Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

Spontaneous heterosis in larval life-history traits of hemiclonal frog hybrids. (1/2497)

European water frog hybrids Rana esculenta (Rana ridibunda x Rana lessonae) reproduce hemiclonally, transmitting only their ridibunda genome to gametes. We compared fitness-related larval life-history traits of natural R. esculenta from Poland with those of the two sympatric parental species and of newly generated F1 hybrids. Compared with either parental species, F1 hybrid offspring had higher survival, higher early growth rates, a more advanced developmental stage by day 49, and earlier metamorphosis, but similar mass at metamorphosis. R. esculenta from natural lineages had trait values intermediate between those of F1 offspring and of the two parental species. The data support earlier observations on natural R. esculenta that had faster larval growth, earlier metamorphosis, and higher resistance to hypoxic conditions compared with either parental species. Observing larval heterosis in F1 hybrids in survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphosis, however, at an even higher degree than in hybrids from natural lineages, demonstrates that heterosis is spontaneous and results from hybridity per se rather than from subsequent interclonal selection; in natural lineages the effects of hybridity and of clonal history are confounded. This is compelling evidence for spontaneous heterosis in hybrid clonals. Results on hemiclonal fish hybrids (Poeciliopsis) showed no spontaneous heterosis; thus, our frog data are not applicable to all hybrid clonals. Our data do show, however, that heterosis is an important potential source for the extensively observed ecological success of hybrid clonals. We suggest that heterosis and interclonal selection together shape fitness of natural R. esculenta lineages.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of two endogenous double-stranded RNAs in rice and their inheritance by interspecific hybrids. (2/2497)

We completely sequenced 13,936 nucleotides (nt) of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of wild rice (W-dsRNA). A single long open reading frame (13,719 nt) containing the conserved motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase was located in the coding strand. The identity between entire nucleotide sequence of W-dsRNA and that of the dsRNA of temperate japonica rice (J-dsRNA, 13,952 nt) was 75.5%. A site-specific discontinuity (nick) was identified at nt 1,197 from the 5' end of the coding strand of W-dsRNA. This nick is also located at nt 1,211 from the 5' end in the coding strand of J-dsRNA. The dsRNA copy number was increased more than 10-fold in pollen grains of both rice plants. This remarkable increase may be responsible for the highly efficient transmission of J-dsRNA via pollen that we already reported. J-dsRNA and W-dsRNA were also efficiently transmitted to interspecific F1 hybrids. Seed-mediated dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was also highly efficient when the maternal parent was wild rice. The efficiency of dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was reduced when the maternal parent was temperate japonica rice; however, the reduced rates in F2 plants were returned to high levels in F3 plants.  (+info)

Construction and analysis of hybrid Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis dnaK genes. (3/2497)

The highly conserved DnaK chaperones consist of an N-terminal ATPase domain, a central substrate-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain whose function is not known. Since Bacillus subtilis dnaK was not able to complement an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, we performed domain element swap experiments to identify the regions responsible for this finding. It turned out that the B. subtilis DnaK protein needed approximately normal amounts of the cochaperone DnaJ to be functional in E. coli. The ATPase domain and the substrate-binding domain form a species-specific functional unit, while the C-terminal domains, although less conserved, are exchangeable. Deletion of the C-terminal domain in E. coli DnaK affected neither complementation of growth at high temperatures nor propagation of phage lambda but abolished degradation of sigma32.  (+info)

A novel ontogenetic pathway in hybrid embryos between species with different modes of development. (4/2497)

To investigate the bases for evolutionary changes in developmental mode, we fertilized eggs of a direct-developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, with sperm from a closely related species, H. tuberculata, that undergoes indirect development via a feeding larva. The resulting hybrids completed development to form juvenile adult sea urchins. Hybrids exhibited restoration of feeding larval structures and paternal gene expression that have been lost in the evolution of the direct-developing maternal species. However, the developmental outcome of the hybrids was not a simple reversion to the paternal pluteus larval form. An unexpected result was that the ontogeny of the hybrids was distinct from either parental species. Early hybrid larvae exhibited a novel morphology similar to that of the dipleurula-type larva typical of other classes of echinoderms and considered to represent the ancestral echinoderm larval form. In the hybrid developmental program, therefore, both recent and ancient ancestral features were restored. That is, the hybrids exhibited features of the pluteus larval form that is present in both the paternal species and in the immediate common ancestor of the two species, but they also exhibited general developmental features of very distantly related echinoderms. Thus in the hybrids, the interaction of two genomes that normally encode two disparate developmental modes produces a novel but harmonious ontongeny.  (+info)

Introgression through rare hybridization: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus) in Argyll, Scotland. (5/2497)

In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and introduced Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red-like phenotype. Introgression is rare at any one locus, but where the taxa overlap up to 40% of deer carry apparently introgressed alleles. While most putative hybrids are heterozygous at only one locus, there are rare multiple heterozygotes, reflecting significant linkage disequilibrium within both sika- and red-like populations. The rate of backcrossing into the sika population is estimated as H = 0.002 per generation and into red, H = 0.001 per generation. On the basis of historical evidence that red deer entered Kintyre only recently, a diffusion model evaluated by maximum likelihood shows that sika have increased at approximately 9.2% yr-1 from low frequency and disperse at a rate of approximately 3.7 km yr-1. Introgression into the red-like population is greater in the south, while introgression into sika varies little along the transect. For both sika- and red-like populations, the degree of introgression is 30-40% of that predicted from the rates of current hybridization inferred from linkage disequilibria; however, in neither case is this statistically significant evidence for selection against introgression.  (+info)

A dynamically regulated 14-3-3, Slob, and Slowpoke potassium channel complex in Drosophila presynaptic nerve terminals. (6/2497)

Slob is a novel protein that binds to the carboxy-terminal domain of the Drosophila Slowpoke (dSlo) calcium-dependent potassium (K(Ca)) channel. A yeast two-hybrid screen with Slob as bait identifies the zeta isoform of 14-3-3 as a Slob-binding protein. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments from Drosophila heads and transfected cells confirm that 14-3-3 interacts with dSlo via Slob. All three proteins are colocalized presynaptically at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Two serine residues in Slob are required for 14-3-3 binding, and the binding is dynamically regulated in Drosophila by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation. 14-3-3 coexpression dramatically alters dSlo channel properties when wild-type Slob is present but not when a double serine mutant Slob that is incapable of binding 14-3-3 is present. The results provide evidence for a dSlo/Slob/14-3-3 regulatory protein complex.  (+info)

Genetics of graft-versus-host disease, I. A locus on chromosome 1 influences development of acute graft-versus-host disease in a major histocompatibility complex mismatched murine model. (7/2497)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major complication occurring after bone marrow transplantation. The severity of GVHD varies widely, with this variation generally being attributed to variation in the degree of disparity between host and donor for minor histocompatibility antigens. However, it is also possible that other forms of polymorphism, such as polymorphisms in immune effector molecules, might play a significant role in determining GVHD severity. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we are studying the genetic factors that influence GVHD development in a murine model. We here report the first results of this analysis, which demonstrate that a locus on Chromosome 1 of the mouse, and possibly also a locus on Chromosome 4, exert considerable influence over the development of one aspect of acute GVHD - splenomegaly - in a parent-->F1 murine model. These results demonstrate that non-MHC genes can exert quite significant effects on the development of GVHD-associated pathology and that gene mapping can be used as a tool to identify these loci. Further analysis of such loci will allow identification of the mechanism whereby they influence GVHD and may lead in the future to improved selection of donors for human bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Suppressor T-cell activity in responder X nonresponder (C57BL/10 X DBA/1)F1 spleen cells responsive to L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10. (8/2497)

The ability of spleen cells from (responder X nonresponder)F(1) mice immunized with various GAT-Mphi, GAT-MBSA, and soluble GAT to develop IgG GAT-specific PFC responses in vitro after stimulation with responder and nonresponder parental and F(1) GAT-Mphi, was investigated. F(1) spleen cells from mice immunized with F(1) GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA developed secondary responses to responder and nonresponder parental and F(1) GAT- Mphi, but not to unrelated third party GAT-Mphi. Spleen cells from F(1) mice immunized with either parental GAT-Mphi developed secondary responses to F(1) GAT-Mphi and only the parental GAT-Mphi used for immunization in vivo. Soluble GAT-primed F(1) spleen cells responded to F(1) and responder parental, but not nonresponder parental, GAT-Mphi. Simultaneous immunization in vivo with the various GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA plus soluble GAT modulated the response pattern of these F(1) spleen cells such that they developed secondary responses only to F(1) and parental responder GAT-Mphi regardless of the response pattern observed after immunization with the various GAT-Mphi or GAT-MBSA alone. These observations demonstrate the critical importance of the physical state of the GAT used for immunization in determining the subsequent response pattern of immune F(1) spleen cells to the parental and F(1) GAT-Mphi. Further, suppressor T cells, capable of inhibiting primary responses to GAT by virgin F(1) spleen cells stimulated by nonresponder parental GAT-Mphi, were demonstrated in spleens of F(1) mice immunized with soluble GAT, but not those primed with F(1) GAT-Mphi. Because responder parental mice develop both helper and suppressor T cells after immunization with GAT-Mphi, and soluble GAT preferentially stimulates suppressor T cells whereas GAT-Mphi stimulate helper T cells in nonresponder parental mice, these observations suggest that distinct subsets of T cells exist in F(1) mice which behave phenotypically as responder and nonresponder parental T cells after immunization with soluble GAT and GAT- Mphi.  (+info)

In genetics, transgressive segregation is the formation of extreme phenotypes, or transgressive phenotypes, observed in segregated hybrid populations compared to phenotypes observed in the parental lines. The appearance of these trangressive (extreme) phenotypes can be either positive or negative in terms of fitness. If both parents favorable alleles come together, it will result in a hybrid having a higher fitness than the two parents. The hybrid species will show more genetic variation and variation in gene expression than their parents. As a result, the hybrid species will have some traits that are transgressive (extreme) in nature. Transgressive segregation can allow a hybrid species to populate different environments/niches in which the parent species do not reside, or compete in the existing environment with the parental species. Genetic There are many causes for transgressive segregation in hybrids. One cause can be due to recombination of additive alleles. Recombination results in new ...
Since Darwin, researchers have made tremendous progress towards understanding how ecological, genetic and evolutionary factors acting within species lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and ultimately the origin of new species (Coyne & Orr 2004). One problem that remains largely unresolved concerns the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. Investigating early stages in the evolution of postzygotic isolation in species, where alleles underlying postzygotic isolation are still polymorphic, is one promising approach.. Previous studies of postzygotic isolation between M. guttatus and M. nasutus have found reduced seed germination and male infertility in hybrids (Vickery 1956, 1973, 1978; Fishman & Willis 2001, 2006; Martin & Willis 2007). Vickery (1956, 1973, 1978) and Sweigart et al. (2007) provided evidence that postzygotic isolation within and among populations of both species varied geographically, though biometrical line crosses were not used to determine the genetic basis. ...
THE evolutionary significance of natural hybridization has been debated for decades (Mayr 1942; Anderson 1949; Harrison 1993; Arnold 1997). At one extreme, it has been argued that natural hybridization is an evolutionary dead end due to formation of inviable and/or infertile hybrids (Mayr 1942; Barton and Hewitt 1985, 1989). At the other extreme, it has been suggested that natural hybridization may lead to new evolutionary lineages due to formation of relatively fit hybrids that expand into novel habitats (Anderson 1948; Arnold 1997; Ellstrand and Schierenbeck 2000; Bleeker 2003). A third potential evolutionary outcome is expansion of an intermixed form within the resident progenitors habitat, in which case the degree of mixing between hybridizing forms may range from formation of a hybrid swarm to genetic assimilation of one form by the other (Childs et al. 1996; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996; Perry et al. 2001). Natural hybridization and introgression have been reported in a growing number of ...
HALDANEs rule states that, if species hybrids of one sex only are inviable or sterile, the afflicted sex is much more likely to be heterogametic (XY) than homogametic (XX). We show that most or all of the phenomena associated with HALDANEs rule can be explained by the simple hypothesis that alleles decreasing hybrid fitness are partially recessive. Under this hypothesis, the XY sex suffers more than the XX because X-linked alleles causing postzygotic isolation tend to have greater cumulative effects when hemizygous than when heterozygous, even though the XX sex carries twice as many such alleles. The dominance hypothesis can also account for the large X effect, the disproportionate effect of the X chromosome on hybrid inviability/sterility. In addition, the dominance theory is consistent with: the long temporal lag between the evolution of heterogametic and homogametic postzygotic isolation, the frequency of exceptions to HALDANEs rule, puzzling Drosophila experiments in which unbalanced ...
According to Sipiczki [26], genomes from each parental species interact in the new hybrid genome. This interaction can be observed in the loss of large parts of one or both genomes as well as in the presence of chimerical chromosomes that make the hybrid genome as stable as possible to future genetic modifications. Additionally, adaptive evolution of these hybrid genomes under fermentative environmental conditions could make hybrid genome to conserve the chromosomes, or part of them, which grant a selective advantage [27]. According to the results obtained in this work as well as in our previous studies [2, 13, 19], S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids seem to have the common trend to lose the S. kudriavevii parental chromosomes maintaining the S. cerevisiae ones. The reduction of the non-S. cerevisiae genome observed in both wine and brewing S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids was already reported for artificial S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum hybrids genetically stabilized by successive ...
Hybrid zones are of great interest to behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists because these areas provide natural systems for studies of characters and processes involved in divergence, reproductive isolation and speciation (Abbott et al., 2013). Hybridization may be a more prevalent phenomenon than is generally believed. Indeed, a literature review (Mallet, 2005) estimated that at least 10% of animal species (usually species that diverged from each other relatively recently) hybridize with heterospecifics. The generation and maintenance of a hybrid zone requires mismatings and at least partially successful reproduction between individuals that differ in one or more heritable traits. Natural hybridization may occur sporadically between closely related, broadly syntopic species or be confined to particular contact zones (Jiggins & Mallet, 2000). Species that only hybridize in parts of their overlapping ranges provide an excellent opportunity to investigate possible mechanisms ...
Earlier this week, the HFEA published its public consultation on the subject. This revealed that, although many people found the idea of human-animal hybrid embryos to be repugnant, most approved of it when they better understood the reasons for it. Researchers can create hybrid embryos by the transferring nuclei from human cells into animal egg cells from which the nucleus has been removed. This technique, called nuclear transfer, is very similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep, the main difference being that Dolly was cloned using a cell and a nucleus from the same species. Creating hybrid embryos would bypass the shortage in human eggs, and will enable researchers to use stem cells from the embryos to develop treatments for conditions such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. If the HFEA approves the use of hybrid embryos, researchers proposals will then be considered individually. Ian Wilmut, who led the team that cloned Dolly, is waiting for the HFEAs decision so that he can apply to ...
Reciprocal hybrids showing different phenotypes have been well documented in previous studies, and many factors accounting for different phenotypes have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about whether the profiles of small RNAs differ between reciprocal hybrids and how these small RNAs affect gene expression and phenotypes. To better understand this mechanism, the role of small RNAs on phenotypes in reciprocal hybrids was analysed. Reciprocal hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom and S. pimpinellifolium line WVa700 were generated. Significantly different phenotypes between the reciprocal hybrids were observed, including fruit shape index, single fruit weight and plant height. Then, through the high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, we found that the expression levels of 76 known miRNAs were highly variable between the reciprocal hybrids. Subsequently, a total of 410 target genes were predicted to correspond with these differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, gene
Certain biophysical characteristics of the DNA from each of the five nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid viruses (Ad2+ND1, Ad2+ND2, Ad2+ND3, Ad2+ND4, Ad2+ND5) have been determined. The guanine plus cytosine content varied from 55 to 57% and was not significantly different from that of nonhybrid Ad2 (56%), and the hybrid DNA molecules had mean molecular lengths which were similar to that of the standard, Ad2. The Ad2 and SV40 components of each hybrid were linked by alkali-resistant, presumably covalent bonds. The percentage of SV40 DNA in each hybrid virus was determined by hybridization with SV40 complementary RNA in a calibrated system. The results indicate that each hybrid virus DNA contains a different percentage of SV40 nucleotide sequences. The estimated size of the SV40 DNA component varies from 48,000 daltons for Ad2+ND3 to 840,000 daltons for Ad2+ND4, the latter being equivalent to between one-fourth and one-third of the SV40 genome. ...
The term hybridogenesis was coined by R. J. Schultz and indicates a reproductional mode which is found in a few animal groups (e.g. the topminnow Poeciliopsis, a small fish in desert streams in Mexico and Soutwestern USA; water frogs; Bacillus, stick insects in Italy). This mode marks hybrids between two parental species (A,B) who are able to reproduce by backcrossing which one of the parent. These hybrid normally contain two chromosome sets (AB, one from each parent species) in their body cells, but in the gonads (ovar or testicles) the chromosome set of one parent is lost, so that only one set remains (A or B), with A in their gonads, hybrids can backcross with B and vice versa. ...
Detection of natural hybrids is of great significance for plant taxonomy, reproductive biology, and population genetic studies. Compared with methods depending on morphological characters, molecular markers provide reliable and much more accurate results. This protocol describes approaches employing microsatellite (SSR) markers to identify inter-specific hybrids in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae).
Hybrid speciation is an example of sympatric speciation that can occur in plants.. Interspecies hybrids are usually sterile because the chromosome pairs, which consist of one chromosome from one species and another from the second species, do not segregate regularly at meiosis. When a hybrid species evolves, sterility may be overcome by polyploidy: the chromosome numbers are doubled. Each chromosome pair at meiosis contains two chromosomes from one species, and regular segregation is restored. Polyploidization is encouraged by applying the chemical colchicine in the commercial production of new species, but it can also occur naturally at a low rate. In this case, a new hybrid species may evolve. The polyploidy hybrids are interfertile among themselves, but reproductively isolated (by the mismatch in chromosome numbers) from the parental species; they are therefore well defined new species.. Many popular species of flower such as tulips (opposite) and orchids are created through artificial ...
A method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances was developed for a two-breed crossbreeding system. The method allows information from crossbred animals to be incorporated in a coherent manner for such crossbreeding systems.
Free Online Library: The effect of the relative location of laser beam with arc in different hybrid welding processes/Lazerinio-lankinio suvirinimo siuliu santykinio isdestymo efektas naudojant ivairius hibridinio suvirinimo procesus.(Report) by Mechanika; Engineering and manufacturing Laser beams Properties Welding Analysis Equipment and supplies Management Technology application
Hybridogenesis in an interspecific hybrid frog is a coupling mechanism in the gametogenic cell line that eliminates the genome of one parental species with endoduplication of the remaining genome of the other parental species. It has been intensively investigated in the edible frog |i|Pelophylax kl.|/i| …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and pattern of interspecific hybridization between Gliricidia septum and G. maculata in Meso-America revealed by PCR-based assays. AU - Dawson, I. K.. AU - Simons, A. J.. AU - Waugh, R.. AU - Powell, W.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Gliricidia sepium provides a variety of products important for rural communities in tropical countries. Native populations in Meso-America currently form an important source of seed for distribution to farmers, but concerns centre on mechanisms which may lead to their genetic erosion, including anthropogenic dispersal and subsequent introgression from the related species, G. maculata. Populations of Gliricidia were examined genetically using approaches based on the polymerase chain reaction to test for interspecific hybridization and introgression between G. sepium and G. maculata. Analysis involved 13 RAPD and two RFLP-PCR markers which were identified to have species-diagnostic distributions. Data from both approaches corresponded and ...
View Notes - Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1 from BIOL 202 at UNC. Ploidy February 19th, 2010 Three specimens of Odontophrynus: O. americanus male, 4x =4 Artificial hybrid young, 3x=33 (b); O. cultripes
4, 2, 5 by same fossils on fossil last download reconstructing hybridity post colonial studies in transition. textxet. 4 which is much long you know, but you can show on here taking escape Enhancements Choose Play Speed Settings and have the download up subject as you are. dread the download reconstructing hybridity post colonial studies in transition. textxet and your scarcity pain to be granitic objects of mind and earum.
In nature, some strains of the influenza virus are highly lethal while others jump easily from person to person. What public health officials fear most is a hybrid that combines the lethality of one with the transmissibility of the other, creating a deadly global pandemic.. Now a team of Chinese scientists has investigated that in their lab by creating a new hybrid virus. They combined H5N1 avian influenza, which is highly lethal but doesnt transmit easily between people, with the highly contagious H1N1 swine flu strain responsible for infecting tens of millions of people in 2009. ...
Researchers have for the first time determined that hybridization between two bird species can give rise to several novel and fully functional hybrid genomic combinations. This could potentially be because hybrid species emerged through independent hybridisation events between the same parent species on different islands.
A hybrid plant is a cross between two or more unrelated inbred plants. Hybridization has brought huge improvements, including more vigorous plants, improved disease resistance, earlier maturity, more uniform growth and increased yield.
...Hybrid plants provide much higher yield than their homozygous parents....The world population continues to grow and needs to be fed. Cereals pr...Molecular causes elusive ...Homozygous plants are a result of inbreeding depression: yield shrinks...,Corn:,Many,active,genes,-,high,yield,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Moav, R., 1958: Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum XXIX: The relationships of residual chromosome homology to interspecific gene transfer
Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and exactly how ecological segregation may impact hybridization needs comprehensively sampling different habitats over a variety of life history levels. was questionable. In comparison, Taylor et?al. (2008) sampled many lakes in traditional western Alaska and discovered that although both types distributed mtDNA haplotypes, these were extremely distinctive at nine microsatellite loci, helping their position as valid natural types. In a single southwestern Alaskan lake (Lake Aleknagik), nevertheless, primary data recommended that about 7% from the seafood sampled acquired ambiguous hereditary identity and had been tentatively categorized as hybrids. A combined PST-2744 supplier mix of relatively low test size (60C100 in two lakeCstream watersheds) and insufficient sample site variety (2C6 sites per watershed) in the Taylor et?al. (2008) research limited their PST-2744 supplier capability to accurately gain access to the amount of ...
Mating between sympatric species is a regular occurrence in natural populations, and increasing anthropogenic re-distributions of organisms is driving ever greater frequencies of species contact and hybridization [1, 2]. Whether giving rise to new, independent hybrid lineages or to the movement of alleles between species (i.e. introgression), recent population genetics and experimental studies show that inter-specific mating can be a major force behind adaptation and speciation [3-5]. The potential for hybridization to contribute to biodiversity, however, involves the interactions of multiple processes that remain incompletely understood [6]. In particular, hybridization is limited by a complex interplay of pre- and post-mating reproductive barriers that can decrease mating compatibility between species or the fitness of hybrid individuals [2].. Especially in sympatric species, isolating mechanisms that depend on mating behaviors (i.e. compatibilities of different sexes or mating types) play a ...
PMID: 28444733 Du SNN, Khajali F, Dawson NJ, Scott GR (2017) Evolution Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus). ROS emission was greater in hybrids than in both parent species when respiration was supported by complex I (but not complex II) substrates, and was associated with increases in lipid peroxidation. However, respiratory capacities for oxidative phosphorylation, phosphorylation efficiency, and O2 kinetics in hybrids were intermediate between ...
Host Franco Girimonte talks with Senior Research Director Tony DiRomualdo and Senior Director David Polacheck about winning HR strategies for the new hybrid workplace. They discuss the return to the office, the future of work, and provide recommendations on how to redesign work for the better.
EMI shares 3 key things worth considering before you settle on post-pandemic work arrangements for your organizations new hybrid.
The pinpoint accuracy of a true-flying 2-blade head teamed up with the awesome destruction of a 4- blade. The new HYBRID from GRIM REAPER starts cutting at our legendary V-Notch chisel tip, slips ahead with 2 super strong fixed Hades blades and finishes up with a pair of World Class Mechanical razors. We cant imagine anything better! Game cant imagine anything Worse! Guaranteed to have a Bad Attitude right out of the package. Crossbow friendly Too !. For More, Go to www.grimreaperbroadheads.com or call 877-474-6732. ...
ROCHESTER, MN - March 15, 2017 - Winona State University - Rochester (WSU-R) announces a new hybrid model of education for its RN-BS completion program.
I will argue that Drosophila geneticists are not so much interested in finding speciation genes, but rather interested in understanding the genetics of speciation. To do so requires finding mutations that allow the species boundary to be surmounted. As I have mentioned previously, good species are reproductively isolated, preventing any genetical analysis of the factors that lead to this isolation. Mutations in the speciation genes (especially the extremely useful Hybrid Male Rescue mutation), however, allow researchers to cross individuals from different species and study the genetics of speciation.. Geneticists like to find generalities. That is why we study model organisms; they are easy to work with in a laboratory setting and allow us to extend our discoveries regarding molecular biology, cellular function, development, physiology, etc to other related taxa (both closely related and more distant relatives). Wilkins makes a valid point that it is difficult to generalize discoveries ...
Plant species hybridize more readily than animal species, and the resulting hybrids are more often fertile hybrids and may reproduce. There still exist sterile hybrids and selective hybrid elimination where the offspring are less able to survive and are thus eliminated before they can reproduce. Sterility in a hybrid is often a result of chromosome number; if parents are of differing chromosome pair number, the offspring will have an odd number of chromosomes, leaving them unable to produce chromosomally balanced gametes. For example, if a hybrid received 10 chromosomes from one parent and 12 from another parent, the chromosomes would not be balanced for meiosis. A number of plant species, however, are the result of hybridization and polyploidy, where an organism has more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. For example, if the plant had two sets of chromosomes from both parents, giving it four sets of chromosome, it would be balanced for meiosis. Many plant species easily cross pollinate ...
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download Kipling\s Imperial Boy: Adolescence and Cultural Hybridity 2001: South African of English failure. money of dialects Under the page of Shaka, the Zulu city used into own Africa. The completed sent impeded not so.
Hybridisation between recently diverged species offers an opportunity to gain insights into the process of reproductive isolation. Understanding the evolutionary consequences of hybridisation is a particular pressing issue in the context of global warming, because several taxa currently undergo temperature induced range expansions. One of the groups most heavily affected by increasing temperatures are odonates, as can be seen by large advances of the northern range margin of many species. These range expansions have many consequences, and the presumably most significant one concerns altered species interactions. For example, range expansions can cause novel range overlap between formerly allopatric species and can lead to extensive hybridisation in these new sympatric areas.. Within odonates, the genus Ischnura is extremely species rich (around 70 species), and consists of many recently diverged species that often co-occur over parts of their range. This genus has also other interesting ...
ABSTRACT:. Hybridization between different species can result in the emergence of new lineages and adaptive phenotypes. Occasionally, hybridization in fungal organisms can drive the appearance of opportunistic lifestyles or shifts to new hosts, resulting in the emergence of novel pathogens. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have documented the existence of hybrids in diverse yeast clades, including some comprising human pathogens. Comparative and population genomics studies performed on these clades are enabling us to understand what roles hybridization may play in the evolution and emergence of a virulence potential towards humans. Here we survey recent genomic studies on several yeast pathogenic clades where hybrids have been identified, and discuss the broader implications of hybridization in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic lineages.. Mixão, V., Gabaldón, T., 2017. Hybridization and emergence of virulence in opportunistic human yeast pathogens. YEAST, 1-42.. ...
lar Systematics, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 407-514.. Edwards, K.J. 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). In A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (eds.), Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 171-179.. Frankel, O.H., A.D.H. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Gallez, G.P. and L.D. Gottlieb. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution 36: 1158-1167.. Gottlieb, L.D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.. Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.D.H. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler and B.S. Weir (eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 43-63.. Ito, M. and M. Ono. 1990. Allozyme diversity and the evolution of Crepidiastrum (Compositae) on the ...
Scotts OG is a Hybrid strain. It has 20% sativa and 80% indica. Scotts OG has Pine, Earthy, Sweet, Pungent, Citrus tastes and it helps in anxiety, arthritis, migraines, ptsd, cancer. Scotts OG has 19.76% THC and 0.12% CBD. Scotts OG is very helpful to make you feel relaxed, happy, euphoric, creative, uplifted.
ACDC is a Hybrid strain. It has 50% sativa and 50% indica. ACDC has Earthy, Woody, Pine, Citrus, Sweet tastes and it helps in anxiety, migraines, ptsd, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorder. ACDC has 1% THC and 22% CBD. ACDC is very helpful to make you feel relaxed, uplifted, happy, focused, energetic.
The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of species purity have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages.
Ive been researching the best new hybrids to buy, the SUVs with cargo space for lugging sporting equipment and furniture for clients versus the smaller, more practical Prius, the symbol of a Gore generation of fuel-conscious consumers.. But I have to say, Ive been thrown by the latest safety risk I read about. It wasnt about the performance of the cars but rather the fact that blind pedestrians cannot hear the gas-electric motors on the road.. When you rely on your ears to determine whether its safe to cross the intersection, the hybrids pose a terrible threat. According to the Associated Press, hybrid tests were conducted involving people standing in parking lots or on sidewalks who were told to signal when they heard different hybrid models drive by. I couldnt hear it, reported Deborah Kent Stein, chairwoman of the National Federation of the Blinds Committee on Automotive and Pedestrian Safety. She shared that the other subjects participating in the test asked when the test was going ...
One of tropes that exists throughout the Dragon Ball mythos, but originally introduced in Dragon Ball Z, is that two fighters can fuse together to form a new, hybrid individual with vastly augmented power and abilities. This makes Vegito uncommonly crafty and skillful in the battlefield, and capable of adapting to major threats like Majin Buu in Dragon Ball Z and Fused Zamasu in Dragon Ball Super when other heroes could never match those villains strength. 12 Ki Multiplier is 150% Tremendous power multiplier is 300% Super Vegitos Super Attack gives ATK +30% to following counterattacks Counterattacks can be critical hits from the Hidden Potential … Vegito quipped as he was cutting away at the prison and threw a back fist into Super Buus face. He is the fourth downloadable playable fighter announced in Dragon Ball FighterZ. It works for both Super and Extreme Types. Vegito. I am Super Vegeto Ha... can i have some more Time Best Fusion in the entire Dragon Ball Universe. Share the best GIFs ...
Funding for research involving hybrid animal-human embryos dries up as alternative technique for creating stem cells finds favour
Programmable system with superior temperature control for performing FISH/ISH hybridization protocols on 1 to 12 slides. Uses rapid Peltier heating and cooling to process FFPE, bone marrow, cell lines and other samples with FISH probes from Abbott, Agilent, Cymogen and Cytocell. Accurately detects slide temperatures using SlideSense technology for more reproducible results. Records a time/temperature datalog to USB. Removable slide trays reduce handling from assay setup through hybridization. Slide trays can be transferred to a 60-slide capacity CytoBrite Slide Oven for extended or overnight probe denaturation. Requires the use of CytoBond Removable Coverslip Sealant to temporarily seal coverslips to slides, providing an evaporative seal over prolonged incubations and high temperatures without humidification. ...
Darwins discussion of hybridization occupies all of chapter 8 of the Origin. His stated motivation is to address what many people might see as a fatal objection to his theory of species origins by means of natural selection. One of Darwins main arguments in the book is that descent with modification is continuous, and therefore the distinction between species and varieties (and subspecies, etc) is an arbitrary cut in a continuum of biodiversity. However, it was conventionally accepted that varieties within the same species could cross-breed freely, but any attempt to hybridize distinct species would always fail. Darwin opposes this view by citing extensive evidence showing that varying degrees of sterility are encountered in efforts to cross-breed different species of plants (and a few birds) - if the species are closely related then often there will be a small degree of fertility in the hybrid offspring. So, as two related forms diverge from one another in the course of evolution, their ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Symmetric interspecies hybrids of mouse and human hemoglobin. T2 - Molecular basis of their abnormal oxygen affinity. AU - Roy, Rajendra Prasad. AU - Nacharaju, Parimala. AU - Nagel, Ronald L.. AU - Acharya, A. Seetharama. PY - 1995/2/1. Y1 - 1995/2/1. N2 - Interspecies hybrids of HbA and Hb from mouse C57BL/10 [α2MΒ2H and ↠2HΒ2M (H=human, M=mouse)], representing 19 and 27 sequence differences per αΒ dimers (as compared with human αΒ dimer) have been generated in vitro. The efficiency of the assembly of the interspecies hybrids by the alloplex intermediate pathway is about twofold higher than the low-pH-mediated subunit approach. The interspecies hybrids exhibit a cooperative O2 binding. The intrinsic O2 affinity of mouse Hb is slightly lower than HbA, while the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) effect is comparable. Interestingly, the interspecies hybrid α2MΒ2H has high O2 affinity (compared to either human or mouse H b), while the interspecies hybrid α2HΒ2M exhibits a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A quantitative genetic model for mixed diploid and triploid hybrid progenies in tree breeding and evolution. AU - Wu, Rongling. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - Interspecific hybridization has played a critical role in tree evolution and breeding. The findings of triploidy in forest trees stimulate the development of a quantitative genetic model to estimate the nature of gene action. The model is based on clonally replicated triploid progenies derived from a two-level population and individual-within-population mating design in which offspring have a double dose of alleles from the parent and a single dose of alleles from the other parent. With the same genetic assumptions of a diploid model, except non-Mendelian behavior at meiosis, and the experimental variances estimated from a linear statistical model, total genetic variances in the triploid progenies are separated into additive, dominance, and epistatic components. In addition, by combining the new model with the already ...
en] Eco-ethology as expressed in migration patterns, hybridisation level, growth rates in river conditions, and reproductive behaviour in a controlled environment were investigated in natural common bream Abramis brama × roach Rutilus rutilus and common bream × silver bream Blicca bjoerkna hybrids. From 2001 to 2003, hybrids and parental species were captured in a fish pass trap at the Lixhe dam on the Belgian Meuse River during their reproductive migration. The fish pass was checked 3 days a week and the water temperature was recorded hourly. The results showed that these hybrids were less frequent but they had migrated during the same period and in the same environmental conditions as the parental species. Scale readings showed that the growth of hybrids was intermediate between the two parent species growth. In controlled environments, the female hybrid mated with one to two males, including male hybrids, in reproductive experiments between hybrids; they also mated with male hybrid and ...
Interspecific gene flow is an important aspect in avian speciation [54]. Based on hybridization networks and D-statistics, calculated from genome-wide data, we found indications for high levels of interspecific gene flow between several goose species. D-statistics allowed us to confidently discriminate between incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific gene flow. The significant D-statistics varied from 0.07 to 0.17, which is slightly higher compared to analyses on recent radiations, such as Darwins Finches (0.004-0.092; [55]) and butterflies of the genera Heliconius (0.04; [56]) and Papilio (0.04; [57]). These values do fall within the range of studies on other hybridizing species, such as pigs (0.11-0.23; [58]), bears (0.04-0.46; [59, 60]) and Xiphophorus fish (0.03-0.56; [61]).. A significant D-statistic does not necessarily indicate introgression between the species from which the genomes are being compared. There might have been gene flow with an extinct (not sampled) population or the ...
Hybrid zones provide insights into the evolution of reproductive isolation. Sexual selection can contribute to the evolution of reproductive barriers, but it remains poorly understood how sexual traits impact gene flow in secondary contact. Here, we show that a recently evolved suite of sexual traits that function in male-male competition mediates gene flow between two lineages of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis). Gene flow was relatively low and asymmetric in the presence of exaggerated male morphology and coloration compared to when the lineages share the ancestral phenotype. Putative barrier loci were enriched in genomic regions that were highly differentiated between the two lineages and showed low concordance between the transects. The exception was a consistently low genetic exchange around ATXN1, a gene that modulates social behavior. We suggest that this gene may contribute to the male mate preferences that are known to cause lineage-assortative mating in this species. Although female ...
Britain urged not to ban hybrid embryo research Reuters - Wed Apr 4, 7:03 PM ET Scientists and lawmakers urged Britain on Thursday to scrap a proposed ban on creating hybrid animal-human embryos for research into illnesses such as Parkinsons, stroke and Alzheimers. In December, the British government proposed a ban on the creation of hybrid embryos due to what it called considerable public unease, but the Commons Science and Technology Committee said a ban was unacceptable and could harm British science. ......... ZenMaster. ...
Hybrid breakdown is a pattern of postzygotic isolation that occurs during the early stages of allopatric divergence, and it is characterized by markedly reduced fitness in F2 and later generation hybrids [1]. Hybrid breakdown has been observed in a wide array of phenotypes, including fecundity [2], sperm swimming speed [3], offspring viability [4,5], growth rate [6] and stress response [7]. The genes involved in the early stages of reproductive isolation are likely to be found in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying these phenotypes.. Hybrid breakdown is often explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) model; evolution results in coadaptation among interacting sets of alleles within diverging isolated populations, but incompatibilities are revealed in recombinant F2 genomes of interpopulation hybrids [8,9]. Although most investigations of DM incompatibilities have focused on interactions among nuclear genes [10], epistasis between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes may be particularly ...
Inferring the origins of hybrid taxa based on morphology alone is difficult because morphologically similar hybrids can arise from hybridization between different populations of the same parental species or be produced by hybridization of different parental species. In this study, we investigated the origins of two semi-creeping taxa in Melastoma, which are morphologically similar to a natural hybrid, M. intermedium, by sequencing a chloroplast intergenic spacer, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and two low-copy nuclear genes (tpi and cam) in these taxa and their putative parental species. Our sequence analysis results provide compelling evidence for the hybrid status of the two semi-creeping taxa: one originating from hybridization between M. dodecandrum and M. malabathricum, and the other between M. dodecandrum and M. normale. The origins of these hybrids are therefore clearly different from M. intermedium, and morphological similarity for the three hybrids is most likely due to
The fact is that the stature, leaf size and other vegetative characteristics of R. yakushimanum are determined by the environment, and have nothing to do with hybridity or the lack of it. As proof, the reader is referred to Figure 1. which is a photograph of a plant with small, convex leaves and compressed growth habit typical of the Exbury form and Koichiro Wada, F.C.C. However, the plant photographed happens to be Pink Parasol. It was grown in an impoverished soil, such as that on the mountain summits of Yaku Shima, with full exposure to drying sun and wind; it was never irrigated. This harsh treatment transformed the vigorous, large leaved Pink Parasol into a close-coupled Koichiro Wada with small, convex leaves. In early 1988 the plant was moved to a more favored site and its new growth is once again vigorous, with large, flat leaves. So it is apparent that gross morphology is no guide to hybridity in R. yakushimanum. The further truth is that no type specimen of R. yakushimanum ...
Phylogenetic relationships in Athyrium and Cornopteris were deduced from two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL and trnL 5exon-trnF, of 32 species, 2 varieties, 3 putative hybrids of Athyrium, three taxa of Cornopteris, and five outgroups. Athyrium is paraphyletic, and the Athyrium-Cornopteris complex comprises five clades. Clade I, the most basal, comprises A. niponicum, A. (=Anisocampium) sheareri, and A. (=Kuniwatsukia) cuspidatum. Clade II includes A. distentifolium and Cornopteris. All species of clades III and IV are diploids, while most species of Glade V are polyploids. The parentage of the putative hybrids and of species of hybrid origin were also suggested. The results were compared to previous major classifications based on morphology.. ...
How species arise is a fundamental and still unanswered question in biology. Under the biological species concept, species consist of populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations (Mayr 1942). Thus, to understand speciation, we must learn how reproductive barriers evolve between populations. Postzygotic reproductive barriers are commonly found in nature, and occur when hybrid progeny are relatively unfit in comparison to their parents and serve as inefficient bridges for gene flow between populations. Hybrids can be extrinsically unfit, in that they are maladapted to their environment (for example, hybrids exhibit an intermediate phenotype which is unfit in parental environments) or intrinsically unfit, in that they are developmentally abnormal (for example, hybrids are sterile or inviable) (Coyne and Orr 2004).. The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model hypothesizes that hybrids are intrinsically unfit due to incompatible gene ...
It seems these would also be a great test system for more whole genome sequencing or at least more polymorphism comparisons to try and determine the proportion of the genome that comes from different parents and estimate timing and frequency of hybridization. It seems possible that the hybridizations are occurring multiple times in nature so are the same regions from each parental genome kept in the hybrid offspring that are selected for fitness under fermentation stress?. Gonzalez, S.S., Barrio, E., Querol, A. (2008). Molecular Characterization of New Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in Brewing . Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(8), 2314-2320. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01867-07. ...
FIG. 4. Minimum number of chromosomal rearrangements and restriction site changes to connect the different genotypes exhibited by the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids (Fig. 3; see also Table S••• in the supplemental material). Genotypes are represented by white and gray circles for wine and brewing hybrids, respectively. Rearrangements are indicated by arrows giving the direction of the irreversible change. Rearrangements were assumed to be caused by nonreciprocal recombination (rec) among homoeologous chromosomes (roman numbers) and whole chromosome losses (loss) of one of the parental chromosomes (kud, S. kudriavzevii). Restriction site changes can be reversible (gain/loss) and are represented by diamonds. The gene region and the restriction patterns involved are also indicated (for a description, see Tables S2 and S3 in the supplemental material). Dotted squares group genotypes of hybrids according to their mitochondrial COX2 haplotypes. ...
Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.. PubMed. Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.. 2002-06-01. Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccards similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. ...
The evolution of reproductive isolating barriers that prevent gene flow between species is essential to the process of speciation. One such barrier is intrinsic postzygotic isolation, which proceeds as hybrid sterility or inviability, and is commonly attributed to Dobzhansky-Muller genic incompatibilities. Here, deleterious interlocus interactions occur between incompatible alleles of complementary genes when brought together in the genome of a hybrid. Although these hybrid incompatibilities are widespread, having been identified in mammals, fish, plants and fungi, still relatively little is known about the nature of the genes involved. In the model plant species Mimulus, a Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility exists between two populations of the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus, in which the interaction between a single gene from a copper tolerant population, Copperopolis, and a small number of polymorphic genes from a second non-tolerant population, Cerig-y-drudion, results in hybrid ...
Read Analysis of mtDNA and nuclear markers points to homoploid hybrid origin of the new species of Far Eastern redfins of the genus Tribolodon (Pisces, Cyprinidae), Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Low available phosphorus (P) still remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in low P soils. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the extent of genetic variation in P efficiency among selected Kenyan maize under low P soils (ii) select P efficient maize experimental hybrids. A total of 32 experimental hybrids were evaluated for variation in tolerance to low P at high P (36kgP/ha) and low P (6kgP/ha) conditions across four locations using split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated three times. Mean grain yield was significantly lower (2.49 t/ha) across the low P treatment compared to the high P treatments (4.78 t/ha). Relative yield reduction was comparable across the four locations except at Sega where it was a little higher (59.4%). A 48.9% mean yield reduction was observed at the low P treatment compared with the high P treatment across the locations. Eighteen out of the 32 experimental hybrids exhibited Agronomic Efficiency (AE) above the locational mean , ...
In a rare move of clear-eyed sanity, the British government has given scientists provisional permission to create non-viable human/animal hybrid embryos - for research purposes. Apparently surveys discovered that - once the actual limits and realities of the science were explained - most people were at ease with the idea. Perhaps once its seen to be safe, attitudes elsewhere may loosen up as well.. ...
Interspecific hybrids Buddleja davidii x Buddleja weyeriana, Buddleja weyeriana x Buddleja davidii and Buddleja davidii x Buddleja lindleyana were generated using in vitro embryo rescue 10-11 weeks after manual pollination. The morphological variation within the F1 populations was limited. The F1 progeny of B. davidii x B. lindleyana was almost sterile and no F2 generation was obtained. From the o ...
Determining the frequency and genetic impact of hybridization during animal speciation remains a central and unresolved issue in evolutionary biology. If reproductive isolation is incomplete when nascent species come into contact, even moderate gene flow may result in population fusion. Thus, recurrent hybridization among animal species has traditionally been viewed as rare. Alternatively, genetic factors underlying speciation may continue to accumulate between divergent populations despite on-going gene flow, eventually leading to the evolution of complete reproductive isolation. Consistent with this second model (divergence with gene flow), several recent studies have shown that closely related taxa may retain differentiation despite high levels of cryptic hybridization and introgression. If divergence with gene flow is common, then hybridization may often be an important transient phase in animal speciation. Furthermore, in such cases, phylogeny estimation in such cases will be rendered ...
Hybrids are often named by the portmanteau method, combining the names of the two parent species. For example, a zeedonk is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. Since the traits of hybrid offspring often vary depending on which species was mother and which was father, it is traditional to use the fathers species as the first half of the portmanteau. For example, a liger is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger, while a tiglon is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion ...
Speciation generates discrete populations, which in turn is essential for maintaining novel adaptations during evolution. Hybrids between different species are usually inviable or sterile. Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities represent reciprocal-sign epistasis between inter-specific alleles and are widely accepted as a major driver of postzygotic reproductive isolation. They refer to deleterious genetic interactions between functionally diverged loci during the evolution of new species. They are widely accepted to cause hybrid sterility or inviability, the features associated with postzygotic reproductive isolation. The evolution of speciation genes is generally thought to be driven by adaptive evolution. Identifying these genes will provide more information about how speciation occurs. One of the main challenges in speciation genetics is that speciation events can normally not be observed and therefore data from present-day species are confronted statistically with competing hypotheses about ...
Selfish genetic elements and coevolved suppressors are often invoked as sources of hybrid incompatibility [9,16,48], but direct evidence for a specific role of genomic conflict in the evolution of BDM incompatibilities is rare. Cryptic CMS in plants, where mismatch between organellar and nuclear genes results in hybrid male sterility, epitomizes this gap. Despite abundant evidence that cryptic CMS is common [21,23,24] and robust theory that it should evolve selfishly [28], the links between pattern and process have been circumstantial to date [31]. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that mitochondrial CMS loci and associated nuclear restorers have evolved under the positive selection predicted by the conflict model. Our findings strongly point to selfish evolution/coevolution within one parental species, rather than negative epistasis limited only to hybrids, as the source of cytonuclear incompatibilites in crosses between hermaphroditic plant ...
Read A TWO-SEX POLYGENIC MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF PREMATING ISOLATION. II. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF EXPERIMENTAL SELECTION PROCEDURES, Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
D. obovata Ivans Paddle D. anglica CA HI D. beleziana - tetraploid F1 (cutting from natural hybrid NJ, Pine Barrens treated with Colchicine) ak
Loss of protein homeostasis is involved in programmed cell death during hybrid lethality in plants.. Hybrid plants - those produced by crossing two different types of parents - often die in conditions in which both parents would survive. Its called hybrid lethality. Certain hybrid tobacco plants, for example, thrive at 36 degrees Celsius, but die at 28 degrees Celsius, which is the temperature at which both parents would thrive.. A team of researchers at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) based in Japan have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which hybrid tobacco plant cells meet their demise. The researchers published their results in Scientific Reports, a Nature journal. Hybrid tobacco plants were chosen for the study because they offer a good genetic model to study other hybrid plants.. When moved to the lower temperature, hybrid tobacco cells induce a process called programmed cell death. It sounds dramatic, but its normal and healthy - to a point. In humans, ...
Gorgeously printed in silver ink on black paper, this field guide to our new world of hybrid specimens catalogs the conflation of the technosphere and the biosphere. Plastiglomerates, surveillance robot dogs, fordite, artificial grass, antenna trees, COVID-19, decapitated mountains, drone-fighting eagles, standardized bananas: all of these specimens, some more familiar than others, are examples of the hybridity that shapes the current landscapes of science, technology and everyday life. Inspired by medieval bestiaries and the increasingly visible effects of climate change on the planet, French researcher Nicolas Nova (born 1977) provides an ethnographic guide to the post-natural era in which we live, highlighting the amalgamations of nature and artifice that already co-exist in the 21st century. A sort of field handbook, A Bestiary of the Anthropocene aims to help us orient ourselves within the technosphere and the biosphere. What happens when technologies and their unintended consequences ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Barley chromosome 6 retained specifically in hypoploid hybrids of a chromosome-eliminating interspecific cross. AU - Linde-Laursen, I.. AU - Bothmer, R. von. N1 - Conference code: 6. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. KW - Begrænsning af forurening. M3 - Article in proceedings. SP - 77. EP - 79. BT - Barley genetics VI. Volume 1. Short papers. A2 - Munck, L.. A2 - Kirkegaard, K.. A2 - Jensen, B.. PB - Munksgaard CY - Copenhagen. T2 - 6th International Barley Genetics Symposium. Y2 - 22 July 1991 through 27 July 1991. ER - ...
Research Interests:. Systematics and molecular evolution in mammals; particularly in geomyoid and cricetid rodents. Examination of hybrid zones between genetically distinct taxa; including isolating mechanisms and the dynamics of genetic introgression. Determining the origin of hybrizymes generated from 2 hybridization events. Chromosomal evolution and how changes in chromosome structure relate to models and mechanisms of speciation. Examination of the origin and evolution of rodent-borne viruses; especially in the use of rodent phylogenies and genetic structure to predict the transmission and evolution of the virus. Epidemiology and zoonoses of mammalian-borne viruses. Growth and utilization of natural history collections, especially those pertaining to mammals. Development of bioinformatics and how this field can better be interphased with natural history collections. Natural history and distributions of mammalian species. Genetic Species Concept and how it applies to mammals. How genomics and ...
The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about. The theory was first described by William Bateson in 1909, then independently described by Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1934, and later elaborated in different forms by Herman Muller, H. Allen Orr and Sergey Gavrilets. The model states that genetic incompatibility is most likely evolved by alternative fixation of two or more loci instead of just one, so that when hybridization occurs, it is the first time for some of the alleles to co-occur in the same individual. For example, imagine two populations that only recently separated geographically. Both sides are starting with the same genotype AABB. One population can then evolve to aaBB, through the transition state AaBB, while the other evolves to AAbb, through the transition state ...
Hybrid Swarm Intelligence-Based Biclustering Approach for Recommendation of Web Pages: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6328-2.ch007: This chapter focuses on recommender systems based on the coherent users browsing patterns. Biclustering approach is used to discover the aggregate usage
Davis describes the much hybridized wheat of today as scarcely related to the wheat people began eating 10,000 years ago. That wild grass, called Einkorn, changed just a little through natural hybridization, over thousands of years. But in the last 50 years it has been hybridized and changed so dramatically that its genome is scarcely recognizable from that of its ancient ancestor. What began as a four foot tall grass with 14 genes now has been dwarfed, its stalks made sturdier, and its production beefed up to the point where it has over 40 genes, many of them never before encountered by humans. Todays wheat has far more gluten than its ancestors, giving rise to almost ubiquitous gluten intolerance and celiac disease. It even has proteins not found in any of its parents, including gluten structures unlike any ever seen in food before ...
Understanding the performance of new crop genotypes for traits of relevance is important in selecting potential cultivars to satisfy end-users. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of new banana genotypes for bunch mass (BMS) and BMS-related traits, resistance to black Sigatoka and sensory attributes. Eight cooking banana genotypes consisting of six new hybrid genotypes selected from advanced breeding trials and two control cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design for three crop cycles at three locations in Uganda. Genotype, location, crop cycle and their interaction effects were significantly different for most traits assessed. The overall top two genotypes (
In the marine environment, an increasing number of studies have documented introgression and hybridization using genetic markers. Hybridization appears to occur preferentially between sister-species, with the probability of introgression decreasing with an increase in evolutionary divergence. Exceptions to this pattern were reported for the Cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus), two distantly related Merluciidae species that diverged 3-4.2 million years ago. Yet, it is expected that contemporary hybridization between such divergent species would result in reduced hybrid fitness. We analysed 1,137 hake individuals using nine microsatellite markers and control region mtDNA data to assess the validity of the described hybridization event. To distinguish between interbreeding, ancestral polymorphism and homplasy we sequenced the flanking region of the most divergent microsatellite marker. Simulation and empirical analyses showed that hybrid identification significantly varied with the ...
Many parents feel alone and isolated in this experience with their child. Dealing with a mental health condition and behaviors takes time, is stressful and can have an impact on your health and well-being. Know that there are many parents who have gone through similar challenges. Here are some tips from other parents who have faced similar experiences:. Visit the National Alliance on Mental Illness -Washington (NAMI) for support and information.. Connect with other parents. Having a child with a mental illness can be isolating. Connecting with other parents who can relate and understand what you are going through may help you feel better. Other parents may share tips for coping and ideas on finding services and therapists. Hearing other parents stories can bring you relief. It can be helpful to know that you are not the only family that has experienced what you have gone through. A great way to do this is through a support group or information classes for parents of children and youth with ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there speciation genes? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there speciation genes? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
Principal Investigator:TAKATANI Tomohiro, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Aquatic life science
Erin Kelleher and Dan Barbash found that Drosophila hybrids have increased transposon activity due to the rapid evolution of proteins in the piRNA pathway. piRNAs act to repress transposons, and while piRNA transcripts are still made in the interspecific hybrids, they are not processed to their mature, functional forms. More details can be found in their PLOS Biology paper here. ...
Enchantment (F1 hybrid, Indeterminate, 72 days, resistant to verticilium and fusarium wilts 1 and 2, nematodes, and tobacco mosaic virus) is a 3 (7.5cm), oval salad tomato that grows in fat clusters spiraling around the vine. One of the most versatile tomatoes you can grow, it has great flavor, but is not so juicy that you cant make a quick sauce without having to cook off a lot of water.. Marketing system ...
This paper presents an interesting issue of using hybrid dynamical system to chaos synchronization and its application in secure communication using a new 5D hyperchaotic systems. The slave system is modeled by an unknown input observer, in which the unknown input issued from the hybrid system is the transmitted information. Based on the descriptor observer design, the Lyapunov stability theory and some robustness criteria, new sufficient synthesis conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities that we can obtain the estimations of both the hybrid system states and the transmitted signals. Numerical examples are provided to show the performances of the proposed approach ...
Spatial distribution and genetic variation of a population of Sorbus chamaemespilus (L.) Crantz and putative hybrids between S. chamaemespilus, S. aria and S. aucuparia growing in the nature reserve Skalnä Alpa (central Slovakia) were studied. The analysis of spatial patterns using Ripleys K-function revealed a significant clustering of the adults of both S. chamaemespilus and hybrid taxa at dist ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
2012-2016 PhD about „Hybridisation in bluebells (Hyacinthoides spec.) - Using next-generation sequencing to reconstruct a natural hybrid zone in Spain at the Natural History Museum London and Queen Mary University of ...
The Roman Catholic Bishops of England (RCBE) have told the UK parliament that inter-species embryos - those containing genetic information from both human and animals - should not be treated any differently from normal embryos, and that women should be given the chance to carry their genetic offspring to term.. There is currently a real shortage of human eggs for use in embryonic stem cell (ES cell) research. It is hoped the problem can be overcome through creating embryos by transferring human genetic material into hollowed out animal eggs. The resulting entity - a cybrid - would be over 99 per cent genetically human and less than one per cent animal. As it stands, the new draft Human Tissue and Embryos Bill will ban the creation of embryos that contain genetic material from both animals and humans, but will make an exception for certain types of research, including cybrid embryos. The draft Bill imposes a strict 14 day time limit on the use of these entities in research, at which point ...
The National Institutes of Health proposed lifting its moratorium on funding for research on part-animal, part-human embryos - which raises a huge dilemma, says bioethicist Insoo Hyun.
... , also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the transfer of genetic material from one species into ... Chimera (genetics) Genetic engineering Genetic erosion Genetic pollution Transgene Transgenic plant Anderson, Edgar; Hubricht, ... Introgression or introgressive hybridization is the incorporation (usually via hybridization and backcrossing) of novel genes ... Introgressive hybridization. New York: Wiley & Sons Harrison, R (2014). "Hybridization, Introgression, and the Nature of ...
A case of hybridization in Psilocybe (Deconica)". New Phytologist 49 (3): 335-343. (subscription required) ________________. ( ... Genetic isolation in Panaeolus papilionaceous". New Phytologist 49: 328-334. ________________. (1950). "The Basidiomycetes of ...
Conkle, MT; Critchfield, WB (1988). "Genetic variation and hybridization of ponderosa pine". In Baumgartner, DM; Lotan, JE (eds ... Van Haverbeke, DF (1986). Genetic variation in ponderosa pine: A 15-Year Test of provenances in the Great Plains. USDA Forest ... ISBN 90-04-13916-8. Haller, JR (1962). Variation and hybridization in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines. University of California ...
It is also a genetic resource for hybridization. The leaves and the branches can be used for tanning as they contain blue ...
By hybridization with Solanum tuberosum by the Scottish Crop Research Institute, varieties were obtained who are adapted to the ... Dodds, Kenneth S.; Paxman, G. J. (1962). "The Genetic System of Cultivated Diploid Potatoes". Evolution. 16 (2): 154. doi: ... Hybridization of Crop Plants.. Nueva York: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America. pp. 483-494. ISBN 0- ... 89118-034-6. ↑ Hawkes, J.G. (1990). The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources.. Londres: Belhaven Press,. pp. ...
"Genetic characterization of pathogenic Leptospira species by DNA hybridization". International Journal of Systematic ...
Tranah, G. J.; D. E. Campton; B. May (2004). "Genetic Evidence for Hybridization of Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon". Journal of ... However, the genetic variability among pallid sturgeon was found to be far less than that between them and the shovelnose ... Hybrids are most common in the Atchafalaya River in Louisiana, and DNA sequencing in these hybrids showed a genetic distinction ... Another reason for DNA testing was to determine the rates of hybridization between pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. The southern ...
"Genetic characterization of pathogenic Leptospira species by DNA hybridization". International Journal of Systematic ...
Genetic evidence for asymmetric hybridization between menhadens (Brevoortia spp.) from peninsular Florida. Journal of Fish ... Morphological and genetic investigations of two western Gulf of Mexico menhadens (Brevoortia spp.). Journal of Fish Biology 70a ... and hybridization between these species has been demonstrated using morphological and DNA evidence. Gulf menhaden also may have ... and populations of Gulf menhaden throughout the Gulf of Mexico are generally thought to comprise a single genetic stock. The ...
"Anthropogenic macaque hybridization and genetic pollution of a threatened population". 7 (1). Tropical Natural History: 11-23 ... pet releases of the different species into existing troops are diluting the gene pool and putting its genetic integrity at risk ...
Morales, Lucia; Dujon, Bernard (December 2012). "Evolutionary Role of Interspecies Hybridization and Genetic Exchanges in ... Bernard Dujon decided to adapt the mitochondrial gene to the universal genetic code in order to be able to express it in a ... At that time, no one had any idea of the genetic content of mitochondria, except that it contained DNA. Bernard Dujon was ... In Gif-sur-Yvette, Bernard Dujon started to study a strange genetic phenomenon, linked to mitochondrial genetics, whose study ...
This in turn creates a genetic mergence through the birth of children. This genetic process, also known as hybridization, ... Bourdieu describes hybridization as a much more subtle, hidden or disguised form for powerful material contributions in ... "Hybridization". Genome.gov. Retrieved 2022-04-07. . (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Cultural concepts, Culture). ... Procreating between two individuals from two isolated and different cultures creates a hybridization state in the resulting ...
for BAC DNA fingerprinting, genetic mapping and BAC filter hybridization 2. Cloning Lab, used for shotgun cloning of BAC clones ... The structure and genetic control of a new class of disulphide-linked proteins in wheat endosperm. Theoretical and Applied ... "Structure and Genetic control of endosperm proteins in wheat and rye". There he was awarded Dr K.P. Barley Prize best post ...
Schwartz, M. K. (2004). "Hybridization between Canada lynx and bobcats: genetic results and management implications". ... Hybridization between Canada lynxes and bobcats has been reported in the southern periphery of the range. Hybridization between ... Rueness, E. K.; Stenseth, N. C.; O'Donoghue, M.; Boutin, S.; Ellegren, H. & Jakobsen, K. S. (2003). "Ecological and genetic ... Schwartz, M. K.; Mills, L. S.; Ortega, Y.; Ruggiero, L. F.; Allendorf, F. W. (2003). "Landscape location affects genetic ...
"Genetic evidence for a recent origin by hybridization of red wolves". Molecular Ecology. 8 (1): 139-144. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... eastern wolf hybridization, eastern coyotes are the result of eastern wolf × western coyote hybridization, and red wolves are ... the hybridization could not have occurred recently but supports a much more ancient hybridization. The group found deficiencies ... Genetic data supports a close relationship between the eastern and red wolves, but not close enough to support these as one ...
Tufted titmice will occasionally hybridize with the black-crested titmouse; the hybridization range is very narrow, however, ... due to genetic differences. Tufted Titmouse (Tuftie) with a bit of snow on her beak. Tufted Titmouse facing the camera, Tufted ...
As a result, they show only weak genetic barriers to hybridization. Patellifolia is a rather old genus; the divergence from its ... But recent molecular genetic studies by Kadereit et al. (2006) and Romeiras et al. (2016) revealed a deep genetic ... The island species evolved recently, and because of their isolation they developed only small genetic differentiation. ...
Mii, M. (2012). "Ornamental Plant Breeding Through Interspecific Hybridization, Somatic Hybridization and Genetic ...
Capula M (2002). "Genetic evidence of natural hybridization between Podarcis sicula and Podarcis tiliguerta (Reptilia)". ... There have also been reports of hybridization between P. siculus and other species of the Podarcis genus, such as P. tilguerta ...
2002). Genetic Variation and Evidence of Hybridization in the Genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). Journal of Heredity. 93(1) 37-41. ... Conservation activities include genetic analysis in an effort to understand the genetic variability of populations. Plant ... It is clonal, often reproducing vegetatively, so populations are low in genetic variability. It may hybridize with the common ...
"Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and chromosome analysis of blastomeres using comparative genomic hybridization". Human ... A single cell can be removed from a pre-compaction eight-cell embryo and used for genetic screening, and the embryo will ... Kim HJ, Kim CH, Lee SM, Choe SA, Lee JY, Jee BC, Hwang D, Kim KC (September 2012). "Outcomes of preimplantation genetic ...
Possible hybridization could account for the genetic similarities between the two species. Some scientists have proposed that ... In fact, both the Falkland steamer duck and the closely-related flying steamer duck contain genetic sequences associated with ... Lele, Abhimanyu; Ottenburghs, Jente (2019). "Digest: A single genetic origin and a role for bone development pathways in ... Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto (2019-11-28). "Molecular genetic studies of Chilean avifauna: an overview about current ...
"Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 ... It was originally described in 2004 as a distinct species, but a genetic study published in 2012 found it to be a hybrid of ...
"Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis". Nami Goto-Yamamoto, Jason Sawler, Sean ...
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to observe cell separation. and single cells can be acquired using flow ... Genetic approaches, such as complete DNA sequencing or whole genome sequencing. and 16S RNA sequencing. define the microbiome, ... to conduct genetic analysis. These methods, in conjunction with well-established sample preparation, staining techniques and co ... July 2007). "Dissecting biological "dark matter" with single-cell genetic analysis of rare and uncultivated TM7 microbes from ...
"Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 ...
This hybridization created two all-female species: Tremblay's and silvery salamanders. These genetic curiosities possess three ... The males' chromosome contribution only stimulates the egg's development; its genetic material is ignored. It is not often ...
"Professor Joyce Van Eck - Improving Crops By Genetic Engineering And Targeted Genome Editing • scientia.global". February 15, ... "Transfer of large amounts of DNA via somatic hybridization and particle bombardment". hdl:2027/coo.31924062830223 - via ...
... hybridization and genetic mosaicism in Posidonia australis(Posidoniaceae)". Annals of Botany. 117 (2): 237-47. doi:10.1093/aob/ ...
"Living between Rapids: Genetic Structure and Hybridization in Botos ( Cetacea: Iniidae: Inia Spp.) of the Madeira River, Brazil ... Preserving habitats is important for species richness, genetic diversity, and ecosystem complexity. Bolivian river dolphins are ...
The genetic basis for bitterness involves a single gene, the bitter flavor furthermore being recessive,[17][18] both aspects ... However, through natural hybridisation between different almond varieties, a new variety that was self-pollinating with a high ... G. Ladizinsky (1999). "On the origin of almond". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 46 (2): 143-147. doi:10.1023/A: ... "Use of recessive homozygous genotypes to assess genetic control of kernel bitterness in almond". Euphytica. Springer. 153 (1-2 ...
Initial evidence of hybridisation was morphological characteristics intermediate to the two species; later genetic tests ... which was considered to be the reason for hybridisation.[52] ...
Recent genetic analysis has revealed that the gene for yellow skin was incorporated into domestic birds through hybridization ...
Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic ... Hybridization with Lathyrus belinensis[edit]. Like the blue rose, the yellow sweet pea remains elusive. Lathyrus belinensis is ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ...
Array Comparative Genome Hybridization: This technique measures the DNA copy number differences between normal and cancer ... Before BRAF, the genetic mechanism of melanoma development was unknown and therefore prognosis for patients was poor.[71] ... Cooper DN, Youssoufian H (February 1988). "The CpG dinucleotide and human genetic disease". Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 151-5. doi: ... Cancer is a genetic disease caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell ...
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, is a rare genetic autoimmune syndrome that results from a genetic defect of the ... The condition is diagnosed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and treated with thymus transplantation.[15] ... Immunodeficiency can be profound.[9] Loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation (as in DiGeorge syndrome, ... Genetic analysis including karyotyping may reveal specific abnormalities that may influence prognosis or treatment, such as the ...
... but this hybridization is quite restricted in scope.[3] ... "Genetic Subdivisions among Small Canids: Mitochondrial DNA ...
These cells are presumed to be monoclonal - that is, they are derived from the same cell,[10] and all carry the same genetic or ... Tumors in humans occur as a result of accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations within single cells, which cause the cell ... which can be caused by genetic mutations. Not all types of neoplasms cause a tumorous overgrowth of tissue, however (such as ... "Genetic reconstruction of individual colorectal tumor histories". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (3): 1236-41. Bibcode ...
a b c Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., Pinsker, W., Riesing, M. J., Winkler, H., Wink, M., & Gamauf, A. (2004). Genetic vs. ... Elorriaga, J., & Muñoz, A. R. (2013). Hybridisation between the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo buteo and the North African race of ... However, the distinctiveness of these African buzzards has generally been supported.[11][12][13] Genetic studies have further ... first results of a genetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Alauda, 68(1), 55-58. ...
Some recent genetic evidence suggests the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin belongs in the genus Stenella, since it is more like ... such as past hybridization between Stenella and ancestral Tursiops) and incomplete lineage sorting, and thus support T. ... In general, genetic variation between populations is significant, even among nearby populations.[22] As a result of this ... Charlton-Robb, K.; Taylor, A. C.; McKechnie, S. W. (February 2015). "Population genetic structure of the Burrunan dolphin ( ...
1866 ग्रेगर मेंडल - पादपों में संकरण (hybridization) के प्रयोगों के बारे में पहला प्रकाशन, आनुवंशिकी की स्थापना ... जैवप्रौद्योगिकी (Biotechnology) - the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic ...
Douglas, G.W. (1975). Spruce (Picea) hybridization in west-central British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Forest Science, Smithers ... genetic composition of the seeds produced by a stand is determined by both the seed trees and the pollen parents, and species ... Species classification for seeds collected from spruce stands in which introgressive hybridization between white and Sitka ... Species classification of seedlots collected in areas where hybridization of white and Sitka spruces has been reported has ...
Evidence from Studies of Interspecific Hybridization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (in ఇంగ్లీష్). 71 (7): ... Reich, D; Green, RE; Kircher, M (December 2010). "(December 2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova ... This study raises the possibility of observed genetic affinities between archaic and modern human populations being mostly due ... Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly 270,000 years.[89] ...
Maheshwari HG, Silverman BL, Dupuis J, Baumann G (1998). „Phenotype and genetic analysis of a syndrome caused by an ... to 7p14 by in situ hybridization.". Genomics 19 (1): 193-5. DOI:10.1006/geno.1994.1045. PMID 8188233. ...
Wright, S (1984). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, Volume 1: Genetic and Biometric Foundations. The University of ... "Experiments in Plant Hybridization".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes ... இதற்குத் தகவமைவு அல்லது மரபணு பிறழ்வு நகர்ச்சி (Genetic drift) என்று பெயர். இக்கொள்கை புவியிலுள்ள உயிர்களின் பொது ...
Lokki, J., Suomalainen, E., Saura, A, & Lankinen, P. (Mars 1975). «Genetic Polymorphism and Evolution in Parthenogenetic ... Cuellar, O; McKinney, CO (juni 1976). «Natural hybridization between parthenogenetic and bisexual lizards: detection of ...
There have been hybridizations of snail species; although these do not occur commonly in the wild, in captivity they can be ... Selander, R. K.; Ochman, H. (1983). "The genetic structure of populations as illustrated by molluscs". In Rattazzi, M. C.; ...
Genetic pollution is unintentional hybridization and introgression, which leads to homogenization or replacement of local ... Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC]; Joint Venture ... Harmful effects of hybridization have led to a decline and even extinction of native species.[92][93] For example, ... For example, the bee Lasioglossum leucozonium, shown by population genetic analysis to be an invasive species in North America, ...
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic ... In particular, microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) based on the use of BAC clones promises a sensitive strategy ... Deletions are responsible for an array of genetic disorders, including some cases of male infertility, two thirds of cases of ... Deletions can be caused by errors in chromosomal crossover during meiosis, which causes several serious genetic diseases. ...
Genetic disease diagnosisEdit. RT-PCR can be used to diagnose genetic disease such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. This genetic ... "Method for detection of specific RNAs in agarose gels by transfer to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper and hybridization with DNA ... RT-PCR is widely used in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and, semiquantitatively, in the determination of the abundance of ...
... genetic analysis via DNA-DNA hybridization and mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA by Beth Slikas in 1997 found that it was basal ( ... Slikas, Beth (1997). "Phylogeny of the Avian Family Ciconiidae (Storks) Based on CytochromebSequences and DNA-DNA Hybridization ...
A common mechanism is that there are genetic mutations that result in the increased activity or the overexpression of the c-Src ... "Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". Virology. ...
The first imprinted genetic disorders to be described in humans were the reciprocally inherited Prader-Willi syndrome and ... that these imprinted genes are responsible for the triploid block effect in flowering plants that prevents hybridization ... A hypothesis for the origin of this genetic variation states that the host-defense system responsible for silencing foreign DNA ... It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These ...
A genetic study published in 2017 showed that the Burmese pythons in Florida are hybrids with P. molurus. In the literature, ... population reveals possible hybridization with the Indian python (P. molurus)". Ecology and Evolution. 8 (17): 9034-9047. doi: ...
Hoey, Margaret; Parks, Clifford (1994). "Genetic Divergence in Liquidambar styraciflua, L. formosana, and L. acalycina". ... "Molecular evidence for natural intergeneric hybridization between Liquidambar and Altingia". Journal of Plant Research. 123 (2 ...
In particular, in situ hybridisation showed an enhanced expression of miR-137 within the dentate gyrus and the molecular layer ... Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ...
natural hybridization either in the Izu peninsula, on Izu-oshima Island or on Cheju-do Island in Korea, although the ... June 1998). "Genetic relationship of Prunus yedoensis, native and cultivar, based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of ... 2018). "Draft genome sequence of wild Prunus yedoensis reveals massive inter-specific hybridization between sympatric flowering ... 2017). "Chloroplast Noncoding DNA Sequences Reveal Genetic Distinction and Diversity between Wild and Cultivated Prunus ...
Many of the relevant genes were first identified by studying yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae; genetic nomenclature ... "Comprehensive identification of cell cycle-regulated genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by microarray hybridization". ... including the detection and repair of genetic damage as well as the prevention of uncontrolled cell division. The molecular ...
Patterson N, Richter DJ, Gnerre S, Lander ES, Reich D (2006). "Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and ... "Mitochondrial pseudogenes suggest repeated inter-species hybridization in hominid evolution". bioRxiv: 134502. doi:10.1101/ ... Callaway, Ewen (26 July 2012). "Hunter-gatherer genomes a trove of genetic diversity". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11076. ... Stein, Richard A. (October 2015). "Copy Number Analysis Starts to Add Up". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 35 (17): ...
The activity of SINEs however has genetic vestiges which do not seem to play a significant role, positive or negative, and ... The genes that had high hybridization E-values were genes particularly involved in metabolic and signaling pathways. Almost all ... The distribution of SINEs to genes was significantly more similar than that of other non-coding genetic elements and even ... SINEs are also implicated in certain types of genetic disease in humans and other eukaryotes. In essence, short interspersed ...
... Mol ... The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques ... paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic ...
Data from: Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of ... Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of secondary contact ... and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. We performed ... Pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. We concluded that ...
Multilocus genetic analyses provide insight into speciation and hybridization in aquatic grasses, genus Ruppia. ...
Commercially available tests include the following: Urine cytology Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Nuclear matrix ... Genetic Aberrations in Bladder Cancer. The study of genetic aberrations commonly associated with urothelial carcinoma provides ... Homozygous loss of band 9p21, the site for the tumor suppressor gene P16, is a known early genetic event in the development of ... Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization. A commercial FISH assay (UroVysion Bladder Cancer Kit, Abbott Molecular; DesPlaines, Ill), ...
Hybridization between Aedes simpsoni and Aedes woodi with observations on the genetic basis of morphological differences*  ... Hybridization in culex pipiens complex  World Health Organization; Dobrotworsky, N.V. (‏1965‎, WHO/Vector Control/144.65)‏ ...
In this work, we have performed non-radioactive in situ hybridization of a cloned DYZ2 fragment at higher stringency … ... In this work, we have performed non-radioactive in situ hybridization of a cloned DYZ2 fragment at higher stringency conditions ... Genetic Techniques * Heterochromatin * Humans * In Situ Hybridization * Male * Multigene Family* * Repetitive Sequences, ...
Nucleic acid hybridization/probe tests. Two nucleic acid hybridization assays are FDA-cleared to detect C. trachomatis or N. ... Genetic mutations and/or acquisition of genetic material from closely related bacteria species might result in antibiotic- ... Nucleic acid genetic transformation tests. The Gonostat test (Sierra Diagnostics, Incorporated, Sonora, California) uses a ... Genetic transformation as a tool for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:71-81. ...
Posts under fluorescence in situ hybridization. Debbie Tulodzieski trades genetic testing for a new experiment: retirement. ...
Hybridization is considered an important evolutionary force since it may lead to (1) an increase of the intraspecific genetic ... In this review, we give a general historical background of the study of plant hybridization. Also, we review some of the tools ... Because of the importance of plant hybridization in evolution, it is of great importance to accurately identify hybrid ... This is of special importance when hybridization leads to evolutionary novelty in the form of polyploidy, transgressive ...
Genomic technologies are reaching the point of being able to detect genetic variation in patients at high accuracy and reduced ... In parallel, we outline implementation challenges that will be necessary to address to ensure the future of genetic medicine. ... The authors review current technologies for clinical genetic testing. Moves are being made towards whole-genome and whole-exome ... Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to ...
Hybridization between Calopteryx splendens and C. haemorrhoidalis confirmed by morphological and genetic analyses M. Olalla ... Hybridization between Calopteryx splendens and C. haemorrhoidalis confirmed by morphological and genetic analyses. ... Hybridization between Calopteryx splendens and C. haemorrhoidalis confirmed by morphological and genetic analyses ... Hybridization between Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis and any of its congeners has not been reported until now. We observed ...
Cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are used for genetic analysis. Cytogenetic testing can detect ... Genetic variations may help determine response to treatment.. Some of these tests will help your provider determine what type ... Certain genetic disorders. *Exposure to environmental or industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, solvents, or heavy ... translocations and other genetic abnormalities. FISH is used to identify specific changes within chromosomes. ...
A genetic epidemiological study of malformations at birth in Egypt  Temtamy, S.A. (‏1998)‏ A total of 3000 consecutive ... Cytogenetic studies included fluorescence in situ hybridization [‏FISH]‏ when indicated. In all, 15 patients had chromosomal ... A diagnostic clinical genetic study of craniofacial dysmorphism  Farag, H.M. (‏1999)‏ A diagnostic evaluation of craniofacial ... Complete genetic examination, pedigree analysis, anthropometric measurements and radiological studies were carried out. ...
Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports. *Posted ... Home » Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports. ... Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports. ...
Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Heart; Genetic-disorders; Genetics; Genes; Chromosome-damage; ... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); spectral karyotyping ...
Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic ... Hybridization with Lathyrus belinensis[edit]. Like the blue rose, the yellow sweet pea remains elusive. Lathyrus belinensis is ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ...
In Situ Hybridization. In situ hybridization is a laboratory technique used to localize a sequence of DNA or RNA in a ... Genetic Map. A genetic map (also called a linkage map) shows the relative location of genetic markers (reflecting sites of ... Genetic Epidemiology. Genetic epidemiology is a field of science focused on the study of how genetic factors influence human ... Genetic Counseling. Genetic counseling refers to guidance relating to genetic disorders that a specialized healthcare ...
Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization. ... Genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization. Posted by Pat ... Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization. ... food security genes genetic resources genetics genome genome evolution genomes genomics germplasm heslop harrison hybridization ...
Ducarme V, Wesselingh RA (2005) Detecting hybridization in mixed populations of Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius. ... Genetic diversity within populations. The genetic diversity of individual populations was estimated as the number of alleles (A ... 2000) to explore the genetic structuring of populations from Gotland only, and to explore the genetic structuring of the ... Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an ...
... has developed a chip that is capable of detecting 150 different genetic syndromes from a few milliliters of amniotic ... It uses comparative genomic hybridization micro-array technology to identify areas with differences in hybridization between ... Amniochip Detects 150 Genetic Syndromes from Amniotic Fluid. April 11th, 2011 Wouter Stomp Genetics, Pathology ... Genetadi Biotech (Derio, Spain) has developed a chip that is capable of detecting 150 different genetic syndromes from a few ...
Genetic heterogeneity of xeroderma pigmentosum demonstrated by somatic cell hybridization.. *E. A. de Weerd-Kastelein, W. ... Genetic Analysis of DNA Repair Defect in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cells: Identification of Complementing Genes. *G. P. Kaur, R. ... DNA repair and genetic recombination: studies on mutants of Escherichia coli defective in these processes.. *P. Howard-Flanders ... including alkylating agents and X-rays are reviewed and the role of DNA Repair in genetic recombination is reviewed.. Expand. ...
Commission on Genetic Modification. P.O. Box 578. 3720 AN Bilthoven The Netherlands ... Hybridisation and introgression between Brassica napus and Brassica rapa in the Netherlands Research reports , 29.04.2011 , CGM ...
... specifically hybridization and a selection for heterozygotes, as mechanisms for the transition from wild to cultivated bananas ... The study identified a history of genetic engineering, ... "Breeders need to understand the genetic make-up of todays ... The study identified a history of genetic engineering, specifically hybridization and a selection for heterozygotes, as ... The study identified a history of genetic engineering, specifically hybridization and a selection for heterozygotes, as ...
Grapefruit was created through hybridization, not a genetic mutation. *genetics. 1. free article. left ... Within this new genetic study, scientists now have a catalog of genes for more than 60 kinds of citrus. This database could ... A new and sweeping genetic study, published Wednesday in Nature, has pinpointed the origins and evolution of citrus. The study ... First-Ever Genetic Analysis Of A Neanderthal Family Paints A Fascinating Picture Of A Close-Knit Community ...
VS-MSSA and VR-MSSA have the characteristic CC5 genetic traits described by Kos et al. (8). The genome of VR-MSSA has a ... Plasmids carrying the vanA gene cluster were detected by using S1 nuclease digestion followed by hybridization with a vanA ... MRSA USA300 genetic lineage that has rapidly disseminated in the United States and the northern region of South America (USA300 ... which suggested a close genetic relationship and probably representing the same organism that acquired pBRZ01. Phylogenetic ...
In this study, genetic variability among isolates was determined by DNA hybridization analysis of restriction endonuclease (RE ... Seven distinct genetic groups were detected. A previous report has shown that sphB contains a region of 45 base pair direct ... Hybridization was performed using digests of over 200 different isolates from different geographic regions. ... Technical Abstract: It was previously found that genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type ...
  • The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are used for genetic analysis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytogenetic studies included fluorescence in situ hybridization [‏FISH]‏ when indicated. (who.int)
  • We have characterized this region by Illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, together with chromosome in situ hybridization. (molcyt.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) looks for extra copies of the HER2 gene. (healthline.com)
  • Cytogenetic studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction tests detect genetic and chromosomal changes in cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The global in-situ hybridization market size was USD 14.32 Billion in 2021 and is expected to register a revenue CAGR of 8.14% during the forecast period. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Rising prevalence of cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases and increasing usage of in-situ hybridization techniques for visualizing and quantifying viral load are major factors driving market revenue growth. (emergenresearch.com)
  • In addition, increasing number of research initiatives to enhance sensitivity of conventional ISH and growing usage of in-situ hybridization in combination with immunohistochemistry for protein detection are some other factors expected to contribute to revenue growth of the market between 2022 and 2030. (emergenresearch.com)
  • In-Situ Hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique for detection and localization of nucleic acids in cells, histological sections, and other biological samples. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Increasing demand for in-situ hybridization can also be attributed to rising prevalence of cancer. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Fluorescence in-situ hybridization enables mapping of genome of individuals using fluorophores, which can be used by oncology researchers to determine extra copies of DNA regions and genes. (emergenresearch.com)
  • COVID-19 pandemic has significantly driven revenue growth of the in-situ hybridization market, as a number of research studies have developed viral RNA detection techniques using in-situ hybridization. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Demand for procedure is expected to increase following increasing usage of in-situ hybridization for diagnosis of virus and localization of specific location on viral genome, which is expected to drive market revenue growth over the coming years. (emergenresearch.com)
  • If Wolf-Hirschhorn is suspected during pregnancy, genetic testing can also be performed as well as a more sophisticated test called fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). (verywellhealth.com)
  • In situ hybridization confirmed these findings. (bvsalud.org)
  • These probes are used in nucleic acid hybridization, in situ hybridization and other molecular biology procedures. (jrank.org)
  • Rates of pathologic complete practice due to its high cost and the extensive resources required, response (pCR) following anthracycline/taxane chemotherapy are surrogate definitions of the subtype based on semiquantitative 25%-35%, and patients achieving pCR have better outcomes from IHC scoring of ER, PR, and in situ hybridization tests for HER2 among those patients with TNBC [11]. (2medicalcare.com)
  • By use of in situ hybridization to rat tibia, expression of LRP5 was detected in areas of bone involved in remodeling. (elsevier.com)
  • Mks1 expression in mouse embryos, as determined by in situ hybridization, agrees well with the tissue phenotype of MKS. (nature.com)
  • In situ hybridization analysis of Mks1 expression in mouse embryos. (nature.com)
  • The syndrome diagnosis is clinical based on physical and behavioral data which can be confirmed by the analysis of chromosome 15 segment (q11-q13) through methylation or in situ hybridization 10 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Another method, called comparative genome hybridization, works with fluorescent DNA snippets and shows gaps and duplications in the genome more precisely. (mpg.de)
  • Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing may become a first-line clinical test for some naive diagnostic cases, but classic genetic tests will continue to be used for the high analytical sensitivity of specific defects and for the confirmation of genome findings. (nature.com)
  • M. S. Mehes, K. K. Nkongolo and P. Michael, "Genetic Analysis of Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola Populations from Canada Using ISSR and RAPD Markers: Development of Genome-Specific SCAR Markers," Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 267, No. 1-4, 2007, pp. 47-63. (scirp.org)
  • Also covered are molecular genetic techniques for genome engineering. (cshlpress.com)
  • Additional experiments introduce fundamental techniques in yeast genomics, including both performance and interpretation of Synthetic Genetic Array analysis, multiplexed whole genome and barcode sequencing, and comparative genomic hybridization to DNA arrays. (cshlpress.com)
  • An appealing alternative to characterize sequence polymorphisms among related organisms is array Comparative Genome Hybridization (array CGH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bioinformatics uses sophisticated analyses of large amounts of genetic information to clarify the relationships between species, explain the evolution of groups of genes, and assemble information from genome sequencing projects. (cdc.gov)
  • No genetic anomalies could be identified by comparative genome hybridisation analysis of their genomes or by analysis of genes known to be associated with these types of anomalies. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of hybridization and introgression in the diversification of animals. (cell.com)
  • The role of hybridization in lineage divergence and speciation remains a fundamental question of biology. (oxy.edu)
  • the role of hybridization, limited gene flow and natural selection in shaping patterns of population structure. (wikidot.com)
  • We used Spectral Karyoryping (SKY), mapping with fluorescently labeled genomic clones (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), expression array, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyze 15 primary adenocarcinoma and 9 pairs of high and low invasive cell cultures to detect molecular changes. (cdc.gov)
  • Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations of organisms and habitat modifications by humans. (cell.com)
  • Controversy has surrounded the setting of appropriate conservation policies to deal with hybridization and introgression. (cell.com)
  • Extinction by hybridization and introgression. (cell.com)
  • Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native fish. (cell.com)
  • Natural hybridization and introgression in fishes: methods of detection and genetic interpretations. (cell.com)
  • Contact zones provide the testing ground to directly measure both the consequences of genetic exchange between divergent lineages and the selective forces that mediate introgression. (oxy.edu)
  • Until it is proven that absolute purity is significant, and can be indisputably identified, the NABR includes all Bison for their genetic contribution, but can exclude introgression occurring since 1492 , i.e. hybrids, by process of genetic testing and ethical management. (bisoncentral.com)
  • should these birds be included in releases, genetic introgression throughout the tiny remaining population may occur. (speciesonthebrink.org)
  • In Uzifly, population diversity results from effective migration rate of the Uzifly and crossing with different geographic populations that likely cause cytoplasmic introgression through hybridization events. (entomoljournal.com)
  • Interspecific hybridization can result in significant shifts in allele frequencies. (scirp.org)
  • Extent, Processes and Evolutionary Impact of Interspecific Hybridization in Animals," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences, Vol. 363, No. 1505, 2008, pp. 2805-2811. (scirp.org)
  • The transport of new resistance genes into potato throug the use of interspecific hybridization at diploid level. (gate2biotech.com)
  • The aim of this study was to demonstrate refugia isolation and subsequent secondary contact between two perennial Asclepioid species and to assess the genetic consequences of the secondary contact. (datadryad.org)
  • We modeled the range shift of two ecologically distinct Vincetoxicum species using the species distribution model (SDM) and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. (datadryad.org)
  • Gregor 1938 ) in order to conserve the genetic diversity and long-term adaptive potential of species that occur in Scandinavia (Lundqvist et al. (springer.com)
  • This confirms the genetic closeness of P. mariana and P. rubens species. (scirp.org)
  • I am particularly interested in how speciation in the marine environment occurs, hybridization between species, and population genetics of marine organisms. (rollins.edu)
  • While I am continuing to investigate hybridization between two sister species of sea stars in the Northwest Atlantic (Asterias forbesi and A. rubens), I am also collaborating on a population genetics study of the white mangrove in the Caribbean. (rollins.edu)
  • Hybridization has contributed to the extinction of many species through direct and indirect means. (cell.com)
  • Hybridization of bird species. (cell.com)
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) with DNA microarrays has many biological applications including surveys of copy number changes in tumorogenesis, species detection and identification, and functional genomics studies among related organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New genetic tests show that all eastern coyotes are actually a mix of three species: coyote, wolf and dog. (iflscience.com)
  • In other words, there is no single new genetic entity that should be considered a unique species. (iflscience.com)
  • The more recent date for the dog hybridization likely results from a cross-species breeding event at the very leading edge of the wave of colonizing coyotes in the east, possibly after a few females first spanned the St Lawrence seaway into upstate New York, where they would have encountered abundant feral dogs, but no other coyotes. (iflscience.com)
  • Hybridization with dogs is most likely along the leading edge of expanding coyote populations, where same-species breeding opportunities are hard to come by. (iflscience.com)
  • The percent of the total genetic markers recognized as historic lineage present in one individual of a particular species population. (bisoncentral.com)
  • Using this germplasm, physiology was linked to the transcriptome using RNASeq and this was used, alongside extensive high throughput phenotypic data obtained in world-leading platforms at three partner sites, to determine regulatory networks underpinning the genetic architecture of drought tolerance in all three species. (europa.eu)
  • In his book Genetics and the Origin of Species , published in 1937, Dobzhansky argued that genetic mutations were sources of variability that, through natural selection, could lead to evolutionary change, and he suggested that these processes could lead to speciation of populations that are isolated long enough. (crev.info)
  • Previous work on a variety of marine bivalve species uncovered substantial genetic inviability among the offspring of inbred crosses, suggesting a large load of early-acting deleterious recessive mutations. (datacite.org)
  • The seven chromosome scaffolds were anchored to a previously published genetic linkage map with a high degree of synteny and comparisons to genomes of closely related species within the Rosoideae revealed chromosome-scale rearrangements that have occurred over relatively short evolutionary periods. (nibio.no)
  • In my opinion, there are much nicer outcomes of hybridizations with species only distantly related. (kingsnake.com)
  • Research interests: population ecology, molecular ecology of mammals, animal behavior, metapopulation theory, hybridization and species boundaries in mammals, distribution, taxonomy and population genetics of ground squirrels. (rusmam.ru)
  • Genomic technologies are reaching the point of being able to detect genetic variation in patients at high accuracy and reduced cost, offering the promise of fundamentally altering medicine. (nature.com)
  • It uses comparative genomic hybridization micro-array technology to identify areas with differences in hybridization between patient and control DNA. (medgadget.com)
  • The new device for enhanced prenatal diagnosis, developed by Genetadi "is based on Comparative Genomic Hybridisation" (aCGH) microarray technology. (medgadget.com)
  • In this study, genetic variability among isolates was determined by DNA hybridization analysis of restriction endonuclease (RE) genomic digests with cloned hemolysin genes, hemolysin being a putative virulence factor. (usda.gov)
  • We report the first comprehensive investigation of DNA copy number across multitude of genes in NF1 tumors using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), with the aim to identify molecular signatures that delineate malignant from benign NF1 tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rickert CH, Simon R, Bergmann M, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Paulus W. Comparative genomic hybridization in pineal germ cell tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Isolated populations with novel phenotypes present an exciting opportunity to uncover the genetic basis of ecologically significant adaptation, and genomic scans have often, but not always, led to candidate genes directly related to an adaptive phenotype. (datacite.org)
  • Sanger sequencing or DNA-enrichment methods and massively parallel nucleotide sequencing) and quantitative deletion/duplication (e.g., multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), quantitative PCR, or array comparative genomic hybridization) methodologies to identify disease-associated, protein-coding variants in genes associated with this clinical spectrum. (concertgenetics.com)
  • Additionally, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes are the main recognized human diseases determined by mechanisms of genomic imprinting, that is, a genetic phenomenon in which certain genes are expressed by only one allele 7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phylogeography, hybridization and speciation. (cell.com)
  • Understanding how environmental stress alters the consequences of hybridization is important, because the rate of hybridization and the likelihood of hybrid speciation both appear elevated in harsh, disturbed or marginal habitats. (datacite.org)
  • Within this new genetic study, scientists now have a catalog of genes for more than 60 kinds of citrus. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Genetic testing looks for these changes to individual genes. (healthline.com)
  • Over 400 genetic syndromes that include hearing loss have been described, including two of the most common: Pendred syndrome (associated with pathogenic variants in SLC26A4 ) and Usher syndrome (associated with pathogenic variants in multiple genes). (concertgenetics.com)
  • The study shows how the fruit emerged at a time of geological upheaval more than 8 million years ago in Southern Asia and spread thanks to genetic mutations that produced more palatable fruit for animals - as well as our human ancestors. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Though the genetic changes associated with lung cancer are not well understood, the pattern of mutations observed in lung adenocarcinoma from tobacco exposed patients is distinct from that of lung adenocarcinoma from unexposed patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Forward genetic analysis using OCT screening identifies Sfxn3 mutations leading to progressive outer retinal degeneration in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic engineered heat resistant DNA polymerases, that have proofreading functions and make fewer mutations in the amplified DNA products, are available commercially. (jrank.org)
  • Research and utilization of genetic systems controlling growth and development of wheat by means of chromosome manipulations. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a missing piece (deletion) of genetic material near the end of the short (p) arm of chromosome 4 . (verywellhealth.com)
  • Introduction: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral genetic disease whose cause is failure on chromosome 15. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present an integrated genetic and physical map across the P. vulgaris S locus flanked by phenotypic and DNA sequence markers. (molcyt.org)
  • 2014) Geographical and environmental gradients shape phenotypic trait variation and genetic structure in Populus trichocarpa . (wikidot.com)
  • Genetic testing must be available globally through validated simple technologies for molecular diagnostics (such as direct PCR, linkage analysis or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification). (nature.com)
  • Plasmids carrying the vanA gene cluster were detected by using S1 nuclease digestion followed by hybridization with a vanA probe ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of mRNA molecules and studying functional state of cells are some major applications that have enabled researchers to gain insights on disease prognosis, drug discovery and development, and use of biomarkers for detection of genetic disorders. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The detection of prenatal structural anomalies should lead to further genetic evaluation so that many of these conditions can be identified before birth. (medscape.com)
  • Constant monitoring of genetic changes in the circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses is important for maintaining the sensitivity of molecular detection assays. (who.int)
  • Influenza detection was genetic material of influenza viruses. (who.int)
  • The objective of the present study was to assess the level of genetic variation in populations of P. mariana × P. rubens hybrids derived from artificial crosses. (scirp.org)
  • Any policy that deals with hybrids must be flexible and must recognize that nearly every situation involving hybridization is different enough that general rules are not likely to be effective. (cell.com)
  • Genetic tests are one part of the diagnosis process. (healthline.com)
  • Genetic testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In about half of the cases a genetic diagnosis is not possible, leaving the patient with the uncertainty of the origin of the problem", says Stefan Mundlos from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. (mpg.de)
  • Research interests: fauna, taxonomy, hybridization and phylogeography of mammals of the Russian Plain and adjacent territories. (rusmam.ru)
  • Cytogenetic testing can detect translocations and other genetic abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • I have also worked on hybridization and population genetics studies of blue mussels and sea urchins. (rollins.edu)
  • Breeders need to understand the genetic make-up of today's domesticated diploid bananas for their crosses between cultivars, and this study is a major first step toward the characterization in great detail of many of these cultivars. (jpost.com)
  • Survival of polyploids in nature depends on several factors, including competition from diploid relatives and increased genetic diversity. (upv.es)
  • Furthermore, although diploid individuals were grouped in a single widespread genetic cluster, tetraploids were grouped in two highly differentiated clusters and showed significant isolation by distance. (upv.es)
  • This genetic pattern in C. seridis may be related to a minimal gene flow with diploid relatives and/or other genetic factors, such as rare polyploidization events, founder effects or an increased selfing rate. (upv.es)
  • Qualitative RT-PCR for HCV RNA Test to detect HCV RNA by amplification of viral genetic sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantitative assays for HCV RNA Tests to detect HCV RNA concentration (viral load) by amplification of viral genetic sequences or by signal amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • R. Narendrula and K. Nkongolo, "Genetic Variation in Picea mariana × P. rubens Hybrid Populations Assessed with ISSR and RAPD Markers," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 731-737. (scirp.org)
  • R. C. Lewontin and L. C. Birch, "Hybridization as a Source of Variation for Adaptation to New Environments," Evolution, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1966, pp. 315-336. (scirp.org)
  • I am interested in understanding and exploring the genetic composition, connectivity, and variation of aquatic invertebrates populations (mainly marine). (rollins.edu)
  • Genetic variation is low (Matsui and Hayashi 1992, Matsui et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Genetic drift: variation without innovation, aim or purpose. (crev.info)
  • The fi lter was then submerged the potential for a broad and well-characterized set of con- in 2× SSC with gentle agitation, air dried, and the DNA UV trol strains relative to virulence factor amplifi cation and (254 nm) cross-linked at 120,000J/cm2 (CL-1000 cross- confi rmed by Southern hybridization. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: Multivariate analysis, model-based Bayesian analysis, and non-model-based discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed the hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum. (datadryad.org)
  • In addition, Bayesian-based clustering analysis and coalescent-based estimates of long-term gene flow showed patterns of introgressive hybridization in three morphologically 'pure' V. japonicum populations. (datadryad.org)
  • Complete genetic examination, pedigree analysis, anthropometric measurements and radiological studies were carried out. (who.int)
  • We have employed a combination of classical genetics and three-point crosses with molecular genetic analysis of recombinants to generate the map. (molcyt.org)
  • F. C. Yeh and T. J. B. Boyle, "Population Genetic Analysis of Codominant and Dominant Markers and Quantitative Traits," Belgian Journal of Botany, Vol. 129, 1997, pp. 157-163. (scirp.org)
  • These methods emphasize combinations of classical and modern genetic approaches, including isolation and characterization of mutants, two-hybrid analysis, tetrad analysis, complementation, and recombination. (cshlpress.com)
  • Disruption of the target gene was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis. (mmrrc.org)
  • Spoligotype analysis ( 13 ) is a form of DNA sequencing by hybridization. (cdc.gov)
  • The M group shows the worst outcomes and the IM genetic analysis of breast cancer is not easily available in clinical group shows the best outcomes [8]. (2medicalcare.com)
  • Combining genetic analysis with structural modeling of specific Tudor domains, we propose that these domains serve as `docking platforms' for polar granule assembly. (biologists.com)
  • These tests can tell your doctor whether your cancer is related to a genetic mutation and what treatment might work best. (healthline.com)
  • The genetic factors are less detailed, although some genetic profiles, such as the E-cadherin, IL-1B, mutation, are known to increase the risk of developing this malignancy (6,10,11). (who.int)
  • Genetic data indicate that this mutation resulted in reduced viability of the homozygous mutant mice. (mmrrc.org)
  • In most cases, this is not an inherited genetic disorder but rather a mutation that occurs spontaneously. (verywellhealth.com)
  • PubMed MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases, factors are less detailed, although some genetic profiles, retrieving all the articles published from December 1971 such as the E-cadherin, IL-1B , mutation, are known to to March 2022. (who.int)
  • Colonies from each mating experiment were subjected to digestion with Sma I and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate genetic relatedness ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, our findings show that the pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. (datadryad.org)
  • Table (.csv format) with data on 17 morphological characters studied on hybridization between Vincetoxicum atratum, V. japonicum and hybrid populations in Japan. (datadryad.org)
  • Progenies from backcross populations created through a series of controlled pollinations among P. mariana and P. rubens trees across the hybridization index were analyzed. (scirp.org)
  • We assessed fitness, morphometrics and molecular genetic composition over 14 generations of hybridization between two highly divergent populations of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. (datacite.org)
  • It was previously found that genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis (H-HB) isolates correlated with geographic location, and that genetically variable isolates differed in phenotype during experimental infection. (usda.gov)
  • PWS is the most common phenotype of genetic obesity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic heterogeneity of xeroderma pigmentosum demonstrated by somatic cell hybridization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • SRS may comprise different disorders with clinically similar phenotypes or may result from disruption of different components of a single biochemical or endocrinological pathway, in either case reflecting its genetic heterogeneity. (bmj.com)
  • Given the genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss, selecting a comprehensive testing approach such as a hearing loss gene panel may be the optimal test once obvious conditions have been excluded. (concertgenetics.com)
  • To assess the origins, distinctness and conservation value of ecotypes, it is appropriate to use a combination of molecular-genetic analyses (Lowe et al. (springer.com)
  • The polyploid origin of C. seridis, the genetic diversity and population structure of the three cytotypes, and the degree of genetic differentiation among them were analyzed in seven mixed-ploidy zones, involving different subspecies and ecological conditions. (upv.es)
  • When compared with the related C. aspera, a low genetic diversity was observed in C. seridis, which is uncommon in tetraploids. (upv.es)
  • This section provides a small set of examplesout of the huge number of genetic diversity studies, conducted in both wild andcultivated plants. (daleko.space)
  • Hybridization was performed using digests of over 200 different isolates from different geographic regions. (usda.gov)
  • For my doctoral research, I researched the geographic distribution and hybridization levels between Mytilus spp. (rollins.edu)
  • Genetadi Biotech (Derio, Spain) has developed a chip that is capable of detecting 150 different genetic syndromes from a few milliliters of amniotic fluid. (medgadget.com)
  • Production of new plant genetic resources for wheat resistance breeding by wide hybridization and with utilization of tissue cultures. (gate2biotech.com)
  • However, recent studies have found that natural hybridization has played an important role in the evolution of many plant and animal taxa. (cell.com)
  • This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology. (nih.gov)
  • Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome causes malformations in most parts of the body because the genetic error occurs during fetal development. (verywellhealth.com)
  • 2021): New phenotyping tools for soybean breeding and genetic resources characterization. (boku.ac.at)
  • VR-MRSA belongs to sequence type (ST) 8 and is phylogenetically related to the community-associated (CA) MRSA USA300 genetic lineage that has rapidly disseminated in the United States and the northern region of South America (USA300-Latin American variant [USA300-LV]) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We concluded that these differences in the genetic consequences of secondary contact are caused by historical colonization processes and/or natural selection. (datadryad.org)
  • Differences in PCR product size were consistent with differences observed by aforementioned hybridization. (usda.gov)
  • Despite the large differences in the environment and lifestyle of these countries, they still share genetic and cultural similarities and have common scientific societies. (who.int)
  • However, genetic forms of hearing loss can follow autosomal, X-linked, or mitochondrial inheritance patterns. (concertgenetics.com)
  • The MMRRC Centers have developed a genetic QC pipeline using MiniMUGA array genotyping to provide additional information on strain backgrounds for MMRRC congenic and inbred strains. (mmrrc.org)
  • A diagnostic evaluation of craniofacial anomalies, either isolated or as part of a genetic syndrome was conducted on 25 patients [‏8 females, 17 males]‏, age range 2 months to 47 years. (who.int)
  • A study by Sokolova et al of 9 genetic markers for detecting urothelial carcinoma showed that polysomy of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and deletion of 9p21 were the most sensitive and specific markers, detecting 95% of recurrent urothelial carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • Autosomal recessive is a pattern of inheritance characteristic of some genetic disorders. (genome.gov)
  • Sickle cell anemia is an example of an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. (genome.gov)
  • The majority of prelingual deafness is genetic, typically follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, and is non-syndromic. (concertgenetics.com)
  • Hoang et al the dominant method in genetics-based diagnostic testing Genetic characterization for influenza in Viet Nam because it is less expensive. (who.int)
  • Clinical molecular genetic testing is transforming personalized medicine and is appropriate for a range of applications, such as rare disease diagnostics and predictive testing for common disorders. (nature.com)
  • Autosomal dominant is a pattern of inheritance characteristic of some genetic disorders. (genome.gov)
  • Many genetic disorders can be detected early in pregnancy using various noninvasive and invasive techniques. (medscape.com)
  • A team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin led by human geneticists Malte Spielmann and Stefan Mundlos analyzed clinical samples from patients with genetic developmental disorders with the Hi-C method. (mpg.de)
  • Genetic cancer risk assessment in general practice: systematic review of tools available, clinician attitudes, and patient outcomes. (cdc.gov)