The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
The climate of a very small area.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
Relating to the size of solids.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The motion of air currents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
The contamination of indoor air.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Materials that readily absorb moisture from their surroundings.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Supplies used in building.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)
A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Living facilities for humans.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Respiratory tract diseases are medical conditions that affect the organs and structures involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The consumption of liquids.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.

Effects of truss mattress upon sleep and bed climate. (1/1457)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a truss mattress upon sleep and bed climate. The truss mattress which has been designed to decrease the pressure and bed climate humidity was tested. Six healthy female volunteers with a mean age of 23.3 years, served as subjects. The experiment was carried out under two conditions: a truss mattress (T) and a futon (F) (Japanese bedding). The ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 19-20 degrees C, and RH 50-60% respectively. Sleep was monitored by an EEG machine and the rectal temperature, skin temperature and bed climate were also measured continuously. Subjective evaluations of bed and sleep were obtained before and after the recording sessions. No significant difference was observed in the sleep parameters and time spent in each sleep stage. Rectal temperature was significantly lower in T than F. Although there was no significant difference in bed climate over the T/F, the temperature under T/F was significantly higher in T. No significant difference was observed in subjective sleep evaluation. The subjective feeling of the mattress was significantly warmer in F than T before sleep. These results suggest that although T does not disturb the sleep parameters and the bed climate is maintained at the same level as with F, it may affect rectal temperature which can be due to low thermal insulation.  (+info)

Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon. (2/1457)

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

Effect of dampness at home in childhood on bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescence. (3/1457)

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about risk factors for the persistence of asthma and respiratory symptoms from childhood into adolescence, and few studies have included objective measurements to assess outcomes and exposure. METHODS: From a large cross sectional study of all 4th grade school children in Munich (mean age 10.2 years), 234 children (5%) with active asthma were identified. Of these, 155 (66%) were reinvestigated with lung function measurements and bronchial provocation three years later (mean age 13.5 years). RESULTS: At follow up 35.5% still had active asthma. Risk factors for persisting asthma symptoms in adolescence were more severe asthma (OR 4.94; CI 1.65 to 14.76; p = 0.004) or allergic triggers (OR 3.54; CI 1.41 to 8.92; p = 0.007) in childhood. Dampness was associated with increased night time wheeze and shortness of breath but not with persisting asthma. Risk factors for bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescence were bronchial hyperreactivity in childhood (p = 0.004), symptoms triggered by allergen exposure (OR 5.47; CI 1.91 to 25.20; p = 0.029), and damp housing conditions (OR 16.14; CI 3.53 to 73.73; p < 0.001). In a subgroup in whom house dust mite antigen levels in the bed were measured (70% of the sample), higher mite antigen levels were associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (OR per quartile of mite antigen 2.30; CI 1.03 to 5.12; p = 0.042). Mite antigen levels were also significantly correlated with dampness (p = 0.05). However, the effect of dampness on bronchial hyperreactivity remained significant when adjusting for mite allergen levels (OR 5.77; CI 1.17 to 28.44; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Dampness at home is a significant risk factor for the persistence of bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. This risk is only partly explained by exposure to house dust mite antigen.  (+info)

Core temperature and sweating onset in humans acclimated to heat given at a fixed daily time. (4/1457)

The thermoregulatory functions of rats acclimated to heat given daily at a fixed time are altered, especially during the period in which they were previously exposed to heat. In this study, we investigated the existence of similar phenomena in humans. Volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature (Ta) of 46 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20% for 4 h (1400-1800) for 9-10 consecutive days. In the first experiment, the rectal temperatures (Tre) of six subjects were measured over 24 h at a Ta of 27 degrees C with and without heat acclimation. Heat acclimation significantly lowered Tre only between 1400 and 1800. In the second experiment, six subjects rested in a chair at a Ta of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40% with both legs immersed in warm water (42 degrees C) for 30 min. The Tre and sweating rates at the forearm and chest were measured. Measurements were made in the morning (0900-1100) and afternoon (1500-1700) on the same day before and after heat acclimation. Heat acclimation shortened the sweating latency and decreased the threshold Tre for sweating. However, these changes were significant only in the afternoon. The results suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, limited to a fixed time daily, alters the core temperature level and thermoregulatory function, especially during the period in which the subjects had previously been exposed to heat.  (+info)

Determination of hydroquinone in air by high performance liquid chromatography. (5/1457)

A method for measuring hydroquinone in air was evaluated, both in the laboratory and in the workplace. The method involved sampling the inhalable fraction onto a filter contained in a multi-holed sampler with a back-up of Tenax TA, followed by desorption into acetonitrile and analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. It was shown to be effective at measuring hydroquinone over the range 0.1 to 2 times a concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for 8 h.  (+info)

Dehydration and crystallization of trehalose and sucrose glasses containing carbonmonoxy-myoglobin. (6/1457)

We report a study wherein we contemporarily measured 1) the dehydration process of trehalose or sucrose glasses embedding carbonmonoxy-myoglobin (MbCO) and 2) the evolution of the A substates in saccharide-coated MbCO. Our results indicate that microcrystallization processes, sizeably different in the two saccharides, take place during dehydration; moreover, the microcrystalline structure is maintained unless the dry samples are equilibrated with a humidity >/=75% (>/=60%) at 25 degrees C for the trehalose (sucrose) sample. The evolution of the parameters that characterize the A substates of MbCO indicates that 1) the effects of water withdrawal are analogous in samples dried in the presence or in the absence of sugars, although much larger effects are observed in the samples without sugar; 2) the distribution of A substates is determined by the overall matrix structure and not only by the sample water content; and 3) the population of A0 substate (i. e., the substate currently put in relation with MbCO molecules having the distal histidine out of the heme pocket) is largely enhanced during the dehydration process. However, after rehumidification its population is largely decreased with respect to the values obtained, at similar water content, during the first dehydration run.  (+info)

Effect of 26 week magnetic field exposures in a DMBA initiation-promotion mammary gland model in Sprague-Dawley rats. (7/1457)

Several studies have suggested that exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields promote chemically induced breast cancer in rats. Groups of 100 female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated with a single 10 mg gavage dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at 50 days of age followed by exposure to ambient fields (sham exposed), 50 Hz magnetic fields at either 1 or 5 Gauss (G) field intensity or 60 Hz fields at 1 G for 18.5 h/day, 7 days/week for 26 weeks. A vehicle control group without DMBA was included. Rats were palpated weekly for the presence of tumors. There was no effect of magnetic field exposure on body weight gains or the time of appearance of mammary tumors. At the end of 26 weeks, the animals were killed and the mammary tumors counted and measured. Mammary gland masses found grossly were examined histologically. The mammary gland carcinoma incidence was 96, 90, 95 and 85% (P < 0.05, decrease) for the DMBA controls, 1 G 50 Hz, 5 G 50 Hz and 1 G 60 Hz groups, respectively. The total numbers of carcinomas were 649, 494 (P < 0.05, decrease), 547 and 433 (P < 0.05, decrease) for the DMBA controls, 1 G 50 Hz, 5 G 50 Hz and 1 G 60 Hz groups, respectively. The number of fibroadenomas varied from 276 to 319, with the lowest number in the 1 G 60 Hz exposure group. Measurement of the tumors revealed no difference in tumor size between groups. In this breast cancer initiation-promotion study in female Sprague-Dawley rats, there was no evidence that 50 or 60 Hz magnetic fields promoted breast cancer under the conditions of this assay. This study does not support the hypothesis that magnetic field exposure can promote breast cancer in this rat model.  (+info)

Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials. (8/1457)

To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.  (+info)

In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.

In the medical field, "steam" typically refers to the use of steam therapy as a form of treatment. Steam therapy involves inhaling steam or exposing the body to steam vapor to help relieve symptoms of respiratory conditions such as colds, flu, and allergies. Steam therapy can be administered in various ways, including through the use of a humidifier, a vaporizer, or a steam shower. The steam helps to loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and expel. It can also help to reduce inflammation and congestion in the respiratory system. While steam therapy can be beneficial for some respiratory conditions, it is not a substitute for medical treatment and should not be used as a standalone treatment for serious medical conditions. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using steam therapy as a treatment option.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Heat stress disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that result from prolonged exposure to high temperatures and humidity. These conditions can range from mild to severe and can affect any part of the body. The most common heat stress disorders include heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat stress disorder that occurs when the body is unable to regulate its temperature effectively. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include heavy sweating, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and muscle cramps. Treatment typically involves moving to a cooler environment, drinking plenty of fluids, and resting. Heat stroke, on the other hand, is a more severe form of heat stress disorder that can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Heat stroke occurs when the body's temperature rises to dangerous levels, causing damage to the brain and other organs. Symptoms of heat stroke include high body temperature, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, and rapid heartbeat. Treatment for heat stroke involves immediate cooling of the body, often by immersing the person in cool water or using a cooling blanket, and medical attention. Other heat stress disorders include heat rash, which is a skin condition caused by excessive sweating, and heat syncope, which is a temporary loss of consciousness due to heat exhaustion. Heat stress disorders can be prevented by staying hydrated, avoiding prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and taking frequent breaks in a cool environment.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic activity and is also released during the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. In the medical field, sulfur dioxide is used as a medication to treat certain respiratory conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways, allowing air to flow more easily. Sulfur dioxide is usually administered as a mist or aerosol, and it is typically used in combination with other medications. It is important to note that sulfur dioxide can also be a toxic gas, and exposure to high levels of it can cause respiratory problems and other health issues.

Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.

In the medical field, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a colorless gas that is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. It is also produced by industrial processes, such as the production of steel and the burning of coal. NO2 is a toxic gas that can cause a range of respiratory problems, including shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Long-term exposure to high levels of NO2 can lead to chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and emphysema. In addition to its respiratory effects, NO2 has also been linked to cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. It is also a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. In the medical field, NO2 is typically measured as part of air quality monitoring programs, and its levels are used to assess the health risks associated with air pollution. Medical professionals may also use NO2 levels to diagnose and treat respiratory and cardiovascular conditions related to air pollution exposure.

In the medical field, gases are substances that exist in a gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. Gases are typically composed of atoms or molecules that are highly energetic and move rapidly in all directions. Gases are important in medicine because they play a role in many physiological processes, such as respiration, circulation, and gas exchange. For example, oxygen is a gas that is essential for respiration, and carbon dioxide is a waste product that is exhaled from the body. In medical settings, gases can be used for a variety of purposes, such as anesthesia, oxygen therapy, and carbon dioxide removal. Gases can also be used in diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function tests, which measure the amount of air that a person can inhale and exhale. It is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the properties and effects of different gases, as well as the proper handling and administration of gases in medical settings.

In the medical field, ozone is a gas that is produced naturally in the Earth's atmosphere and is also used in medical treatments. It is composed of three oxygen atoms and is highly reactive, which makes it useful for a variety of medical applications. One of the most common uses of ozone in medicine is as an oxidant, which means it can help to break down and destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. This makes ozone a useful tool in the treatment of infections, including those that are resistant to antibiotics. Ozone is also used in wound healing, as it can help to stimulate the growth of new tissue and promote the healing process. It is sometimes used in combination with other treatments, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to enhance the body's natural healing abilities. In addition to its use in medical treatments, ozone is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. It is believed to work by destroying cancer cells and preventing their growth and spread. Overall, ozone is a versatile and powerful tool in the medical field, with a wide range of potential applications in the treatment of various conditions and diseases.

In the medical field, particulate matter (PM) refers to tiny solid or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. These particles can be inhaled into the lungs and can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. PM can be classified based on their size, with smaller particles being more harmful to health. PM2.5 refers to particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less, while PM10 refers to particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less. These particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing inflammation and oxidative stress. Exposure to high levels of PM can increase the risk of developing conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and heart disease. It can also exacerbate existing health conditions and increase the risk of premature death. In summary, particulate matter is a type of air pollution that can have serious health consequences when inhaled. It is an important consideration in public health and environmental policy, and efforts are being made to reduce its levels in the air.

In the medical field, "silk" typically refers to a type of protein fiber that is derived from the cocoons of silkworms. Silk has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, such as its strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility. One common use of silk in medicine is in the development of sutures, which are used to close incisions during surgery. Silk sutures are preferred by many surgeons because they are less likely to cause inflammation and scarring compared to synthetic sutures. Silk is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as artificial tendons, ligaments, and heart valves. These devices are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissue and can be used to replace damaged or diseased tissue. In addition, silk has been studied for its potential use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Researchers have explored the use of silk as a scaffold for growing new tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and skin. Overall, silk has a wide range of potential applications in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility.

Dicloxacillin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the penicillin group of antibiotics. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. Dicloxacillin is typically taken orally, but it can also be given intravenously in severe cases. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. Like other penicillins, dicloxacillin can cause allergic reactions in some people, so it is important to let your doctor know if you have any allergies or if you experience any adverse reactions while taking the medication.

Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common condition that affects the eyes by causing them to feel dry, itchy, and irritated. It occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears produced are not of the right quality to lubricate and protect the eyes properly. Dry eye syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal changes, certain medications, environmental factors such as air conditioning or wind, and medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It can also be a side effect of certain treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of dry eye syndrome can include burning, stinging, redness, grittiness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to vision problems and damage to the cornea. Treatment for dry eye syndrome typically involves using artificial tears or other lubricating eye drops to help keep the eyes moist. In some cases, medications or procedures may be recommended to help increase tear production or improve tear quality. It is important to consult with an eye doctor if you are experiencing symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as they can help diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment.

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is a term used to describe a group of nonspecific health symptoms that are associated with exposure to indoor environments that are perceived to be of poor air quality. These symptoms can include headaches, fatigue, eye irritation, nose and throat irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory problems. SBS is not a recognized medical diagnosis, but rather a term used to describe a collection of symptoms that are often reported by people who spend a significant amount of time in a particular building. The symptoms of SBS are not always present, and they may be triggered by a variety of factors, including poor ventilation, the presence of indoor pollutants, and the use of certain building materials or cleaning products. SBS is not a contagious disease, and it is not caused by a specific illness or infection. Rather, it is thought to be related to the quality of the indoor air and the interactions between the building materials, the occupants, and the environment. Treatment for SBS typically involves identifying and addressing the underlying causes of the symptoms, such as improving ventilation, reducing indoor pollutants, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the symptoms.

Heat exhaustion is a condition that occurs when the body is unable to regulate its temperature in hot and humid conditions. It is a milder form of heat-related illness compared to heatstroke, which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include: - Heavy sweating - Weakness - Dizziness or fainting - Nausea or vomiting - Rapid heartbeat - Cold, clammy skin - Throbbing headache - Muscle cramps Heat exhaustion is caused by prolonged exposure to high temperatures and humidity, and can be exacerbated by factors such as dehydration, lack of rest, and physical exertion. Treatment for heat exhaustion involves moving the person to a cool place, removing excess clothing, and providing fluids to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. If symptoms persist or worsen, medical attention should be sought immediately.

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a water-soluble adhesive in medical tapes, dressings, and other medical devices. It is a hydrophilic polymer, meaning it is attracted to water, and is known for its biocompatibility and non-toxicity. PVA is also used as a thickening agent in various medical products, such as eye drops, nasal sprays, and oral solutions. It can help to stabilize the formulation and improve its viscosity, making it easier to apply or use. In addition, PVA has been investigated for its potential use in drug delivery systems, as it can act as a carrier for drugs and help to control their release over time. It has also been used in tissue engineering applications, as it can be used to create hydrogels that mimic the properties of natural tissue. Overall, PVA is a versatile polymer with a wide range of applications in the medical field, thanks to its unique properties and biocompatibility.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the organs and structures involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect individuals of all ages and genders. Some common respiratory tract diseases include: 1. Asthma: a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a group of lung diseases that include chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. 4. Tuberculosis: a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. 5. Influenza: a viral infection that affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, and body aches. 6. Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchial tubes that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or irritants. 7. Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinuses that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or allergies. 8. Emphysema: a chronic lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. These diseases can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a type of asthma that is triggered by physical activity. It is a common condition that affects people of all ages and fitness levels. During exercise, the airways in the lungs narrow, causing difficulty breathing and other symptoms of asthma. These symptoms can include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The symptoms usually begin within 10 minutes of starting exercise and improve within 10-20 minutes after stopping. EIA is often misdiagnosed as just a case of exercise intolerance or overuse injury. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, people with EIA can continue to participate in physical activity and lead active, healthy lives.

Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. It is a long, fibrous polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. In the medical field, cellulose is used in a variety of ways. For example, it is often used as a thickening agent in medications, such as tablets and capsules, to help them maintain their shape and prevent them from dissolving too quickly in the stomach. It is also used as a binding agent in some medications to help them stick together and form a solid mass. In addition, cellulose is used in wound dressings and other medical products to help absorb excess fluid and promote healing. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help slow down the absorption of other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals. Overall, cellulose is an important component of many medical products and plays a crucial role in their function and effectiveness.

In the medical field, dust refers to a mixture of small particles that are suspended in the air. These particles can come from a variety of sources, including soil, pollen, pet dander, and human skin cells. Dust can be inhaled and can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues such as asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia. It can also cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and can exacerbate existing conditions such as allergies and eczema. In some cases, exposure to certain types of dust can be hazardous, such as asbestos or silica dust, which can cause serious health problems if inhaled in large quantities.

In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.

In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. It is commonly used in the medical field as a preservative for tissues, organs, and other biological samples. Formaldehyde is also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is sometimes used to treat certain medical conditions, such as leprosy and psoriasis. In the medical field, formaldehyde is typically used in concentrations of 1-4%, and it is applied to the tissue or organ to be preserved. The formaldehyde causes the cells in the tissue to become rigid and hard, which helps to preserve the tissue and prevent decay. Formaldehyde is also used to disinfect medical equipment and surfaces, and it is sometimes used to treat wounds and skin conditions. While formaldehyde is effective at preserving tissue and disinfecting surfaces, it can also be harmful if it is inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Exposure to high concentrations of formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to certain types of cancer, including nasopharyngeal cancer and sinonasal cancer.

Stainless steel is a type of steel that is resistant to corrosion and rust due to the presence of chromium in its composition. In the medical field, stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel is used in a variety of medical applications, including surgical instruments, dental equipment, orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular devices. It is also used in the construction of medical facilities, such as hospital beds, surgical tables, and examination tables. One of the key benefits of using stainless steel in the medical field is its biocompatibility. Stainless steel is generally considered to be non-toxic and non-reactive with human tissue, making it a safe material for use in medical devices and implants. Additionally, stainless steel is easy to clean and sterilize, which is important in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare settings. Overall, stainless steel is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in the medical field due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.

In the medical field, oxides refer to compounds that contain oxygen and another element. These compounds can be found in various forms, such as minerals, gases, and solids, and they play important roles in various biological processes. For example, calcium oxide (CaO) is a common oxide that is used in the treatment of acid reflux and ulcers. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the stomach lining. Another example is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a powerful oxidizing agent that is used in wound care to kill bacteria and promote healing. In addition to their therapeutic uses, oxides are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, the measurement of blood oxygen levels is a critical part of respiratory and cardiovascular monitoring, and the use of oxygen therapy is a common treatment for patients with respiratory distress. Overall, oxides play important roles in many aspects of medicine, from the treatment of specific conditions to the diagnosis and monitoring of patients.

Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that is commonly used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar. It is a white, crystalline powder that is about 300 times sweeter than sugar. In the medical field, saccharin is often used as a dietary supplement for people with diabetes or other conditions that require them to limit their sugar intake. It is also used in the production of low-calorie foods and beverages, such as diet soda and sugar-free candy. However, saccharin has been associated with some health concerns, including cancer in laboratory animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified saccharin as a possible human carcinogen, although the evidence is not conclusive. As a result, some countries have placed restrictions on the use of saccharin in food products.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

In the medical field, "silver" typically refers to silver nitrate, which is a medication used to treat various conditions such as burns, wounds, and eye infections. Silver nitrate works by releasing silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties that can help prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Silver nitrate is often applied topically as a cream, ointment, or powder, and it can also be used as a solution for eye drops or as a douche for vaginal infections. It is important to note that silver nitrate can be toxic if ingested, so it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Sulfuric acid is a strong acid that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a colorless, odorless, and corrosive liquid that is highly soluble in water. In the medical field, sulfuric acid is used as a chemical reagent in various laboratory procedures, such as the preparation of buffers, the extraction of proteins, and the analysis of biological samples. It is also used as a component in some medications, such as certain antacids and laxatives. However, sulfuric acid is highly caustic and can cause severe burns and tissue damage if it comes into contact with the skin or eyes. Therefore, it is important to handle sulfuric acid with extreme caution and to follow proper safety protocols when working with it.

Mite infestations refer to the presence of mites, which are small arachnids, on or in the body of a human or animal. Mites can cause a variety of health problems, depending on the species of mite and the location of the infestation. Some common types of mite infestations in humans include scabies, which is caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite, and demodex mite infestations, which can cause acne-like symptoms on the face. Mite infestations in animals can also cause a range of health problems, including mange, which is a skin disease caused by various mite species. Treatment for mite infestations typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the mites and alleviate symptoms.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.

Calcium sulfate is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is also known as calcium sulfate dihydrate or gypsum. Calcium sulfate is a white, odorless, and crystalline powder that is insoluble in water. It is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Radiopaque contrast agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a radiopaque contrast agent in X-ray imaging to help visualize bones and other structures in the body. 2. Hemostatic agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a hemostatic agent to stop bleeding in wounds and surgical procedures. 3. Dental applications: Calcium sulfate is used in dental applications, such as in the production of dental cements and as a desensitizing agent for toothpaste. 4. Pharmaceutical applications: Calcium sulfate is used in the production of various pharmaceuticals, including tablets, capsules, and injectables. 5. Wound healing: Calcium sulfate is used in wound healing to promote the formation of new tissue and to help prevent infection. Calcium sulfate is generally considered safe for medical use, but it can cause allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions for use and to consult with a healthcare provider before using calcium sulfate for any medical purpose.

Polydeoxyribonucleotides, also known as poly(dNTPs), are polymers of deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. They are composed of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine). In the medical field, poly(dNTPs) are commonly used as a substrate in DNA polymerase reactions, which are essential for DNA replication and repair. They are also used in various molecular biology techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and DNA synthesis. Poly(dNTPs) are available in different concentrations and purities, and their selection depends on the specific application and experimental requirements.

Peptones are a type of protein derived from the hydrolysis of animal or plant tissues. They are commonly used in medical research and diagnostics as a nutrient source for bacterial cultures. Peptones are also used in the production of vaccines and other medical products. In the medical field, peptones are typically used as a source of amino acids, which are essential for the growth and development of microorganisms. They are also used as a source of nitrogen, which is an important nutrient for many microorganisms. Peptones are generally considered to be safe and non-toxic, and they are widely used in the medical field due to their versatility and ease of use.

Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules joined by an alpha-1,1-glycosidic bond. It is found in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and serves as a protective agent against various stressors, such as dehydration, heat, cold, and oxidative stress. In the medical field, trehalose is used as a cryoprotectant to prevent ice crystal formation during cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs. It is also used as a stabilizer in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and as a food additive to improve texture and shelf life of food products. Trehalose has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been studied for its potential use in wound healing, cancer therapy, and as a treatment for radiation-induced damage.

Mercuric chloride is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also used as a treatment for certain skin conditions, such as acne and psoriasis. However, it is important to note that mercuric chloride is highly toxic and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled. As a result, its use in medical treatments is now limited and is only recommended under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Skin diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and chronic conditions that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, dermatitis, hives, warts, and skin cancer. Treatment for skin diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve the use of topical creams, ointments, or medications, as well as lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers or making dietary modifications. In some cases, more aggressive treatments, such as surgery or light therapy, may be necessary. Overall, skin diseases are a common and diverse group of medical conditions that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Early detection and proper treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Insect bites and stings refer to the injuries caused by the bites or stings of insects, such as mosquitoes, bees, wasps, ants, ticks, and fleas. These bites and stings can cause a range of symptoms, from mild itching and redness to severe allergic reactions that can be life-threatening. Insect bites and stings can be painful and uncomfortable, and may lead to skin infections if left untreated. Some insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, can transmit diseases to humans, such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. In the medical field, the treatment of insect bites and stings typically involves cleaning the affected area with soap and water, applying ice or a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain, and taking over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. In some cases, antihistamines may be prescribed to reduce itching and swelling. For severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, emergency medical treatment is necessary, including the administration of epinephrine and other medications to counteract the symptoms of the allergic reaction.

In the medical field, hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They are commonly found in various substances, including fossil fuels, crude oil, and natural gas. Hydrocarbons can be classified into two main categories: aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are those that do not contain any benzene rings, while aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings. In medicine, hydrocarbons are used in a variety of applications, including as solvents, lubricants, and as components in medications. Some hydrocarbons, such as benzene, are known to be toxic and can cause cancer and other health problems when inhaled or ingested in high concentrations. Therefore, it is important to handle hydrocarbons with care and follow proper safety protocols to prevent exposure.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but,。

Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.

In the medical field, "smoke" typically refers to the inhalation of particles and gases that are produced by the burning of organic materials, such as tobacco, wood, or fossil fuels. When inhaled, these particles and gases can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, heart disease, and cancer. In some cases, smoke can also refer to the use of smoke as a therapeutic tool, such as in the practice of acupuncture, where a small amount of smoke is produced by burning herbs or other substances to stimulate specific points on the body. Overall, the medical use of the term "smoke" is typically related to the harmful effects of inhaling smoke from burning materials, rather than the therapeutic use of smoke as a tool for healing.

In the medical field, organic chemicals refer to compounds that are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and may also contain other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. These compounds are often used in the development of drugs, medical devices, and other medical products. Organic chemicals can be further classified into various categories based on their chemical structure and properties. For example, some organic chemicals are used as antioxidants, while others are used as anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, or antibiotics. Some organic chemicals are also used as solvents, plasticizers, or dyes. In the medical field, organic chemicals are often synthesized in the laboratory and tested for their efficacy and safety before being used in medical products. They may also be extracted from natural sources, such as plants or animals, and used in their natural form or modified to enhance their therapeutic properties. It is important to note that not all organic chemicals are safe or effective for medical use, and some may even be toxic or carcinogenic. Therefore, the use of organic chemicals in the medical field is closely regulated by government agencies and requires careful evaluation and testing to ensure their safety and efficacy.

The common cold is a viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, and sinuses. It is caused by a variety of viruses, including rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses. The common cold is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or surfaces contaminated with the virus. Symptoms of the common cold typically include a runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cough, and sometimes fever, body aches, and headaches. The common cold is a self-limiting illness, meaning that it will usually resolve on its own within a week or two without the need for medical treatment. However, over-the-counter medications such as pain relievers, decongestants, and cough suppressants can help alleviate symptoms.

Hypersensitivity is a medical term used to describe an exaggerated immune response to a substance that is normally harmless or even beneficial to the body. This response can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including allergens, toxins, and medications. There are four main types of hypersensitivity reactions, each with its own specific characteristics and mechanisms: 1. Type I hypersensitivity (also known as immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction that occurs within minutes or hours of exposure to an allergen. It is mediated by IgE antibodies and involves the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils. 2. Type II hypersensitivity (also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity) is an immune response that involves the destruction of cells by antibodies. It is typically seen in autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells. 3. Type III hypersensitivity (also known as immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity) is an immune response that involves the formation of immune complexes, which can deposit in tissues and trigger inflammation. It is seen in conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. 4. Type IV hypersensitivity (also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity) is an immune response that occurs over a period of days or weeks after exposure to an allergen or antigen. It involves the activation of T cells and the release of cytokines, which can cause inflammation and tissue damage. Overall, hypersensitivity reactions can range from mild to severe and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen or antigen that triggers the reaction, as well as medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation.

Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.

Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.

Povidone is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and is a white, odorless powder that is easily soluble in water. Povidone is used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, surgical procedures, and the treatment of skin infections. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used in combination with other antiseptic agents to enhance its effectiveness. Povidone is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and ointments, and is typically applied topically to the skin or applied to medical devices and surfaces to disinfect them. It is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by most people, although it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

In the medical field, "platinum" typically refers to a type of chemotherapy drug called a platinum agent. Platinum agents are a class of chemotherapy drugs that are commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and lung cancer. The most well-known platinum agent is cisplatin, which was first discovered in the 1960s and has been used in cancer treatment for decades. Other platinum agents include carboplatin and oxaliplatin. Platinum agents work by binding to DNA and disrupting the normal process of cell division, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. However, they can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the kidneys and hearing. It's important to note that the use of platinum agents in cancer treatment is highly individualized and depends on a variety of factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences.

In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas are burned incompletely. In the medical field, carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that occurs when a person inhales high levels of the gas, which can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen to the tissues. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, forming carboxyhemoglobin, which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. The medical treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing oxygen therapy to help restore normal oxygen levels in the blood. In some cases, additional medical treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.

Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal, is a type of inflammation of the nasal passages that occurs in response to exposure to allergens, such as pollen, mold spores, or dust mites, that are typically present in the environment during certain times of the year. It is also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis or hay fever. Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can include sneezing, runny nose, itchy or watery eyes, congestion, and postnasal drip. These symptoms are usually worse in the morning or after exposure to allergens and can be relieved with over-the-counter antihistamines or nasal decongestants. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is typically treated with avoidance of allergens, the use of medications to relieve symptoms, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) to reduce sensitivity to allergens over time.

In the medical field, the term "carbon" typically refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 6, which is a vital component of all living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues. In medicine, carbon is also used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, carbon-13 (13C) is a stable isotope of carbon that is used in metabolic studies to investigate the function of enzymes and pathways in the body. Carbon-14 (14C) is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials, including human remains. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced by the body during respiration and is exhaled. It is also used in medical applications, such as in carbon dioxide laser therapy, which uses the energy of CO2 lasers to treat various medical conditions, including skin disorders, tumors, and eye diseases.

In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.

In the medical field, "Vehicle Emissions" generally refers to the harmful gases and particles that are released into the air by vehicles, such as cars, trucks, buses, and motorcycles. These emissions can include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds, among other pollutants. Exposure to vehicle emissions can have negative health effects on humans, particularly those with pre-existing respiratory or cardiovascular conditions. Long-term exposure to high levels of vehicle emissions can increase the risk of developing respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema, as well as cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. In addition to the health effects on humans, vehicle emissions also contribute to air pollution, which can have negative impacts on the environment and climate. For example, air pollution can contribute to the formation of smog, which can reduce visibility and harm crops and other vegetation. It can also contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, which can harm human health and damage crops and other vegetation.

Acid Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels that are activated by protons (hydrogen ions) and are found in the nervous system, including neurons and sensory cells. These channels are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the detection of changes in pH and the regulation of synaptic transmission. ASICs are expressed in a number of different types of neurons, including sensory neurons that detect touch, pain, and temperature, as well as neurons in the brain and spinal cord. They are also found in sensory cells in the inner ear, which are responsible for detecting sound and balance. When protons bind to ASICs, they cause the channel to open and allow ions to flow across the cell membrane. This can lead to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron and can trigger the release of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons. ASICs play an important role in a number of physiological processes, including the detection of changes in pH, the regulation of synaptic transmission, and the modulation of pain and other sensory signals. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, and stroke.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.

In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.

Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Fever is a medical condition characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F). It is typically a response to an infection or inflammation in the body, and can also be caused by certain medications or other medical conditions. Fever is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as chills, sweating, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and loss of appetite. While a fever can be uncomfortable, it is generally not considered a serious medical condition in itself, and can be a sign that the body is fighting off an infection. In some cases, a fever may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as sepsis or meningitis. If a fever persists for more than a few days, or if it is accompanied by other severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention.

In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.

In the medical field, starvation refers to a severe lack of nutrition and energy due to a prolonged period of not eating enough food. Starvation can occur as a result of various factors, including malnutrition, illness, and intentional fasting. The body requires a certain amount of nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, to function properly. When a person does not consume enough of these nutrients, the body begins to break down its own tissues, including muscle and fat, to provide energy. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss. In severe cases of starvation, the body may also experience more serious complications, such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. Treatment for starvation typically involves providing adequate nutrition and hydration, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the starvation.

Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, which are single-celled microorganisms that can be found almost everywhere in the environment, including on our skin and in our digestive tracts. When bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness and disease. Bacterial infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and skin infections. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to use antibiotics properly and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

... indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity given the same temperature. Specific humidity is ... The low humidity is a consequence of drawing in the very cold air with a low absolute humidity, which is found at airliner ... Conversely, low humidity slows the baking process down. At 100% relative humidity, air is saturated and at its dew point: the ... All humidity sensors face problems in measuring dust-laden gas, such as exhaust streams from clothes dryers. Humidity is also ...
Humidity at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from August ... Humidity (Serbian: Vlažnost) is a 2016 Serbian drama film directed by Nikola Ljuca. It was named as one of five films that ...
Humidity (2000) is an album by the American ambient musician Robert Rich. It is a three disc set of live material recorded in ... 51 Humidity at AllMusic (Use mdy dates from April 2013, Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... "Humidity Toward the Troposphere" - 14:25 "Beyond Part 1" - 16:26 "Beyond Part 2" - 6:43 "Beyond Part 3" - 6:52 "Beyond Part 4 ...
... refers to the ability of materials to moderate changes in relative humidity by absorbing and desorbing water ... A pan of water is placed in the humidor so that the wood will absorb water vapor at close to 100% relative humidity. It is then ... Recently, there has been an interest in the field of building science and architecture in using humidity buffering as a passive ... relative humidity) as the silica will help protect the objects displayed from mechanical damage due to shrinking and growing ...
The Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) is a five-channel passive microwave radiometer, with channels from 89 to 190 GHz. It is ... The Microwave Humidity Sounder was designed and developed by Astrium EU in Portsmouth, UK, under contract to EUMETSAT. Heritage ...
There he developed the concept for the first color change humidity indicator, a simple Go/no go method of monitoring humidity.[ ... was the governing specification for a humidity indicator card. The humidity indicator card is also specified for use in J-STD- ... A humidity indicator card (HIC) is a card on which a moisture-sensitive chemical is impregnated such that it will change color ... The most common humidity indicator cards change color from blue (less than indicated RH level) to pink (greater than indicated ...
When the humidity of the atmosphere is equal to (or is greater than) the critical relative humidity of a sample of salt, the ... The critical relative humidity (CRH) of a salt is defined as the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere (at a certain ... Critical relative humidities of pure salts at 30°C. Mixtures of salts usually have lower critical humidities than either of the ... The critical relative humidity of most salts decreases with increasing temperature. For instance, the critical relative ...
... is a 2003 album recorded by the English guitarist Martin Simpson and released on the Topic Records ...
The Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) was an instrument launched on NASA's Earth Observing System satellite Aqua launched in ...
... (FAHM) experiment is a large-scale field experiment in Estonia, FAHM was established by plant ... of the University of Tartu to investigate the long term effects of increasing air humidity on tree performance and on the ... FAHM infrastructure enables to increase air relative humidity up to 18% unit above ambient level (long-term mean increase 7%). ... "An experimental facility for Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) can alter water flux through deciduous tree canopy". ...
Humidity. - Contamination. - Barriers. - Pedestrian Transit Streets. - Wheeled Transit Streets. - Pedestrianisation. - Keys and ...
Humidity; 1998, Equipage. New and Selected Poems; 1992, Angus & Robertson, ISBN 0-207-16951-9. The Stunned Mullet; 1988, Hale ...
Cold air with high relative humidity "feels" colder than dry air of the same temperature because high humidity in cold weather ... "Humidity". Humidity. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Columbia University Press. 2012. "How the weather makes ... Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water vapor that the air could ... Humidity can increase wetness in different areas of the body, leading to a perception of discomfort. This is usually localized ...
... humidity; leakage of rain water into the housing space; the presence of insects; lack of windows; lack of sunlight in the ...
ft.) Environmentally controlled (altitude, temperature, humidity) & connected by an airlock Simulates altitudes of 800-225 Torr ... humidity; and altitude), and the mission (work - intensity, duration, and type; clothing and equipment; and medications). ... sea level to 9000 m) Temperatures from -32 °C to 43 °C Relative humidity (Rh) between 20-80% (dew point dependent) 23,656 ...
... humidity; and interspecific competition. Eastern meadow voles are most commonly associated with sites having high soil moisture ...
Humidity...As low as 10 to 20% tonight and again late Wednesday afternoon. Brief recovery near or above 50% is possible late ... Impacts...The combination of gusty winds and low humidity can cause fire to rapidly grow in size and intensity. PRECAUTIONARY/ ... very low humidity levels, and strong winds. The PDS red flag warning below was issued by the National Weather Service in Reno, ... humidity as low as 8 percent and wind gusting to 60 mph). PDS red flag warning URGENT - FIRE WEATHER MESSAGE National Weather ...
Favourable conditions that increase the infection rate include: new tissue; high humidity; free water on plant surface for more ...
Pressure in the cockpit is 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1.2 ... Manual 150; First automatic 155 ... Cockpit parameters: pressure 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1; first automatic 155; second ...
Humidity, Escaping. "What is NSFNET: How This Old Tech Sparked Scientific Research Opportunities". Technology Solutions That ...
"The idea." "The hypothesis." "The unit." "The humidity." La is not elided with the words una "one (hour)", host "hueste", and ...
Humidity: 32% • Weather: Clear skies Game attendance: 92,100 Referee: Mike Defee TV announcers (FOX): Gus Johnson (Play by Play ... Humidity: 44% • Weather: Partly cloudy Game attendance: 96,936 Referee: David Alvarez TV announcers (ABC): Chris Fowler (play- ... Humidity: 20% • Weather: Partly cloudy Game attendance: 97,137 Referee: Eddy Shelton TV announcers (LHN): Lowell Galindo (play- ...
How much water vapor a parcel of air can contain before it becomes saturated (100% relative humidity) and forms into a cloud (a ... Forecast models show significant sensitivity to humidity levels within the planetary boundary layer, or in the lowest levels of ... Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Relative Humidity". American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 7 July ... The amount of moisture in the air is also commonly reported as relative humidity; which is the percentage of the total water ...
at Qwest Field, Seattle Game time: 5:15 PM PDT Game weather: Sunny; 68 °F (20 °C); Humidity: 47%; Wind: SW 4 mph (6.4 km/h) ...
"Average Relative Humidity". Department of Meteorology at the University of Utah. Archived from the original on December 9, 2006 ... proximity to the bay and the winds that it generates moderate the area's temperatures and ease the effects of the humidity, ...
"Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 2 February 2021. "Rekordid" (in Estonian). Estonian Weather ...
... relative humidity 62%; wind 10 miles per hour (16 km/h; 8.7 kn) Game attendance: 52,683 Referee: Bob McElwee TV announcers (NBC ... relative humidity 67%, wind 13 mph Game attendance: 64,286 Referee: Tom Dooley TV announcers (CBS): Pat Summerall (play-by-play ... relative humidity 81%, wind 10 mph Game attendance: 51,301 Referee: Red Cashion TV announcers (ABC): Frank Gifford (play-by- ... relative humidity 93%, wind 10 mph (16 km/h) Referee: Jerry Markbreit [1] NFC Divisional Playoffs: Chicago Bears at Washington ...
"Temperature/Humidity/Rainfall". Qatar Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 2013-03-22. Retrieved 24 June 2018. " ...
"Normal Monthly Humidity". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved January 31, 2016. "Subimal Dewan passes away". The ...
Eric Malnic and Richard Winton (1998-08-11). "The Humidity Hex". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-01-28. Miles B. Lawrence ...
We found that higher relative humidity was associated with higher odds of migraine headache onset in warm season, and traffic- ... Mean temperature was 56.9 °F, relative humidity 67.3%, and fine particulate matter 7.3 μg/m3. Higher relative humidity was ... Temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure data were obtained from local weather station. Daily average fine ... Conclusions: We found that higher relative humidity was associated with higher odds of migraine headache onset in warm season, ...
Today (Friday): Pleasant and sunny. Highs in the 80s. Overnight Friday Night: Mostly clear. Lows around 60, 50s north. Saturday: Sun to building clouds, a few...
Humidity domes in a variety of sizes, including tall propagation domes. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. ... To compare products, including compatibility across products, see our Humidity Domes Dynamic Comparison Chart (at right). More ... Choose from our durable clear plastic humidity domes and our propagation domes. ...
Millions of citizens within the WHO European Region spend approximately 90% of their time indoors: in their homes (‎2/3 of this time)‎, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. Despite undeniable improvements in the quality ...
Tames fly-aways and is designed to work in thetoughest humidity. ... Home › Smoothing + Anti-Frizz › Moon Landing Anti-Humidity ... Polymer blend - seals moisture in the hair shaft and blocks humidity to prevent frizz and reversion.. Tocopherol - deeply ...
Humidity Ambient humidity could influence the spread of SARS-CoV-2, according to new research. Analyzing records from 1200 ... This week in COVID-19 news, scientists said they had confirmed a link between humidity and SARS-CoV-2 transmission and that the ... Plus, the researchers did not know what humidity levels people were experiencing when they became infected with SARS-CoV-2 ― ... "Information generated in this study confirms humidity as a driver of SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission," they wrote. ...
The aosong temp/humidity sensors ("DHT11") are extremely useful little sensors. I have a temperature humidity setup with four ... Maybe it would be possible to "re-hydrate" the DHT11s humidity sensor by putting it long-term in a high-humidity enclosure. I ... An Adafruit-related air quality sensor device led me to, which has Humidity/Temp, RH/Temp, and Humidity sensors ... All of them have horribly inaccurate humidity readings. The humidity readings do change from a dry to wet environment, but ...
Mining Publication: Portable Refuge Alternatives Temperature and Humidity Tests. Keywords: Heat Humidity Refuge chambers ... To investigate heat and humidity buildup in refuge alternatives, NIOSH conducted multiple in-mine, 96-h tests on a 10-person ... Validation of Temperature and Humidity Thermal Model of 23-person Tent-type Refuge Alternative ... has shown that heat and humidity buildup is a major concern with refuge alternatives because they have limited ability to ...
When the FM systems belong to a group the FM uses the dew point temperature to control humidity. Dew point is a function of ... An Explanation on FM Dew point temperature to control humidity. Issue: An Explanation on FM Dew point temperature to control ... Versions of the FM controller firmware v6.7.0 and earlier do not calculate low and high humidity alarms correctly. This has ... If the room temperature is 74 F and the return humidity is 40% the dew point of the room is 48 F.. The humidifier demand is ...
... - May 22, 2019 - Vinotemp International ... while exclusive humidity control technology maintains ideal humidity levels (between 50 to 75% RH). ... Advanced cooling and humidity control. Equipped with a Wine-Mate 1500CD Self-Contained Compact Wine Cooling System, wine is ... New Vinotemp Wine Vault Features Advanced Cooling and Humidity Control. Vinotemp International May 22, 2019 ...
What is monsoonal moisture? And what causes it to happen in San Diego County? NBC 7 meteorologist Sheena Parveen explains this weather pattern and how it leads...
This is a multifunctional sensor that gives you temperature and relative humidity information at the same time. ... This is a multifunctional sensor that gives you temperature and relative humidity information at the same time. It utilizes a ... It provides reliable readings when environment humidity condition inbetween 0-80% RH, and temperature condition inbetween 0-70° ...
Find NTI Temperature And Humidity Sensors from your Server Rack Experts - Server Racks Online ... NTI E-STHSM-E7 Probe-Style Temperature/Humidity Sensor. Probe-Style Temperature/Humidity Sensor, -4 to 185°F (-20 to 85°C). ... 1-Wire Temperature/Humidity/Dew Point Sensor. 1-Wire Temperature/Humidity/Dew Point Sensor, -40 to 185°F. ... Wall Mount Temperature/Humidity Sensor. Wall Mount Temperature/Humidity Sensor, 23 to 131°F (-5 to 55°C). ...
This page offers a collection of resources related to measurement of temperature and relative humidity. ... Temperature and Humidity. Air Properties: Temperature and Relative Humidity - Guide from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln ... Relative Humidity Table - Derived From Web-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures - This table gives the approximate relative humidity ... Temp, Humidity & Dew Point ONA - Often needed answers from the newsgroup sci.geo.meteorology, this is a collection of some ...
The humidity in the summer can really take a toll on your curls and leave you with frizzy, dried out hair. But dont despair. ... You may need to moisturize more than once a day, depending on your hair and the humidity level where you live. A good tip is to ... 5 Tips for Dealing With Humidity. By TDM-AaronJanuary 27th, 2021No Comments ... This is one of my favorite tips for dealing with humidity because you have a ton of options style wise. No matter what your ...
Gaylord offers lots of choices for controlling the humidity in storage and exhibit spaces. ... Humidity Controlled Linen-Wrapped Riser. As low as: $177.00 USD White Sintra; Ethafoam®; controls humidity with silica ... Gaylord Archival® Preconditioned Humidity Control Cartridge. $35.19 USD Controls humidity in microclimates; can be ... Absorbs moisture and stabilizes humidity levels; ideal for exhibit cases, drawers and storage boxes; reusable; 40 gm ...
... and an HM10 BLE module to make your own multi-node temperature and humidity monitor and display. ... Humidity - One-byte value representing the sensor humidity (RH) measure. The calculation formula is: RH [%] = 125 × (HUMIDITY ... Build an Arduino Multi-Node BLE Humidity and Temperature Sensor Monitor April 28, 2017 by Raymond Genovese * ... The datasheet suggests that when this occurs, it is appropriate for the host software to limit the humidity range to 0-100%. No ...
Millions of citizens within the WHO European Region spend approximately 90% of their time indoors: in their homes (‎2/3 of this time)‎, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. Despite undeniable improvements in the quality ...
... humidity, sunshine hours and rainfall averages in February for Vinh Hy Bay. ... Humidity Graph (%). The average humidity in February in Vinh Hy Bay is 83.0%, which is 1.7% lower than January and 0.3% higher ... The humidity of Vinh Hy Bay in February is around 83.0% and rarely falls below 74.9%. ... Whats the weather like in Vinh Hy Bay in February? See the historical monthly averages for temperature, rainfall and humidity. ...
Face masks increase the humidity of the air that the mask-wearer breathes in, which could help combat SARS-CoV-2 infection. ... Humidity from masks may lessen severity of COVID-19. At a Glance. *Face masks substantially increase the humidity of the air ... Its possible that humidity created within the mask may play a role, as humidity is an essential factor in the process that ... High levels of humidity may help limit the spread of a virus to the lungs. Humidity supports a defense mechanism that removes ...
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But dont style your hair in your steamy bathroom cuz the humidity will make it frizzier. Instead, do it in an air-conditioned ...
Looking at 5 reasons to maintain lower humidity levels in your home. High humidity levels consequences. ... How best to keep humidity levels in your home? ... Displays current relative humidity and temperature. Read the ... And too high humidity levels can lead to damage of other materials, especially wood. An abundance of humidity causes wood ( ... One sure-fire way to give dust mites the heave-ho is to keep low humidity levels in your home as much as possible. If you live ...
Humidity Sensor by Zennio ® ➡️ The largest manufacturer and approved distributor of KNX home automation products ...
Relative Humidity, Lifting, and Clouds. Another practical application of relative humidity is that it gives us a basic idea of ... Interpreting Relative Humidity, Temperature, and Dew Point. I hope that by now, you understand that relative humidity, dew ... Question: Which station has a higher relative humidity?. Answer: Station B has a higher relative humidity because the ... You should find that Station A has a relative humidity of about 30 percent, while the relative humidity at Station B is about ...
Most indoor environments are temperature controlled, but indoor absolute humidity levels fluctuate as outdoor absolute humidity ... Absolute humidity is the quantity of water vapor in a particular volume of air, regardless of the temperature. This is not to ... New research shows low absolute humidity drives flu outbreaks April 2010 , Volume 9, Issue 2 Illustration by Dan Higgins, CDC ... Read the full article, Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental United States, on the PLoS ...
  • This sensor operates like many other colorimetric indicators for relative humidity measurement: as the relative humidity level changes, the colorimetric indicator exhibits different colors-red, green, blue-that are observable to the naked eye. (
  • The DHT20 is an upgraded version of the DHT11, compared with the previous version, the temperature and humidity measurement accuracy are higher, and the measurement range is larger. (
  • The humidity-sensitive colorimetric sensor is 10,000 times faster than traditional optical sensors. (
  • Taking inspiration from the Hercules beetle's shell, a team of researchers from the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) has fabricated a real-time "ultrafast" humidity-sensing optical sensor . (
  • How a typical optical humidity sensor operates. (
  • With this humidity-sensitive optical sensor, the researchers envision a number of applications in security-from 3D QR codes to anti-counterfeit use cases. (
  • The new Grove - Temperature & Humidity Sensor is based on the DHT20 sensor. (
  • Grove - DHT20 Temperature & Humidity Sensor is the newly released version, an upgraded version of the DHT11. (
  • It's a high quality, low-cost digital temperature, and humidity sensor. (
  • Please refer to the S2101 Wireless Temperature and Humidity Sensor with higher performance and robustness for air temperature and humidity detection. (
  • I use a HDC1050 temperature and humidity sensor, and a TEMT6000X01 ambient light sensor. (
  • I2C bus: On the 3.0V I2C bus are the HDC1050 temperature and humidity sensor and also the M41T00SM6 RTC. (
  • IST's full line of temperature , humidity , and flow sensors has applications in this industry. (
  • Humidity , temperature fluctuations, and dust can corrode your copper solar panel or battery components. (
  • Short-circuit current of the TENG in a wide range of RH (from 50% to 98%) responds very sensitively to humidity fluctuations in the environment and superior adsorption -desorption performance as humidity decreases. (
  • environment mainly indoor temperature and humidity and ventilation effectiveness in exhibition rooms are usually significant concerns. (
  • 1.1.1 This test method covers the determination of the humidity of atmospheric air by means of wet- and dry-bulb temperature readings. (
  • In a study funded by NCA (fully cited below), scientists at NASA MSFC/USRA developed computer programs to process the NLDAS-2 data and extract the hourly air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric pressure data, and compute the daily Maximum Air Temperature, Maximum Heat Index (HI), and Net Daily Heat Stress (NDHS) that were used to compute the extreme heat events measures. (
  • What we have is the combination of Arizona heat and Florida humidity. (
  • So the heat feels worse because the humidity levels are trending higher," he said. (
  • More heat and humidity ahead, along with a few storms….We're tracking much hotter weather over the next few days as well as a chance for thunderstorms. (
  • For Thursday and Friday, rain chances will go down a bit, but the heat and humidity will be cranking up. (
  • Similar materials could someday be used to counteract heat- or humidity-induced expansion of components used in buildings. (
  • We're no stranger to heat and humidity by this point in the year, but the winds have been a little strong lately. (
  • For one, it's a two-way system - meaning, it doesn't just humidify, but rather maintains an optimal humidity level, protecting from both too MUCH moisture as well as too LITTLE. (
  • With appropriate humidity and moisture, most bacteria survive longer than they would in less humid or dry areas. (
  • Humidity starts to increase, getting hotter, but still a good amount of sunshine…High: 91…Wind: ESE 10-15 mph. (
  • The Hercules beetle , native to the Central and South American rainforests, changes its shell colors when the level of the relative humidity in its environment changes. (
  • Boveda maintains a constant 40%-50% relative humidity level within your instrument's (closed) case. (
  • In the American Orchid Society Bulletin for 1994 (pp. 916-917), Douglas Kohl describes a series of experiments in which he measured the relative humidity (RH) at various distances above trays of water in his house in Minnesota (USA) at different times of the year. (
  • It's therefore obvious that growing plants above trays of water will have a negligible effect on the relative humidity at foliage level in the case of large plants like phallies, and only a slight effect for miniature orchids. (
  • 1.1.2 This test method is applicable for meteorological measurements at the earth's surface, for the purpose of the testing of materials, and for the determination of the relative humidity of most standard atmospheres and test atmospheres. (
  • 1.1.4 Relative humidity (RH) does not denote a unit. (
  • Uncertainties in the relative humidity are expressed in the form RH ± rh %, which means that the relative humidity is expected to lie in the range ( RH - rh ) % to ( RH ± rh ) %, where RH is the observed relative humidity. (
  • The composite material demonstrates exceptional and stable output performance in the humidity range of 30-95% while exhibiting a strong linear correlation with increasing relative humidity (RH). (
  • High temperatures will climb into the mid 90s, but when you factor in the humidity, it will feel like the triple digits. (
  • Meteorologist Juan Acuña forecasts a beautiful day on Thursday across the Coastal Bend with lower humidity and moderate temperatures across our area. (
  • High temperatures will be in the 90s across the area through the end of the week, but the humidity will make it feel like it is well over 100 degrees. (
  • The safety and durability of products can be evaluated by simulating the stress of changes in temperature and humidity in a chamber, whose temperature and humidity can be changed freely. (
  • Boveda's 2-way humidity control technology automatically protects your wooden instrument against warping, cracks and other damage caused by lack of humidification or too much humidification. (
  • By unlocking the Humidity & Timer module functionalities, the user will have access to a wide range of functions and features using myAirflow. (
  • Virtually every book or article on growing orchids indoors recommends placing the pots on a gravel-filled tray of water to help maintain an acceptable level of humidity, and for years our two phallies stood on large river pebbles sitting in trays of water. (
  • This study aimed to analyze the level of radiopacity of different materials used in endodontic retrofilling procedure regarding the influence of humidity on solubilization over a period of 30 days. (
  • The beetle's shell reflects an olive-green or yellow color at low humidity and a nearly-black color at higher humidity-a result of changes in light refraction. (
  • By late Saturday and into Sunday, our winds will turn more southeasterly and will begin to usher higher humidity levels back into the region. (
  • But they didn't have the high humidity. (
  • Humidity is back, stuffy, hot and party cloudy…High: 92…Wind: ESE 10-15 mph. (
  • Self-Powered TENG with High Humidity Sensitivity from PVA Film Modified by LiCl and MXene. (
  • In this work , by utilizing the synergistic effect of lithium chloride (LiCl) and MXene, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite films with humidity -sensitive properties were prepared and employed as a friction layer to achieve self -powered TENGs with enhanced output performance under high humidity . (
  • Furthermore, TENG regarded as a power supply in high humidity conditions was realized and it can light up 240 LEDs instantaneously with the transfer charge density of TENG reaching 194.37 µC m-2. (
  • This technology presents an effective method for stable energy harvesting and self -powered sensing in fog , the ocean, and other high- humidity environments . (
  • whoever gives me the best way to make humidity (without perlite) will get to know that they helped me out! (
  • Unless humidity swings where you live are extreme , the more durable nature of a laminate bass is unlikely to make humidity a major concern, though you should still always be prudent (especially with fast changes). (
  • To look at how the environment affects the decontamination process, a recent NIOSH study, published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene , measured the amount of virus on FFRs stored under various levels of humidity. (
  • Boveda provides the cleanest and most purified humidity of all other products available on the market today. (
  • Maybe it would be OK to let the flower spike grow through the opening in the lid - the lower humidity in the open air may be beneficial in reducing the possibility of flower spotting caused by fungal attack. (
  • With its rigidity, reliability, and performance, the DHT20 is very suitable for HVAC, automobiles, data loggers, weather stations, home appliances, and even medical uses and other related temperature and humidity detection and controlled areas. (
  • Access to room humidity and temperature usage data logs as well as exporting it. (
  • DHT20 features a brand-new ASIC dedicated chip, an improved MEMS semiconductor capacitive humidity module, and a standard on-chip temperature element. (
  • It can be done very successfully if you can achieve the correct balance of light, warmth and humidity, although this is easier written than accomplished. (
  • It's really the humidity that makes it dangerous," Douglas said. (
  • The Humidity & Timer module automatically unlocks the Timer module functionalities. (
  • This anti-humidity finishing spray shields hair from frizz on the sultriest of days (and nights), protecting sleek blowouts and perfect curls alike. (
  • The obtained specimens were surrounded by moist gauze and incubated in a heater for thirty days at 37°C and 100% humidity. (
  • You put the air stone into the jar of water, maybe fill with plastic scrubbin wool(like steel wool just plastic) to trap air bubbles longer adding more humidity. (
  • Lead researcher Professor Rho specified that security codes using such water-responsive color pixels can be integrated into security tags for electronic devices, ID cards, passports, and banknotes sensitive to humidity. (
  • Of course, the RH reaches 100% if the tank is totally covered but the humidity regulates itself to about 52% RH if 30% of the top area is left uncovered, and to 72% RH if only 10% is left uncovered. (