the other parental species. It has been intensively investigated in the edible frog |i|Pelophylax kl.|/i| …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and pattern of interspecific hybridization between Gliricidia septum and G. maculata in Meso-America revealed by PCR-based assays. AU - Dawson, I. K.. AU - Simons, A. J.. AU - Waugh, R.. AU - Powell, W.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Gliricidia sepium provides a variety of products important for rural communities in tropical countries. Native populations in Meso-America currently form an important source of seed for distribution to farmers, but concerns centre on mechanisms which may lead to their genetic erosion, including anthropogenic dispersal and subsequent introgression from the related species, G. maculata. Populations of Gliricidia were examined genetically using approaches based on the polymerase chain reaction to test for interspecific hybridization and introgression between G. sepium and G. maculata. Analysis involved 13 RAPD and two RFLP-PCR markers which were identified to have species-diagnostic distributions. Data from both approaches corresponded and ...
View Notes - Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1 from BIOL 202 at UNC. Ploidy February 19th, 2010 Three specimens of Odontophrynus: O. americanus male, 4x =4 Artificial hybrid young, 3x=33 (b); O. cultripes
4, 2, 5 by same fossils on fossil last download reconstructing hybridity post colonial studies in transition. textxet. 4 which is much long you know, but you can show on here taking escape Enhancements Choose Play Speed Settings and have the download up subject as you are. dread the download reconstructing hybridity post colonial studies in transition. textxet and your scarcity pain to be granitic objects of mind and earum.
In nature, some strains of the influenza virus are highly lethal while others jump easily from person to person. What public health officials fear most is a hybrid that combines the lethality of one with the transmissibility of the other, creating a deadly global pandemic.. Now a team of Chinese scientists has investigated that in their lab by creating a new hybrid virus. They combined H5N1 avian influenza, which is highly lethal but doesnt transmit easily between people, with the highly contagious H1N1 swine flu strain responsible for infecting tens of millions of people in 2009. ...
Researchers have for the first time determined that hybridization between two bird species can give rise to several novel and fully functional hybrid genomic combinations. This could potentially be because hybrid species emerged through independent hybridisation events between the same parent species on different islands.
A hybrid plant is a cross between two or more unrelated inbred plants. Hybridization has brought huge improvements, including more vigorous plants, improved disease resistance, earlier maturity, more uniform growth and increased yield.
...Hybrid plants provide much higher yield than their homozygous parents....The world population continues to grow and needs to be fed. Cereals pr...Molecular causes elusive ...Homozygous plants are a result of inbreeding depression: yield shrinks...,Corn:,Many,active,genes,-,high,yield,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Moav, R., 1958: Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum XXIX: The relationships of residual chromosome homology to interspecific gene transfer
Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and exactly how ecological segregation may impact hybridization needs comprehensively sampling different habitats over a variety of life history levels. was questionable. In comparison, Taylor et?al. (2008) sampled many lakes in traditional western Alaska and discovered that although both types distributed mtDNA haplotypes, these were extremely distinctive at nine microsatellite loci, helping their position as valid natural types. In a single southwestern Alaskan lake (Lake Aleknagik), nevertheless, primary data recommended that about 7% from the seafood sampled acquired ambiguous hereditary identity and had been tentatively categorized as hybrids. A combined PST-2744 supplier mix of relatively low test size (60C100 in two lakeCstream watersheds) and insufficient sample site variety (2C6 sites per watershed) in the Taylor et?al. (2008) research limited their PST-2744 supplier capability to accurately gain access to the amount of ...
Mating between sympatric species is a regular occurrence in natural populations, and increasing anthropogenic re-distributions of organisms is driving ever greater frequencies of species contact and hybridization [1, 2]. Whether giving rise to new, independent hybrid lineages or to the movement of alleles between species (i.e. introgression), recent population genetics and experimental studies show that inter-specific mating can be a major force behind adaptation and speciation [3-5]. The potential for hybridization to contribute to biodiversity, however, involves the interactions of multiple processes that remain incompletely understood [6]. In particular, hybridization is limited by a complex interplay of pre- and post-mating reproductive barriers that can decrease mating compatibility between species or the fitness of hybrid individuals [2].. Especially in sympatric species, isolating mechanisms that depend on mating behaviors (i.e. compatibilities of different sexes or mating types) play a ...
PMID: 28444733 Du SNN, Khajali F, Dawson NJ, Scott GR (2017) Evolution Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus). ROS emission was greater in hybrids than in both parent species when respiration was supported by complex I (but not complex II) substrates, and was associated with increases in lipid peroxidation. However, respiratory capacities for oxidative phosphorylation, phosphorylation efficiency, and O2 kinetics in hybrids were intermediate between ...
The pinpoint accuracy of a true-flying 2-blade head teamed up with the awesome destruction of a 4- blade. The new HYBRID from GRIM REAPER starts cutting at our legendary V-Notch chisel tip, slips ahead with 2 super strong fixed Hades blades and finishes up with a pair of World Class Mechanical razors. We cant imagine anything better! Game cant imagine anything Worse! Guaranteed to have a Bad Attitude right out of the package. Crossbow friendly Too !. For More, Go to www.grimreaperbroadheads.com or call 877-474-6732. ...
I will argue that Drosophila geneticists are not so much interested in finding speciation genes, but rather interested in understanding the genetics of speciation. To do so requires finding mutations that allow the species boundary to be surmounted. As I have mentioned previously, good species are reproductively isolated, preventing any genetical analysis of the factors that lead to this isolation. Mutations in the speciation genes (especially the extremely useful Hybrid Male Rescue mutation), however, allow researchers to cross individuals from different species and study the genetics of speciation.. Geneticists like to find generalities. That is why we study model organisms; they are easy to work with in a laboratory setting and allow us to extend our discoveries regarding molecular biology, cellular function, development, physiology, etc to other related taxa (both closely related and more distant relatives). Wilkins makes a valid point that it is difficult to generalize discoveries ...
Plant species hybridize more readily than animal species, and the resulting hybrids are more often fertile hybrids and may reproduce. There still exist sterile hybrids and selective hybrid elimination where the offspring are less able to survive and are thus eliminated before they can reproduce. Sterility in a hybrid is often a result of chromosome number; if parents are of differing chromosome pair number, the offspring will have an odd number of chromosomes, leaving them unable to produce chromosomally balanced gametes. For example, if a hybrid received 10 chromosomes from one parent and 12 from another parent, the chromosomes would not be balanced for meiosis. A number of plant species, however, are the result of hybridization and polyploidy, where an organism has more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. For example, if the plant had two sets of chromosomes from both parents, giving it four sets of chromosome, it would be balanced for meiosis. Many plant species easily cross pollinate ...
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download Kipling\s Imperial Boy: Adolescence and Cultural Hybridity 2001: South African of English failure. money of dialects Under the page of Shaka, the Zulu city used into own Africa. The completed sent impeded not so.
Hybridisation between recently diverged species offers an opportunity to gain insights into the process of reproductive isolation. Understanding the evolutionary consequences of hybridisation is a particular pressing issue in the context of global warming, because several taxa currently undergo temperature induced range expansions. One of the groups most heavily affected by increasing temperatures are odonates, as can be seen by large advances of the northern range margin of many species. These range expansions have many consequences, and the presumably most significant one concerns altered species interactions. For example, range expansions can cause novel range overlap between formerly allopatric species and can lead to extensive hybridisation in these new sympatric areas.. Within odonates, the genus Ischnura is extremely species rich (around 70 species), and consists of many recently diverged species that often co-occur over parts of their range. This genus has also other interesting ...
ABSTRACT:. Hybridization between different species can result in the emergence of new lineages and adaptive phenotypes. Occasionally, hybridization in fungal organisms can drive the appearance of opportunistic lifestyles or shifts to new hosts, resulting in the emergence of novel pathogens. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have documented the existence of hybrids in diverse yeast clades, including some comprising human pathogens. Comparative and population genomics studies performed on these clades are enabling us to understand what roles hybridization may play in the evolution and emergence of a virulence potential towards humans. Here we survey recent genomic studies on several yeast pathogenic clades where hybrids have been identified, and discuss the broader implications of hybridization in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic lineages.. Mixão, V., Gabaldón, T., 2017. Hybridization and emergence of virulence in opportunistic human yeast pathogens. YEAST, 1-42.. ...
lar Systematics, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 407-514.. Edwards, K.J. 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). In A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (eds.), Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 171-179.. Frankel, O.H., A.D.H. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Gallez, G.P. and L.D. Gottlieb. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution 36: 1158-1167.. Gottlieb, L.D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.. Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.D.H. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler and B.S. Weir (eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 43-63.. Ito, M. and M. Ono. 1990. Allozyme diversity and the evolution of Crepidiastrum (Compositae) on the ...
Scotts OG is a Hybrid strain. It has 20% sativa and 80% indica. Scotts OG has Pine, Earthy, Sweet, Pungent, Citrus tastes and it helps in anxiety, arthritis, migraines, ptsd, cancer. Scotts OG has 19.76% THC and 0.12% CBD. Scotts OG is very helpful to make you feel relaxed, happy, euphoric, creative, uplifted.
ACDC is a Hybrid strain. It has 50% sativa and 50% indica. ACDC has Earthy, Woody, Pine, Citrus, Sweet tastes and it helps in anxiety, migraines, ptsd, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorder. ACDC has 1% THC and 22% CBD. ACDC is very helpful to make you feel relaxed, uplifted, happy, focused, energetic.
The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of species purity have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages.
Ive been researching the best new hybrids to buy, the SUVs with cargo space for lugging sporting equipment and furniture for clients versus the smaller, more practical Prius, the symbol of a Gore generation of fuel-conscious consumers.. But I have to say, Ive been thrown by the latest safety risk I read about. It wasnt about the performance of the cars but rather the fact that blind pedestrians cannot hear the gas-electric motors on the road.. When you rely on your ears to determine whether its safe to cross the intersection, the hybrids pose a terrible threat. According to the Associated Press, hybrid tests were conducted involving people standing in parking lots or on sidewalks who were told to signal when they heard different hybrid models drive by. I couldnt hear it, reported Deborah Kent Stein, chairwoman of the National Federation of the Blinds Committee on Automotive and Pedestrian Safety. She shared that the other subjects participating in the test asked when the test was going ...
Funding for research involving hybrid animal-human embryos dries up as alternative technique for creating stem cells finds favour
Programmable system with superior temperature control for performing FISH/ISH hybridization protocols on 1 to 12 slides. Uses rapid Peltier heating and cooling to process FFPE, bone marrow, cell lines and other samples with FISH probes from Abbott, Agilent, Cymogen and Cytocell. Accurately detects slide temperatures using SlideSense technology for more reproducible results. Records a time/temperature datalog to USB. Removable slide trays reduce handling from assay setup through hybridization. Slide trays can be transferred to a 60-slide capacity CytoBrite Slide Oven for extended or overnight probe denaturation. Requires the use of CytoBond Removable Coverslip Sealant to temporarily seal coverslips to slides, providing an evaporative seal over prolonged incubations and high temperatures without humidification. ...
Darwins discussion of hybridization occupies all of chapter 8 of the Origin. His stated motivation is to address what many people might see as a fatal objection to his theory of species origins by means of natural selection. One of Darwins main arguments in the book is that descent with modification is continuous, and therefore the distinction between species and varieties (and subspecies, etc) is an arbitrary cut in a continuum of biodiversity. However, it was conventionally accepted that varieties within the same species could cross-breed freely, but any attempt to hybridize distinct species would always fail. Darwin opposes this view by citing extensive evidence showing that varying degrees of sterility are encountered in efforts to cross-breed different species of plants (and a few birds) - if the species are closely related then often there will be a small degree of fertility in the hybrid offspring. So, as two related forms diverge from one another in the course of evolution, their ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Innovative ocean-borne technology, utilizing a dual rotor system and wave ramp to capture all the power contained in a wave, is a highly efficient wave energy converter that actually lowers the cost of delivered electricity.
Its been widely noted that while there are 22 different hybrid cars currently on the American market (with the 2012 BMW ActiveHybrid 5 about to join them), nearly 50 percent of the categorys sales are captured by one car, the Toyota Prius. Why do you think that is? Read more about the 2012 BMW ActiveHybrid 5 in thei first drive from the automotive experts at Motor Trend.
Deh-Noizer grew up with a natural attitude to music. Born in the 1987, he discovered techno world when he was only 14. During these 10 years he developed a great experience as Dj/Producer and in 2010 released his first EP on Naked Lunch records, A.paul label. After him first work as producer he began climb all over charts and big names tracklist , gaining the support of many great artists and labels. He had the pleasure to release on The Advent label Kombination Research , Impact Mechanics, Torsten Kanzler Rec, Ketra .. and many more. Remixed by names like : Space Djz, Glenn Willson, Ryuji Takeuchi, he has many projects for the future who will see him starring of the best Techno scene of the moment ...
When two different species try to mate, theyll almost always fail. Some, like horses and donkeys, will get lucky and produce hybrid offspring - but those mules usually are sterile. For some worms, ho...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Symmetric interspecies hybrids of mouse and human hemoglobin. T2 - Molecular basis of their abnormal oxygen affinity. AU - Roy, Rajendra Prasad. AU - Nacharaju, Parimala. AU - Nagel, Ronald L.. AU - Acharya, A. Seetharama. PY - 1995/2/1. Y1 - 1995/2/1. N2 - Interspecies hybrids of HbA and Hb from mouse C57BL/10 [α2MΒ2H and ↠2HΒ2M (H=human, M=mouse)], representing 19 and 27 sequence differences per αΒ dimers (as compared with human αΒ dimer) have been generated in vitro. The efficiency of the assembly of the interspecies hybrids by the alloplex intermediate pathway is about twofold higher than the low-pH-mediated subunit approach. The interspecies hybrids exhibit a cooperative O2 binding. The intrinsic O2 affinity of mouse Hb is slightly lower than HbA, while the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) effect is comparable. Interestingly, the interspecies hybrid α2MΒ2H has high O2 affinity (compared to either human or mouse H b), while the interspecies hybrid α2HΒ2M exhibits a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A quantitative genetic model for mixed diploid and triploid hybrid progenies in tree breeding and evolution. AU - Wu, Rongling. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - Interspecific hybridization has played a critical role in tree evolution and breeding. The findings of triploidy in forest trees stimulate the development of a quantitative genetic model to estimate the nature of gene action. The model is based on clonally replicated triploid progenies derived from a two-level population and individual-within-population mating design in which offspring have a double dose of alleles from the parent and a single dose of alleles from the other parent. With the same genetic assumptions of a diploid model, except non-Mendelian behavior at meiosis, and the experimental variances estimated from a linear statistical model, total genetic variances in the triploid progenies are separated into additive, dominance, and epistatic components. In addition, by combining the new model with the already ...
en] Eco-ethology as expressed in migration patterns, hybridisation level, growth rates in river conditions, and reproductive behaviour in a controlled environment were investigated in natural common bream Abramis brama × roach Rutilus rutilus and common bream × silver bream Blicca bjoerkna hybrids. From 2001 to 2003, hybrids and parental species were captured in a fish pass trap at the Lixhe dam on the Belgian Meuse River during their reproductive migration. The fish pass was checked 3 days a week and the water temperature was recorded hourly. The results showed that these hybrids were less frequent but they had migrated during the same period and in the same environmental conditions as the parental species. Scale readings showed that the growth of hybrids was intermediate between the two parent species growth. In controlled environments, the female hybrid mated with one to two males, including male hybrids, in reproductive experiments between hybrids; they also mated with male hybrid and ...
Interspecific gene flow is an important aspect in avian speciation [54]. Based on hybridization networks and D-statistics, calculated from genome-wide data, we found indications for high levels of interspecific gene flow between several goose species. D-statistics allowed us to confidently discriminate between incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific gene flow. The significant D-statistics varied from 0.07 to 0.17, which is slightly higher compared to analyses on recent radiations, such as Darwins Finches (0.004-0.092; [55]) and butterflies of the genera Heliconius (0.04; [56]) and Papilio (0.04; [57]). These values do fall within the range of studies on other hybridizing species, such as pigs (0.11-0.23; [58]), bears (0.04-0.46; [59, 60]) and Xiphophorus fish (0.03-0.56; [61]).. A significant D-statistic does not necessarily indicate introgression between the species from which the genomes are being compared. There might have been gene flow with an extinct (not sampled) population or the ...
Hybrid zones provide insights into the evolution of reproductive isolation. Sexual selection can contribute to the evolution of reproductive barriers, but it remains poorly understood how sexual traits impact gene flow in secondary contact. Here, we show that a recently evolved suite of sexual traits that function in male-male competition mediates gene flow between two lineages of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis). Gene flow was relatively low and asymmetric in the presence of exaggerated male morphology and coloration compared to when the lineages share the ancestral phenotype. Putative barrier loci were enriched in genomic regions that were highly differentiated between the two lineages and showed low concordance between the transects. The exception was a consistently low genetic exchange around ATXN1, a gene that modulates social behavior. We suggest that this gene may contribute to the male mate preferences that are known to cause lineage-assortative mating in this species. Although female ...
Britain urged not to ban hybrid embryo research Reuters - Wed Apr 4, 7:03 PM ET Scientists and lawmakers urged Britain on Thursday to scrap a proposed ban on creating hybrid animal-human embryos for research into illnesses such as Parkinsons, stroke and Alzheimers. In December, the British government proposed a ban on the creation of hybrid embryos due to what it called considerable public unease, but the Commons Science and Technology Committee said a ban was unacceptable and could harm British science. ......... ZenMaster. ...
Hybrid breakdown is a pattern of postzygotic isolation that occurs during the early stages of allopatric divergence, and it is characterized by markedly reduced fitness in F2 and later generation hybrids [1]. Hybrid breakdown has been observed in a wide array of phenotypes, including fecundity [2], sperm swimming speed [3], offspring viability [4,5], growth rate [6] and stress response [7]. The genes involved in the early stages of reproductive isolation are likely to be found in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying these phenotypes.. Hybrid breakdown is often explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) model; evolution results in coadaptation among interacting sets of alleles within diverging isolated populations, but incompatibilities are revealed in recombinant F2 genomes of interpopulation hybrids [8,9]. Although most investigations of DM incompatibilities have focused on interactions among nuclear genes [10], epistasis between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes may be particularly ...
Inferring the origins of hybrid taxa based on morphology alone is difficult because morphologically similar hybrids can arise from hybridization between different populations of the same parental species or be produced by hybridization of different parental species. In this study, we investigated the origins of two semi-creeping taxa in Melastoma, which are morphologically similar to a natural hybrid, M. intermedium, by sequencing a chloroplast intergenic spacer, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and two low-copy nuclear genes (tpi and cam) in these taxa and their putative parental species. Our sequence analysis results provide compelling evidence for the hybrid status of the two semi-creeping taxa: one originating from hybridization between M. dodecandrum and M. malabathricum, and the other between M. dodecandrum and M. normale. The origins of these hybrids are therefore clearly different from M. intermedium, and morphological similarity for the three hybrids is most likely due to
The fact is that the stature, leaf size and other vegetative characteristics of R. yakushimanum are determined by the environment, and have nothing to do with hybridity or the lack of it. As proof, the reader is referred to Figure 1. which is a photograph of a plant with small, convex leaves and compressed growth habit typical of the Exbury form and Koichiro Wada, F.C.C. However, the plant photographed happens to be Pink Parasol. It was grown in an impoverished soil, such as that on the mountain summits of Yaku Shima, with full exposure to drying sun and wind; it was never irrigated. This harsh treatment transformed the vigorous, large leaved Pink Parasol into a close-coupled Koichiro Wada with small, convex leaves. In early 1988 the plant was moved to a more favored site and its new growth is once again vigorous, with large, flat leaves. So it is apparent that gross morphology is no guide to hybridity in R. yakushimanum. The further truth is that no type specimen of R. yakushimanum ...
Phylogenetic relationships in Athyrium and Cornopteris were deduced from two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL and trnL 5exon-trnF, of 32 species, 2 varieties, 3 putative hybrids of Athyrium, three taxa of Cornopteris, and five outgroups. Athyrium is paraphyletic, and the Athyrium-Cornopteris complex comprises five clades. Clade I, the most basal, comprises A. niponicum, A. (=Anisocampium) sheareri, and A. (=Kuniwatsukia) cuspidatum. Clade II includes A. distentifolium and Cornopteris. All species of clades III and IV are diploids, while most species of Glade V are polyploids. The parentage of the putative hybrids and of species of hybrid origin were also suggested. The results were compared to previous major classifications based on morphology.. ...
How species arise is a fundamental and still unanswered question in biology. Under the biological species concept, species consist of populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations (Mayr 1942). Thus, to understand speciation, we must learn how reproductive barriers evolve between populations. Postzygotic reproductive barriers are commonly found in nature, and occur when hybrid progeny are relatively unfit in comparison to their parents and serve as inefficient bridges for gene flow between populations. Hybrids can be extrinsically unfit, in that they are maladapted to their environment (for example, hybrids exhibit an intermediate phenotype which is unfit in parental environments) or intrinsically unfit, in that they are developmentally abnormal (for example, hybrids are sterile or inviable) (Coyne and Orr 2004).. The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model hypothesizes that hybrids are intrinsically unfit due to incompatible gene ...
It seems these would also be a great test system for more whole genome sequencing or at least more polymorphism comparisons to try and determine the proportion of the genome that comes from different parents and estimate timing and frequency of hybridization. It seems possible that the hybridizations are occurring multiple times in nature so are the same regions from each parental genome kept in the hybrid offspring that are selected for fitness under fermentation stress?. Gonzalez, S.S., Barrio, E., Querol, A. (2008). Molecular Characterization of New Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in Brewing . Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(8), 2314-2320. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01867-07. ...
FIG. 4. Minimum number of chromosomal rearrangements and restriction site changes to connect the different genotypes exhibited by the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids (Fig. 3; see also Table S••• in the supplemental material). Genotypes are represented by white and gray circles for wine and brewing hybrids, respectively. Rearrangements are indicated by arrows giving the direction of the irreversible change. Rearrangements were assumed to be caused by nonreciprocal recombination (rec) among homoeologous chromosomes (roman numbers) and whole chromosome losses (loss) of one of the parental chromosomes (kud, S. kudriavzevii). Restriction site changes can be reversible (gain/loss) and are represented by diamonds. The gene region and the restriction patterns involved are also indicated (for a description, see Tables S2 and S3 in the supplemental material). Dotted squares group genotypes of hybrids according to their mitochondrial COX2 haplotypes. ...
Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.. PubMed. Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.. 2002-06-01. Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccards similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. ...
The evolution of reproductive isolating barriers that prevent gene flow between species is essential to the process of speciation. One such barrier is intrinsic postzygotic isolation, which proceeds as hybrid sterility or inviability, and is commonly attributed to Dobzhansky-Muller genic incompatibilities. Here, deleterious interlocus interactions occur between incompatible alleles of complementary genes when brought together in the genome of a hybrid. Although these hybrid incompatibilities are widespread, having been identified in mammals, fish, plants and fungi, still relatively little is known about the nature of the genes involved. In the model plant species Mimulus, a Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility exists between two populations of the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus, in which the interaction between a single gene from a copper tolerant population, Copperopolis, and a small number of polymorphic genes from a second non-tolerant population, Cerig-y-drudion, results in hybrid ...
Read Analysis of mtDNA and nuclear markers points to homoploid hybrid origin of the new species of Far Eastern redfins of the genus Tribolodon (Pisces, Cyprinidae), Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Low available phosphorus (P) still remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in low P soils. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the extent of genetic variation in P efficiency among selected Kenyan maize under low P soils (ii) select P efficient maize experimental hybrids. A total of 32 experimental hybrids were evaluated for variation in tolerance to low P at high P (36kgP/ha) and low P (6kgP/ha) conditions across four locations using split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated three times. Mean grain yield was significantly lower (2.49 t/ha) across the low P treatment compared to the high P treatments (4.78 t/ha). Relative yield reduction was comparable across the four locations except at Sega where it was a little higher (59.4%). A 48.9% mean yield reduction was observed at the low P treatment compared with the high P treatment across the locations. Eighteen out of the 32 experimental hybrids exhibited Agronomic Efficiency (AE) above the locational mean , ...
Interspecific hybrids Buddleja davidii x Buddleja weyeriana, Buddleja weyeriana x Buddleja davidii and Buddleja davidii x Buddleja lindleyana were generated using in vitro embryo rescue 10-11 weeks after manual pollination. The morphological variation within the F1 populations was limited. The F1 progeny of B. davidii x B. lindleyana was almost sterile and no F2 generation was obtained. From the o ...
Determining the frequency and genetic impact of hybridization during animal speciation remains a central and unresolved issue in evolutionary biology. If reproductive isolation is incomplete when nascent species come into contact, even moderate gene flow may result in population fusion. Thus, recurrent hybridization among animal species has traditionally been viewed as rare. Alternatively, genetic factors underlying speciation may continue to accumulate between divergent populations despite on-going gene flow, eventually leading to the evolution of complete reproductive isolation. Consistent with this second model (divergence with gene flow), several recent studies have shown that closely related taxa may retain differentiation despite high levels of cryptic hybridization and introgression. If divergence with gene flow is common, then hybridization may often be an important transient phase in animal speciation. Furthermore, in such cases, phylogeny estimation in such cases will be rendered ...
Hybrids are often named by the portmanteau method, combining the names of the two parent species. For example, a zeedonk is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. Since the traits of hybrid offspring often vary depending on which species was mother and which was father, it is traditional to use the fathers species as the first half of the portmanteau. For example, a liger is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger, while a tiglon is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion ...
Speciation generates discrete populations, which in turn is essential for maintaining novel adaptations during evolution. Hybrids between different species are usually inviable or sterile. Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities represent reciprocal-sign epistasis between inter-specific alleles and are widely accepted as a major driver of postzygotic reproductive isolation. They refer to deleterious genetic interactions between functionally diverged loci during the evolution of new species. They are widely accepted to cause hybrid sterility or inviability, the features associated with postzygotic reproductive isolation. The evolution of speciation genes is generally thought to be driven by adaptive evolution. Identifying these genes will provide more information about how speciation occurs. One of the main challenges in speciation genetics is that speciation events can normally not be observed and therefore data from present-day species are confronted statistically with competing hypotheses about ...
Selfish genetic elements and coevolved suppressors are often invoked as sources of hybrid incompatibility [9,16,48], but direct evidence for a specific role of genomic conflict in the evolution of BDM incompatibilities is rare. Cryptic CMS in plants, where mismatch between organellar and nuclear genes results in hybrid male sterility, epitomizes this gap. Despite abundant evidence that cryptic CMS is common [21,23,24] and robust theory that it should evolve selfishly [28], the links between pattern and process have been circumstantial to date [31]. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that mitochondrial CMS loci and associated nuclear restorers have evolved under the positive selection predicted by the conflict model. Our findings strongly point to selfish evolution/coevolution within one parental species, rather than negative epistasis limited only to hybrids, as the source of cytonuclear incompatibilites in crosses between hermaphroditic plant ...
Read A TWO-SEX POLYGENIC MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF PREMATING ISOLATION. II. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF EXPERIMENTAL SELECTION PROCEDURES, Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
D. obovata Ivans Paddle D. anglica CA HI D. beleziana - tetraploid F1 (cutting from natural hybrid NJ, Pine Barrens treated with Colchicine) ak
Loss of protein homeostasis is involved in programmed cell death during hybrid lethality in plants.. Hybrid plants - those produced by crossing two different types of parents - often die in conditions in which both parents would survive. Its called hybrid lethality. Certain hybrid tobacco plants, for example, thrive at 36 degrees Celsius, but die at 28 degrees Celsius, which is the temperature at which both parents would thrive.. A team of researchers at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) based in Japan have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which hybrid tobacco plant cells meet their demise. The researchers published their results in Scientific Reports, a Nature journal. Hybrid tobacco plants were chosen for the study because they offer a good genetic model to study other hybrid plants.. When moved to the lower temperature, hybrid tobacco cells induce a process called programmed cell death. It sounds dramatic, but its normal and healthy - to a point. In humans, ...
Gorgeously printed in silver ink on black paper, this field guide to our new world of hybrid specimens catalogs the conflation of the technosphere and the biosphere. Plastiglomerates, surveillance robot dogs, fordite, artificial grass, antenna trees, COVID-19, decapitated mountains, drone-fighting eagles, standardized bananas: all of these specimens, some more familiar than others, are examples of the hybridity that shapes the current landscapes of science, technology and everyday life. Inspired by medieval bestiaries and the increasingly visible effects of climate change on the planet, French researcher Nicolas Nova (born 1977) provides an ethnographic guide to the post-natural era in which we live, highlighting the amalgamations of nature and artifice that already co-exist in the 21st century. A sort of field handbook, A Bestiary of the Anthropocene aims to help us orient ourselves within the technosphere and the biosphere. What happens when technologies and their unintended consequences ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Barley chromosome 6 retained specifically in hypoploid hybrids of a chromosome-eliminating interspecific cross. AU - Linde-Laursen, I.. AU - Bothmer, R. von. N1 - Conference code: 6. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. KW - Begrænsning af forurening. M3 - Article in proceedings. SP - 77. EP - 79. BT - Barley genetics VI. Volume 1. Short papers. A2 - Munck, L.. A2 - Kirkegaard, K.. A2 - Jensen, B.. PB - Munksgaard CY - Copenhagen. T2 - 6th International Barley Genetics Symposium. Y2 - 22 July 1991 through 27 July 1991. ER - ...
Research Interests:. Systematics and molecular evolution in mammals; particularly in geomyoid and cricetid rodents. Examination of hybrid zones between genetically distinct taxa; including isolating mechanisms and the dynamics of genetic introgression. Determining the origin of hybrizymes generated from 2 hybridization events. Chromosomal evolution and how changes in chromosome structure relate to models and mechanisms of speciation. Examination of the origin and evolution of rodent-borne viruses; especially in the use of rodent phylogenies and genetic structure to predict the transmission and evolution of the virus. Epidemiology and zoonoses of mammalian-borne viruses. Growth and utilization of natural history collections, especially those pertaining to mammals. Development of bioinformatics and how this field can better be interphased with natural history collections. Natural history and distributions of mammalian species. Genetic Species Concept and how it applies to mammals. How genomics and ...
The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about. The theory was first described by William Bateson in 1909, then independently described by Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1934, and later elaborated in different forms by Herman Muller, H. Allen Orr and Sergey Gavrilets. The model states that genetic incompatibility is most likely evolved by alternative fixation of two or more loci instead of just one, so that when hybridization occurs, it is the first time for some of the alleles to co-occur in the same individual. For example, imagine two populations that only recently separated geographically. Both sides are starting with the same genotype AABB. One population can then evolve to aaBB, through the transition state AaBB, while the other evolves to AAbb, through the transition state ...
Hybrid Swarm Intelligence-Based Biclustering Approach for Recommendation of Web Pages: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6328-2.ch007: This chapter focuses on recommender systems based on the coherent users browsing patterns. Biclustering approach is used to discover the aggregate usage
Davis describes the much hybridized wheat of today as scarcely related to the wheat people began eating 10,000 years ago. That wild grass, called Einkorn, changed just a little through natural hybridization, over thousands of years. But in the last 50 years it has been hybridized and changed so dramatically that its genome is scarcely recognizable from that of its ancient ancestor. What began as a four foot tall grass with 14 genes now has been dwarfed, its stalks made sturdier, and its production beefed up to the point where it has over 40 genes, many of them never before encountered by humans. Todays wheat has far more gluten than its ancestors, giving rise to almost ubiquitous gluten intolerance and celiac disease. It even has proteins not found in any of its parents, including gluten structures unlike any ever seen in food before ...
Understanding the performance of new crop genotypes for traits of relevance is important in selecting potential cultivars to satisfy end-users. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of new banana genotypes for bunch mass (BMS) and BMS-related traits, resistance to black Sigatoka and sensory attributes. Eight cooking banana genotypes consisting of six new hybrid genotypes selected from advanced breeding trials and two control cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design for three crop cycles at three locations in Uganda. Genotype, location, crop cycle and their interaction effects were significantly different for most traits assessed. The overall top two genotypes (
In the marine environment, an increasing number of studies have documented introgression and hybridization using genetic markers. Hybridization appears to occur preferentially between sister-species, with the probability of introgression decreasing with an increase in evolutionary divergence. Exceptions to this pattern were reported for the Cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus), two distantly related Merluciidae species that diverged 3-4.2 million years ago. Yet, it is expected that contemporary hybridization between such divergent species would result in reduced hybrid fitness. We analysed 1,137 hake individuals using nine microsatellite markers and control region mtDNA data to assess the validity of the described hybridization event. To distinguish between interbreeding, ancestral polymorphism and homplasy we sequenced the flanking region of the most divergent microsatellite marker. Simulation and empirical analyses showed that hybrid identification significantly varied with the ...
Many parents feel alone and isolated in this experience with their child. Dealing with a mental health condition and behaviors takes time, is stressful and can have an impact on your health and well-being. Know that there are many parents who have gone through similar challenges. Here are some tips from other parents who have faced similar experiences:. Visit the National Alliance on Mental Illness -Washington (NAMI) for support and information.. Connect with other parents. Having a child with a mental illness can be isolating. Connecting with other parents who can relate and understand what you are going through may help you feel better. Other parents may share tips for coping and ideas on finding services and therapists. Hearing other parents stories can bring you relief. It can be helpful to know that you are not the only family that has experienced what you have gone through. A great way to do this is through a support group or information classes for parents of children and youth with ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there speciation genes? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there speciation genes? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
Principal Investigator:TAKATANI Tomohiro, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Aquatic life science
Erin Kelleher and Dan Barbash found that Drosophila hybrids have increased transposon activity due to the rapid evolution of proteins in the piRNA pathway. piRNAs act to repress transposons, and while piRNA transcripts are still made in the interspecific hybrids, they are not processed to their mature, functional forms. More details can be found in their PLOS Biology paper here. ...
Enchantment (F1 hybrid, Indeterminate, 72 days, resistant to verticilium and fusarium wilts 1 and 2, nematodes, and tobacco mosaic virus) is a 3 (7.5cm), oval salad tomato that grows in fat clusters spiraling around the vine. One of the most versatile tomatoes you can grow, it has great flavor, but is not so juicy that you cant make a quick sauce without having to cook off a lot of water.. Marketing system ...
Spatial distribution and genetic variation of a population of Sorbus chamaemespilus (L.) Crantz and putative hybrids between S. chamaemespilus, S. aria and S. aucuparia growing in the nature reserve Skalnä Alpa (central Slovakia) were studied. The analysis of spatial patterns using Ripleys K-function revealed a significant clustering of the adults of both S. chamaemespilus and hybrid taxa at dist ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
2012-2016 PhD about „Hybridisation in bluebells (Hyacinthoides spec.) - Using next-generation sequencing to reconstruct a natural hybrid zone in Spain at the Natural History Museum London and Queen Mary University of ...
The Roman Catholic Bishops of England (RCBE) have told the UK parliament that inter-species embryos - those containing genetic information from both human and animals - should not be treated any differently from normal embryos, and that women should be given the chance to carry their genetic offspring to term.. There is currently a real shortage of human eggs for use in embryonic stem cell (ES cell) research. It is hoped the problem can be overcome through creating embryos by transferring human genetic material into hollowed out animal eggs. The resulting entity - a cybrid - would be over 99 per cent genetically human and less than one per cent animal. As it stands, the new draft Human Tissue and Embryos Bill will ban the creation of embryos that contain genetic material from both animals and humans, but will make an exception for certain types of research, including cybrid embryos. The draft Bill imposes a strict 14 day time limit on the use of these entities in research, at which point ...
The National Institutes of Health proposed lifting its moratorium on funding for research on part-animal, part-human embryos - which raises a huge dilemma, says bioethicist Insoo Hyun.
--An Overview of Todays Column Technology --What Makes Hybrid Particles Different? --Performance for Basic Compounds --Low-pH Stability --Improved High-pH Stability
Jake Steinbrecher passed away after he was given 1,000 times the correct dosage of Clonidine. Now, other parents are coming forward with their stories.
Hybridisation and genetic erosion[edit]. Prunus fruticosa, a tetraploid with 2n=32 chromosomes, is thought to be one of the ... A recent study of native Prunus fruticosa stands in northern Poland finds that it is disappearing there by "genetic erosion" or ... "Variability, hybridization and distribution of Prunus fruticosa (Rosaceae) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia". Polish ...
By hybridization with Solanum tuberosum by the Scottish Crop Research Institute, varieties were obtained who are adapted to the ... Dodds, Kenneth S.; Paxman, G. J. (1962). "The Genetic System of Cultivated Diploid Potatoes". Evolution. 16 (2): 154. doi: ... Hybridization of Crop Plants.. Nueva York: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America. pp. 483-494. ISBN 0- ... 89118-034-6. ↑ Hawkes, J.G. (1990). The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources.. Londres: Belhaven Press,. pp. ...
A case of hybridization in Psilocybe (Deconica)". New Phytologist 49 (3): 335-343. (subscription required) ________________. ( ... Genetic isolation in Panaeolus papilionaceous". New Phytologist 49: 328-334. ________________. (1950). "The Basidiomycetes of ...
Retrieved May 12, 2006.old-form url Conkle, MT; Critchfield, WB (1988). "Genetic variation and hybridization of ponderosa pine ... Van Haverbeke, DF (1986). Genetic variation in ponderosa pine: A 15-Year Test of provenances in the Great Plains. USDA Forest ... ISBN 90-04-13916-8. Haller, JR (1962). Variation and hybridization in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines. University of California ...
It is also a genetic resource for hybridization. The leaves and the branches can be used for tanning as they contain blue ...
"Genetic characterization of pathogenic Leptospira species by DNA hybridization". International Journal of Systematic ...
Tranah, G. J.; D. E. Campton; B. May (2004). "Genetic Evidence for Hybridization of Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon". Journal of ... However, the genetic variability among pallid sturgeon was found to be far less than that between them and the shovelnose ... Hybrids are most common in the Atchafalaya River in Louisiana, and DNA sequencing in these hybrids showed a genetic distinction ... Another reason for DNA testing was to determine the rates of hybridization between pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. The southern ...
"Genetic characterization of pathogenic Leptospira species by DNA hybridization". International Journal of Systematic ...
Genetic pollution is unintentional hybridization and introgression, which leads to homogenization or replacement of local ... Harmful effects of hybridization have led to a decline and even extinction of native species. For example, hybridization with ... Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC]; Joint Venture ... Genetic pollution occurs either through introduction or through habitat modification, where previously isolated species are ...
Genetic evidence for asymmetric hybridization between menhadens (Brevoortia spp.) from peninsular Florida. Journal of Fish ... Morphological and genetic investigations of two western Gulf of Mexico menhadens (Brevoortia spp.). Journal of Fish Biology 70a ... and hybridization between these species has been demonstrated using morphological and DNA evidence. Gulf menhaden also may have ... and populations of Gulf menhaden throughout the Gulf of Mexico are generally thought to comprise a single genetic stock. The ...
Morales, Lucia; Dujon, Bernard (December 2012). "Evolutionary Role of Interspecies Hybridization and Genetic Exchanges in ... Bernard Dujon decided to adapt the mitochondrial gene to the universal genetic code in order to be able to express it in a ... At that time, no one had any idea of the genetic content of mitochondria, except that it contained DNA. Bernard Dujon was ... In Gif-sur-Yvette, Bernard Dujon started to study a strange genetic phenomenon, linked to mitochondrial genetics, whose study ...
Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic ... Hybridization with Lathyrus belinensis[edit]. Like the blue rose, the yellow sweet pea remains elusive. Lathyrus belinensis is ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ...
Patterson N, Richter DJ, Gnerre S, Lander ES, Reich D (June 2006). "Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and ... 2006), This research group noted that one hypothetical late hybridization period was based in particular on the similarity of X ... Different chromosomes appear to have split at different times, with broad-scale hybridization activity occurring between the ... I therefore believe that their claim of hybridization is unwarranted." Mary-Claire King (1973) Protein polymorphisms in ...
Hybridization between Canada lynxes and bobcats has been reported in the southern periphery of the range. Hybridization between ... Rueness, E. K.; Stenseth, N. C.; O'Donoghue, M.; Boutin, S.; Ellegren, H. & Jakobsen, K. S. (2003). "Ecological and genetic ... Schwartz, M. K.; Mills, L. S.; Ortega, Y.; Ruggiero, L. F.; Allendorf, F. W. (2003). "Landscape location affects genetic ... doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2008)159[504:CLLCLR]2.0.CO;2. Schwartz, M. K. (2004). "Hybridization between Canada lynx and bobcats: ...
"Genetic evidence for a recent origin by hybridization of red wolves". Molecular Ecology. 8 (1): 139-144. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... eastern wolf hybridization, eastern coyotes are the result of eastern wolf × western coyote hybridization, and red wolves are ... the hybridization could not have occurred recently but supports a much more ancient hybridization. The group found deficiencies ... Genetic data supports a close relationship between the eastern and red wolves, but not close enough to support these as one ...
As a result, they show only weak genetic barriers to hybridization. Patellifolia is a rather old genus; the divergence from its ... But recent molecular genetic studies by Kadereit et al. (2006) and Romeiras et al. (2016) revealed a deep genetic ... The island species evolved recently, and because of their isolation they developed only small genetic differentiation. ...
Mii, M. (2012). "Ornamental Plant Breeding Through Interspecific Hybridization, Somatic Hybridization and Genetic ...
1954 "Changes in genetic environment and evolution". Pages 157-180 in Evolution as a Process (J Huxley, A C Hardy and E B Ford ... "Geographic variation and hybridization in populations of Bahama snails (Cerion)". American Museum Novitates no 1806. 1957 " ... The most significant and rapid genetic reorganization occurs in extremely small populations that have been isolated (as on ... Mayr, Ernst (1954). "Change of genetic environment and evolution". In Julian Huxley (ed.). Evolution as a Process. London: ...
The genetic and chromosomal changes need not be as radical as once supposed, and a new species may originate and persist even ... Segregation following hybridization, frequent in plants, may place such alleles, as well as normally expressed alleles, under ... In his last paper discussing the impact of simple genetic changes having large effects on plant morphology, Ford and Gottlieb ... In 1965 he earned his master's degree and wrote a thesis on hybridization between species of manzanita in southwestern Oregon. ...
2002). Genetic Variation and Evidence of Hybridization in the Genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). Journal of Heredity. 93(1) 37-41. ... Conservation activities include genetic analysis in an effort to understand the genetic variability of populations. Plant ... It is clonal, often reproducing vegetatively, so populations are low in genetic variability. It may hybridize with the common ...
"Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and chromosome analysis of blastomeres using comparative genomic hybridization". Human ... A single cell can be removed from a pre-compaction eight- cell embryo and used for genetic testing and the embryo will recover ...
Genetic similarity, and thus the chances of successful hybridization, is not always correlated with visual similarity. For ... Hybridization between members of different, but related genera is sometimes possible, as in the case of cama (camel and llama ... All great apes have similar genetic structure. Chromosomes 6, 13, 19, 21, 22, and X are structurally the same in all great apes ... The similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees might suggest hybridization taking place as late as four million ...
"Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 ... It was originally described in 2004 as a distinct species, but a genetic study published in 2012 found it to be a hybrid of ...
"Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis". Nami Goto-Yamamoto, Jason Sawler, Sean ...
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to observe cell separation. and single cells can be acquired using flow ... Genetic approaches, such as complete DNA sequencing or whole genome sequencing. and 16S RNA sequencing. define the microbiome, ... to conduct genetic analysis. These methods, in conjunction with well-established sample preparation, staining techniques and co ... July 2007). "Dissecting biological "dark matter" with single-cell genetic analysis of rare and uncultivated TM7 microbes from ...
"Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 ...
The hybridization likely first occurred in the Great Lakes region, as western coyotes moved east. It was first noticed during ... Wilson, Paul J.; Grewal, Sonya K.; Mallory, Frank F.; White, Bradley N. (12 June 2009). "Genetic Characterization of Hybrid ... For northeastern coyotes, hybridization with the dog was estimated to have occurred between 11 and 24 generations ago, and ... For Ohio coyotes, the wolf DNA was present in the nuclear genome but not the mitochondrial genome, indicating hybridization ...
Genetic testing and genome mapping are modern advances which allow for more efficient and detailed information about one's ... The first uses of test crosses were in Gregor Mendel's experiments in plant hybridization. While studying the inheritance of ... Özgüç, Meral (2011). "Genetic testing: predictive value of genotyping for diagnosis and management of disease". EPMA Journal. 2 ... Fay, David S. (2018). "Classical genetic methods". Wormbook : The Online Review of C. Elegans Biology. WormBook: 1-58. doi: ...
This hybridization created two all-female species: Tremblay's and silvery salamanders. These genetic curiosities possess three ... The males' chromosome contribution only stimulates the egg's development; its genetic material is ignored. It is not often ...
"Professor Joyce Van Eck - Improving Crops By Genetic Engineering And Targeted Genome Editing • scientia.global". February 15, ... "Transfer of large amounts of DNA via somatic hybridization and particle bombardment". hdl:2027/coo.31924062830223 - via ...
Mank, Judith E.; Carlson, John E.; Brittingham, Margaret C. (2004). "A century of hybridization: decreasing genetic distance ... Genetic analysis has shown that certain mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives while others are related ... Complete hybridisation of various species of wild duck gene pools could result in the extinction of many indigenous waterfowl. ... This is to prevent hybridisation with the native mottled duck.[117]. The mallard is considered an invasive species in New ...
Corbet, S. W.; Robinson, T. J. (November-December 1991). "Genetic divergence in South African Wildebeest: comparative ... but hybridisation may occur when they are both confined within the same area. The resulting offspring is usually fertile. A ... The differences in social behaviour and habitats have historically prevented interspecific hybridisation between the species, ... "Management of hybridization in an endemic species: decision making in the face of imperfect information in the case of the ...
... as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in ... gene rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) fall within the territory of pathology. ... transcription and translation of the genetic material. ...
Wild Lens species are a significant source of genetic variation for improving the relatively narrow genetic base of this crop. ... Between the different related species hybridisation barriers exist. According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be ... Serious genetic improvement for yield has been made, however, the full potential of production and productivity could not yet ... Although lentils have been an important crop for centuries, lentil breeding and genetic research has a relatively short history ...
Although there is no genetic evidence of gray wolf-jackal hybridization in the Caucasus Mountains, there have been cases where ... Genetic considerationsEdit. The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because ... Documenting Domestication:New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. University of California Press. pp. 279-295. ISBN ... Hybridization between gray wolf and coyote has long been recognized both in the wild and in captivity. In an evolutionary ...
FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA for use in genetic counseling, medicine, and species identification.[2] ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization.. *Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US ... Comparative genomic hybridization[edit]. Comparative genomic hybridization can be described as a method that uses FISH in a ... Preparation and hybridization process - DNA[edit]. Scheme of the principle of the FISH Experiment to localize a gene in the ...
In: Tiews, K. (Ed.), Proceedings ofWorld Symposium on Selection,Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Bordeaux ... Genetic Changes in the Growth of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Marine Net-Pens, Produced by Ten Years of Selection. ... Genetic improvement in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). II: selection response for early spawning date, Aquaculture,257: 1-9 ... Genetic trends in growth, sexual maturity and skeletal deformations, and rate of inbreeding in a breeding programme for rainbow ...
Olshen, A. B.; Venkatraman, E. S. (2002). "Change-point analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization data". ... "The genetic code" (PDF). Nobel Lecture (en inglés). nobelprize.org. Arquivado dende o orixinal (pdf) o 09 de xaneiro de 2009 ... "FDA Clears First of Kind Genetic Lab Test". FDA News (en inglés). FDA. Consultado o 13 de setembro de 2008 ... "Array comparative genomic hybridization and its applications in cancer" (PDF). Nature Genetics 37. Páxs. S11-S17. ...
1999). "Evidence for an interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: relation to genetic hypertension". Am. J. Physiol. ... to 2p13-p14 by in situ hybridization". Genomics. 28 (3): 610-2. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1205. PMID 7490111. Lin B, Nasir J, ...
Genetic pollution is unintentional hybridization and introgression, which leads to homogenization or replacement of local ... Main article: Genetic pollution. Native species can be threatened with extinction[113] through the process of genetic pollution ... Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC]; Joint Venture ... Harmful effects of hybridization have led to a decline and even extinction of native species.[67][68] For example, ...
However, later genetic work showed that it is a hybrid between Chinese small leaf tea and assam type tea.[63] Darjeeling tea ... sinensis) may have originated in southern China possibly with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives. However, since there ... Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea (C. sinensis var. assamica) may have two ... Nuclear microsatellites reveal the genetic architecture and breeding history of tea germplasm of East Africa. Tree Genetics & ...
There are multiple sites of hybridisation between the closely related species Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus ... These are alleles that are normally rare in both species but, probably due to genetic hitchhiking on genes for hybrid fitness, ... Based on the fossil record and genetic marker studies the following chronology is used to explain the Canadian mussel hybrid ... However, blue mussel populations show extensive hybridisation worldwide and are a well studied example of a marine hybrid zone ...
Direct hybridizations between coyotes and gray wolves was never explicitly observed. Nevertheless, in a study that analyzed the ... a few coyote genetic markers have been found in the historical samples of some isolated individual Mexican wolves. Likewise, ... Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A. (2008). "Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of ... This study suggested that although the Mexican gray wolf is generally less prone to hybridizations with coyotes compared to the ...
These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts.[12] A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes ... Domestication of citrus species involved much hybridization and introgression, leaving much uncertainty about when and where ... Citrus fruits clustered by genetic similarity, ternary diagram based on data from Curk, et al. (2016)[18] ... National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the ...
... - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme ( ... Hybrids with U. glabra in their ancestry have featured strongly in recent artificial hybridization experiments in Europe, ... DNA analysis by Cemagref (now Irstea) in France has determined the genetic diversity within the species is very limited, making ... Went, J. (1954). The Dutch Elm Disease - Summary of fifteen years' hybridization and selection work (1937-1952). European ...
After hybridization, excess probe is washed from the membrane (typically using SSC buffer), and the pattern of hybridization is ... Modification of the hybridization conditions (for example, increasing the hybridization temperature or decreasing salt ... Hybridization of the probe to a specific DNA fragment on the filter membrane indicates that this fragment contains DNA sequence ... In some cases, the hybridization probe may be made from RNA, rather than DNA. To ensure the specificity of the binding of the ...
That the western honey bee has been intensively managed by humans for many millennia - including hybridization and ... though authors applying a genetic species concept have suggested it should be considered a separate species.[10] Essentially ...
training and global coordination of genetic stocks. *evolving suitable breeding strategies to improve the anthocyanin content ... Morus classification is even further complicated by widespread hybridisation, wherein the hybrids are fertile. ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ...
Along with crossing over, independent assortment increases genetic diversity by producing novel genetic combinations. ... He described these principles in a two-part paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybridization), that ... There are many violations of independent assortment due to genetic linkage.. Of the 46 chromosomes in a normal diploid human ... Finally, he performed "test crosses" (backcrossing descendants of the initial hybridization to the initial true-breeding lines ...
Therefore, it is in their interest to mate with as many females as possible to increase their chance of passing on genetic ... It is thought that the physiological differences between species prevent hybridization. The genital lock-and-key mechanism can ... Furthermore, females can also produce offspring that can feature genetic material from multiple males in a single clutch if she ... Booth, W.; Schuett, G. (2011). "Molecular genetic evidence for alternative reproductive strategies in North American pitvipers ...
Hybridization with the subspecies that evolved southwestwards of its range, S. c. massaicus, has apparently been prevented from ... genetic similarity between the eggshells and the North African ostrich, so these could have been fairly distant relatives.[36][ ... "Studies of the population structure and genetic diversity of domesticated and 'wild' ostriches (Struthio camelus)". PhD thesis ...
Lamb MJ, Jablonka E (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the ... fluorescent in situ hybridization, methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, DNA adenine methyltransferase identification ( ... These are normal genetic diseases caused by gene deletions or inactivation of the genes, but are unusually common because ... It could confer an adaptive advantage by giving cells the ability to switch into a PSI+ state and express dormant genetic ...
a b Sturmbauer; Baric; Salzburger; Rüber; and Verheyen (2001). Lake Level Fluctuations Synchronize Genetic Divergences of ... "Ancestral hybridisation facilitated species diversification in the Lake Malawi cichlid fish adaptive radiation". dx.doi.org ...
For 50 years of brilliant creativity in biomedical science-exemplified by his legendary work on the genetic code; his daring ... Development of two powerful technologies-Southern hybridization and DNA fingerprinting-that together revolutionized human ... For 50 years of international statesmanship in biomedical science-exemplified by discoveries concerning genetic diseases of the ... inventor of in situ hybridization; and early champion of women in science.[39] ...
Douglas, G.W. (1975). Spruce (Picea) hybridization in west-central British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Forest Science, Smithers ... genetic composition of the seeds produced by a stand is determined by both the seed trees and the pollen parents, and species ... Species classification for seeds collected from spruce stands in which introgressive hybridization between white and Sitka ... Species classification of seedlots collected in areas where hybridization of white and Sitka spruces has been reported has ...
Wynbrandt, James (2008). Genetic Disorders and Birth Defects. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 340. ISBN 9780816063963. " ... and/or comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Direct gene testing uses blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid, or other tissues in ... Allanson, Judith, Cassidy, Suzanne (2010). Management of Genetic Syndromes. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 230-235. ... The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders. Michigan: Gale Group. pp. 1019-1021. ISBN 9780787656140. ...
Genetic data supports this conclusion.[24] However, there is genetic evidence to suggest that dispersal out of Africa began in ... and late hybridization with H. sapiens in West Africa.[12] ...
... anatomical or genetic barriers to such hybridization.[8] The carrion crow is also found in the mountains and forests of Japan ... Distribution and genetic relationship to hooded crows[edit]. A map of Europe indicating the distribution of the carrion and ... It is therefore clear that it is only the outward appearance of the two species that inhibits hybridization.[8][9] The authors ... that koinophilia is a more parsimonious explanation for the resistance to hybridization across the contact zone, despite the ...
We combined tissue microdissection and comparative genomic hybridization to identify genetic changes in five DCIS lesions with ... Genetic changes in intraductal breast cancer detected by comparative genomic hybridization Am J Pathol. 1997 Apr;150(4):1465-71 ... We combined tissue microdissection and comparative genomic hybridization to identify genetic changes in five DCIS lesions with ... Extensive genetic changes characterized pure DCIS cases with gains of 1q, 6q, 8q, and Xq as well as losses of 17p and ...
... of these tumors to define their molecular profiles and to determine whether there is a relationship between molecular genetic ... Molecular genetic aspects of oligodendrogliomas including analysis by comparative genomic hybridization Am J Pathol. 1999 Aug; ... Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) identified the majority of cases with 1p and 19q loss and, in addition, showed frequent ... of these tumors to define their molecular profiles and to determine whether there is a relationship between molecular genetic ...
Improving FISH diagnosis for preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening. Hum. Reprod. 25(7), 1812-1817 (2010). Mir et al. ... have evaluated the impact of additional hybridization rounds on FISH accuracy ... have evaluated the impact of additional hybridization rounds on FISH accuracy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of ... Improving FISH diagnosis for preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening. Hum. Reprod. 25(7), 1812-1817 (2010). Mir et al. ...
The presence of introgressive hybridization in the wild, especially that resulting from human interference, can have negative ... Hybridization and genetic introgression patterns between two South American catfish along their sympatric distribution range. ... The investigation of real populations suggested that natural hybridization is rare. Otherwise, different hybridization ... Hybridization as an invasion of the genome. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 229-237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
2.2 Genetic analysis of unisexual forms of C. auratus gibelio. Genetic data testifying to natural gynogenesis of the unisexual ... 2.1 Genetic analysis of the bisexual form of C. auratus gibelio.. Investigation of the bisexual form of C. auratus gibelio was ... Evidence of the genetic deficiency of such a male (from the unisexual population of the Yakot fishery of the Moscow region) was ... Genetic inactivation of the male nucleus can be achieved by different means but ionizing radiation is most often used for this ...
Complex Epistasis and the Genetic Basis of Hybrid Sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA Hybridization. H. Allen ... Complex Epistasis and the Genetic Basis of Hybrid Sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA Hybridization. H. Allen ... Complex Epistasis and the Genetic Basis of Hybrid Sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA Hybridization. H. Allen ... Complex Epistasis and the Genetic Basis of Hybrid Sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA Hybridization ...
Intergeneric hybridization between Erucastrum canariense and Brassica rapa. Genetic relatedness between EC and A genomes. * P. ... Bhaskar, .P., Ahuja, .I., Janeja, .H. et al. Intergeneric hybridization between Erucastrum canariense and Brassica rapa. ... Genetic relatedness between EC and A genomes. Theor Appl Genet 105, 754-758 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-002-0915-3 ...
The sequencing by hybridization (SBH) of determining the order in which nucleotides should occur on a DNA string is still under ... This paper proposes a method for SBH by integrating hypergraph with genetic algorithm (HGGA) for designing a novel analytic ... A Novel Hypergraph-Based Genetic Algorithm (HGGA) Built on Unimodular and Anti-homomorphism Properties for DNA Sequencing by ... The hypergraph representation and unimodular property are bound with the genetic algorithm that has been customized with a ...
Using patterns of genetic structure based on microsatellite loci to test hypotheses of current hybridization, ancient ... Ivan Sostaric, Zlatko Liber, Martina Grdisa, Petar D. Marin, Zora Dajic Stevanovic, Zlatko Satovic, Genetic diversity and ... The goals of this study were to use microsatellite data to better understand patterns of genetic structure in Conradina, to ... Neither ancient hybridization nor incomplete lineage sorting is supported as the sole cause of species nonmonophyly, suggesting ...
Once hybridization occurs, two main mechanisms have been proposed to account for mtDNA introgression: genetic drift and natural ... The prevailing view that hybridization is a rare event in Anolis is probably accurate, but our findings suggest that genetic ... Genetic drift or natural selection? Hybridization and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression in two Caribbean lizards (Anolis ... Indeed, a landscape genetic analysis revealed very small genetic distances among A. pulchellus populations with k-mtDNA in ...
Genetic Changes in Primary and Recurrent Prostate Cancer by Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Tapio Visakorpi, Anne H. ... Genetic Changes in Primary and Recurrent Prostate Cancer by Comparative Genomic Hybridization ... Genetic Changes in Primary and Recurrent Prostate Cancer by Comparative Genomic Hybridization ... Genetic Changes in Primary and Recurrent Prostate Cancer by Comparative Genomic Hybridization ...
Introgression Through Rare Hybridization: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone Between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus) in Argyll, ... Introgression Through Rare Hybridization: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone Between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus) in Argyll, ... Introgression Through Rare Hybridization: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone Between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus) in Argyll, ... Introgression Through Rare Hybridization: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone Between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus) in Argyll, ...
Both genetic segregation and genomic hybridization data are consistent with an allotetraploid nature of the Salix species. In ... In addition, a genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technology was implemented in willow to shed some light on the genome ... Because little is known about the genome constitution and chromosome behavior of these pure willow trees, genetic analysis of ... Moreover, in all S. alba against S. fragilis hybridizations and reciprocals, GISH signals were observed only on the contracted ...
In this thesis the results of experiments involving hybridization and genetic manipulation were used to investigate the nature ... The possible implications of the above results of hybridization and genetic manipulation studies in Clarias catfish culture are ... was successfully achieved using artificial hybridization. This hybrid combines the superior taste of the C. macrocephalus with ... of the hybridization event. This information was used to develop broodstock for Clarias catfish breeding programme. Allozyme ...
Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Identifies Genetic Subgroups in Grade 4 Human Astrocytoma. Anjan Misra, Malgorzata ... Detection of multiple gains and losses of genetic material in ten glioma cell lines by comparative genomic hybridization. Genes ... Genetic subgroups in grade 4 astrocytoma. Two major genetic subgroups (A and B + C) of grade 4 astrocytoma emerged from ... Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Identifies Genetic Subgroups in Grade 4 Human Astrocytoma ...
Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic ... Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from Korso. ... Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from Korso. ... DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and ...
Our data suggest that considerable admixture occurs and this is most likely the result of hybridisation or introgression. S. ... Genetic Variation and Hybridisation among Eight Species of kōwhai (Sophora: Fabaceae) from New Zealand Revealed by ... "Genetic Variation and Hybridisation among Eight Species of kōwhai (Sophora: Fabaceae) from New Zealand Revealed by ... Heenan P, Mitchell C, Houliston G. Genetic Variation and Hybridisation among Eight Species of kōwhai (Sophora: Fabaceae) from ...
Cancer Cell Lines as Genetic Models of Their Parent Histology: Analyses Based on Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Joel ... Cancer Cell Lines as Genetic Models of Their Parent Histology: Analyses Based on Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization ... Cancer Cell Lines as Genetic Models of Their Parent Histology: Analyses Based on Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization ... Cancer Cell Lines as Genetic Models of Their Parent Histology: Analyses Based on Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization ...
Data from: Hybridization drives genetic erosion in sympatric desert fishes of western North America ... Chafin, Tyler K.; Douglas, Marlis R.; Martin, Bradley T.; Douglas, Michael E. (2019), Data from: Hybridization drives genetic ... If so, then a failure to manage for hybridization will exacerbate the long-term extinction risk in parental populations. These ... We also detected a weak but significant relationship between genetic purity and degree of consumptive water removal, suggesting ...
Detection of Genetic Prognostic Markers in Uveal Melanoma Biopsies Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization. Nicole C. Naus, ... Detection of Genetic Prognostic Markers in Uveal Melanoma Biopsies Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization ... Detection of Genetic Prognostic Markers in Uveal Melanoma Biopsies Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization ... Detection of Genetic Prognostic Markers in Uveal Melanoma Biopsies Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization ...
Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Ricardo ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ...
Plant Genetic Systems Inc. has developed a novel Brassica napus oilseed rape hybridization system. This system, derived from ... DD1995-04: Determination of Environmental Safety of Plant Genetic Systems Inc. (PGS) Novel Hybridization System for Canola ( ... Therefore, the introduction of DNA into B. napus via this PGS novel hybridization system for canola, did not likely result in ... Therefore, this PGS novel hybridization system for canola, does not in itself, modify the production of these anti-nutritional ...
In this study, we investigated the effects of peripherality, hybridization and mating system on the range wide genetic ... Effects of peripherality and hybridization on range-wide genetic structure of the coastal dune plant Abronia umbellata ( ... The pattern of genetic variation across a species range may give insight into geographic variation in adaptive capacity and ... Genetic analyses of sequence variation at nine single-copy genes revealed that outcrossing and selfing populations of A. ...
Comparative Genomic Hybridizations of Entamoeba Strains Reveal Unique Genetic Fingerprints That Correlate with Virulence. ... histolytica and E. dispar hybridizations, we identified genetic loci known to be absent in ED compared to EH (CP1, Ariel1, and ... Comparative Genomic Hybridizations of Entamoeba Strains Reveal Unique Genetic Fingerprints That Correlate with Virulence ... Comparative Genomic Hybridizations of Entamoeba Strains Reveal Unique Genetic Fingerprints That Correlate with Virulence ...
"AFLP analysis to estimate the genetic contribution of parents to progeny from hybridization between Saxifraga sibirica L. and S ... AFLP analysis to estimate the genetic contribution of parents to progeny from hybridization... Dymshakova, O.; Semerikov, V.; ... AFLP analysis to estimate the genetic contribution of parents to progeny from hybridization between Saxifraga sibirica L. and S ... AFLP analysis to estimate the genetic contribution of parents to progeny from hybridization between Saxifraga sibirica L. and S ...
... Roc o ... Keywords: genetic improvement, hybridazion, yeast, high-sulphurous producer, wine.. Article based on the poster presented at ... genetic improvement of a high-sulphurous-producer yeast using a method for homothallic wine yeast based on spore hybridization ... This result suggests that this method for homothallic yeast hybridization is very useful for industrial yeast improvement. ...
I. Genetic studies of mouse serum protein types. II. Molecular hybridization of sheep hemoglobins ... Shreffler, Donald Cecil (1962) I. Genetic studies of mouse serum protein types. II. Molecular hybridization of sheep ... Molecular hybridizations were performed with the two known sheep hemoglobin variants. Radioactive and ferriheme labels showed ... Investigations were conducted to detect serum protein variant systems in mice and to define their genetic control. Three ...
Identification of genetic changes associated with drug resistance by reverse in situ hybridization ... REVISH is therefore ideally suited to characterize genetic changes specific for drug resistance within a background of genetic ... The molecular cytogenetic techniques of comparative genomic hybridization (GGH) and reverse in situ hybridization (REVISH) ... Identification of genetic changes associated with drug resistance by reverse in situ hybridization. British Journal of Cancer, ...
Hybridization has the potential to create new combinations of traits, which can lead to speciation, but hybridization can also ... In a second study, I assessed levels of genetic diversity and patterns of population genetic structure within a member of the B ... lasiocarpa exhibit variation in genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which seem to be consistent with assumed ... After excluding all hybrids based on estimated admixture proportions, I show that levels of genetic diversity based on genomic ...
Plant Genetic Systems Inc. has developed a novel B. napus oilseed rape hybridization system. This system, derived from the B. ... DD1996-17: Determination of Environmental Safety of Plant Genetic Systems Inc.s (PGS) Novel Hybridization System for Rapeseed ... To date, attempts to develop hybridization systems in oilseed rape by traditional methods have not been completely successful ... If glufosinate ammonium tolerant individuals arose through interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, the novel traits would ...
  • We compared specificity and sensitivity of the chromosome CGH and aCGH techniques by comparing array and chromosome CGH in the same tumor samples, by counting fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals generated by BAC clones used in the array, and by using real-time quantitative PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso. (frontiersin.org)
  • Usually, karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis are used to detect these abnormalities in resected tumor tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To study their prognostic impact and association with kidney cancer phenotype, a tissue microarray with 1,809 cancers was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for 8p21 copy numbers. (urotoday.com)
  • Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the detection of bladder transitional-cell carcinoma: A multi-center clinical study based on Chinese population. (urotoday.com)
  • To evaluate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in bladder cancer. (urotoday.com)
  • Clinical evaluation of two consecutive UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer: a prospective blinded comparative study in Japan. (urotoday.com)
  • We evaluated the use of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect the intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer during follow-up after a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). (urotoday.com)
  • Detection of Bladder Cancer in Urine Sediments by a Novel Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Quartet) Test. (urotoday.com)
  • We aimed to design a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test referred to as the quartet test for the detection of bladder cancer in urine. (urotoday.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of tumor cells in voided urine specimens for detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). (urotoday.com)
  • We compared PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PTEN fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the largest existing radical prostatectomy cohort with clinical follow-up data. (urotoday.com)
  • 7 However, the translocation t(14;18) is not present in all FL cases, 8 - 10 and even with a highly sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, rearrangements of BCL2 can only be detected in up to 90% of FLs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 11. The microfluidic device according to claim 8 further comprising an array of hybridization chambers containing different types of the probes, the probes being fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes configured for hybridization with different target nucleic acid sequences, and an array of the photodiodes such that each of the hybridization chambers has a respective one of the photodiodes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique used for the investigation of genes in specific chromosome regions. (genomicdiagnostics.com.au)
  • Traditionally, embryos have been screened using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) a technique that was limited in the number of chromosomes able to be identified in any one sample. (docplayer.net)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology uses DNA probes to detect the presence of selected regions of chromosomes but is limited in any one assay to a maximum of five probe combinations. (docplayer.net)
  • Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Pune, Maharashtra, India, February 22 2021 (Wiredrelease) Brandessence Market Research and Consulting Pvt ltd -:A recent report on Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market provides a detailed analysis of the industry size, revenue forecasts and geographical landscape pertaining to this business space. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems allows very precise spatial resolution of morphological and genomic structures. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is growing rapidly in tumor biology, radiation labels, genomics, cytogenetics, prenatal research, gene mapping, gene amplification and basic biomedical research. (pharmiweb.com)
  • So, during the study of Global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems market, we have considered Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems products and consumables to analyze the market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market report is segmented on the basis of Product type, Application Type, End User type and by regional & country level. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Based on Product type global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market is classified as Instruments, Consumables & Accessories and Software. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Based upon Application type, global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market is classified as Cancer, Genetic disorders, Biological Research and others. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Based upon End User type, global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market is classified as Diagnostic Laboratories, Research Centers and others. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The regions covered in this Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Improvements in diagnostic testing, increasing number of cancer patients, technological improvements in imaging techniques and automation are major key drivers for the growth of the Global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Modern advancements in Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technology involve various methods for refining probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Therefore technological advancements is majorly responsible for the growth of Global Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The growing number of genetic tests has been made possible by advances in technology, including advances in chromosomal analysis - from traditional karyotyping to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and then to chromosomal microarrays and next generation sequencing. (prnewswire.com)
  • Commonly called FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization is a laboratory-based test that helps build out the full picture of a cancer diagnosis by zooming in on the genetic material in the cell - known as chromosomes. (mdanderson.org)
  • To understand fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), it's important to review the basics of how our cells work. (mdanderson.org)
  • How does fluorescence in situ hybridization work? (mdanderson.org)
  • Alterations of these candidate genes and several others of interest (ERBB2, MYC and TP53) were confirmed by at least 1 complementary methodology, including DNA and mRNA quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA expression profiling, and tissue microarray-based fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • HER-2 gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) compared with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in breast cancer--a study of two hundred cases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with a high degree of sequence complementarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technology was implemented in willow to shed some light on the genome structure of S. alba and S. fragilis species, and their hybrids (allopolyploidy vs. autopolyploidy). (mdpi.com)
  • The molecular cytogenetic techniques of comparative genomic hybridization (GGH) and reverse in situ hybridization (REVISH) allow the entire genomes of tumours to be screened for genetic changes without the requirement for specific probes or markers. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In situ hybridization revealed a correlation between a declining AG mRNA accumulation and increasingly severe phenotypes in AG ( RNAi ) mutants, suggesting that endogenous mRNA is the target of double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, in situ hybridization indicates that endogenous target mRNA is decreased in RNAi mutants. (pnas.org)
  • This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used to identify the presence of specific chromosomes or parts of chromosomes through the attachment (hybridization) of fluorescent DNA probes to available chromosomal DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) is the attachment of a very specifically designed DNA probe to cellular DNA (the original place). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, in situ hybridization and yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that OsMADS13 and OsMADS3 did not regulate each other's transcription or interact at the protein level. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Improved methodologies for in-situ hybridization and non-isotopic detection of nucleic acid sequences are provided which offer major increases of resolution, sensitivity, and simplicity unavailable in previously known techniques. (google.com)
  • Worldwide markets are poised to achieve continuing growth as In Situ Hybridization is used in diagnostic situations to analyze single cells inside tissue. (reportlinker.com)
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). (reportlinker.com)
  • Advances in RNA in situ hybridization transform molecular detection with morphological context enabling new applications. (reportlinker.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA in situ Hybridization are widely used technologies sharing the unique capacity to analyze a marker at the single cell level while preserving the morphological context. (reportlinker.com)
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for localizing specific nucleic acid targets within fixed tissues and cells, allowing users to obtain temporal and spatial information about gene expression and genetic loci. (reportlinker.com)
  • The global market for In Situ Hybridization (ISH) at $4.3 billion in 2017 is anticipated to reach $7.8 billion by 2024 2017. (reportlinker.com)
  • A new advancement in hybridization technique called as CASFISH (Cas9-mediated FISH) allows in situ labeling of single-copy sequences and repetitive sequences without disrupting nuclear genomic organization. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This study covers the world outlook for in-situ hybridization across more than 190 countries. (reportlinker.com)
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for in-situ hybridization. (reportlinker.com)
  • In order to estimate the latent demand for in-situ hybridization on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. (reportlinker.com)
  • The RFLP was mapped to chromosome 10pter-10q23 using somatic cell hybrids and to 10p13 by in situ hybridization. (osti.gov)
  • Dual-colour HER2/chromosome 17 chromogenic in situ hybridisation assay enables accurate assessment of HER2 genomic status in gastric cancer and has potential utility in HER2 testing of biopsy samples. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, analysis of world-wide genetic diversity can identify areas suited for the establishment of in situ conservation sites. (fao.org)
  • We combined tissue microdissection and comparative genomic hybridization to identify genetic changes in five DCIS lesions with no invasion and in two that were adjacent to IDC. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) identified the majority of cases with 1p and 19q loss and, in addition, showed frequent loss of chromosomes 4, 14, 15, and 18. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to screen for DNA sequence copy number changes along all chromosomes in 31 primary and 9 recurrent uncultured prostate carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This report describes CNAs identified on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array of ∼1.4-Mb resolution [array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)], in a set of 50 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Array comparative genomic hybridization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have addressed the issue of whether copy number alterations seen in tumor-derived cell lines reflect those observed in studies of fresh tissue by carrying out a meta-analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization data that considers both copy number alteration frequencies and the occurrence of cancer gene amplifications and homozygous deletions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To identify genetic alterations that reflect the characteristics of the tumour in vivo, we screened a total of 23 microdissected PDAC tissue samples using array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) with 1 Mb resolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization array study and its utility in detection of constitutional and acquired anomalies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancers by comparative genomic hybridization coupled with tissue microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interglandular cytogenetic heterogeneity detected by comparative genomic hybridization in pancreatic cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of both cell lines revealed genetic relevance to human non-small cell lung cancer. (plos.org)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array profiling showed that gains/amplifications of the BCL2 gene locus in 18q were restricted to the t(14;18)-positive FL subgroup. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Search for pathogenic chromosomal imbalance through comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on DNA microarrays will be done in a group of patients having typical or atypical forms of RTT without known mutations in MECP2, CDKL5 et FOXG1B genes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy and translocations using array comparative genomic hybridization. (cdc.gov)
  • accepted: 30 November 2011 SUMMARY Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is an indirect DNA-based test which allows for the accurate analysis of aneuploidy involving any of the 24 types of chromosomes present (22 autosomes and the X and Y sex chromosomes). (docplayer.net)
  • 3: Key words: aneuploidy, comparative genomic hybridization, PGD, blastocyst INTRODUCTION Chromosomal aneuploidy is a recognised significant contributing factor in spontaneous miscarriages with approximately two thirds of miscarriages being due to aneuploidy [4]. (docplayer.net)
  • Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is a technique that allows for comprehensive aneuploidy screening through its ability to indirectly detect imbalances involving any of the 24 chromosomes. (docplayer.net)
  • Karyotypic electrophoresis combined with array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated that YJS329 was a diploid strain with a relatively constant genome as a result of the fewer Ty elements and lack of structural polymorphisms between homologous chromosomes that it contained. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identifies CDK4 and FOXM1 alterations as independent predictors of survival in malignant peripheral n. (nih.gov)
  • To identify survival-associated genomic biomarkers, we performed high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a large set of MPNSTs. (nih.gov)
  • Questions concerning the suitability of comparative genomic hybridization for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Background The aim of this work was to identify new genetic causes of Rett-like phenotypes using array comparative genomic hybridisation and a whole exome sequencing approach. (bmj.com)
  • CC199 isolates were analyzed by comparative genome hybridization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic tools provide essential information for species and hybrid identification, facilitating the conservation of natural resources. (springer.com)
  • Our data represent the first detailed evaluation of genetic introgression between these species in Parana and Paraguay Basins and suggest that genetic contamination is occurring through F1 hybrids from aquaculture facilities. (springer.com)
  • A model-based method for identifying species hybrids using multilocus genetic data. (springer.com)
  • Hybridization and/or incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphism are commonly implicated to explain discordant phylogenetic analyses of closely related species complexes. (wiley.com)
  • The goals of this study were to use microsatellite data to better understand patterns of genetic structure in Conradina, to test hypotheses of recent or ancient hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, and to clarify species boundaries. (wiley.com)
  • Analyses of the patterns of genetic structure in Conradina revealed a clear differentiation of populations following recognized species boundaries, indicating that species have diverged from one another genetically and interspecific hybridization has not occurred recently. (wiley.com)
  • Hybridization and gene introgression can occur frequently between closely related taxa, but appear to be rare phenomena among members of the species-rich West Indian radiation of Anolis lizards. (wiley.com)
  • Natural hybridization may occur sporadically between closely related, broadly syntopic species or be confined to particular contact zones (Jiggins & Mallet, 2000 ). (wiley.com)
  • One possible consequence of hybridization is replacement (i.e. introgression) of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of one species by that of another species (Ruedi et al . (wiley.com)
  • TRANSLOCATION of an exotic species into a novel ecosystem often results in hybridization between the introduced species and related native genera. (genetics.org)
  • Both genetic segregation and genomic hybridization data are consistent with an allotetraploid nature of the Salix species. (mdpi.com)
  • As with other modern crop species, intense selection for preferred traits, and a tendency for inbreeding have resulted in low genetic diversity among cauliflower breeding resources. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this problem, related species such as black mustard ( Brassica nigra , 2 n = 16, BB genome), with a large reservoir of genes conferring desirable characteristics, have been proposed as a valuable source of genetic diversity for Brassica crop improvement. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also detected a weak but significant relationship between genetic purity and degree of consumptive water removal, suggesting a role for anthropogenic habitat modifications in undermining species boundaries or expanding historically limited introgression. (datadryad.org)
  • The pattern of genetic variation across a species range may give insight into geographic variation in adaptive capacity and hence, conservation priority. (queensu.ca)
  • Demography has long been viewed as the dominant factor influencing species' genetic structure, but non-demographic processes must be considered as well. (queensu.ca)
  • Comparison of divergent genetic regions allowed us to distinguish between E. histolytica and E . dispar , identify novel genetic regions usable for strain and species typing, and identify a number of genes restricted to virulent strains. (asm.org)
  • According to Nei's (1972) genetic distances between plant groups, F1 plants are intermediate between the parent species but closer to S. cernua, probably because its genome size is twice that of S. sibirica. (deepdyve.com)
  • In some groups of organisms, especially in plants, hybridization between species is very common. (usu.edu)
  • Within and between species, genetic variation is ubiquitous in natural populations, which can be observed on various levels. (usu.edu)
  • After excluding all hybrids based on estimated admixture proportions, I show that levels of genetic diversity based on genomic data from this rare species are higher than in the widespread B. stricta . (usu.edu)
  • Hybridization between species or between disparate source populations may serve as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness. (pnas.org)
  • The observed lag times and multiple introductions that seem a prerequisite for certain species to evolve invasiveness may be a correlate of the time necessary for previously isolated populations to come into contact and for hybridization to occur. (pnas.org)
  • Hybridization is considered an important evolutionary force since it may lead to (1) an increase of the intraspecific genetic diversity of the participating populations, (2) the creation of new species, (3) species extinction through genetic assimilation, and (4) the generation of highly invasive genotypes. (conicyt.cl)
  • This is of special importance when hybridization leads to evolutionary novelty in the form of polyploidy, transgressive character expression, or the expression of new secondary metabolites not present in the parental species. (conicyt.cl)
  • Also, hybridization may be the cause of extinction of endemic species or rare plant populations (Levin and Francisco-Ortega 1996). (conicyt.cl)
  • Besides the concern that this species have in conservation biology due to their high competitive ability, this species may also cause the extinction of closely related species with restricted distribution range through introgressive hybridization (Vilà et al. (conicyt.cl)
  • 2000). Also, as hybridization creates new allelic combinations in the offspring, it has been proposed that hybridization may enhance the invasive capacity of an invasive species through gene introgression (Schierenbeck and Ellstrand 2009). (conicyt.cl)
  • As plant hybridization may have profound effects on the genetics and ecology of the participating species, the correct identification of hybrid individuals is of prime importance as a first step to specify which processes occur within hybridizing populations. (conicyt.cl)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicates that red wolves have either a grey wolf or coyote mtDNA genotype, demonstrating hybridization among these species. (nature.com)
  • This paper reviews evidence from the subfossil record, morphology, distribution and hybridisation, and vocalisations to conclude that Gygis comprises three biological species, nominate alba in the Atlantic, and two Pacific species. (bioone.org)
  • But according to scientists from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, hybridization is a dead end and both parent species will remain separate. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The scientists say if hybridization conferred any survival advantage, the zone would have gotten bigger, with more mixing of genes between the parent species, and more hybrids. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Here, male dispersal patterns and genetic structuring were examined using four Y-microsatellite loci in 186 male western grey kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus, from throughout the species' trans-continental distribution. (edu.au)
  • Although hybridization between some species certainly occurred during domestication, these events passed unnoticed as there was no knowledge of pollen function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers find that Italian sparrow populations from different islands probably result from independent hybridization events between their parent species, the house sparrow and Spanish sparrow. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is consistent with independent hybridisation events between the parent species. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have demonstrated that hybridisation between the same parent species can lead to great variation within a new hybrid species", says Anna Runemark, biologist at Lund University in Sweden. (eurekalert.org)
  • This genetic mixing has the potential to threaten many species with extinction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But in a natural world affected by human activity, ecologists and conservationists worry that hybridisation can upset ecological balances and undermine the survival of species involved in such a blend. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA for use in genetic counseling, medicine, and species identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sunflowers also contain examples of many important processes, including the evolution of both annual and perennial lifestyles, hybridization (mating between species) and the phenomena of polyploidy (the doubling of chromosome sets in a lineage). (nsf.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture maintains seed stocks of most wild sunflower species, in part because they contain genetic material that can be used to improve cultivated sunflower varieties. (nsf.gov)
  • Sunflowers are notorious for hybridizing: mating across species boundaries and exchanging genetic material between species. (nsf.gov)
  • Moreover, in all S. alba against S. fragilis hybridizations and reciprocals, GISH signals were observed only on the contracted chromosomes whereas the non-contracted chromosomes were never hybridized. (mdpi.com)
  • We identified three major genetic subgroups within these glioblastoma multiforme tumors: tumors with chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss, tumors with only chromosome 10 loss in the absence of chromosome 7 gain, and tumors without copy number change in chromosomes 7 or 10. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have defined a modified REVISH protocol, which involves double hybridizations with genomic DNA from the test cell lines and chromosome-specific whole chromosome paints to identify the chromosomes to which the amplicons localize. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma -- genetic portrait from chromosomes to microarrays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evaluation of further chromosomes requires retesting of the original sample in multiple rounds of hybridization. (docplayer.net)
  • Whilst it is possible to achieve results for up to 12 chromosomes, the multiple hybridization events necessary to do so can compromise the integrity of the test sample and hence the accuracy of the results. (docplayer.net)
  • It first copies its genetic material so that it can pass along those 46 chromosomes to each daughter cell. (mdanderson.org)
  • Hybridization and speciation. (springer.com)
  • The traditional neo-Darwinian view, which holds that reproductive isolation is a byproduct of gradual genetic change within populations, posits that speciation involves a large number of genes, each having a small effect on reproductive isolation (D obzhansky 1936 , 1937 ). (genetics.org)
  • Many genetic studies of speciation in Drosophila appear to support this view. (genetics.org)
  • Hybridization has the potential to create new combinations of traits, which can lead to speciation, but hybridization can also lead to extinction or demographic decline of natural populations. (usu.edu)
  • What role has hybridization played in speciation? (nsf.gov)
  • 12. The microfluidic device according to claim 11 further comprising a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) section for amplifying the target nucleic acid sequences in the fluid prior to hybridization with the FRET probes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or RNA.RNA hybrids with the particular polynucleotide sequence to be determined. (google.ca)
  • No immobilization or labeling of sample nucleic acids is necessary and hybridization can be performed entirely in solution. (google.ca)
  • This invention relates to nucleic acid hybridization assay methods and reagent systems for detecting specific polynucleotide sequences. (google.ca)
  • The principle of nucleic acid hybridization assays was developed by workers in the recombinant DNA field as a means for determining and isolating particular polynucleotide base sequences of interest. (google.ca)
  • Also, a kit for carrying out the invention includes one or more capture probes immobilized on a surface, reporter probes each having a signal region and a sequence for binding analyte homopolymer regions, and, optionally, reagents for addition of homopolymer regions to nucleic acid analytes and for carrying out the hybridization reaction. (google.com.au)
  • While the basic workflow of ISH is similar to that of blot hybridizations-the nucleic acid probe is synthesized, labeled, purified, and annealed with the specific target-the difference is the greater amount of information gained by visualizing the results within the tissue. (reportlinker.com)
  • 10. A method according to claim 8 , wherein said oligonucleotide is indirectly linked to said solid phase by hybridization with said nucleic acid. (google.es)
  • The hybridization signals for each probe when a nucleic abnormality is detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluating the ability of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization and introgression using an empirical red wolf data set. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe a quantitative analysis of the genetic interaction between introduced sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) and native red deer ( Cervus elephas ) in Scotland and show how a low rate of hybridization can lead to substantial introgression. (genetics.org)
  • Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data suggest that considerable admixture occurs and this is most likely the result of hybridisation or introgression. (mdpi.com)
  • Van Bockstaele, "Introgression of yellow flower colour in Buddleja davidii by means of polyploidisation and hybridisation ," HortScience, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This microarray-based genotyping assay can readily be applied to the study of E. histolytica clinical isolates to determine genetic diversity and potential genotypic-phenotypic associations. (asm.org)
  • To profile genetic variants, we developed and clinically validated a hybridization capture SARS-CoV-2 NGS assay, integrating novel methods for panel design using dsDNA biotin-labeled probes, and built accompanying software. (cdc.gov)
  • This hybrid capture NGS assay, coupled with optimized software, is a powerful approach to detect and comprehensively map SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants for tracking viral evolution and guiding vaccine updates. (cdc.gov)
  • TEASER This is the first target hybridization capture-based NGS assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants for tracking viral evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • In conclusion, our CGH results indicate that losses of several chromosomal regions are common genetic changes in primary tumors, suggesting that deletional inactivation of putative tumor suppressor genes in these chromosomal sites is likely to underlie development of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The genetic hallmark of FL is the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) that leads to deregulated expression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protooncogene in the tumor cells, thus allowing for the acquisition of secondary chromosomal alterations in the germinal center environment where the most nonneoplastic B cells are physiologically destined to undergo apoptosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our results from routine clinical application of array CGH in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) patients confirm previous reports on patterns of chromosomal contribution to aneuploidy. (docplayer.net)
  • More recently, molecular techniques have developed to examine genetic differences between individuals and populations, including karyotypes providing chromosomal number and patterns, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, protein sequences, and nuclear and mitochondrial base sequences from ancient and modern DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Market for Prenatal, Newborn and Carrier Genetic Testing discusses the technologies and tests used in chromosomal analysis and in the diagnosis of inherited disorders and the detection of carriers of inherited diseases. (prnewswire.com)
  • The genetic basis of the isolating mechanisms, in particular, seems to consist largely of such genes. (genetics.org)
  • The aim of the study was to identify those chromosome regions that contain genes important for the development of prostate cancer and to identify genetic markers of tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of high-resolution aCGH data identified genetic subgroups in this set of GBM and loci for candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, many of which were previously unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic analyses of sequence variation at nine single-copy genes revealed that outcrossing and selfing populations of A. umbellata are genetically differentiated from each other and northern disjunct populations of A. umbellata are genetically similar to selfing populations. (queensu.ca)
  • When introduced into the genome of A. thaliana by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, double-stranded RNA-expressing constructs corresponding to four genes, AGAMOUS ( AG ), CLAVATA3 , APETALA1 , and PERIANTHIA , caused specific and heritable genetic interference. (pnas.org)
  • The identification of new genes involved in RTT will ameliorate the molecular diagnosis of the disease and genetic counseling for families. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The proposed genetic ABC model explains how three classes of genes (A, B, and C) work together in specifying floral organ identities ( Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recent developments in genetic research have accelerated the discovery of individual genes and enhanced our understanding of how genes work and how gene abnormalities lead to disease. (aappublications.org)
  • A genetic locus is the place on homologous chromosome pairs where genes are located. (aappublications.org)
  • Single-channel microarray hybridization experiments confirmed that the majority of the negatives represented genes that were differentially induced by a switch from growth in glucose to one or more of the polysaccharides. (springer.com)
  • We also used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify and then sequenced mtDNA from red wolf skins collected before substantial hybridization of red wolves with coyotes is thought to have occurred. (nature.com)
  • The investigation of real populations suggested that natural hybridization is rare. (springer.com)
  • Natural hybridization: how low can you go and still be important? (springer.com)
  • Natural hybridization is a frequent phenomenon among vascular plants. (conicyt.cl)
  • During the recent decades, a number of studies related with the role of natural hybridization in shaping earth's biodiversity have been published (Wiesseman 2007). (conicyt.cl)
  • New microsatellites showed high interspecific genetic divergence, and simulated data demonstrated the high power of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS for hybrid identification and classification, especially when all 11 nuclear markers were used. (springer.com)
  • Because little is known about the genome constitution and chromosome behavior of these pure willow trees, genetic analysis of their naturally occurring interspecific polyploid hybrids is still very difficult. (mdpi.com)
  • In this sense, it has been found that interspecific hybridization may have an important effect shaping the genetic diversity of a single population (Arnold 2006). (conicyt.cl)
  • VI Secondary Metabolites - Gossypol and Tannins Special emphasis is placed on interspecific hybridization, somaclonal variation, transgenic cotton resistant to insects and herbicides, and re-engineering of fiber. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies on yeast genetics have shown that many of their characters, which determine the quality of wines, have a genetic basis and are susceptible to manipulation. (infowine.com)
  • SNPs are popular molecular genetic markers in disease genetics studies and pharmacogenomic research. (intechopen.com)
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a workshop of scientists in the fields of genomic sequencing, sequencing technology development, population genetics, and ELSI research to discuss a number of issues associated with the idea of resequencing the human genome of many additional people for the purpose of further characterizing human genetic variation. (genome.gov)
  • DD1995-04: Determination of Environmental Safety of Plant Genetic Systems Inc. (PGS) Novel Hybridization System for Canola (Brassica napus L. (agr.ca)
  • DD1996-17: Determination of Environmental Safety of Plant Genetic Systems Inc.'s (PGS) Novel Hybridization System for Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. (gc.ca)
  • Dynamic allele-specific hybridization (DASH) is a temperature-dependent, real-time variation of ASOH.26 Dynamic allele-specific hybridization begins with amplification of polymorphic DNA regions by PCR in which one primer is biotinylated. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The hybridization pattern obtained is preferably analyzed for allele specific hybridization to determine genotype. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the present study, SSH was used to identify genetic differences between two strains of X. fastidiosa that differ in pathogenicity and host range and the results were validated by using the available complete genomic DNA sequences. (asm.org)
  • To determine the extent of genetic diversity among Entamoeba isolates and potential genotype-phenotype correlations, we have developed an E. histolytica genomic DNA microarray and used it to genotype strains of E. histolytica and E. dispar . (asm.org)
  • At Genomic Diagnostics, FISH is used for the rapid diagnosis of suspected genetic syndromes such as Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and Turner Syndrome, or others listed below. (genomicdiagnostics.com.au)
  • The work reported here has not only enriched the available genetic resources of yeast but has also indicated how functional genomic studies can be used to improve genetic breeding in yeast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Novel Hypergraph-Based Genetic Algorithm (HGGA) Built on Unimodular and Anti-homomorphism Properties for DNA Sequencing by Hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • The sequencing by hybridization (SBH) of determining the order in which nucleotides should occur on a DNA string is still under discussion for enhancements on computational intelligence although the next generation of DNA sequencing has come into existence. (nih.gov)
  • That aspect of hybrid zones has become recognized as common and widespread in the past 10 to 20 years with the rapid improvement in genetic sequencing. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants that may alter viral fitness highlights the urgency of widespread next-generation sequencing (NGS) surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • This hybridization solution controls the degree of specificity to which the probe hybridizes to the target sequence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Factors such as the temperature, pH, and salt concentration can be changed to control the specificity of the hybridization. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The presence of introgressive hybridization in the wild, especially that resulting from human interference, can have negative impacts on biodiversity. (springer.com)
  • This, in turn, underscores a broader role for hybridization in decreasing global biodiversity within rapidly deteriorating environments. (datadryad.org)
  • Polymorphisms commonly occur in nature and related to biodiversity, genetic variation, and adaptation. (intechopen.com)
  • At the same time, molecular marker data, fundamental to the study of world-wide genetic biodiversity, is lagging behind. (fao.org)
  • The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we tested a set of markers to precisely elucidate introgressive hybridization between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum , two South American catfishes. (springer.com)
  • Genetic analysis of hybrid zones: numbers of markers and power of resolution. (springer.com)
  • In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) and introduced Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon ), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. (genetics.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to validate the use of FISH for the analysis of genetic prognostic markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Firstly, two spontaneous mutants highly homozygous and free from growth-retarding alleles (Mutant-24 and -25), which contains easily detectable genetic markers (cycloheximide-resistant or CYH R ), were obtained from a sensitive (non-killer or K - ) high-sulphurous-producer homothallic yeast (the original yeast). (infowine.com)
  • The researchers examined genetic markers from almost 300 orioles (Bullock's, Baltimore, and many hybrids) from the woodlands on the banks of the Platte River in Nebraska and Colorado. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This study has provided insights into the male contribution to population history, structure and hybridisation in M. fuliginosus, which were not predicted by comparisons between biparentally and maternally inherited markers. (edu.au)
  • Molecular markers have become an accepted and widely used tool for the measurement of genetic diversity. (fao.org)
  • The amount of research dedicated to the analysis of genetic diversity using molecular markers has grown each year. (fao.org)
  • Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In only 2 of 249 hybridizations did we find a small variation that could have led to a misclassification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Southern edge populations in Baja California, on the other hand, are genetically unique and significantly higher in genetic variation than other outcrossing populations. (queensu.ca)
  • Additionally, I assessed common and rare SNVs and show that populations of B. lasiocarpa exhibit variation in genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which seem to be consistent with assumed population sizes. (usu.edu)
  • The workshop began with a discussion of the current status of research on genetic variation in the human and other organisms. (genome.gov)
  • These results indicate that, on average, cell lines preserve in vitro the genetic aberrations that are unique to the parent histology from which they were derived while acquiring additional locus-specific alterations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic alterations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. (urotoday.com)
  • The association of genetic alterations with disease onset, progression, and sensitivity to therapeutics has opened exciting opportunities for the implementation of a personalized model of patient care. (virginia.edu)
  • Because of the importance of plant hybridization in evolution, it is of great importance to accurately identify hybrid individuals. (conicyt.cl)
  • In this review, we give a general historical background of the study of plant hybridization. (conicyt.cl)
  • In this review, we aim to give a brief historical background of the study of plant hybridization as well as show the principal outcomes for the involved populations and their hybrid offspring. (conicyt.cl)
  • However, the formal study of plant hybridization was retarded due to the lack of knowledge about plant sexuality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to rapidly identify 18 gene differences between a citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) strain and a Pierce's disease of grape (PD) strain of Xylella fastidiosa . (asm.org)
  • Rapid techniques for identifying gene differences between microbial strains include subtractive hybridization ( 4 , 8 , 13 ) and DNA microarrays ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, a PCR-based subtraction method, called suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), was developed and applied for rapid identification of differences among pathogenic Helicobacter pylori strains ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Subtractive hybridization. (bio.net)
  • as tracer in a subtractive hybridization reaction. (bio.net)
  • We have devised a Negative Subtraction Hybridization (NSH) method and tested it in A. nidulans . (springer.com)
  • The Negative Subtraction Hybridization method described here has several practical benefits. (springer.com)
  • Introgressive hybridization between two Iberian endemic cyprinid fish: a comparison between two independent hybrid zones. (springer.com)
  • Otherwise, different hybridization scenarios were observed in two wild populations: one involving advanced backcrosses and the other involving high admixture. (springer.com)
  • We inferred that hybridization events occurred independently in several populations, and determined that k -mtDNA haplotypes harboured in individuals of A. pulchellus can be assigned to four of the five major mtDNA clades of A. krugi . (wiley.com)
  • If so, then a failure to manage for hybridization will exacerbate the long-term extinction risk in parental populations. (datadryad.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of peripherality, hybridization and mating system on the range wide genetic structure of Abronia umbellata, a pink-flowered Pacific coastal dune endemic and that ranges from San Quintin, Baja California to Coos Bay, Oregon and occurs as disjunct populations in Washington and on Vancouver Island in Canada. (queensu.ca)
  • We present and review a remarkable number of cases in which hybridization preceded the emergence of successful invasive populations. (pnas.org)
  • The populations on the islands have very different genetic compositions. (eurekalert.org)
  • When independent populations evolve the same characteristics, are the underlying genetic changes similar or different? (nsf.gov)
  • In an effort to provide an attractive alternative to conventional methods, which are typically unsuitable for routine scenarios, this work builds on a unique, bead-based technique for sequence-specific DNA detection known as Hybridization-Induced Aggregation (HIA). (virginia.edu)
  • In addition to the recombinant DNA field, the analytical hybridization technique can be applied to the detection of polynucleotides of importance in the fields of human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and food science, among others. (google.ca)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Scientists from Rice University have found a way to make DNA hybridization more specific and have formed a startup firm to pursue commercial applications, such as the detection of low concentrations of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) found in circulating cell-free tumor DNA. (genomeweb.com)
  • Does additional hybridization also improve preimplantation genetic screening results? (biomedsearch.com)
  • Improving FISH diagnosis for preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • have evaluated the impact of additional hybridization rounds on FISH accuracy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of aneuploidy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The genetic analysis of embryos is called Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) and for chromosome analysis it was first performed using FISH with up to 12 probes analyzed simultaneously on single cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers IVF couples an additional selection tool over simple developmental quality for choosing the best embryo for transfer. (docplayer.net)
  • Although limited, these data indicate that the extensive genetic diversity identified by analysis of repetitive regions may not be indicative of a genome-wide phenomenon. (asm.org)
  • Sunflower pan-genome analysis shows that hybridization altered gene content and disease resistance. (ucdenver.edu)
  • We explored the genetic characteristics of the bioethanol S. cerevisiae strain YJS329 and elucidated how genetic variations in its genome were correlated with specified traits compared to similar traits in the S288c-derived strain, BYZ1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concern over the genetic impact of sika on red deer was finally voiced by R atcliffe ( 1987 ) while he was reviewing the status of sika in the United Kingdom and reporting on multiple cases of putative hybrids in Scotland. (genetics.org)
  • Investigations were conducted to detect serum protein variant systems in mice and to define their genetic control. (caltech.edu)
  • In particular, the technique can be used to detect and identify etiological agents such as bacteria and viruses, to screen bacteria for antibiotic resistance, to aid in the diagnosis of genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, and to detect cancerous cells. (google.ca)
  • Cruz VP, Vera M, Pardo BG, Taggart J, Martinez P, Oliveira C & Foresti F (2017) Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms as tools to detect hybridization and population structure in freshwater stingrays, Molecular Ecology Resources , 17 (3), pp. 550-556. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Opponents of genetic engineering warn that the use of genetically modified food crops could result in unforeseen problems. (yahoo.com)
  • It offers technologies for crop improvement (Haploid and Triploid production, In Vitro Fertilization, Hybrid Embryo Rescue, Variant Selection), clonal propagation (Micropropagation), virus elimination (Shoot Tip Culture), germplasm conservation, production of industrial phytochemicals, and regeneration of plants from genetically manipulated cells by recombinant DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) or cell fusion (Somatic Hybridization and Cybridization). (worldcat.org)
  • This information is in regard to a novel canola hybridization system comprising two transgenic parental lines, MS1 and RF1, and their hybrid MS1x RF1. (agr.ca)
  • Signal amplification is achieved via series of sequential hybridization steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein, microsystems tech the reagent reservoir has a volume less than 1,000,000,000 cubic microns and the hybridization chamber has a volume less than 900,000 cubic microns. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The microfluidic device according to claim 1 wherein the reagent reservoir has a volume less than 300,000,000 cubic microns and the hybridization chamber has a volume less than 200,000 cubic microns. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" ( Brassica oleracea var. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant Genetic Systems Inc. has developed a novel Brassica napus oilseed rape hybridization system. (agr.ca)
  • Public reaction to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering has been mixed. (yahoo.com)
  • In a second study, I assessed levels of genetic diversity and patterns of population genetic structure within a member of the B. puberula clade, the montane endemic diploid B. lasiocarpa from Utah. (usu.edu)
  • Our results indicate that the application of FISH to FNABs is a reliable method for assaying genetic prognostic parameters such as chromosome 3 loss and/or chromosome 8q gain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although many types of diagnostic and carrier testing for genetic disorders have been available for decades, the use of molecular methods is a relatively recent phenomenon. (aappublications.org)
  • This subject review will familiarize pediatricians with diagnostic molecular genetic testing and the clinical and ethical issues to be considered in the diagnosis of children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • A number of other reviews are available regarding the laboratory techniques of this testing and can serve as excellent background resources for understanding the methods by which molecular genetic diagnostic testing is accomplished. (aappublications.org)
  • Separate analysis of DCIS and IDC components in the same tumor revealed an almost identical pattern of genetic changes in one case, whereas substantial differences were found in another. (nih.gov)
  • AFLP analysis to estimate the genetic contribution of parents to progeny from hybridization. (deepdyve.com)
  • Wayne, R., Jenks, S. Mitochondrial DNA analysis implying extensive hybridization of the endangered red wolf Canis rufus . (nature.com)
  • Genetic analysis included filtering of the single nucleotide variants and indels with preference for de novo, homozygous/compound heterozygous, or maternally inherited X linked variants. (bmj.com)
  • For both advocates and detractors to have a meaningful debate about genetic engineering, it's helpful to understand the evolution of plant-breeding techniques. (gardeners.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Vegetable Crops Breeding and Hybridization. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Vegetable Crops Breeding and Hybridization are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICVCBH 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Vegetable Crops Breeding and Hybridization . (waset.org)
  • Furthermore, some genetic breeding strategies to improve the adaptabilities of YJS329 were designed and experimentally verified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feed use of varieties produced using this hybridization system is approved provided that the feed ingredients produced conform to the Feeds Regulations . (agr.ca)
  • Genetic improvement aimed at creating new varieties with complete resistance began when the Europeans arrived in America and started the vine cultivation. (euroasia-science.ru)
  • By hybridization with Solanum tuberosum by the Scottish Crop Research Institute, varieties were obtained who are adapted to the European climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study we have evaluated a series of these tumors to define their molecular profiles and to determine whether there is a relationship between molecular genetic parameters and histological pattern in this tumor type. (nih.gov)
  • Studies suggest that astrocytic brain tumor behavior is related to genetic defects acquired over the course of tumor development ( 1 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on yeast three-hybrid assays and genetic data, we show that BEL1 interacts with the ovule identity MADS box factors when they dimerize with SEPALLATA proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Molecular Ecology publishes papers that utilize molecular genetic techniques to address consequential questions in ecology, evolution, behaviour and conservation. (wiley.com)
  • In principle, this diversity can be transferred into crops via sexual hybridization and subsequent backcrossing. (frontiersin.org)
  • The extent of genetic diversity among E. histolytica clinical isolates is unclear. (asm.org)
  • These studies found minimal genetic diversity among clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • The one thing that studies in plant genetic diversity have in common is that few, if any, can be directly compared or compiled. (fao.org)
  • Studies of genetic diversity are usually limited to a few accessions or accessions from a limited area of interest. (fao.org)
  • To prepare the tissue on the slide for hybridization, it is treated with chemicals to permeabilize (open up) the cells and expose the DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Upon target-probe hybridization, the beads become tethered together, resulting in optically-detectable bead aggregation. (virginia.edu)
  • Insights from genomes into the evolutionary importance and prevalence of hybridization in nature. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Genetic Mapping Reveals an Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Potentially Influencing Evolutionary Divergence between Two Subspecies of Scarlet Gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata). (ucdenver.edu)
  • The big-oui hybrid catfish (female C. macrocephalus x male C. gariepinus) was successfully achieved using artificial hybridization. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Given their prominence as models, understanding in what ways and to what degrees cell lines grown under artificial conditions reflect their parental in vivo genetic architecture is of fundamental importance to cancer biology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hybridization as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? (pnas.org)
  • 2010). Indeed, hybridization has been considered the rule rather than the exception at least in plants. (conicyt.cl)
  • The latest - some might say greatest - technique is genetic engineering (GE), and advocates say it's just the next step in humanity's long history of innovations for improving crop plants. (gardeners.com)
  • Cross-pollination can produce haphazard results, so plant breeders looked for ways to ensure more consistent offspring from crossed plants, resulting in a technique called hybridization. (gardeners.com)
  • In an attempt to increase the nutritional value of soybeans, a genetic engineering firm experimentally transferred into soybean plants a Brazil-nut gene that produces a nutritious protein. (yahoo.com)
  • The following rules and conclusions are chiefly drawn up from Gartner's admirable work on the hybridisation of plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hybridization of Crop Plants. (wikipedia.org)