Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Ectromelia, Infectious: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Palyam Virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS infecting cattle and sheep. It is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes and gnats (CULICOIDES).Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseAlphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.RNA Virus InfectionsChikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants: A highly fatal contagious disease of goats and sheep caused by PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS VIRUS. The disease may be acute or subacute and is characterized by stomatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing a severe, often fatal enteritis and pneumonia (PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS) in sheep and goats.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CRNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bites and StingsChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Kadaveru K; Vyas J; Schiller MR (2008). "Viral infection and human disease--insights from minimotifs". Front Biosci. 13 (13): ... Schiller MR (2007). "Minimotif miner: a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity". ...
Kadaveru, Krishna; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R. (2008). "Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs". ...
Kadaveru, Krishna; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R. (2008). "Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs". ... This helps to identify minimotifs involved in generating organism diversity or those that may be associated with a disease. ... Schiller, Martin R. (2007). "Minimotif Miner: A Computational Tool to Investigate Protein Function, Disease, and Genetic ...
Kadaveru K, Vyas J, Schiller MR (2008). "Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs". Front. Biosci. 13 (13 ... Kadaveru K, Vyas J, Schiller MR (2008). "Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs". Front. Biosci. 13 (13 ... The extent of human SLiM mimicry is surprising with many viral proteins containing several functional SLiMs, for example, the ... Several diseases have been linked to mutations in SLiMs. For instance, one cause of Noonan Syndrome is a mutation in the ...
Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases". Annali ... found in the human vagina is remarkable, which leads to the possibility that there are host factors that select for specific ... 10:8. Matu M. N., Orinda G. O., Njagi E. N. M., Cohen C. R., Bukusi E. A. (2010). "In vitro inhibitory activity of human ... Human Microbiome Project Lactic acid bacteria Skin flora Vaginal microbiota in pregnancy David, M. (2006). "Albert und Gustav ...
Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases". Annali ... "What are the treatments for bacterial vaginosis (BV)?". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 2013-07-15. ... "What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 2013-05-21. Retrieved ... PLoS ONE volume 7, issue 6. (2012) ISSN 1932-6203 NIH/Medline CDC Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID; Salpingitis, Endometritis) ...
Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... Bacterial diseases[edit]. Bacterium. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax. Anthrax vaccines. ... "Lyme Disease Vaccine". Lyme Info. Retrieved April 24, 2013.. *^ Bagnoli, F.; Bertholet, S.; Grandi, G. (2012). "Inferring ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1192-1197. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.17017. PMC 3323497 . PMID 22048120.. ...
Like all other animals, if bats get infected with this disease, they will die. If humans come in contact with rabies, it is far ... Rabies is a deadly viral disease of the central nervous system. In almost all cases, the virus is passed on through the bite, ... If a human is exposed to rabies, one should get initial IM injection of Human Rabies immune Globulin, otherwise known as HRIG. ... They have made the move to human areas due to encroachment by humans into their natural habitats. A misconception about bats is ...
Pathology and Pathogenesis of Human Viral Disease. CDC. "Lymphocytic choriomeningitis." Emonet SF, Garidou L, McGavern DB, de ... Pathology and Pathogenesis of Human Viral Disease. San Diego, California: Academic, 2000. Print. Lasker, Jill S. "Lymphocytic ... Div of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC (August 2005). "Update: interim guidance ... In many ways, this disease mirrors persistent viral infection, in the way that it evades and progresses despite the immune ...
Viral infections can cause disease in humans, animals and even plants. However, they are usually eliminated by the immune ... Common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, the flu, chickenpox and cold sores. Serious diseases such as ... Vaccines are available to prevent over fourteen viral infections of humans and more are used to prevent viral infections of ... For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects only human T cells, because its surface protein, gp120, can only ...
"Immunotherapy of a viral disease by in vivo production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies". Human gene therapy. 11 (10): 1407 ... In addition, monogeneic diseases such as haemophilia, Gaucher's disease and some Mucopolysaccharide disorders could also ... Human trials utilising encapsulated cells were performed in 1998. Encapsulated cells expressing a cytochrome P450 enzyme to ... The capsules were pumped through a series of vessels simulating the human GI tract to determine how well the capsules would ...
They cause chronic human viral infections that have not yet been associated with disease. At least 200 different species are ... It requires a host polymerase for replication to occur but the genome itself does not encode for a viral polymerase and, as a ... Three genera are associated with human infections: Torque teno virus (TTV), Torque teno midi virus (TTMDV) and Torque teno mini ... Anellovirus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ICTVdb Viral Zone. ...
"Impaired response to interferon-alpha/beta and lethal viral disease in human STAT1 deficiency". Nature Genetics. 33 (3): 388-91 ... That causes intracellular bacterial diseases or viral infections and impaired IFN a, b, g and IL27 responses are diagnosed. In ... viral and bacterial infections. The very first reported case of STAT1 deficiency in human was autosomal dominant mutation and ... Besides common viral and bacterial infections, these patients develop autoimmunities or even carcinomas. It is very complicated ...
RSV is the leading viral agent among pneumoviruses in pediatric upper respiratory diseases globally. New pneumoviruses have ... In humans, the orthopneumovirus that specifically impacts infants and small children is known as human respiratory syncytial ... "A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease". Nature Medicine. 7 (6): 719- ... In severe viral detection, intubation and the use of a mechanical ventilation will be inserted as a breathing apparatus. The ...
"Viral Hepatits". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 30 March ... According to official estimates 10 people have died and 1600 have developed the disease. Unofficial estimates put the number of ...
Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September-October 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases ... Douching is strongly discouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and various medical authorities, for this ... "Diseases Characterized by Vaginal Discharge". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original ... BV is a risk factor for viral shedding and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. BV may increase the risk of infection with or ...
Rabies is a viral disease that exists in Haiti and throughout the world. It often causes fatal inflammation of the brain in ... "Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2016". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22 (11): 1963-1965. doi:10.3201/eid2211.160826. ... making it difficult to identify evidence for the virus in humans and shed light on the disease as a whole for them, in Haiti. ... "Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (6). doi:10.1371/journal. ...
Dessain SK, editor (2008). Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology ... Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology and immunology; vol. 317). pp ... from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. His technique for cloning native human antibodies has ... 2015) "A human monoclonal IgG that binds aβ assemblies and diverse amyloids exhibits anti-amyloid activities in vitro and in ...
... of disease among non-human animals. During the 20th century significant epizootics of viral diseases in animals, particularly ... Most viruses are species-specific and would have posed no threat to humans. The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in ... In humans, many emerging viruses have come from other animals. When viruses jump to other species the diseases caused in humans ... The Human Genome Project has revealed the presence of numerous viral DNA sequences scattered throughout the human genome. These ...
The first human disease known to be associated with miRNA deregulation was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Many other miRNAs also ... The expression of transcription activators by human herpesvirus-6 DNA is believed to be regulated by viral miRNA. miRNAs can ... The first human disease associated with deregulation of miRNAs was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Under a standard nomenclature ... The human homolog of miR-712 was found on the RN45s homolog gene, which maintains similar miRNAs to mice. MiR-205 of humans ...
... (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans ... is not thought to cause disease in humans, but has caused disease in other primates.[38][39] All five viruses are closely ... human consumption of bushmeat has been linked to animal-to-human transmission of diseases, including Ebola.[74] ... List of human disease case fatality rates. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ...
Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet 1998; 351( ... and Laribacter hongkongensis in fish and human [11,12]. Yuen is currently the Chair of Infectious Disease at the Department of ... He co-directs the State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Disease of China in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of ... His major research interest is on microbial hunting and novel microbes in emerging infectious diseases. Yuen graduated from the ...
... is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. Early symptoms can include fever ... Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. Infected bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, ... In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends people receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin ( ... 10: PCR technology for lyssavirus diagnosis". In Clewley, J.P. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Human Viral Diagnosis. ...
Diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans are terrmed zoonoses. A well-known zoonosis is rabies, a viral ... Other diseases affecting dogs include endocrine diseases, immune-mediated diseases, and reproductive diseases. Diabetes ... This disease can be prevented by vaccination. Other canine viral diseases of note include herpesvirus and influenza. Canine ... Although dogs do not seem to be as susceptible to such diseases as humans, similar rickettsial diseases have been spread by ...
The venereal diseases include bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Some of the important diseases are HIV ... infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, candidiasis, herpes simplex, human papillomavirus infection, and genital scabies. Other ... Venereology is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The name ...
Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Borna Disease Virus, das Virus der Bornaschen Krankheit, mit Species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (Typus) u. a. ... Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ...
The Maiztegui National Human Viral Disease Institute (INEVH) is a viral research laboratory in Pergamino, Argentina. The INEVH ... Julio Isidro Maiztegui, developed breakthrough in the treatment of the disease in 1971 when he devised the introduction of ... the disease was believed to affect up to 1,000 people annually and claimed up to a 30% mortality rate in its early years. One ...
Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have ... Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies ... This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process ... Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. ...
Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus.. Yuen KY1, Chan PK, ... Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical ... All seven patients older than 13 years had severe disease (four deaths), whereas children 5 years or younger had mild symptoms ... Avian Influenza A H5N1 virus causes human influenza-like illness with a high rate of complications in adults admitted to ...
CARTA Presents: The Impact of Infectious Disease on Humans and our Origins: Susan Kaech: Human Adaptive Immunity Against Viral ... Infectious Disease and Human Origins: Sujan Shresta-Dengue and Zika: Mosquito-Borne Viral Infections. ... Infectious Disease and Human Origins: Sujan Shresta-Dengue and Zika: Mosquito-Borne Viral Infections. ... Infectious diseases have profound influences on the evolution of their host populations. In the case of humans, the host ...
Viral and bacterial risk factors in human diseases. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, ... Viruses or bacteria have been implicated as risk factors in many diseases: This site references those implicated in Alzheimers ... disease, Autism, Bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, chronic fatigue, anorexia and ... Viral and bacterial risk factors in human diseases. * Quote Post by chriscar » Sat Mar 12, 2011 9:54 am ...
... of Papua New Guinea to determine the distribution of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Our data suggest that HHV-8 has ... Human Herpesvirus-8 and Other Viral Infections, Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(5):893-895. doi:10.3201/ ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Human Herpesvirus-8 and Other Viral Infections, Papua New Guinea On This Page ...
Epub ahead of print] Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease. Wong J (https:// ... Epub ahead of print] Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease.. Wong J1, Layton ... Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 ... tetano started a topic Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease ...
Host cytolytic effector responses appear to delay the progression of HIV-1 disease. ... helps control viral replication and is associated with slower declines in CD4+ cell counts. ... Cytotoxic-T-cell Responses, Viral Load, and Disease Progression in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection N Engl J ... Background: Early in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection there is a decline in viral replication that has ...
Shingles disease viral infection concept as a medical illustration online ✓ All image rights included ✓ High resoluti... ... Shingles disease viral infection concept as a medical illustration with skin blisters hives and sores on a human back torso as ... human shingles body shingles rash disease hives healthcare viral infection painful rash anatomy chickenpox varicella nerve ... shingles disease health care pain reactivated virus pathology itching medical condition herpes zoster medical skin infection ...
... to their biological identity and as an alternative to their presentation in many college textbooks as pathogens of the human ... This college level instructional aid is a concise yet comprehensible review of human viral diseases specifically designed for ... Classroom Lectures on Human Viral Diseases Presented at the City University of New York. An Explanation of Basic Principles. ... This college level instructional aid is a concise yet comprehensible review of human viral diseases specifically designed for ...
Human Herpes Viruses Latent Viruses Introduction Herpes Viruses are a leading cause of human viral diseases, second only to ... Human Herpes Viruses Latent Viruses Introduction Herpes Viruses are a leading cause of human viral diseases, second only to ... Human Herpes virus 6 Human Herpes virus 8 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) These are very large viruses and their genome encodes at ... Kuru A PRION DISEASE What is Kuru? u d c rre c hat o o de t is r r ngthe ain d r o ...
Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America Volume 34, issue 1, pages 91-97. Published in print January 2002 ... This has been shown to be because of latent HIV-1 replication-competent provirus in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, cryptic viral ... This has been shown to be because of latent HIV-1 replication-competent provirus in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, cryptic viral ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to profound decreases in morbidity and mortality rates in human ...
Animal models of viral-induced ataxia : implications for human disease. / Weiner, L. P.; Herndon, R. M.; Johnson, R. T. ... Weiner, L. P. ; Herndon, R. M. ; Johnson, R. T. / Animal models of viral-induced ataxia : implications for human disease. In: ... Weiner, L. P., Herndon, R. M., & Johnson, R. T. (1978). Animal models of viral-induced ataxia: implications for human disease. ... Animal models of viral-induced ataxia: implications for human disease. Advances in neurology. 1978 Dec 1;21:373-379. ...
should it say viral diseases in humans?[edit]. propose name change. -Preceding unsigned comment added by 207.151.229.24 (talk) ... Viral diseases, viruses, or both[edit]. This template started out listing diseases only. It now seems to becoming a mix of ... I think we should move it back to dealing with diseases (i.e. disease first), group items by disease characteristics, and ... Diseases template[edit]. This is supposed to be a diseases template (per name, title, category, etc.), but lately the emphasis ...
Viral and Inflammatory Triggers of Neurodegenerative Diseases Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Immune pathways and cytokines induced by viral infections can render neurons vulnerable to subsequent degeneration and may ... Immune pathways and cytokines induced by viral infections can render neurons vulnerable to subsequent degeneration and may ... Current Addresses: Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 72076 ...
Novel therapeutic targets for human inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, sepsis and viral infection ... Faculty with Research or Specialty Interest in Novel therapeutic targets for human inflammatory diseases including ...
... except for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Viruses have to reproduce by infecting their host cells. Polyamines are ... Targeting Polyamine Metabolism for Control of Human Viral Diseases Mingyuan Huang # 1 2 , Weijian Zhang # 1 2 , Haiyong Chen 3 ... Targeting Polyamine Metabolism for Control of Human Viral Diseases Mingyuan Huang et al. Infect Drug Resist. 2020. . ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2 ...
Human Albumin and Transmission of Viral Diseases. This product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Based on ... it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral diseases and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). There is a ... No cases of transmission of viral diseases, CJD or vCJD have ever been identified for licensed albumin or albumin contained in ... have a disease that affects your muscles and nerves (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS or Lou Gehrigs disease], ...
Human Albumin and Transmission of Viral Diseases. This product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Based on ... Human Albumin and Transmission of Viral Diseases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] ... it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral diseases and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). There is a ... No cases of transmission of viral diseases, CJD, or vCJD have ever been identified for licensed albumin or albumin contained in ...
The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... T1 - The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in ...
Replication of Marburg virus in human endothelial cells. A possible mechanism for the development of viral hemorrhagic disease. ... Replication of Marburg virus in human endothelial cells. A possible mechanism for the development of viral hemorrhagic disease. ... cause a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and primates. The disease is characterized as a pantropic virus infection often ... The human heart is a target organ for the octapeptide hormone, angiotensin II (Ang II). Recent studies suggest that the human ...
... improved lentiviral vector for use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. ... Studying the Proteome and Human Diseases using Mass Spectrometry. Amanda Hummon. An interview with Amanda Hummon, discussing ... Novel viral vector improves gene therapy for sickle cell disease. *Download PDF Copy ... 2019, October 03). Novel viral vector improves gene therapy for sickle cell disease. News-Medical. Retrieved on August 14, 2020 ...
A four task project was being conducted to assess the risks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) ... NIOSH-Cooperative-Agreement; Cooperative-Agreement-U60-CCU-100929; Disease-transmission; Body-fluids; Viral-infections; ... A four task project was being conducted to assess the risks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) ... Some limited counts of free viral particles were available in a relatively high titer set of sera along with some older ...
Humans are commonly exposed to transmissible agents that infect and cause a wide variety of subacute and chronic diseases in ... The objective of this study is to investigate whether these agents cause similar diseases in humans, by studying workers in ... The role of the biological environment in the occurrence of many chronic human diseases has been little studied. ... Viral-diseases; Viral-infections; Poultry-industry; Poultry-workers; Meat-handlers; Mortality-rates; Humans; Curing-compounds; ...
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-C virus (HCV), and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in 262 funeral ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Training; Infection-control; Viral-infections; Contagious-diseases; Occupational-exposure; ... The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-C virus (HCV), and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in 262 funeral ... Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among funeral service ...
  • Laboratory confirmation is by viral isolation, with such techniques as quantitative PCR for detecting viral RNA, antigen capture (ELISA), and immunofluorescence of infected tissues. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • This has been shown to be because of latent HIV-1 replication-competent provirus in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes, cryptic viral replication below the limits of detection. (oup.com)
  • Viruses can be classified by a number of different methods including disease they trigger, morphology, host range, and nature of the genome in association with the method of replication and transcription. (news-medical.net)
  • An infectious cycle includes attachment and entry, production of viral mRNA and proteins, genome replication and finally, assembly and release of new particles. (news-medical.net)
  • Viral gene delivery systems consist of viruses that are modified to be replication-deficient and that can deliver the genes to the cells to provide expression. (news-medical.net)
  • He investigates viral and cellular regulators of HTLV gene expression/replication, cellular transformation and virus survival or persistence in infected hosts. (osu.edu)
  • The Replication of Viral DNA. (wiley.com)
  • The HIV-1 genome is comprised of structural and enzymatic polyproteins as well as regulatory/accessory, which are essential for viral replication. (pitt.edu)
  • Viral protein R (Vpr), which is identified as one of the regulatory/accessory genes, is responsible for carrying out several of the virus' life functions, including virus replication, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and immune dysregulation. (pitt.edu)
  • The receptor for several arenaviruses, alpha-dystroglycan, was identified, the replication strategy of these viruses was decoded, and application of a reverse genetics system for studying viral gene function and viral biology is well underway. (worldcat.org)
  • Exposures ranging from 59-66 mg/cu. m. but not 0.76 mg/cu. m. of the nitrate resulted in a one-day extension of viral replication and concommitant retardation of peribronchial lymphocytic infiltration. (epa.gov)
  • Viruses don't have Latin species names but are named after the disease they cause: for example, measles virus, polio virus, and so on. (open.edu)
  • Human heart chymase has recently been purified and its cDNA and gene cloned. (jci.org)
  • Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a unique, improved viral vector to use in gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder caused by a mutation in the beta-globin gene that results in hemoglobin having an abnormal structure. (news-medical.net)
  • Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • In gene therapy approaches, researchers use viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes into host bone marrow stem cells that are introduced back into the patient's body. (news-medical.net)
  • Gene therapy approaches that use these reverse-oriented vectors for sickle cell disease have so far been encouraging, but Tisdale and team say this gene translation process has made vector preparation and the efficiency of gene transfer more challenging. (news-medical.net)
  • Adenoviruses, retroviruses, lentiviruses, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus are most often used for viral gene delivery. (news-medical.net)
  • Although non-viral vector systems such as hydrodynamic delivery, lipid-mediated vectors and the gene gun have been tried, to date none have approached the efficacy of the viral delivery systems. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent work has revealed the importance of a viral gene, termed Hbz, in the maintenance and proliferation of HTLV-1 infected cells. (osu.edu)
  • In fact, Hbz is the only viral gene consistently expressed in HTLV-1 associated adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. (osu.edu)
  • There is a new chapter on Human Viral Disease and rapidly developing areas, such as the use of viruses as gene therapy vectors, have been included. (wiley.com)
  • Updated throughout, including a new chapter on human viral disease and new material on the use of viruses as gene therapy vectors. (wiley.com)
  • These "early" proteins are also important for promoting "late" viral gene synthesis and preparing the cell for the production of progeny virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If miRNA can in fact survive the gut then it's entirely possible that miRNA intended to influence insect gene regulation could also affect humans. (mercola.com)
  • A single intracardiac administration of the vector carrying neprilysin gene in a mice model of Alzheimer disease reduced Abeta oligomers, with concurrent alleviation of abnormal learning and memory function. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A major current focus is the use of rAAV for gene editing in human pluripotent stem cells, including efforts to engineer universal donor cells for regenerative medicine applications. (washington.edu)
  • A genome-wide map of adeno-associated virus-mediated human gene targeting. (washington.edu)
  • Normal collagen and bone production by gene-targeted human osteogenesis imperfecta iPSCs. (washington.edu)
  • Dr. Green's research focuses on understanding the molecular basis of T-lymphocyte transformation, as well as the induction of leukemia/lymphoma and neurological diseases by the human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs). (osu.edu)
  • Today HTLV-1 and possibly closely related HTLV-2 are associated with a variety of human neurological diseases, and research activities in this field may show that human retroviruses can cause a variety of human diseases in addition to those affecting the nervous system. (worldcat.org)
  • 28 Of genes commonly expressed in the two species, 20 percent have a different expression profile, of which 52 genes are linked to neurological diseases. (pcrm.org)
  • A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1918 no vaccine, antibiotic, or clear recognition of the disease was known. (bartleby.com)
  • There are encouraging preliminary results with a live CMV vaccine, but the questions of viral persistence and oncogenicity require further evaluation. (springer.com)
  • Higher viral antigen positive cell frequencies were observed for DENV2 when compared with both vaccine viruses. (scielo.br)
  • Health belief factors predicting HPV vaccination included: personal susceptibility of disease, perception of disease severity, attributes of HPV, cost and availability of vaccine, attributes of HPV, and recommendations from others. (lww.com)
  • A survey of 5 universities in Taiwan found that the undergraduate female students' intention of obtaining the human papillomavirus vaccine was affected by sociodemographic characteristics, the awareness of human papillomavirus and the vaccine, and personal health beliefs. (lww.com)
  • An Alzheimer's "vaccine"-AN-1792-was well-tolerated in monkeys, 15,16 but caused strokes and inflammation of the central nervous system in humans. (pcrm.org)
  • An ELISA was also used to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp125 viral capsid antigen (Gull Laboratories, Inc.). Antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoabsorbent assay (Innotest HCV Ab III, Innogenetics, Ghent, Belgium). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, the authors differentiated human iPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells (iHLCs) and infected them with hepatitis C virus (HCV). (biologists.org)
  • Candida species are the most prominent cause of invasive fungal disease in the US, with the major protagonist being Candida albicans . (brown.edu)
  • Hepatic occlusive disease, also called hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is the typical result of acute PA poisoning, well documented experimentally and in livestock poisoning [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Sexually Transmitted Diseases. (lww.com)
  • Infectious diseases have profound influences on the evolution of their host populations. (uctv.tv)
  • In the case of humans, the host species has also shaped pathogen dynamics and virulence via a multitude of factors from changes in social organization, group size, and exploitation of varied habitats and their animals and plant resources to agriculture, technology, rapid long-distance travel, medicine and global economic integration - which all continue to shape epidemics and the human host populations. (uctv.tv)
  • Such a system could monitor the levels of known viruses in human populations, rapidly detect outbreaks, and systematically discover novel or variant human viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Our proposed approach ( Figure ), in which large populations are continually monitored for new human-infective viruses, has not been considered technically feasible or medically necessary in the past. (cdc.gov)
  • Our approach presents a promising alternative for sample collection in studies focusing on the ethnic and genetic composition of populations or diseases associated with different mtDNA haplogroups and genotypes. (nature.com)
  • The ability to increase productivity of insect populations that supply commercially important products such as dyes, silk, and honey and the deliberate introduction of insect diseases into populations of insect pests involves knowledge of microbiology and biochemistry as well as entomology. (infoplease.com)
  • As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. (bioline.org.br)
  • 2019) Sequencing and analysis of globally obtained human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 genomes. (plos.org)
  • This study provides an efficient recognition method for coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, using an end-to-end design to implement targeted and effective isolation for the containment of this communicable disease. (springer.com)
  • The second half deals with the interactions of the tubercle bacillus with the host immune system in experimental animals and humans, which may lead to the development of protective immunity or may produce immunopathologic reactions and tissue destruction. (worldcat.org)
  • Reservoirs of Human Im. (oup.com)
  • An understanding of these reservoirs for HIV-1 in the setting of virally suppressive HAART will be critical for the development of new approaches to induce HIV-1 remissions and for the exploration of the possibility of viral eradication in the future. (oup.com)
  • This research seeks to characterize the transcriptome and epigenome of models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Drosophila melanogaster . (brown.edu)
  • NHP models have failed to inform us of Alzheimer's disease pathology. (pcrm.org)
  • 13,14 Plaques and tangles in the brain are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease in humans, but not in monkeys. (pcrm.org)
  • One set of serial dilution measurements interpreted in terms of distributions of cell mediated infectious titers for one specific population group, asymptomatic seropositive people, indicated that the median cellular infectious titer for this group may exceed the titer due to free viral particles by something like 500 times. (cdc.gov)
  • Some limited counts of free viral particles were available in a relatively high titer set of sera along with some older experiments on deliberate experimental inoculation of people with known jaundice producing sera were available sources for the HBV study. (cdc.gov)