Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 18.104.22.168.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fetal Organ Maturity: Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lipoprotein-X: An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 22.214.171.124.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.TriglyceridesSoybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta: A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 126.96.36.199.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.EstersSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cytosine NucleotidesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 188.8.131.52.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Diflucortolone: A topical glucocorticoid used in various DERMATOSES. It is absorbed through the skin, bound to plasma albumin, and may cause adrenal suppression. It is also administered as the valerate.Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent: A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular: A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).TritiumErgosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Inbred C57BLAmniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Pancreatic lipase family
"Cloning and expression of human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase cDNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (8): 2335-2339. ... "Preparation and characterization of reference materials for human pancreatic lipase: BCR 693 (from human pancreatic juice) and ... In humans, pancreatic lipase is encoded by the PNLIP gene. LIPC LIPG LIPH LIPI LPL PLA1A PNLIP PNLIPRP1 PNLIPRP2 PNLIPRP3 ... As the primary lipase enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) dietary fat molecules in the human digestive system, it is one of ...
Coquelicot Asleep in the Poppies: A Variety of Whimsical Verse
Coquelicot, during one of her trips to Earth, decides to discard her bells and experience life as a human. Instead of living in ... It is in this subconscious world that she meets Claude and Lecithin the inventor. They do all sorts of crazy stuff together ... like having incredible battles with evergreens and satellites, getting chased by psychotic zombies, playing with Lecithin's ...
Levene PA, Rolf IP, Lecithin. IV. Lecithin of the brain. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 46 (2): 353-365 APR 1921 ... Her main goal was to organize the human bodily structure in relation to gravity. Rolf called her method "Structural Integration ... Lecithin, cephalin, and so called cuorin of the soy bean. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 68 (2): 0285-0293 MAY 1926 ... Structural Integration (or Rolfing) is a type of manual therapy that aims to improve human biomechanical functioning as a whole ...
Available sources of LPE are egg yolk lecithin (≤1.5%), soybean lecithin (≤0.2%), and other lecithins. ... Actually, LPE was detected in human serum, and its level is reported to be about several hundred ng mL−1. ... 27:386(1986) Weber, E.J., in Lecithins, edited by B.F. Szuhaj and G.R. List, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL, ...
Although its primary function in human lipid metabolism has not been established, apo A-IV has been found to: activate lecithin ... 1987). "Effect of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase on distribution of apolipoprotein A-IV among lipoproteins of human ... Human apo A-IV deficiency has not been reported. APOA4 has been shown to interact with GPLD1. Click on genes, proteins and ... Apolipoprotein A-IV (also known as apoA-IV, apoAIV, or apoA4) is plasma protein that is the product of the human gene APOA4. ...
High concentrations of carnitine are found in red meat, some energy drinks, and some dietary supplements; lecithin is found in ... Some types of normal gut bacteria (e.g. species of Acinetobacter) in the human microbiome convert dietary carnitine to TMAO. ... 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB), a structural analog of choline, inhibits microbial TMA formation in mice and in human feces, ... The concentration of TMAO in the blood increases after consuming foods containing carnitine or lecithin if the bacteria that ...
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 46 (1): 193-207 MAR 1921 Levene PA, Rolf IP, Lecithin. IV. Lecithin of the brain. JOURNAL OF ... Her main goal was to organize the human bodily structure in relation to gravity. Rolf called her method "Structural Integration ... I. Lecithin and cephalin of the soy bean. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 62 (3): 759-766 JAN 1925 Levene PA, Rolf IP, ... Lecithin, cephalin, and so called cuorin of the soy bean. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 68 (2): 0285-0293 MAY 1926 Levene PA ...
ACAT1 mRNA Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) Katsuren K, Tamura T, Arashiro R, Takata K, Matsuura T, Niikawa N, Ohta ... In another study, non-human primates revealed a positive correlation between liver cholesteryl ester secretion rate and the ... T (April 2001). "Structure of the human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) gene and its relation to dyslipidemia ...
Rapino, C.; Battista, N.; Bari, M.; Maccarrone, M. (2014). "Endocannabinoids as biomarkers of human reproduction". Human ... In turn NAPE arises by transfer of arachidonic acid from lecithin to the free amine of cephalin through an N-acyltransferase ... Anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. Anandamide is found in chocolate together with two substances that ... Studies are under way to explore what role anandamide plays in human behavior, such as eating and sleep patterns, and pain ...
Group XV phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G15 gene. Lysophospholipases are enzymes that act ... "Cloning and expression of a novel lysophospholipase which structurally resembles lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase". Biochem ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2007). "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane ...
2009). "Soy lecithin replaces egg yolk for cryopreservation of human sperm without adversely affecting postthaw motility, ... For human sperm, the longest reported successful storage is 24 years. It can be used for sperm donation where the recipient ... Saeednia S, Bahadoran H, Amidi F, Asadi MH, Naji M, Fallahi P, Nejad NA (2015). "Nerve growth factor in human semen: Effect of ... Thomson LK, Fleming SD, Barone K, Zieschang JA, Clark AM (March 2010). "The effect of repeated freezing and thawing on human ...
They are also used in pet foods, milk replacements for babies (human and livestock), and even used for some nonfood ... lecithin added). A history of soy flour and grits has been published. As soy flour is gluten-free, yeast-raised breads made ... Soybean protein is a "complete protein" since it provides all of the essential amino acids for human nutrition. Soybean protein ... The soy cotyledon storage proteins, important for human nutrition, can be extracted most efficiently by water, water plus ...
Retinol binding protein 1, cellular, also known as RBP1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBP1 gene. RBP1 is the ... Herr FM, Ong DE (1992). "Differential interaction of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase with cellular retinol binding proteins". ... 1992). "Expression of CRABP-I and -II in human epidermal cells. Alteration of relative protein amounts is linked to the state ... 1988). "Human cellular retinol-binding protein gene organization and chromosomal location". Eur. J. Biochem. 173 (1): 35-44. ...
Zhang L, E X, Luker KE, Shao JS, Levin MS, Suh E, Li E (2002). "Analysis of human cellular retinol-binding protein II promoter ... Herr FM, Ong DE (1992). "Differential interaction of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase with cellular retinol binding proteins". ... Retinol-binding protein 2 (RBP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBP2 gene. RBP2 is an abundant protein present ... Sequence analysis of the rat gene, chromosomal localization in mice and humans, and documentation of its close linkage to the ...
About 400 to 800 ml of bile is produced per day in adult humans. Bile acts to some extent as a surfactant, helping to emulsify ... fatty acids and lecithin), and 200 meq/l inorganic salts. Bile was the yellow bile in the four humor system of medicine, the ... In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder ... Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. ...
"Chromosomal localization of human aspartate aminotransferase genes by in situ hybridization". Human Genetics. 83 (2): 159-64. ... "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged lecithin liposomes". Journal of Biochemistry. ... Jeremiah SJ, Povey S, Burley MW, Kielty C, Lee M, Spowart G, Corney G, Cook PJ (May 1982). "Mapping studies on human ... Davidson RG, Cortner JA, Rattazzi MC, Ruddle FH, Lubs HA (Jul 1970). "Genetic polymorphisms of human mitochondrial glutamic ...
1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin: ... 1996). "A human axillary odorant is carried by apolipoprotein D". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (13): 6626-30. doi:10.1073/ ... Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene. Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced ... Fielding PE, Fielding CJ (1980). "A cholesteryl ester transfer complex in human plasma". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 (6): ...
... a 2009 systematic review of clinical trials in humans found that there was not enough evidence to support the use of lecithin ... The name "lecithin" was originally defined from the Greek lekithos (λεκιθος, egg yolk) by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French ... However, lecithin extracts consist of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and other compounds. It is also used along with sodium ... Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ...
Humans make choline in the liver. Whether dietary or supplemental choline is beneficial or harmful to humans has not been ... It is a basic constituent of lecithin, which is present in many plants and animal organs. The term cholines refers to the class ... Mature human milk also has lower free choline than colostrum-transitional human milk. Phosphocholine is particularly abundant ... contribute to the differences seen between individual adult humans in memory and recall. The human mammary gland is composed of ...
The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 may be anchored or suspended in a solution in vitro. Another characteristic of ... these cells is that they are able to synthesize lecithin and contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids, which are important ... "A549 (Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) Whole Cell Lysate (ab7910)". Retrieved 3 January 2012. ATCC.org. "A549 ... "A549 Cell Line: Human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line -General Information". Retrieved 3 January 2012. Giard, DJ; Aaronson, ...
D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BDH1 gene. This gene encodes ... Evidence for C-terminal involvement in enzyme activation by lecithin". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 327 (1): 45-52. doi:10.1006/abbi ... "Entrez Gene: BDH1 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 1". Human BDH1 genome location and BDH1 gene details page in the UCSC ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Trimethylamine is exclusively a microbiota-derived product of nutrients (lecithin, choline, TMAO, L-carnitine) from normal diet ... the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but ... The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and ... The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the ...
It can be totally integrated into the cell membrane in humans, so does not need to be metabolized and is well tolerated by ... Egg lecithin is not a concern for those on low-cholesterol diets, because the lecithin found in eggs markedly inhibits the ... Egg lecithin is a type of lecithin, a group of compounds primarily containing phospholipids, that is derived from eggs. Egg ... Egg-derived lecithin is not usually a concern for those allergic to eggs since commercially available food grade egg lecithin ...
We show that [human TAAR5] responds to the tertiary amine N,N-dimethylethylamine and to a lesser extent to trimethylamine, a ... Trimethylamine is exclusively a microbiota-derived product of nutrients (lecithin, choline, TMAO, L-carnitine) from normal diet ... In humans, it is synthesized exclusively by gut microbiota from dietary nutrients such as choline and carnitine. High levels of ... Gaci N, Borrel G, Tottey W, O'Toole PW, Brugère JF (November 2014). "Archaea and the human gut: new beginning of an old story ...
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LRAT gene. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is a ... 2001). "Genomic organization and mutation analysis of the gene encoding lecithin retinol acyltransferase in human retinal ... 2004). "Differential expression of the enzyme that esterifies retinol, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase, in subtypes of human ... Jahng WJ, Xue L, Rando RR (2004). "Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is a founder member of a novel family of enzymes". ...
The FDA has determined it to be safe for humans in amounts up to 7.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. "Liver and kidney ... Milk chocolate (sugar, modified milk ingredients, cocoa butter, cocoa mass, whey powder, lactose, soya lecithin, polyglycerol ... Dark chocolate (sugar, unsweetened chocolate, cocoa butter, milk ingredients, soya lecithin, salt, artificial flavour), wheat ... soya lecithin, yeast, and natural flavour. Milk chocolate (66%) (sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa mass, dried whole milk, cocoa mass ...
... is believed to have occurred in early humans, and the problem has persisted throughout human history. ... Phosphatidylcholine (in the form of PPC or DLPC), the substrate for Lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which converts retinol ... in humans and calves (hyena disease): a historical review of the human and veterinary literature". Pediatric Radiology. 37 (12 ... Vitamin A toxicity is known to be an ancient phenomenon; fossilized skeletal remains of early humans suggest bone abnormalities ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Surgeon General. 2001 [2016-01-15]. ISBN 978-0-16-051005-2. （原始内 ... 卵磷脂膽固醇酰基轉移酶缺乏症（英语：Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency） ... Economics and Human Biology. 2009, 7 (1): 36-45. PMID 19249259. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2009.01.008.. ... Yazdi, FT; Clee, SM; Meyre, D. Obesity genetics in mouse and human: back and forth, and back again.. PeerJ. 2015, 3: e856. PMC ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
Multiple human trials utilizing HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, known as statins, have repeatedly confirmed that changing ... although lecithin and bilirubin gallstones also occur less frequently.[සංස්කරණය]. ආහාර ප්රභවය[සංස්කරණය]. Animal fats are ... Human breast milk also contains significant quantities of cholesterol. ... although lecithin and bilirubin gallstones also occur less frequently. ...
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase *Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ... Bogenhagen DF, Rousseau D, Burke S (2008). "The layered structure of human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (6 ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
Human digestive system
The liver synthesises bile acids and lecithin to promote the digestion of fat. ... Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 659. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ a b c consultants Daniel Albert et al. ( ... Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 672. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ Wood, Jackie D. (2009), " ... The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary ...
In the human eye, retinal begins in an 11-cis-retinal configuration, which, upon capturing a photon of the correct wavelength, ... all-trans-retinol + fatty acid → all-trans-retinyl ester + H2O; lecithin retinol acyltransferases (LRATs). ... Opsin may send a chemical signal to the human brain signaling that light has been detected. Retinal is then reloaded into its ... which triggers a chemical signaling cascade which can result in perception of light or images by the human brain. The ...
"Blue Mountain Organics' Sunflower lecithin". *^ Entry for one large "Egg, whole, cooked, hard-boiled" in the USDA Nutrients ... Human Kinetics. ISBN 9781450412278.. *^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2011): The endocrine system. Britannica Educational ... Mader S. S. (2000): Human biology. McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 0-07-290584-0; ISBN 0-07-117940-2. ... Braun C. A., Anderson C. M. (2007): Pathophysiology: Functional alterations in human Health. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ...
Trimetilamina bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
We show that [human TAAR5] responds to the tertiary amine N,N-dimethylethylamine and to a lesser extent to trimethylamine, a ... Trimethylamine is exclusively a microbiota-derived product of nutrients (lecithin, choline, TMAO, L-carnitine) from normal diet ... "Human trace amine-associated receptor TAAR5 can be activated by trimethylamine". PLoS ONE (dalam bahasa Inggris). 8 (2): ... "Archaea and the human gut: new beginning of an old story". World J. Gastroenterol. (dalam bahasa Inggris). 20 (43): 16062- ...
The Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, and chocolate drinks specifically with sacrificial human blood.[ ... Usually, an emulsifying agent, such as soy lecithin, is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for ... "International Development: Human Trafficking". Salvation Army. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July ... Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15(10):2779-2811. doi: ...
Orthodox Judaism forbids the castration of both humans and non-human animals by Jews, except in lifesaving situations. ... cholesterol and lecithin) with an adjuvant, latest US patent RE37,224 (as of 2006-06-06), CA patent 2137263 (issued 1999-06-15 ... Spaying may therefore escalate any observable aggressive behaviour, either to humans or other dogs. ... Crowell-Davis S. L. (1991). "Identifying and correcting human-directed dominance aggression of dogs". Veterinary Medicine. 86: ...
Ottesen EA, Campbell WC (August 1994). "Ivermectin in human medicine". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 34 (2): 195- ... Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Goldust M (2015). "The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies". ... Strycharz JP, Yoon KS, Clark JM (January 2008). "A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head ... "Ivermectin, 'wonder drug' from Japan: the human use perspective". Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
"Sequence organization of the human genome". Cell 6: 345-358, 1975 *↑ Hasler J, Strub K, (2006). "Alu elements as regulators of ... Ruiz A, Winston A, Lim YH, Gilbert BA, Rando RR, Bok D (Feb 1999). "Molecular and biochemical characterization of lecithin ... Weier HU, Fung J, Lersch RA (Jun 1999). "Assignment of protooncogene MERTK (a.k.a. c-mer) to human chromosome 2q14.1 by in situ ... Gene expression of the insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. ...
1998). "Chapter 9". Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical (3rd ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby. ISBN 0815124562.. ... A paucity of research exists on the metabolism of muscarine in the human body, suggesting this compound is not metabolized by ... Choline (lecithin). *Citicoline. *Cyprodenate. *Dimethylethanolamine. *Glycerophosphocholine. *Meclofenoxate (centrophenoxine) ... humans. Though there has been extensive research in the field of acetylcholine metabolism by acetylcholinesterase, muscarine is ...
Human SRC-1 (steroid receptor coactivator-1) is known to interact with p300/CBP and PCAF, and its HAT domain is located in its ... Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. *Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ... Human p300 contains a highly basic loop embedded in the middle of its HAT domain that is hyperacetylated in the active form of ... Human HBO1 (HAT bound to ORC1) was the first HAT shown to associate with components of the origin of replication complex. MORF ...
a b Applewhite, Thomas H. (editor) (1989). Proceedings of the World Congress on Vegetable Protein Utilization in Human Food and ... which include soy lecithin, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, phytosterols, tocopherol, and vitamin D. ... Human consumption. While relatively flavourless when eaten on its own, it can be used in stews such as the Korean biji- ... a b David B. Haytowitz and Ruth H. Matthews for the USDA Human Nutrition Information Service December 1986 Agriculture Handbook ...
Overall, it did not "constitute a human health hazard". References. *^ a b "GRAS Notice 000466: polyricinoleic acid" ... PGPR is mainly used with another substance like lecithin to reduce viscosity. It is used at low levels (below 0.5%), ... The FDA has deemed PGPR to be generally recognized as safe for human consumption, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on ...
Colina, a enciclopedia libre
"Bob's Red Mill soy lecithin - click on image of ingredients label".. *↑ Entry for "Cauliflower, cooked, boiled, drained, with ... 2010). "Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [(11)C]choline: a comparison between rat and human data". European Journal ... Choline and choline esters in human and rat milk in infant formulas. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64:572-6. ... Choline status in newborns, infants, children, breast-feeding women, breast-fed infants, and human breast milk. Journal of ...
Soy lecithin can be added (up to 15%) to soy flour to make lecithinated soy flour. It increases dispersibility and gives it ... For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat to destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors). ... Human sewage sludge can be used as fertilizer to grow soybeans. Soybeans grown in sewage sludge likely contain elevated ... Soybean is the most important protein source for feed farm animals (that in turn yields animal protein for human consumption).[ ...
of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 Jun 2014.. *^ "ConsumerLab.com finds discrepancies in strength of CoQ10 supplements ... Emulsions of soybean oil (lipid microspheres) could be stabilised very effectively by lecithin and were used in the preparation ... Data on the metabolism of CoQ10 in animals and humans are limited. A study with 14C-labeled CoQ10 in rats showed most of ... Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy ...
... lecithin/sphigomyelin). This test is used to determine fetal lung maturity. Both lecithin and sphingomyelin are lung ... "Amniotic Stem Cells - "Mesenchimal Stem Cells in Human Application", Biocell Center Group, 2009, retrieved 27 July 2009 " ... For humans, the amniotic fluid is commonly called water or waters (Latin liquor amnii). ... Larsen, William J. (2001). Human embryology (3. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone. p. 490. ISBN 0443065837.. .mw- ...
These must never be used on humans. While some human shampoos may be harmful when used on animals, any human haircare products ... These include ingredients such as cetyl alcohol, laureth-5, lecithin, PEG-4 dilaurate, stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, ... Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions, as well as in humans before some ... Robbins, Clarence R., Chemical and physical behavior of human hair, 4th ed (Springer Verlag: New York) 2002. ...
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th Ed.). Pearson. pp. ?. ISBN 0-805-35909-5.. ... 2008). "Smoking upregulates alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the human brain". Neurosci. Lett. 430 (1): 34-7. ... Herraiz T, Chaparro C (2005). "Human monoamine oxidase is inhibited by tobacco smoke: beta-carboline alkaloids act as potent ... "Rapid Akt activation by nicotine and a tobacco carcinogen modulates the phenotype of normal human airway epithelial cells". J ...
Human Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Human Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency. In Vivo Kinetics of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein-X. Masato ... Human Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency. Masato Nishiwaki, Katsunori Ikewaki, Giovanni Bader, Hassan Nazih, Minna ... Human Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency. Masato Nishiwaki, Katsunori Ikewaki, Giovanni Bader, Hassan Nazih, Minna ... Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and fish eye disease. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D, eds. The ...
Differential effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion. - PubMed - NCBI
Differential effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion.. Andrioli G1, ... of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on stimulated human platelet adhesiveness and a stimulatory effect of soy lecithin rich ... In the soy lecithin group, platelet adhesion was increased in all test conditions (with ADP: from 18.7% to 23.2%, p,0.001; with ... per day of a soy lecithin supplement, or to continue on their usual diet without any supplement (control group) for a period of ...
Structural and functional properties of the 154-171 wild-type and variant peptides of human lecithin-cholesterol...
F. Peelman et al., "Structural and functional properties of the 154-171 wild-type and variant peptides of human lecithin- ... Structural and functional properties of the 154-171 wild-type and variant peptides of human lecithin-cholesterol ... "Structural and Functional Properties of the 154-171 Wild-type and Variant Peptides of Human Lecithin-cholesterol ... "Structural and Functional Properties of the 154-171 Wild-type and Variant Peptides of Human Lecithin-cholesterol ...
The induction of lamellar stacking by cholesterol in lecithin-bile salt model systems and human bile studied by synchrotron X...
The induction of lamellar stacking by cholesterol in lecithin-bile salt model systems and human bile studied by synchrotron X- ... The induction of lamellar stacking by cholesterol in lecithin-bile salt model systems and human bile studied by synchrotron X- ... with synchroton radiation was used to investigate interactions among lipid particles in lecithin-bile salt model systems and in ...
Human hepatic stellate cell isolation and characterization | SpringerLink
LRAT (lecithin retinol acyltransferase). This enzyme is responsible for all retinyl ester synthesis within the liver and plays ... and established human HSC cell lines.. Keywords. Human hepatic stellate cells Human HSC isolation Human HSC markers Human ... primary cultures of human HSCs, human liver tissues, as well as established human HSC cell lines. ... Human HSC isolation methods. An efficient method of HSC isolation and clear characterization of human HSCs is undoubtedly ...
Bubble stability test compared with lecithin assay in prediction of respiratory distress syndrome.
Lecithin: Benefits, risks, and types
... is a group of fatty substances that can be found in animal and plant tissue that has a range of functions within the human body ... This MNT Knowledge Center article explores the different types of lecithin, the potential health benefits, and any risks ... involved, as well as identifying food sources of lecithins. ... Fast facts on lecithin:. *Most lecithin supplements are made ... Lecithin may help to lower bad LDL cholesterol.. Although lecithin occurs naturally in many foods, lecithin supplements are ...
Cartilago T-500 (Lecithin (Soy); Shark Cartilage; Silicon Dioxide) Knop Laboratorios
Enercal vanilla (Lecithin (Soy); Maltodextrin; Multiminerals...) Wyeth
Human:*Enteral / nutritional products*Nutritions*Supplements. Indications and usages, anatomical therapeutic chemical and ... Lecithin (Soy)*Maltodextrin*Multiminerals*Multivitamins*Nonfat Milk*Palm Oil*Safflower Oil high oleic*Soybean Oil*Sucrose*Whey ... Powder for Suspension; Oral; Lecithin (Soy); Maltodextrin; Multiminerals; Multivitamins; Nonfat Milk; Palm Oil; Safflower Oil ...
Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency: Overview, Presentation, Differential Diagnosis
The two familial forms of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency are termed familial LCAT deficiency (complete ... Effect of recombinant human lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase infusion on lipoprotein metabolism in mice. J Pharmacol Exp ... Functional lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase is not required for efficient atheroprotection in humans. Circulation. 2009 ... Safety and tolerability of ACP-501, a recombinant human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, in a phase 1 single-dose ...
KCO238Hu | CLIA kit for Homo sapiens (Human) Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) | Homo sapiens (Human) | SinoProt
Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT). CLIA kit. Homo sapiens (Human). KEO238Hu. Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase ( ... Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT). Biotin Linked-Polyclonal Antibody. Homo sapiens (Human). LO238Mu71. Lecithin ... Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT). Monoclonal Antibody. Homo sapiens (Human). O238Hu01. Lecithin Cholesterol ... Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT). Recombinant Protein. Homo sapiens (Human). O238Mu01. Lecithin Cholesterol ...
Soya Lecithin - Ingredients Descriptions and Photos - An All-Creatures.org Vegetarian Vegan Recipe Ingredient
Soya Lecithin - Ingredients Descriptions and Photos - We are dedicated to cruelty-free living through a vegetarian/vegan ... Working for a Peaceful World for Humans, Animals and the Environment. Soya Lecithin - Ingredients Descriptions and Photos. From ... Soya Lecithin. (Soya Lecithin) We primarily us soya lecithin as an emulsifier in our bread recipes. It is also used as an ... of soya lecithin, 1/16 tsp. vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and 1/16 tsp. of ground ginger. Lecithin is a mixture of fats: ...
Lecithin | HowStuffWorks
Lecithin is a dietary supplement, found in many common foods, that claims to lower cholesterol levels. Find out if lecithin has ... Lecithin can also be found naturally in egg yolks. In addition, the human liver produces lecithin, and the brain and nerves are ... Lecithin supplements have also been promoted as a method for lowering blood cholesterol, but a small study of men with high ... Lecithin, a powder produced commercially from soybeans, is used as an emulsifier to keep water and fat from separating in foods ...
Search Results - - 16 Results - Digital Library
Studies on Lipoprotein Specificity of Human Plasma Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Description: Huian plasma high-density ... Studies on Hog Plasma Lecithin:cholesterol Acyltransferase: Isolation and Characterization of the Enzyme Description: Lecithin: ... Autophosphorylation and Autoactivation of an S6/H4 Kinase Isolated From Human Placenta Description: A number of protein kinases ... In addition it was consistently coincided with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and found to be the best ...
Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase - Wikipedia
1987). "Human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase gene: complete gene sequence and sites of expression". Nucleic Acids Res. 14 ... Skretting G, Prydz H (1992). "An amino acid exchange in exon I of the human lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene ... 1987). "The isolation and characterisation of a cDNA clone for human lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase and its use to ... 1986). "Cloning and expression of human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase cDNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (8): 2335- ...
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin | IJN
In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ... Keywords: PLGA-lecithin-PEG nanoparticles, curcumin, EpCAM, aptamer, targeted drug delivery ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to ... human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells Lei Li,1,* Dongxi Xiang,2,* Sarah Shigdar,2 Wenrong Yang,3 Qiong Li,2 Jia Lin,4 Kexin Liu ...
EP0382716A1 - Use of commercial lecithin as skin penetration enhancer. - Google Patents
A-HUMAN NECESSITIES * A61-MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE * A61K-PREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES ... commercial lecithin. lecithin. Prior art date. 1987-04-13. Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal ... EP0382716A1 - Use of commercial lecithin as skin penetration enhancer. - Google Patents. Use of commercial lecithin as skin ... Compressed lecithin preparations US5900249A (en) * 1998-02-09. 1999-05-04. Smith; David J.. Multicomponent pain relief topical ...
EP0382716B2 - Use of commercial lecithin as skin penetration enhancer - Google Patents
A-HUMAN NECESSITIES * A61-MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE * A61K-PREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES ... The lecithin employed by the present invention is commercial lecithin or soy lecithin, for example, Lucas Meyer, Inc. ... commercial soy lecithins such as Epikuron™ 135F and Capcithin™ 50-R. The amount of lecithin used in the transdermal ... EP0382716B2 - Use of commercial lecithin as skin penetration enhancer - Google Patents. Use of commercial lecithin as skin ...
GRANAROLO 100% DAIRY-FREE - Reviews & Brand Information - GRANAROLO S.P.A. Via Cadriano 27/2, Bologna IT 40127 in European...
Oat biscuits for human consumption; Cereal preparations consisting of oatbran; Bran preparations for human consumption; Cereal ... Lecithin for cookery; Fruit salads; Marmalade; Fruit pulp; Fruit-based snack food; Ginger jam; Soya bean oil for food; Soya ... Foods and dietetic substances adapted for medical use; Food for babies; Food supplements for humans; Nutritional supplements; ... Lecithin for cookery; Fruit salads; Marmalade; Fruit pulp; Fruit-based snack food; Ginger jam; Soya bean oil for food; Soya ...
Avoid Carnitine & Lecithin Supplements | NutritionFacts.org
Humans of course, have given up this ability many thousands of years ago. When a 150 pound goat makes 13 grams of ascorbic acid ... Lecithin is in everything as an emulsifier! I have sunflower lecithin in the cupboard right now that I use to make my own ... My understanding is that non gmo lecithin is ok and that our brains have a minimum of 30% lecithin. Dont we need it as we age ... Do you know if Lecithin and Lethicin are the same thing?. The Lecithin I use is from Sunflower Oil ...
Lecithin found to have beneficial effects on fat metabolism - Gate2Biotech.com
When humans or animals eat, we take in sugars. Fatty acid synthase converts those sugars to fatty acids in the liver, where ... How lecithin works?. This new study demonstrates that in the liver, a specific type of lecithin binds with a protein called ... Lecithin as a food additive. Lecithin is a group of fatty substances composed of glycerol, fatty acids, phosphoric acid, ... Home pageNews of ScienceLecithin found to have beneficial effects on fat metabolism Lecithin found to have beneficial effects ...
Staff Profile - Institute of Neuroscience - Newcastle University
Law and Human Behavior 2003, 27(1), 69-86.. *Perry E. Nicotinic receptor pathologies in human brain. In: European ... Dietary Lecithin supplements in Dementia of Alzheimer Type?. Lancet 1977, 2(8031), 242-243. ... Piggott MA, Perry EK, Perry RH, Scott D. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA binding sites in developing human frontal ... 3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor complex, and its modulation in human frontal cortex during development and aging. Brain ...
Ida Rolf - Wikipedia
Levene PA, Rolf IP, Lecithin. IV. Lecithin of the brain. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 46 (2): 353-365 APR 1921 ... Her main goal was to organize the human bodily structure in relation to gravity. Rolf called her method "Structural Integration ... Lecithin, cephalin, and so called cuorin of the soy bean. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 68 (2): 0285-0293 MAY 1926 ... Structural Integration (or Rolfing) is a type of manual therapy that aims to improve human biomechanical functioning as a whole ...
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase - Wikipedia
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LRAT gene. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is a ... 2001). "Genomic organization and mutation analysis of the gene encoding lecithin retinol acyltransferase in human retinal ... 2004). "Differential expression of the enzyme that esterifies retinol, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase, in subtypes of human ... Jahng WJ, Xue L, Rando RR (2004). "Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is a founder member of a novel family of enzymes". ...
Primary Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cells; Normal, Human ATCC ®
Normal Human Primary Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cells, when grown in Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with ... Primary Bronchial/Tracheal Epithelial Cells; Normal, Human (ATCC® PCS-300-010™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: ... It is best to use caution when handling any human cells. We recommend that all human cells be accorded the same level of ... Human Material Precaution All tissues used for isolation are obtained under informed consent and conform to HIPAA standards to ...
Primary Dermal Fibroblast; Normal, Human, Adult (HDFa) ATCC ® PCS
Normal Adult Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, when grown in Fibroblast Basal Media supplemented with Fibroblast Growth Kit ... Primary Dermal Fibroblast; Normal, Human, Adult (HDFa) (ATCC® PCS-201-012™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Tissue: Skin / Cell ... Primary Dermal Fibroblast; Normal, Human, Neonatal, Mitomycin C Treated (HDFn) (ATCC® PCS-201-011™) Add to ... Primary Dermal Fibroblast Normal; Human, Neonatal (HDFn) (ATCC® PCS-201-010™) Add to ...
Primary Dermal Fibroblast; Normal, Human, Neonatal, Mitomycin C Treate
... human feeder layers for the culture of embryonic stem cells or other cell types requiring a feeder layer for optimal ... Mitomycin C Treated Normal Human Neonatal Dermal Fibroblasts, when recovered in complete fibroblast growth media, provide an ... It is best to use caution when handling any human cells. We recommend that all human cells be accorded the same level of ... Human Material Precaution All tissues used for isolation are obtained under informed consent and conform to HIPAA standards to ...
Humans get lecithin from cell production and from the nutrients in our diets. The estimated amount of lecithin in a humans ... HOW IS LECITHIN SOLD TO THE PUBLIC? Lecithin can be naturally consumed through a diet including lecithin rich foods such as egg ... WHAT CLAIMS DO LECITHIN SUPPLEMENT SUPPLIERS MAKE ABOUT LECITHINS FUNCTIONS? Lecithin is promoted as a quick fix for weight ... WHAT IS LECITHIN? Lecithin, a lipid material composed of choline and inositol, is found in all living cells as a major ...
LECITHIN SOYA NO GMO 50 DAYS | 300 PEARLS - RussianFoodS
300 PEARLS Food supplement based on soy lecithin. Lecithin is the phospholipid that gives flexibility to the membranes of all ... Hematogen has a restorative, preventive action on the human body. This useful supplement is actively used as an aid in the ... LECITHIN SOYA NO GMO 50 DAYS / 300 PEARLS Food supplement based on soy lecithin. Lecithin is the phospholipid that gives ... Average content per daily dose of: 6 pearls (4.4 g): soy lecithin 4.4 g 9 pearls (6.6 g): soy lecithin 6.6 g INGREDIENTS PEARLS ...
Patente US20070270506 - Novel human kinases and polynucleotides encoding the same, and uses thereof - Google Patentes
Novel human polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences are disclosed that can be used in therapeutic, diagnostic, and ... lecithin or acacia); non-aqueous vehicles (e.g., almond oil, oily esters, ethyl alcohol or fractionated vegetable oils); and ... ENZ66, described for the first time herein, are novel proteins that are expressed in, inter alia, human cell lines, and human ... An isolated and purified human ENZ66 protein, wherein said human ENZ66 protein comprises the sequence of SEQ ID NOS:2, 4, 6, 8 ...
PhospholipidsSoybeansSoybean oilSupplementsEmulsifierCapsulesLinoleic acidEstimated amount of lecithinMain components of lecithinLipoproteinsLipidCapsuleDipalmitoyl-lecithinSoya lecithinNaturallyForm of lecithinYolksMetabolismAcetylcholineAmniotic fluidMetabolitesSupplementationExtra lecithinCommercial lecithinDeficiencyAlzheimer'sPhosphatidesCharacterizationCell membranesCompoundsCommerciallyRecombinant humanAdditiveGallstonesBiochemicalConcentrationDietary supplementFoundDerived from sunflowerBeneficialCompositionSupplementCardiovascular
- Lecithin is a mixture of fats: glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. (all-creatures.org)
- Scientists define lecithin as synonymous with phosphatidylcholine, the name for one of the principle phospholipids. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Phospholipids are a natural constituent of cells in the human body. (herbalremedies.com)
- The term 'lecithin' can have different meanings depending on the context, but for our purposes, it refers to a mixture of phospholipids and oil. (chriskresser.com)
- Phospholipids are a component of the cell membrane in all plants and animals, but lecithin is most often derived from sunflower kernels, rapeseed (canola), milk, soy, and egg yolks. (chriskresser.com)
- The synergistic association with Soy Lecithin supplies phospholipids, fundamental elements of cells especially those of the nervous system. (marnys.com)
- The phospholipids in Soy Lecithin, the most abundant in body tissues, incorporate fatty acids in the cell membrane with better absorption and greater efficacy. (marnys.com)
- Soy Lecithin phospholipids are the most abundant in tissues and include fatty acids in the cellular membrane, with an improved absorption and greater effectiveness. (marnys.com)
- The combined synergic action with soybean lecithin provides phospholipids, essential elements for the cells, especially for the nervous system. (marnys.com)
- Lecithin is a complex mixture of phospholipids or phosphatides with soybean oil as a solvent or carrier. (hubpages.com)
- All cells throughout the human body are enveloped by membrane composed chiefly of essential fatty acids in the form of compounds known as "phospholipids. (naturalfactors.com)
- Most lecithin supplements are made from soybeans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lecithin, a powder produced commercially from soybeans, is used as an emulsifier to keep water and fat from separating in foods and can be found in margarine, chocolate, baked goods, and breakfast cereals. (howstuffworks.com)
- Lecithin, as used in commerce, is the name given to a group of substances present in fats which are obtained mainly from oil seeds, for example, soybeans and rape seeds) and from egg yolks. (google.com)
- Lecithin was originally made from egg yolk, but is now more commonly made from plants and vegetables, most notably soybeans. (gate2biotech.com)
- Hanin, 444) most of the commercially used lecithin is derived from soybeans. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Lecithin is found in egg yolks legumes liver nuts whole wheat vegetable oils and soybeans. (herbalremedies.com)
- To make soy lecithin, soybean oil is extracted from the raw soybeans using a chemical solvent (usually hexane). (chriskresser.com)
- Our Lecithin capsules are triple strength and made from unadulterated, unbleached Lecithin exclusively derived from soybeans, and contain no synthetic flavors or preservatives. (baar.com)
- Generally, the commercial sources of lecithin are found in egg yolk, brain tissue or soybeans. (nutralegacy.com)
- Lecithin is a complex of fatty substances that occurs naturally in foods like soybeans and egg yolks. (onlineathens.com)
- Chemicals, including acetone and hexane, are used to extract the lecithin from soybean oil. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- I recommend avoiding soy as a general rule, but consuming small amounts of soy lecithin as an additive is very different from, say, eating a soy burger topped with soy cheese or drizzling soybean oil on your salad. (chriskresser.com)
- The specific composition of soy lecithin varies depending on its manufacturer and intended use, but on average, it contains about 35% soybean oil and 16% phosphatidylcholine. (chriskresser.com)
- MARNYS® Royal Jelly Capsules 1000 mg is in a soybean oil and lecithin base. (marnys.com)
- Lecithin supplements are used to treat several medical conditions and health issues, but research on their effectiveness is limited. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People with allergies to eggs or soy should check the source of the lecithin in their supplements and food before consuming. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although lecithin occurs naturally in many foods, lecithin supplements are typically derived from eggs, soy, or sunflower seeds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this case, vegetable oils constitute a more economical source of linoleic acid than lecithin supplements because vegetable oils can provide more linoleic acid for the money. (howstuffworks.com)
- Lecithin supplements are sold to the public in capsule, powder or granular form. (vanderbilt.edu)
- In fact, lecithin supplements may actually cause weight gain due to the fact that it contains fatty acids and is thus highly caloric. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Any healthy person whom consumes a well-balanced diet does not need to take lecithin supplements. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Further studies of lecithin intake in the American diet would prove beneficial to resolve this question of the necessity of lecithin supplements. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Supplements are available in the form of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). (schizophrenia.com)
- You can also reap the benefits of lecithin through natural supplements like St John's Wort which maximizes brain function. (nutralegacy.com)
- Are there any lecithin supplements that can be taken? (nutralegacy.com)
- There is no credible evidence to support the myriad claims of benefit of lecithin supplements, but finding lecithin metabolites in the blood of heart attack and stroke patients raises a safety concern. (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- So, you'd assume that when you take lecithin supplements, you get phosphatidylcholine. (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- What's the downside of lecithin supplements? (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- A commercial form of lecithin is commonly used in the preparation of food, cosmetics, and medications, as it extends shelf life and acts as an emulsifier. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Soya Lecithin) We primarily us soya lecithin as an emulsifier in our bread recipes. (all-creatures.org)
- Lecithin is a fatlike substance, but also, it is a fat emulsifier. (nutralegacy.com)
- Lecithin is a natural emulsifier, so claims that it dissolves gallstones may be credible, except that I haven't come across a good study documenting it. (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- Go Healthy Go Lecithin 1,200 is a natural emulsifier derived from NON GMO Soya Beans. (healthy.co.nz)
Estimated amount of lecithin2
Main components of lecithin1
- Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with synchroton radiation was used to investigate interactions among lipid particles in lecithin-bile salt model systems and in native gallbladder biles. (hud.ac.uk)
- Later Toshio Ito [ 2 ] and Bronfenmajer [ 3 ] observed perisinusoidal cells containing lipid droplets in human livers. (springer.com)
- In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (dovepress.com)
- By identifying this substance that occurs naturally in the body - and also happens to be used as a food additive - it may be possible to improve the treatment of lipid disorders and minimize drug side effects by adding particular varieties of lecithin to food. (gate2biotech.com)
- The effects of human immunodeficiency-virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on serum lipid levels and insulin resistance have been established. (omicsonline.org)
- Lecithin is a naturally ocurring lipid found in both plants and animals. (ewg.org)
- Of course, there are multiple solubility in bile depends on its lipid concentration other risk factors that play an important role in the and the quantity of bile acids and lecithin. (yudu.com)
- Lecithin appears to enhance fat metabolism and lipid transport. (hubpages.com)
- Each capsule contains 200 mg of Panax ginseng concentrate (equal to 1000 mg of Ginseng root) and 30 mg of high purity soya lecithin, soya oil and beeswax. (marnys.com)
- Each capsule contains freeze-dried royal jelly (334 mg) (equal to 1000 mg of royal jelly) in a soy oil and soy lecithin base. (marnys.com)
- Each Softgel Capsule contains: Lecithin (From NON GMO Soy) 1,200mg. (healthy.co.nz)
Form of lecithin1
- None of the advertisements on the web have real scientific evidence for the effectiveness of lecithin in weight loss and fat metabolism, yet this is the supplement producers' main selling point for lecithin. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Its presence in these organs is now leading to extensive medical research on its role in human metabolism and the part it plays in the prevention and cure of functional disorders. (hubpages.com)
- However, the human body is not as efficient as a calorimeter, and some potential energy is lost during digestion and metabolism. (britannica.com)
- In particular, metabolomics experiments have revealed that levels of human serum metabolites made or modified by gut microbes correlate strongly with both health and disease states ( 3 - 5 ). (asm.org)
- It turns out that these metabolites are produced from lecithin by gut bacteria and converted to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) . (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- Based on this study alone, we still can't tell if these lecithin metabolites are causative factors, or whether they are just markers of the disease. (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- Differential effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion. (nih.gov)
- A Brazilian study on rats found that daily lecithin supplementation increased macrophage activity by 29 percent. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Human and animal studies also suggest PS supplementation can support improvements in learning, concentration, and memory. (chiroeco.com)
- A human study of 54 healthy adults over age 65, proposed that bacopa supplementation safely enhances brain function in older adults. (chiroeco.com)
- Use of commercial lecithin as skin penetration enhancer. (google.com)
- Commercial lecithin is a natural emulsifying agent used in foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products, for example, in creams, balms, or ointments. (google.com)
- Most commercial lecithin is made from soy. (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- Anyway, if only a fraction of commercial lecithin is made up of the real thing-phosphatidylcholine-then what makes up the rest? (thedoctorweighsin.com)
- Anyway, if only a small fraction of commercial lecithin is made up of the real thing, phosphatidyl phosphate, then what makes up the rest? (careandcost.com)
- compare the effects of acute dietary deficiency of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc in gnotobiotic mice harboring bacterial strains common in the human gut. (sciencemag.org)
- Bacteroides vulgatus , a bacterial species positively correlated with host growth in gnotobiotic mouse models of postnatal human microbiota development, had the biggest response to vitamin A deficiency, exhibiting an increase in its abundance. (sciencemag.org)
- Because of the effect of chlorine on the brain, it has been proposed that lecithin may be beneficial for those with neurologic disorders, Alzheimer's disease , and other forms of dementia . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- While phosphatidylcholine or lecithin may not boost brain function in all cases of Alzheimer's disease, it does seem to help most other people. (iherb.com)
- The present invention relates to the discovery, identification, and characterization of novel human polynucleotides encoding proteins that share sequence similarity with animal kinases. (google.es)
- Develop a protocol for human RBC characterization by HDFM, checking the feasibility of a reference spectral library that can image and afford a new comprehensive descriptor of RBC status. (iospress.com)
- Characterization of the human LPIN1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase isoforms. (wikipathways.org)
- Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human diacylglycerol kinase zeta. (wikipathways.org)
- Lecithin is widely sold commercially as a stabilizing or emulsifying agent in the food (production of margarine products, for example), paint, and cosmetics (conditioners, lipsticks) industries. (nutralegacy.com)
- Commercially available phosphatidylcholine preparations are derived from soy lecithin. (naturalfactors.com)
- That substance named phosphatidylcholine is a component of the common food additive lecithin, and researchers speculate it may one day be possible to use lecithin products to control blood lipids and reduce risk for diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease using treatments delivered in food rather than medication. (gate2biotech.com)
- Lecithin is admitted by the EU as a food additive, designated by E number E322. (gate2biotech.com)
- Soy lecithin is an additive found in many everyday foods, but it's normally used in such small amounts that it rarely exceeds more than 1 percent of the weight of any food product. (chowhound.com)
- Is soy lecithin a harmless additive or dangerous chemical? (chriskresser.com)
- 8 ) Since the pesticide concentration of the oil after degumming is similar, it's pretty likely that some of those pesticides end up in the lecithin as well. (chriskresser.com)
- Human exposure to Cd occurs mainly through inhalation or ingestion, and its absorption depends on the particle size, concentration, time-exposure, and competitivity with biometals such as iron, calcium, or zinc. (mdpi.com)
- Reporting in the journal Cell, the Washington University research team describes how it found the link between lecithin and PPAR-alpha. (gate2biotech.com)
- Not surprisingly, there aren't many credible sources describing the chemical content of commercial soy lecithin, but I have found some relevant data about the safety of soy lecithin. (chriskresser.com)
- One analysis found protein concentrations ranging from 100 to 1,400ppm in six different soy lecithin samples. (chriskresser.com)
- 11 ) Another analysis of six different lecithin samples found that four had sufficient protein to trigger an IgE-mediated response in people with soy allergies, while two contained no detectable protein at all. (chriskresser.com)
- When the experiments were conducted on humans, cancer did not appear to be associated with aspartame and all the links that were found were possibly coincidences. (listverse.com)
Derived from sunflower1
- omega-6/omega-3 ratio 3) per day of a soy lecithin supplement, or to continue on their usual diet without any supplement (control group) for a period of 15 days. (nih.gov)
- Like lecithin, the supplement policosanol is derived from natural foods. (howstuffworks.com)
- Examples of supplement producers whom sell lecithin are The Herb Shop , All-Natural , Solgar , Health Revolution , Earth Legacy . (vanderbilt.edu)
- LECITHIN SOYA NO GMO 50 DAYS / 300 PEARLS Food supplement based on soy lecithin. (russianfoods.com)