Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A 'Humeral Fracture' is a medical condition defined as a break in any part of the long bone (humerus) connecting the shoulder to the elbow, which may occur due to various reasons such as trauma, fall, or high-impact sports injuries.
Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The shaft of long bones.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A dead body, usually a human body.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.
A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.
The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/608)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Support of the anterior column with allografts in tuberculosis of the spine. (2/608)

Fresh-frozen allografts from the humerus were used to help to stabilise the spine after anterior decompression for tuberculosis in 47 children with a mean age of 4.2 years (2 to 9). The average angle of the gibbus, before operation, was 53 degrees; at follow-up, two years later, it was 15 degrees. Rejection of the graft or deep sepsis was not seen. Cross trabeculation between the allograft and the vertebral body was observed at six months, with remodelling occurring at approximately 30 months.  (+info)

Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. (3/608)

Cbfa1, a developmentally expressed transcription factor of the runt family, was recently shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation. We have investigated the role of Cbfa1 in endochondral bone formation using Cbfa1-deficient mice. Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17.5 demonstrated a lack of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the anlagen of the humerus and the phalanges and a delayed onset of hypertrophy in radius/ulna in Cbfa1-/- mice. Detailed analysis of Cbfa1 expression using whole mount in situ hybridization and a lacZ reporter gene reveled strong expression not only in osteoblasts but also in pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identify Cbfa1 as a major positive regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Retardation of bone growth in triamcinolone-treated mice. (4/608)

Immature mice were treated for up to 8 weeks with daily doses of triamcinolone diacetate. The epiphyseal cartilage plate and its surrounding bone from the humeral head were studied histologically at regular intervals. Concomitantly, roentgenographic measurements were performed on the humeri in toto. By the tenth injection significant morphological changes were noted in the cartilaginous plate, followed by complete cessation of bone growth. Severe triglyceride accumulation appeared in the experimental livers and humeral bone marrow. Osteoporosis also occurred and became severe from the fifth week of triamcinolone administration. Possible explanations for the above findings are discussed.  (+info)

Retinoid signaling is required for chondrocyte maturation and endochondral bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. (5/608)

Retinoids have long been known to influence skeletogenesis but the specific roles played by these effectors and their nuclear receptors remain unclear. Thus, it is not known whether endogenous retinoids are present in developing skeletal elements, whether expression of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes alpha, beta, and gamma changes during chondrocyte maturation, or how interference with retinoid signaling affects skeletogenesis. We found that immature chondrocytes present in stage 27 (Day 5.5) chick embryo humerus exhibited low and diffuse expression of RARalpha and gamma, while RARbeta expression was strong in perichondrium. Emergence of hypertrophic chondrocytes in Day 8-10 embryo limbs was accompanied by a marked and selective up-regulation of RARgamma gene expression. The RARgamma-rich type X collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes lay below metaphyseal prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressing Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and were followed by mineralizing chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification. Bioassays revealed that cartilaginous elements in Day 5.5, 8.5, and 10 chick embryo limbs all contained endogenous retinoids; strikingly, the perichondrial tissues surrounding the cartilages contained very large amounts of retinoids. Implantation of beads filled with retinoid antagonist Ro 41-5253 or AGN 193109 near the humeral anlagens in stage 21 (Day 3.5) or stage 27 chick embryos severely affected humerus development. In comparison to their normal counterparts, antagonist-treated humeri in Day 8.5-10 chick embryos were significantly shorter and abnormally bent; their diaphyseal chondrocytes had remained prehypertrophic Ihh-expressing cells, did not express RARgamma, and were not undergoing endochondral ossification. Interestingly, formation of an intramembranous bony collar around the diaphysis was not affected by antagonist treatment. Using chondrocyte cultures, we found that the antagonists effectively interfered with the ability of all-trans-retinoic acid to induce terminal cell maturation. The results provide clear evidence that retinoid-dependent and RAR-mediated mechanisms are required for completion of the chondrocyte maturation process and endochondral ossification in the developing limb. These mechanisms may be positively influenced by cooperative interactions between the chondrocytes and their retinoid-rich perichondrial tissues.  (+info)

The inferior capsular shift operation for instability of the shoulder. Long-term results in 34 shoulders. (6/608)

We reviewed 26 patients with 34 shoulders treated by the inferior capsular shift operation for inferior and multidirectional instability. The mean follow-up was 8.3 years. In total, 12 shoulders showed voluntary subluxation. Eight operations used an anterior and posterior approach, 11 were by the posterior route, and 15 shoulders had an anterior approach. In 30 shoulders (85%) the outcome was satisfactory and 20 (59%) scored good or excellent results on the Rowe system. Instability had recurred in nine shoulders (26%) from three months to three years after the operation. Six of the 12 shoulders with voluntary subluxation (50%) had recurrence, as against three of the other 22 (14%), a statistically significant difference. The operation is therefore not indicated for voluntary subluxation. The 19 shoulders which had been assessed in 1987 at a mean of 3.5 years after surgery, were also reviewed in 1995 and found to have no significant changes in instability or Rowe score. This shows that the capsular shift appeared to have maintained its tension over an eight-year period. After the use of a posterior approach, 64% of the shoulders showed a posterolateral defect on radiographs of the humerus.  (+info)

Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. (7/608)

Cbfa1, a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family, plays an essential role in osteogenesis. Cbfa1-deficient mice completely lacked both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts, indicating that Cbfa1 has a fundamental role in osteoblast differentiation. However, Cbfa1 was also expressed in chondrocytes, and its expression was increased according to the maturation of chondrocytes. Terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed Cbfa1 extensively. The significant expression of Cbfa1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes was most prominent at E14.5-16.5. In Cbfa1-deficient mice, whose entire skeleton was composed of cartilage, the chondrocyte differentiation was disturbed. Calcification of cartilage occurred in the restricted parts of skeletons, including tibia, fibula, radius, and ulna. Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and collagenase 3 were not expressed at all, indicating that they are directly regulated by Cbfa1 in the terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked before prehypertrophic chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Adaptation in the vertebral column: a comparative study of patterns of metameric variation in seven species of small mammals. (8/608)

The pattern of variation of certain vertebral measurements along the vertebral column is known to differ in man and mouse. This paper investigates changes in this pattern in 7 species of small mammals and attempts to correlate them with locomotor adaptations and limb dimensions.  (+info)

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

A humeral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the humerus bone, which is the long bone located in the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Humeral fractures can occur anywhere along the length of the bone and can vary in severity, from small hairline cracks to complete breaks that separate the bone into several pieces.

These types of fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, falls, sports injuries, or repetitive stress injuries. Symptoms of a humeral fracture may include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the arm.

Humeral fractures are typically diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for humeral fractures depend on the severity and location of the break, and may include immobilization with a sling or cast, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, or physical therapy to help restore mobility and strength to the arm.

A shoulder fracture refers to a break in one or more bones that make up the shoulder joint, which includes the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). These types of fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, falls, or degenerative conditions. Symptoms may include severe pain, swelling, bruising, limited range of motion, deformity, and in some cases, numbness or tingling sensations. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the fracture but can include immobilization with a sling or brace, surgery, or physical therapy.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

Ununited fracture is a medical term used to describe a fractured bone that has failed to heal properly. This condition is also known as a nonunion fracture. In a normal healing process, the broken ends of the bone will grow together, or "unite," over time as new bone tissue forms. However, in some cases, the bones may not reconnect due to various reasons such as infection, poor blood supply, excessive motion at the fracture site, or inadequate stabilization of the fracture.

Ununited fractures can cause significant pain, swelling, and deformity in the affected area. They may also lead to a decreased range of motion, weakness, and instability in the joint near the fracture. Treatment for ununited fractures typically involves surgical intervention to promote bone healing, such as bone grafting or internal fixation with screws or plates. In some cases, electrical stimulation or ultrasound therapy may also be used to help promote bone growth and healing.

Fracture fixation is a surgical procedure in orthopedic trauma surgery where a fractured bone is stabilized using various devices and techniques to promote proper healing and alignment. The goal of fracture fixation is to maintain the broken bone ends in correct anatomical position and length, allowing for adequate stability during the healing process.

There are two main types of fracture fixation:

1. Internal fixation: In this method, metal implants like plates, screws, or intramedullary rods are inserted directly into the bone to hold the fragments in place. These implants can be either removed or left in the body once healing is complete, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

2. External fixation: This technique involves placing pins or screws through the skin and into the bone above and below the fracture site. These pins are then connected to an external frame that maintains alignment and stability. External fixators are typically used when there is significant soft tissue damage, infection, or when internal fixation is not possible due to the complexity of the fracture.

The choice between internal and external fixation depends on various factors such as the type and location of the fracture, patient's age and overall health, surgeon's preference, and potential complications. Both methods aim to provide a stable environment for bone healing while minimizing the risk of malunion, nonunion, or deformity.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

The diaphysis refers to the shaft or middle portion of a long bone in the body. It is the part that is typically cylindrical in shape and contains the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. The diaphysis is primarily composed of compact bone tissue, which provides strength and support for weight-bearing and movement.

In contrast to the diaphysis, the ends of long bones are called epiphyses, and they are covered with articular cartilage and contain spongy bone tissue filled with red marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells. The area where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis is known as the metaphysis, and it contains growth plates that are responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development.

I believe you are referring to "bone pins" or "bone nails" rather than "bone nails." These terms are used in the medical field to describe surgical implants made of metal or biocompatible materials that are used to stabilize and hold together fractured bones during the healing process. They can also be used in spinal fusion surgery to provide stability and promote bone growth between vertebrae.

Bone pins or nails typically have a threaded or smooth shaft, with a small diameter that allows them to be inserted into the medullary canal of long bones such as the femur or tibia. They may also have a head or eyelet on one end that allows for attachment to external fixation devices or other surgical instruments.

The use of bone pins and nails has revolutionized orthopedic surgery, allowing for faster healing times, improved stability, and better functional outcomes for patients with fractures or spinal deformities.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

A comminuted fracture is a type of bone break where the bone is shattered into three or more pieces. This type of fracture typically occurs after high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height. Commminuted fractures can also occur in bones that are weakened by conditions like osteoporosis or cancer. Because of the severity and complexity of comminuted fractures, they often require extensive treatment, which may include surgery to realign and stabilize the bone fragments using metal screws, plates, or rods.

I'm not aware of a medical term called "bone wires." The term "wiring" is used in orthopedic surgery to describe the use of metal wire to hold bones or fractures in place during healing. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition or term related to "bone wires." It may be a colloquialism, a term used in a specific context, or a term from science fiction. If you could provide more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to give a more accurate answer.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The humeral head is the rounded, articular surface at the proximal end of the humerus bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the shoulder joint and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint, allowing for a wide range of motion in the arm. The humeral head is covered with cartilage that helps to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for movement and shock absorption.

The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located in the upper back region of the human body. It serves as the site of attachment for various muscles that are involved in movements of the shoulder joint and arm. The scapula has several important features:

1. Three borders (anterior, lateral, and medial)
2. Three angles (superior, inferior, and lateral)
3. Spine of the scapula - a long, horizontal ridge that divides the scapula into two parts: supraspinous fossa (above the spine) and infraspinous fossa (below the spine)
4. Glenoid cavity - a shallow, concave surface on the lateral border that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
5. Acromion process - a bony projection at the top of the scapula that forms part of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
6. Coracoid process - a hook-like bony projection extending from the anterior border, which provides attachment for muscles and ligaments

Understanding the anatomy and function of the scapula is essential in diagnosing and treating various shoulder and upper back conditions.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It runs from the elbow to the wrist and is located on the medial side of the forearm, next to the bone called the humerus in the upper arm. The ulna plays a crucial role in the movement of the forearm and also serves as an attachment site for various muscles.

Malunited fractures refer to a type of fracture where the bones do not heal in their proper alignment or position. This can occur due to various reasons such as inadequate reduction of the fracture fragments during initial treatment, improper casting or immobilization, or failure of the patient to follow proper immobilization instructions. Malunited fractures can result in deformity, limited range of motion, and decreased functionality of the affected limb. Additional treatments such as surgery may be required to correct the malunion and restore normal function.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

Shoulder dislocation is a medical condition where the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) gets displaced from its normal position in the glenoid fossa of the scapula (shoulder blade). This can occur anteriorly, posteriorly, or inferiorly, with anterior dislocations being the most common. It is usually caused by trauma or forceful movement and can result in pain, swelling, bruising, and limited range of motion in the shoulder joint. Immediate medical attention is required to relocate the joint and prevent further damage.

An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is a type of bone injury in which the bone breaks and penetrates through the skin, creating an open wound. This condition exposes the fractured bone to the external environment, increasing the risk of infection and complicating the healing process. Open fractures can result from high-energy trauma such as car accidents, falls from significant heights, or industrial incidents. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper treatment and prevention of infection.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

Forearm injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the anatomy and function of the forearm, which is the area between the elbow and wrist. This region consists of two long bones (the radius and ulna) and several muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels that enable movements such as flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the hand and wrist.

Common forearm injuries include:

1. Fractures: Breaks in the radius or ulna bones can occur due to high-energy trauma, falls, or sports accidents. These fractures may be simple (stable) or compound (displaced), and might require immobilization, casting, or surgical intervention depending on their severity and location.

2. Sprains and Strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments connecting the bones in the forearm or the muscles and tendons responsible for movement can lead to sprains and strains. These injuries often cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility.

3. Dislocations: In some cases, forceful trauma might result in the dislocation of the radioulnar joint, where the ends of the radius and ulna meet. This injury can be extremely painful and may necessitate immediate medical attention to realign the bones and stabilize the joint.

4. Tendonitis: Repetitive motions or overuse can cause inflammation and irritation of the tendons in the forearm, resulting in a condition known as tendonitis. This injury typically presents with localized pain, swelling, and stiffness that worsen with activity.

5. Nerve Injuries: Direct trauma, compression, or stretching can damage nerves in the forearm, leading to numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the hand and fingers. Common nerve injuries include radial nerve neuropathy and ulnar nerve entrapment.

6. Compartment Syndrome: Forearm compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure within one of the forearm's fascial compartments restricts blood flow to the muscles, nerves, and tissues inside. This condition can result from trauma, bleeding, or swelling and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent permanent damage.

Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing forearm injuries and ensuring optimal recovery. Patients should consult with a healthcare professional if they experience persistent pain, swelling, stiffness, weakness, or numbness in their forearms or hands.

The olecranon process is a bony prominence and the tip of the ulna bone, which forms the point of the elbow. It serves as an attachment site for several muscles and tendons, including the triceps brachii muscle, and provides structure to the back of the elbow joint. The olecranon process also articulates with the humerus bone to form the hinge joint that allows for extension and flexion of the forearm.

Traction, in medical terms, refers to the application of a pulling force to distract or align parts of the body, particularly bones, joints, or muscles, with the aim of immobilizing, reducing displacement, or realigning them. This is often achieved through the use of various devices such as tongs, pulleys, weights, or specialized traction tables. Traction may be applied manually or mechanically and can be continuous or intermittent, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. Common indications for traction include fractures, dislocations, spinal cord injuries, and certain neurological conditions.

A closed fracture, also known as a simple fracture, is a type of bone break where the skin remains intact and there is no open wound. The bone may be broken in such a way that it does not pierce the skin, but still requires medical attention for proper diagnosis, treatment, and healing. Closed fractures can range from hairline cracks to complete breaks and can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. It is important to seek immediate medical care if a closed fracture is suspected, as improper healing can lead to long-term complications such as decreased mobility, chronic pain, or deformity.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

An ulna fracture is a break in the ulna bone, which is one of the two long bones in the forearm. The ulna is located on the pinky finger side of the forearm and functions to support the elbow joint and assist in rotation and movement of the forearm. Ulna fractures can occur at various points along the bone, including the shaft, near the wrist, or at the elbow end of the bone. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, deformity, limited mobility, and in some cases, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment typically involves immobilization with a cast or splint, followed by rehabilitation exercises to restore strength and range of motion. In severe cases, surgery may be required to realign and stabilize the fractured bone.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The fibula is a slender bone located in the lower leg of humans and other vertebrates. It runs parallel to the larger and more robust tibia, and together they are known as the bones of the leg or the anterior tibial segment. The fibula is the lateral bone in the leg, positioned on the outside of the tibia.

In humans, the fibula extends from the knee joint proximally to the ankle joint distally. Its proximal end, called the head of the fibula, articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia and forms part of the inferior aspect of the knee joint. The narrowed portion below the head is known as the neck of the fibula.

The shaft of the fibula, also called the body of the fibula, is a long, thin structure that descends from the neck and serves primarily for muscle attachment rather than weight-bearing functions. The distal end of the fibula widens to form the lateral malleolus, which is an important bony landmark in the ankle region. The lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot and forms part of the ankle joint.

The primary functions of the fibula include providing attachment sites for muscles that act on the lower leg, ankle, and foot, as well as contributing to the stability of the ankle joint through its articulation with the talus bone. Fractures of the fibula can occur due to various injuries, such as twisting or rotational forces applied to the ankle or direct trauma to the lateral aspect of the lower leg.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Pseudarthrosis is a medical term that refers to a false joint or a nonunion of bones, meaning that the broken bone ends do not heal properly and continue to move at the fracture site. This condition can cause pain, instability, and deformity in the affected limb. It may require additional treatment such as surgery to promote bone healing and stabilization.

The bones that make up the upper extremity, also known as the upper limb, include those found in the arm, shoulder, and wrist. Here is a medical definition of each bone in the upper extremity:

1. Clavicle (Collarbone): A long, S-shaped bone located in the anterior part of the shoulder region that connects the trunk to the arm. It acts as a strut between the scapula and the sternum, providing support and protection for the underlying structures such as blood vessels and nerves.
2. Scapula (Shoulder Blade): A flat, triangular bone located on the posterior aspect of the shoulder region. The scapula has several important functions, including anchoring muscles that move the arm and serving as a site of attachment for the clavicle.
3. Humerus: The longest bone in the upper extremity, located in the arm between the shoulder and elbow. It has a proximal end (head) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the shoulder joint, and a distal end (epicondyles) that articulates with the radius and ulna bones to form the elbow joint.
4. Radius: One of two bones in the forearm located laterally (on the thumb side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The radius also has a unique feature called the radial head, which is a rounded articular surface that allows for rotation of the forearm.
5. Ulna: One of two bones in the forearm located medially (on the pinky side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The ulna also has a prominent process called the olecranon, which forms the bony prominence on the back of the elbow (olecranon process).
6. Carpals: Eight small bones located in the wrist region that form the proximal row of the carpus. They include the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones. The carpals articulate with the radius and ulna proximally, and the metacarpals distally.
7. Metacarpals: Five long bones located in the hand region that form the middle part of the hand. They articulate with the carpals proximally and the phalanges distally. The metacarpals are numbered 1-5, with the thumb being metacarpal 1 and the little finger being metacarpal 5.
8. Phalanges: Fifteen small bones located in the fingers and thumb region that form the distal part of the hand. Each digit has three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), except for the thumb, which only has two (proximal and distal). The phalanges articulate with the metacarpals proximally and each other distally.

Understanding the anatomy of the upper limb is essential for healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and treat conditions affecting this region. Familiarity with the bones, joints, muscles, and nerves that make up the upper limb can help clinicians identify areas of injury or dysfunction, develop appropriate treatment plans, and monitor patient progress over time.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

Intramedullary fracture fixation is a surgical technique used to stabilize and align bone fractures. In this procedure, a metal rod or nail is inserted into the marrow cavity (intramedullary canal) of the affected bone, spanning the length of the fracture. The rod is then secured to the bone using screws or other fixation devices on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and helps maintain proper alignment during the healing process.

The benefits of intramedullary fixation include:

1. Load sharing: The intramedullary rod shares some of the load bearing capacity with the bone, which can help reduce stress on the healing bone.
2. Minimal soft tissue dissection: Since the implant is inserted through the medullary canal, there is less disruption to the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments compared to other fixation methods.
3. Biomechanical stability: Intramedullary fixation provides rotational and bending stiffness, which helps maintain proper alignment of the fracture fragments during healing.
4. Early mobilization: Patients with intramedullary fixation can often begin weight bearing and rehabilitation exercises earlier than those with other types of fixation, leading to faster recovery times.

Common indications for intramedullary fracture fixation include long bone fractures in the femur, tibia, humerus, and fibula, as well as certain pelvic and spinal fractures. However, the choice of fixation method depends on various factors such as patient age, fracture pattern, location, and associated injuries.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

The arm bones are referred to as the humerus, radius, and ulna. The humerus is the upper arm bone that connects the shoulder to the elbow. The radius and ulna are the two bones in the forearm that extend from the elbow to the wrist. Together, these bones provide stability, support, and mobility for the arm and upper limb.

An intra-articular fracture is a type of fracture that involves the joint surface or articular cartilage of a bone. These types of fractures can occur in any joint, but they are most commonly seen in the weight-bearing joints such as the knee, ankle, and wrist.

Intra-articular fractures can be caused by high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls from significant heights, or by low-energy trauma, such as a simple fall in older adults with osteoporosis.

These types of fractures are often complex and may involve displacement or depression of the joint surface, which can increase the risk of developing post-traumatic arthritis. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to ensure optimal outcomes and minimize long-term complications. Treatment options for intra-articular fractures may include surgical fixation with plates, screws, or pins, as well as joint replacement in some cases.

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

A chondroma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that develops in the cartilage. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in various parts of the body, including the joints, ribcage, and nose. Chondromas are most commonly found in the hands and feet.

Chondromas are typically small, measuring less than 2 centimeters in diameter, and they usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if a chondroma grows large enough to press on nearby nerves or blood vessels, it may cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the affected area.

Chondromas are usually diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. If a chondroma is suspected based on these tests, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other types of tumors.

Treatment for chondromas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In most cases, this can be done using minimally invasive techniques that allow for quicker recovery times. After surgery, patients will need to follow up with their healthcare provider to ensure that the tumor has been completely removed and to monitor for any signs of recurrence.

"Sex determination by skeleton," also known as "osteological sex estimation," is the process of determining the biological sex of an individual based on the analysis of their skeletal remains. This can be particularly useful in forensic anthropology and archaeology, where the identification of an individual's sex can provide important information about their identity and help to establish the demographic profile of a population.

The determination of sex from the skeleton is typically based on several characteristics that differ between males and females due to sexual dimorphism, or differences in size and shape that result from genetic and hormonal factors. These characteristics can include:

1. Pelvic bones: The female pelvis is generally wider and more shallow than the male pelvis, with a broader and more rounded pubic arch and a larger sciatic notch.
2. Skull: The male skull tends to be larger and heavier, with a prominent brow ridge, larger mastoid processes, and a squared-off jawline.
3. Long bones: Male long bones are generally longer and heavier than female long bones, with larger diameters and more robust shafts.
4. Other features: Differences in the size and shape of other skeletal elements, such as the clavicle, ribs, and vertebrae, can also provide clues to an individual's sex.

It is important to note that while osteological sex estimation can provide a reliable indication of an individual's biological sex in most cases, it is not always 100% accurate. Factors such as age, ancestry, and health status can affect the expression of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton, making it difficult to determine sex with certainty in some cases.

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that attach to the shoulder blade (scapula) and help stabilize and move the shoulder joint. These muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. The rotator cuff helps to keep the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) centered in the glenoid fossa (shoulder socket), providing stability during shoulder movements. It also allows for rotation and elevation of the arm. Rotator cuff injuries or conditions, such as tears or tendinitis, can cause pain and limit shoulder function.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Orthopedic manipulation is a hands-on technique that is used by healthcare professionals, such as orthopedic doctors, chiropractors, and physical therapists, to diagnose and treat muscle and joint disorders. This manual procedure involves moving the joints or soft tissues in a specific direction and amplitude with the aim of improving joint mobility, reducing pain, relieving muscle tension, and enhancing overall function.

Orthopedic manipulation can be performed on various parts of the body, including the spine, extremities, and cranial structures. It is often used as a complementary treatment alongside other therapeutic interventions, such as exercise, medication, or surgery, to manage a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions, including but not limited to:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Neck pain and stiffness
* Joint pain and inflammation
* Muscle spasms and tension
* Headaches and migraines
* Disc disorders
* Sprains and strains
* Postural dysfunctions

It is important to note that orthopedic manipulation should only be performed by trained and licensed healthcare professionals, as improper techniques can lead to injury or further damage. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider to determine if orthopedic manipulation is an appropriate treatment option for their specific condition.

Left humerus. Posterior view. Left humerus. Anteriolateral view. Left humerus. Medial view. Fracture of the proximal humerus ... Position of humerus (shown in red). Animation. Left humerus. Animation. 3D image Human arm bones diagram. Humerus - inferior ... Humerus - inferior epiphysis. Posterior view. Humerus - superior epiphysis. Anterior view. Humerus - superior epiphysis. ... The humerus (/ˈhjuːmərəs/; PL: humeri) is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the ...
A humerus fracture is a break of the humerus bone in the upper arm. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, and bruising. There ... Humerus fractures are among the most common of fractures. Proximal fractures make up 5% of all fractures and 25% of humerus ... There are three locations that humerus fractures occur: at the proximal location, which is the top of the humerus near the ... "Humerus Fracture (Upper Arm Fracture)". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved 20 June 2019. "Humerus Fractures Overview". ...
A proximal humerus fracture is a break of the upper part of the bone of the arm (humerus). Symptoms include pain, swelling, and ... A proximal humerus fracture in a young child may be a sign of child abuse. In older children and adolescents proximal humerus ... This nerve is the most commonly injured nerve in proximal humerus fractures due to its location close to the proximal humerus. ... Proximal humerus fractures are common. Older people are most commonly affected. In this age group they are the third most ...
The Condyle of humerus is the distal end of the humerus. It is made up of the capitulum and the trochlea. xiphoid.biostr. ... washington.edu/fma/fmabrowser-hierarchy.html?search=Condyle of humerus v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Anatomy, All stub ...
In humans, these two fossae, the most prominent in the humerus, are occasionally transformed into a hole, the supratrochlear ... Brubacher, Jacob W.; Dodd, Seth D. (December 2008). "Pediatric supracondylar fractures of the distal humerus". Curr Rev ...
A supracondylar humerus fracture is a fracture of the distal humerus just above the elbow joint. The fracture is usually ... The capitulum of the humerus is the first to ossify at the age of one year. Head of radius and medial epicondyle of the humerus ... If the proximal humerus is suspected to have pierced the brachialis muscle, gradual traction over the proximal humerus should ... The distal humerus grows slowly post fracture (only contributes 10 to 20% of the longitudinal growth of the humerus), therefore ...
... may refer to: Surgical neck of the humerus Anatomical neck of humerus This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Neck of the humerus. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
In human anatomy of the arm, the capitulum of the humerus is a smooth, rounded eminence on the lateral portion of the distal ... and the distal humerus consists two gently expanded condyles, one lateral and one medial, separated by a shallow groove and a ... surface of the humerus at the distal end. In non-avian archosaurs, including crocodiles, the capitellum and the trochlea are no ... its functional if not ontogenetic equivalent is the dorsal condyle of the humerus. Elbow joint. Deep dissection. Anterior view ...
The anatomical neck divides the head of the humerus from the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus It gives attachment to ... The anatomical neck of the humerus is obliquely directed, forming an obtuse angle with the body of the humerus. It represents ... The difference between anatomical neck and surgical neck of the humerus "Wheeless anatomic neck of humerus". Retrieved 2016-06- ... in the upper half it is represented by a narrow groove separating the head of the humerus from the two tubercles, the greater ...
... may refer to: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Medial epicondyle of the humerus This disambiguation ... page lists articles associated with the title Epicondyle of the humerus. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
It is directly adjacent to the radial fossa of the humerus. Human arm bones diagram Elbow joint. Deep dissection. Anterior view ... Humerus, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system stubs). ...
The medial epicondyle of the humerus is an epicondyle of the humerus bone of the upper arm in humans. It is larger and more ... Left humerus. Anterior view. Front of the left forearm. Superficial muscles. Posterior surface of the forearm. Deep muscles. ... In birds, where the arm is somewhat rotated compared to other tetrapods, it is called the ventral epicondyle of the humerus. In ... The medial epicondyle is located on the distal end of the humerus. Additionally, the medial epicondyle is inferior to the ...
Left humerus. Anterior view. Plan of ossification of the humerus. Posterior surface of the forearm. Superficial muscles. ... In birds, where the arm is somewhat rotated compared to other tetrapods, it is termed dorsal epicondyle of the humerus. In ... This leads to pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow." Medial epicondyle of the humerus Common extensor tendon Tennis ... The lateral epicondyle of the humerus is a large, tuberculated eminence, curved a little forward, and giving attachment to the ...
The surgical neck of the humerus is a bony constriction at the proximal end of shaft of humerus. It is situated distal to the ... The difference between anatomical neck and surgical neck of the humerus Posterior view of the humerus showing the axillary ... This type of fracture takes place when the humerus is forced in one direction while the joint capsule and the rotator cuff ... Quadrangular space Anatomical neck of the humerus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 209 of the 20th ...
The supracondylar process of the humerus (also known as an avian spur) is a variant bony projection on the anteromedial aspect ... Subasi M, Kesemenli C, Necmioglu S, Kapukaya A, Demirtas M (2002). "Supracondylar process of the humerus" (PDF). Acta Orthop ... Pikula, John R (December 1994). "Supracondyloid process of the humerus: a case report". The Journal of the Canadian ... Natsis, Konstantinos (2008). "Supracondylar process of the humerus: Study on 375 Caucasian subjects in Cologne, Germany". ...
... is Latin for neck of humerus, and may refer to: Anatomical neck of humerus Surgical neck of the humerus This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Collum humeri. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
A medial epicondyle fracture is an avulsion injury to the medial epicondyle of the humerus; the prominence of bone on the ... "Clinical Practice Guidelines : Medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus - Emergency Department". www.rch.org.au. Retrieved ... "The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures". Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. ...
... humerus; cervical vertebrae; rib; vertebrae; lumbar vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae Excavation (2005): Level 3 M Mousterian. This ...
Left humerus. Anterior view. Bones of left forearm. Anterior aspect. Front of the left forearm. Superficial muscles. Posterior ... It originates proximally on the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. It inserts distally on the radius, at the base of ... and to the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. The brachioradialis is a superficial, fusiform muscle on the lateral ...
The infraspinatus and teres minor attach to head of the humerus; as part of the rotator cuff they help hold the humeral head in ... It inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus. The tendon of this muscle passes across, and is united with, the posterior ... Left humerus. Posterior view. The scapular and circumflex arteries. The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Teres minor ... It also functions to rotate the humerus laterally. The teres minor is innervated by the axillary nerve. It arises from the ...
Its origin extends below to within 2.5 cm of the margin of the articular surface of the humerus at the elbow joint. Its fibers ... Brachialis labeled at bottom left.) Left humerus. Anterior view. Bones of left forearm. Anterior aspect. Nerves of the left ... It originates from the anterior aspect of the distal humerus; it inserts onto the tuberosity of the ulna. It is innervated by ... The brachialis originates from the anterior surface of the distal half of the humerus, near the insertion of the deltoid muscle ...
as, astragalus; c, caniniform; ca, calcaneum; cl, clavicle; co, coracoid; d, digits; ga, gastralia; h, humerus; m, mandible; mt ...
It attaches to the scapula and the humerus and is one of the seven scapulohumeral muscles. It is a thick but somewhat flattened ... The fibers of teres major insert into the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus. The tendon, at its insertion ... The teres major is a medial rotator and adductor of the humerus and assists the latissimus dorsi in drawing the previously ... Label for Teres major at upper right.) Left humerus. Anterior view. Teres major muscle Left scapula. Posterior surface. Teres ...
Among the remains were vertebrae from the neck, back, and tail; a shoulder blade; a humerus; a partial pelvis; a femur; a tibia ... as indicated by the broad upper end of the humerus that provided attachment areas for a large arm musculature. Like ... but a model based on the circumferences of the humerus and femur supported bipedality throughout ontogeny. Many saurischian ...
Secondly, it adducts the humerus, as when flapping the arms. Thirdly, it rotates the humerus medially, as occurs when arm- ... Left humerus. Anterior view, showing insertion. The axillary artery and its branches The brachial artery The right brachial ... The posterior lamina reaches higher on the humerus than the anterior one, and from it an expansion is given off which covers ... The first action is flexion of the humerus, as in throwing a ball underhand, and in lifting a child. ...
Left humerus. Posterior view. Infraspinatus muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 441 of the ... As one of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, the main function of the infraspinatus is to externally rotate the humerus and ... The infraspinatus and teres minor rotate the head of the humerus outward (external, or lateral, rotation); they also assist in ... The trapezoidal insertion of the infraspinatus onto the humerus is much larger than the equivalent insertion of the ...
It is known from a humerus, parts of the cranium, beak, sternum, and vertebrae which indicate an estimated wingspan of over 4 ... "Teratorn woodburnensis humerus". Willamette Valley Pleistocene Project. Retrieved 24 September 2016. Campbell, Kenneth E. Jr ...
... s are a group of humerus fracture which includes supracondylar fractures, single condyle fractures, bi- ... Attum, B (6 June 2019). "Humerus Fractures Overview". StatPearls. PMID 29489190. v t e (All stub articles, Musculoskeletal ...
... a partial humerus; a proximal phalanx; and a distal thumb phalanx. Orrorin had small teeth relative to its body size. Its ...
In mammals, the humerus displays a wide morphological variation. The size and orientation of its functionally important ... ISBN 978-0-226-31337-5. (Including an illustration of variation in mammalian humeri.) Glass, Kati G.; Watkins, Jeffrey P. (2019 ... surface of the middle of the humerus. It is a site of attachment of deltoid muscle. The deltoid tuberosity has been reported as ... "Chapter 97 - Humerus". Equine Surgery (5th ed.). Saunders. pp. 1690-1699. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-48420-6.00097-1. ISBN 978-0- ...
Left humerus. Posterior view. Left humerus. Anteriolateral view. Left humerus. Medial view. Fracture of the proximal humerus ... Position of humerus (shown in red). Animation. Left humerus. Animation. 3D image Human arm bones diagram. Humerus - inferior ... Humerus - inferior epiphysis. Posterior view. Humerus - superior epiphysis. Anterior view. Humerus - superior epiphysis. ... The humerus (/ˈhjuːmərəs/; PL: humeri) is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the ...
Eighty percent of proximal humerus fractures are nondisplaced or minimally displaced, and therefore, can be managed ... In evaluating humerus injuries, being able to classify the fracture and if necessary, reduce, immobilize, and know when to seek ... The distal humerus has a triangular shape built of 2 columns and a "tie arch." Successful management of distal humerus ... Distal humerus fractures are associated with ipsilateral proximal forearm fractures. In adults, fractures of the distal humerus ...
Horse Humerus. SC-125-04 $180.00 Humerus from Horse Skeleton SC-125. ...
Discover the intriguing case of hip joint pain caused by electromagnetic waves after a complex humerus fracture operation. ... humerus was covered with aluminum foil, the pain disappeared and outward rotation of her left hip joint improved (Figure 5). ... Fujii, Y. (2018) Hip Joint Pain Caused by Electromagnetic Waves Following an Operation for a Complex Humerus Fracture. Case ... She underwent an operation wherein seven titanium bolts were used to fix the humerus. The operation was deemed successful and ...
Unilaterally Humerus is here to bring relatable medical humor to medical professionals of all different fields. From ER to OB ... and everything in between, we try to cater to all of the healthcare professions and bring something "humerus" to the table. ...
Acinonyx jubatus - Female - Adult - Right elementCollection: Kabete laboratory (Id:OM4193) - Country: Kenya - Aj-Huprox3.jpg
The most common treatment for displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures is closed reduction and percutaneous pinning ... After closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of a displaced, uncomplicated, supracondylar humerus fracture, 94% of the ... Time of return of elbow motion after percutaneous pinning of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures.. ... Time of return of elbow motion after percutaneous pinning of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. ...
Home / News / Two-Part Surgical Neck Fractures of the Proximal Part of the Humerus A Biomechanical Evaluation of Two Fixation ... 24 cadaveric humeri were matched in bone mineral density and anthropometric measurements. They were fractured by excising 10mm ... Two-Part Surgical Neck Fractures of the Proximal Part of the Humerus A Biomechanical Evaluation of Two Fixation Techniques.. ... These were separated into four groups with six humeri in each: PHN bending, LCP-PH bending, PHN torsion, or LCP-PH torsion. ...
Online CatalogueOrthopaedic ModelsTraumaTrauma humerus Paediaric Humerus right fractured. Previous product Humerus right pre- ... Paediatric Humerus right fractured. Fractured right paediatric Humerus with physis, proximal Ulna and ulnar nerve ... Right Paediatric Elbow with physis, fractured humerus, ulna, nerve, ligaments in soft tissue with intermuscular fascia and flap ...
FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING. Abstract. Deepak P. Kaladagi1 , Kaladagi P.S 2 , K. Ramachandra3 , Shiv Sandeep S.V4 , ... METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of ... INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed ... of shaft of humerus. The procedure avoids osteonecrosis due to reaming. Unreamed humeral nailing of the pathological humeral ...
B-grade pork humerus bone. Packed in an inner bag in a carton. ... Pork Humerus Bone (B-grade) frozen JUHA AND THE ATRIA MEAT ... Forequarter cutting removable splitted upper arm bone as Humerus bone. Packed to carton with inner bag and then frozen. Product ... B-grade pork humerus bone. Packed in an inner bag in a carton. ...
This study aimed to validate the accuracy of classification of humerus fractures in the SFR and also at providing insight into ... One hundred and sixteen humerus fractures (among them 90 proximal) were retrieved by computer randomisation from the SFR and ...
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The experts at Polysleep have a few tips to help you sleep better with a broken humerus. ... Though the humerus bone is very strong, no one is immune to a break. A fractured humerus occurs when the humerus bone ... What is a humerus fracture?. The humerus is the largest upper extremity bone in the body. It serves as an attachment point for ... Causes and symptoms of a broken humerus. The humerus bone is one of the strongest bones in the human body and requires extreme ...
Distal humerus fractures in adults are relatively uncommon injuries, representing only about 3% of all fractures in adults. In ... encoded search term (Supracondylar Humerus Fractures) and Supracondylar Humerus Fractures What to Read Next on Medscape ... of the Baumann angle of the humerus (a simple, repeatable measurement that can determine outcome of supracondylar humerus ... Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Workup. Updated: Sep 16, 2014 * Author: Mark A Noffsinger, MD; Chief Editor: Jason H Calhoun, ...
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IN offers treatment for distal humerus fractures and elbow fractures. ... A distal humerus fracture is a rare condition that occurs when there is a break in the lower end of the humerus. ... Causes of Distal Humerus Fractures. A distal humerus fracture may result from a fall. This occurs more often when you land ... What is a Distal Humerus Fracture of the Elbow? Injury in the distal humerus can cause impairment in the function of the elbow ...
en Entheseal changes of the superior glenohumeral ligament of the shoulder girdle on both sides. Plausibly consistent with excess strain when walking with mobility aid, e.g. crutches ...
Humeri (Figure 3, A-B, E-F).. A right (QMF 53955) and a left (QMF 53954) humerus, both missing the proximal and distal-most ... The humeri of V. priscus and V. komodoensis are stocky and robust when compared to humeri found in all other members of Varanus ... Humerus (Figure 7, C-D).. Morphologically the humerus differs from V. komodoensis by features already described [12]. NHMR40816 ... Humerus Is the Subject Area "Humerus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
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Tag › humerus Surgical treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus using an external fixation device. Редактор , 2022, ... Tag: 2018, A.P. SKVORTSOV, humerus, I.V. TSOY, P.S. ANDREEV, Practical medicine part 16 №7 (part 1) Innovative technologies in ... Tag: 2022, A.L. EMELIN, diaphyseal fractures, external fixation apparatus, humerus, I.F. AKHTYAMOV, I.S. KHAERTDINOV, Practical ... Treatment of condyle fractures of the humerus in children and adolescents. Редактор , 2018, Clinical case, Practical medicine ...
Discover why external rotation of humerus is essential for chiropractors and physical therapists in the health & medical ... External rotation of humerus refers to the movement where the upper arm bone, the humerus, rotates away from the center of the ... The Benefits of External Rotation of Humerus. 1. Improved Shoulder Function:. External rotation exercises help to stabilize and ... Effective Techniques for External Rotation of Humerus. 1. Therapeutic Stretching:. Begin by gently rotating the arm outward, ...
24 thoughts on "Repurposed Skeleton Hand Ice Tongs - A Humerus Halloween Craft" * Angela says: ... If youre looking for a humerus Halloween repurpose idea thats functional and guaranteed to make your guests smile, then ... Wow, this is brilliant and so creative, Michelle! Your humerus ice tongs would definitely be a humorous party favorite. ... Repurposed Skeleton Hand Ice Tongs - A Humerus Halloween Craft. Posted on October 12, 2020. ...
Fishtail deformity of the distal humerus: a report of 15 cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Sep; 33(6):592-7. ...
  • As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evaluating humerus injuries, classifying the fracture and, if necessary, reducing and immobilizing the fracture are essential. (medscape.com)
  • Proximal humerus fracture accounts for 6% of all fractures and is the third most common osteoporotic fracture, after the distal radius and vertebra. (medscape.com)
  • For the distal and diaphyseal humerus fractures, anteroposterior and lateral views of the humerus, as well as transthoracic and axillary views of the shoulder, should be adequate to visualize a fracture. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we report a case of hip-joint pain that appeared following an operation for a complex humerus fracture. (scirp.org)
  • Physiotherapy After Fracture of the Proximal End of the Humerus. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Two methods of physiotherapy after fracture of the proximal end of the humerus were compared. (medicaljournals.se)
  • A humerus fracture is the medical term for a break in the bone of the upper arm. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • A displaced humerus fracture is where the bone fragments of the shaft do not line up normally. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • With pathological fractures, there may not have been a specific incident that caused the injury, the mid-shaft humerus fracture may have occurred spontaneously. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • Shoulder and arm movement tends to be extremely painful so people with a mid-shaft humerus fracture are often unwilling to move their arm. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • Proximal humerus fracture, commonly known as shoulder fracture, occurs most frequently in the elderly. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Proximal humerus fractures constitute approximately 5% of all fracture cases, being the third most common fracture type in older individuals after hip and wrist fractures. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • The explanation of a proximal humerus fracture would not be complete without first defining its anatomical structure. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • After a proximal humerus fracture and its respective treatment (surgical or non-surgical), it is essential for the patient to follow a rehabilitation plan, which is generally a lengthy process taking between 6 months and a year. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • The most important aspect when trying to fall asleep with a proximal humerus fracture is the posture. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • [ 9 ] This angle was measured by five observers on AP radiographs of 35 elbows that had sustained a nondisplaced supracondylar humerus fracture. (medscape.com)
  • The humerus can receive a fracture on many locations on the bone. (knowyourbody.net)
  • What is a humerus fracture? (polysleep.ca)
  • A humerus fracture is often the direct result of a traumatic injury like a car accident or fall. (polysleep.ca)
  • The humerus bone is one of the strongest bones in the human body and requires extreme force to fracture or break it. (polysleep.ca)
  • An x-ray is required to diagnose a humerus fracture. (polysleep.ca)
  • Anatomically precontoured plate facilitates optimal implant treatment of intraarticular distal humerus fracture. (uteshiyamedicare.com)
  • What is a Distal Humerus Fracture of the Elbow? (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • A distal humerus fracture is a rare condition that occurs when there is a break in the lower end of the humerus. (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • A distal humerus fracture may result from a fall. (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • Distal humerus fractures can be treated by both non-surgical and surgical methods based on the intensity of the fracture. (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • The patient had a pathological fracture of humerus during the post-operative period of intertrochanteric femur fracture surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • VANCOUVER, Canada - Patients who undergo either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy are at an increased risk of fracture, compared with patients with obesity who do not undergo surgery, according to a new analysis of a predominantly male group of US veterans. (medscape.com)
  • Eighty percent of proximal humerus fractures are nondisplaced or minimally displaced and, therefore, can be managed nonoperatively. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 85% of proximal humerus fractures occur in individuals older than 50 years. (medscape.com)
  • Attachments from pectoralis major, deltoid, and rotator cuff muscles influence the degree of displacement of proximal humerus fractures. (medscape.com)
  • Proximal humerus fractures occur at the surgical neck, where approximately 80% of these fractures do not involve displaced structures, meaning they have a single fragment and remain stable. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • The majority of proximal humerus fractures in older individuals occur as a result of a strong fall on the outstretched arm. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Right Paediatric Elbow with physis, fractured humerus, ulna, nerve, ligaments in soft tissue with intermuscular fascia and flap window. (synbone.com)
  • The humerus is a long bone that has a proximal end that articulates with the scapula within the shoulder joint and a distal end that connects to the forearm bones (ulna and radius) at the elbow. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • The distal (lower) end of the humerus bone in the upper arm joins with the radius and ulna bones in the forearm to form the elbow joint. (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • Elbow loading promotes longitudinal bone growth of the ulna and the humerus. (cdc.gov)
  • In view of recently recognized anabolic responses promoted by a joint-loading modality, we examined the effects of elbow loading on longitudinal growth of the ulna and the humerus. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the selected transcription factors were elevated in the loaded ulna and humerus. (cdc.gov)
  • AAOS Treatment Guidelines: The treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. (orthobullets.com)
  • The authors concluded that surgeons should treat pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures on the basis of degree of displacement rather than the Gartland classification. (medscape.com)
  • Most isolated proximal and diaphyseal humerus fractures can be managed by an orthopedist in an outpatient setting. (medscape.com)
  • Inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Baumann angle of the humerus in children with supracondylar humeral fractures. (medscape.com)
  • The main vascular supply to the humerus comes from the anterolateral branch of the anterior humeral circumflex artery. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The proximal articular surface of the humerus is termed the humeral head. (medscape.com)
  • The main function of the humerus bone is that it serves as the site for muscular attachment which is then responsible for different movements, especially of the shoulder and elbow joint. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Injury in the distal humerus can cause impairment in the function of the elbow joint. (aaronbaesslermd.com)
  • Fractures of the distal HUMERUS at the ELBOW JOINT. (bvsalud.org)
  • The body or shaft of the humerus is triangular to cylindrical in cut section and is compressed anteroposteriorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. (medscape.com)
  • Radial nerve injury following humerus shaft fractures is relatively common. (medscape.com)
  • The shaft of humerus can be divided into thirds, the proximal (upper third), middle (mid third) and distal (lower third). (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • The mid-shaft region of the humerus is the long, thin part of the bone. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • The back surface of the shaft of humerus is larger than the front. (shoulder-pain-explained.com)
  • The shaft of the humerus contains the deltoid tuberosity and the radial groove. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The muscles which are attached to the shaft of the humerus are the coracobrachialis, the deltoid, the brachialis, the brachioradialis and the lateral and medial heads of the triceps. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The word "humerus" is derived from Latin: humerus, umerus meaning upper arm, shoulder, and is linguistically related to Gothic ams shoulder and Greek ōmos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forequarter cutting removable splitted upper arm bone as Humerus bone. (atriafromfinland.com)
  • The humerus is the long bone located in the upper arm of the body which extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The word "humerus'' literally means upper arm and is the only bone in the upper arm. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The humerus is located between the shoulder and the elbow in the upper arm. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Heal et al evaluated the IEOR and IAOR of the Gartland radiographic classification for supracondylar humerus fractures in children. (medscape.com)
  • The anatomical neck of the humerus is an indentation distal to the head of the humerus on which the articular capsule attaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the multiaxial ball-and-socket synovial joint formed by the articular surfaces of the glenoid cavity and the head of the humerus. (medscape.com)
  • On the shoulder side, the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Here we report an unusual case of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the humerus predominantly involving the metaphysis in a post covid elderly female . (bvsalud.org)
  • Two-Part Surgical Neck Fractures of the Proximal Part of the Humerus A Biomechanical Evaluation of Two Fixation Techniques. (opnews.com)
  • The surgical neck of the humerus is fractured. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many people place pillows on both sides of them to limit movement throughout the night and utilize a memory foam pillow beneath the fractured humerus to ensure adequate support and cushion. (polysleep.ca)
  • If the humerus gets fractured in this section, it will lead to an injury to the radial nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • A fractured humerus occurs when the humerus bone experiences excess force, causing the bone to break in one or more places. (polysleep.ca)
  • The upper or proximal extremity of the humerus consists of the bone's large rounded head joined to the body by a constricted portion called the neck, and two eminences, the greater and lesser tubercles. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesser tuberosity) is smaller, anterolaterally placed to the head of the humerus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humerus fractures are caused by direct trauma to the arm or shoulder or by axial loading transmitted through the elbow. (medscape.com)
  • It articulates with the head of the humerus, forming the glenohumeral joint, which serves as the main joint of the shoulder. (medscape.com)
  • Intercondylar T fractures of the humerus in the adult. (medscape.com)
  • Mehne DK, Matta J. Bicolumn fractures of the adult humerus. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Rarely, vascular or nerve injuries are associated with humerus fractures. (medscape.com)
  • In adults, fractures of the distal humerus account for approximately 2% of all fractures and a third of all humerus fractures. (medscape.com)
  • The head (caput humeri), is nearly hemispherical in form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper portion of the humerus has a round head, a thin neck, and two tubercles. (knowyourbody.net)
  • This passes laterally to the biceps and forms the arcuate artery which enters the head of the humerus in the intertubercular groove and branches out into multiple tuberosities. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Distal humerus fractures are associated with ipsilateral proximal forearm fractures . (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of distal humerus fractures. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical Treatment of Supracondylar Humerus Fractures in Children. (medscape.com)
  • If you have a broken humerus, there is a high probability of damage to the surrounding tissue, nerves, muscles, and blood supply. (polysleep.ca)
  • It then winds in the spiral groove of the humerus with the profunda brachii vessels. (medscape.com)
  • Distal humerus fractures are primarily caused by high-energy traumas, and in the elderly, they are most often caused by by low-energy falls. (medscape.com)
  • A fractured humerus is almost always the direct result of a traumatic injury from a car accident, a fall from extreme heights, or an injury from contact sports like football. (polysleep.ca)
  • This diagnostic test allows your doctor to visualize the injury, determine if the injury is proximal or distal, assess the alignment of your shoulder and humerus bone, and determine the direction of the break. (polysleep.ca)
  • The two Moderate recommendations include nonsurgical immobilization for acute or nondisplaced fractures of the humerus or posterior fat pad sign, and closed reduction with pin fixation for displaced type II and III and displaced flexion fractures. (orthobullets.com)
  • Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include r humerus nail, polaris plus nail, polaris-nail, s.s-proximal-humerus-nail-regular, s.s-proximal-humerus-nail and interlocking-nail-for-humerus. (yogeshwarimplant.com)
  • humerus was covered with aluminum foil, the pain disappeared and outward rotation of her left hip joint improved ( Figure 5 ). (scirp.org)
  • An unusual case of metaphyseal osteonecrosis of humerus in a post covid patient: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Based on the best current evidence and a systematic review of published studies, 14 recommendations have been created to guide clinical practice and management of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. (orthobullets.com)
  • Silva et al studied the interobserver reliability (IEOR) and intraobserver reliability (IAOR) of the Baumann angle of the humerus (a simple, repeatable measurement that can determine outcome of supracondylar humerus fractures in children). (medscape.com)

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