Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.United StatesHIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Abnormalities, MultipleCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.San FranciscoGiant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.

*Cat health

... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... Food dangerous to cats[edit]. A number of common human foods ... Feline hepatic lipidosis also known as Feline Fatty Liver Syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats.[5 ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV.[2]. *Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer.. *Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a ...

*Prenatal development

The human immunodeficiency virus can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Untreated HIV infected expectant ... or contact with the feces of infected cats. If the exposure occurs during the first trimester, eye and brain damage may result ... Viruses such as rubella, chicken pox, mumps, herpes, and human immunodeficiency (HIV) are associated with increased risk of ... By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next ...

*Prenatal development

The human immunodeficiency virus can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Untreated HIV infected expectant ... or contact with the feces of infected cats. If the exposure occurs during the first trimester, eye and brain damage may result ... In human pregnancy, prenatal development is also called antenatal development. The development of the human embryo follows ... Viruses such as rubella, chicken pox, mumps, herpes, and human immunodeficiency (HIV) are associated with increased risk of ...

*Lymphadenopathy

... the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). "Lymphadenopathy syndrome" has been used to describe the first ... Generalized lymphadenopathy is an early sign of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ... Less common infectious causes of lymphadenopathy may include bacterial infections such as cat scratch disease, tularemia, ... It is also a sign of cutaneous anthrax and Human African trypanosomiasis Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease, gives a ...

*Feline immunodeficiency virus

Finally, the cat progresses into the final stage (known as the feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome (FAIDS) stage), ... feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline foamy virus (FFV), and is more closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide. From 2.5% up to 4.4% of cats worldwide are ... American Association of Feline Practitioners (2002), "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Cornell Feline Health Center, Cornell ...

*Bartonellosis

Cats usually become immune to the infection, while dogs may be very symptomatic. Humans may also acquire it through flea or ... March 1993). "Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease". Ann. Intern. Med. 118 (5): 331-6. doi: ... yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat". J ... Cats are the main reservoir of Bartonella henselae, and the bacterium is transmitted to cats by the cat flea Ctenocephalides ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 --- hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 --- acquired ... severe acute respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550.800 --- torovirus infections MeSH C02.782.620.365 --- influenza, human ... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.900 --- visna MeSH C02.782.815.622 --- leukemia, feline MeSH ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 --- aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 ...

*Bacillary angiomatosis

Epithelioid angiomatosis: a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related ... Cats may be bacteremic for weeks to years, but infection is more common in young cats. Transmission to humans is thought to ... Therefore, elimination and control of fleas in the cat's environment are key to prevention of infection in both cats and humans ... The histopathology and differential diagnosis of a pseudoneoplastic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - AIDSinfo - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - acute HIV infection ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human ... cat scan - CCR5 - CD4 (T4) or CD4 + cells - CDC National AIDS Hotline (CDC-NAH) - CDC National Prevention Information Network ( ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ...

*FGF5

1993). "Expression of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi ... "Four independent mutations in the feline Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 gene determine the long-haired phenotype in domestic cats ... Fibroblast growth factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF5 gene. The majority of FGF family members are ... Blocking FGF5 in the human scalp extends the hair cycle, resulting in less hair fall, faster hair growth rate and increased ...

*Simian immunodeficiency virus

King, N. W.; Hunt, R. D.; Letvin, N. L. (1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... cats, cattle, horses "HIV origin 'found in wild chimps'" BBC News article Peeters et al.: "Risk to Human Health from a Plethora ... "Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Their Impact on Non-Human Primate Models for AIDS". Immunodeficiency. doi:10.5772/ ... "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...

*Duesberg hypothesis

Duesberg P (1989). "Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation". Proc ... Feline Leukemia Virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Duesberg claims that the supposedly innocuous nature of all retroviruses ... 2000). "Impact of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral treatments on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome survival in San ... Update on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), United States. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and ...

*HIV

... that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[1][2] AIDS is a condition in humans in which ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus. *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Equine infectious anemia virus. *Feline immunodeficiency ... "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 (4599): 865-867. Bibcode: ... "Infection by the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine. 103 (5): 694- ...

*William A. Haseltine

"The T Open Reading Frame of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1". Journal Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 3 (6): 601-608. ... The first product, developed for the French company Virbac, was a vaccine to protect domestic cats from infection by the feline ... In 1979 the first human retrovirus to cause a human disease was discovered, the Human T cell leukemia Virus (HTLV). HTLV is ... "Cis-Acting Sequences Responsive to the rev Gene Product of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus". Journal of Acquired Immune ...

*Bushmeat

... a precursor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. There are several distinct strains of HIV, indicating ... Poaching Cat meat Dog meat Other wildlife consumption: Bushfood - Australian Aboriginal peoples Country food - Canadian ... However, as human populations grow, the interactions between humans and wildlife will increase, making possible zoonotic ... 2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group. Island ...

*Gastrointestinal tract

"Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate ... Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings.[citation ... Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a syndrome caused by a malformation of the digestive system, characterized by a severe ... and acquired immunity". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 22 (4): 1433-1448. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1433. ISSN 2219-2840. PMC ...

*Toxoplasma gondii - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome» (en anglès). Autops Case Rep, 2018 ... Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM «Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans» (en anglès). Int J Parasitol, 2000 Nov; 30 (12-13 ... Hartmann K, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al «Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and ... Must K, Hytönen MK, Orro T, Lohi H, Jokelainen P «Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed» (en anglès). PLoS One, ...

*Social history of viruses

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that - when the infection is not treated - can cause AIDS (acquired ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a new type of coronavirus. Other coronaviruses were known to cause mild ... Pigs, cattle, goats, sheep, horses, camels, cats and dogs were all kept and bred in captivity. These animals would have brought ... As with humans, when plants thrive in close proximity, so do their viruses. This can cause huge economic losses and human ...

*Testicular immunology

"Orchitis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected cells in reproductive tissues from men with the acquired immune ... Mast cells have been found in relatively low numbers in the testes of humans, rats, mice, dogs, cats, bulls, boars and deer. In ... "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, Epstein Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis, syphilis, leprosy, ...

*List of cutaneous conditions

... the terms human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are abbreviated to HIV and AIDS, respectively. ... Bubonic plague Bullous impetigo Cat scratch disease (cat scratch fever, English-Wear infection, inoculation lymphoreticulosis, ... Turner syndrome Ulnar-mammary syndrome Van Der Woude syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome Watson syndrome Werner syndrome (adult ... Job syndrome) Immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF syndrome ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

AACTG - acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human ... cat scan - CCR5 - CD4 (T4) or CD4 + cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ...

*Virus

Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2006;37 Suppl 1:S39-46. doi: ... Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; ... Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and horses, if not vaccinated, are susceptible to serious viral infections. Canine ...

*List of infectious diseases

AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Anaplasmosis ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae Cellulitis usually Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Melioidosis (Whitmore's disease) ...

*Sphynx cat

Siberian cats, British Shorthair, and Maine Coon,[21] however any domestic cat including mixed breeds can acquire HCM.[22] ... "Congenital Myasthatic Syndrome". SphynxCatAssociation.com. Sphynx Cat Association (SCA). Retrieved 2019-10-31.. ... "The Genetic Basis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Cats and Humans". Journal of Veterinary Cardiology. 17 (Suppl 1): S53-S73. ... The Cat Fanciers' Association. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-10-26.. *^ "Sphynx Cat Wear - clothes for Sphynx cats". sphynxcatwear ...

*Virus

Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2006;37 Suppl 1:S39-46. doi: ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; ... Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[209] Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High genetic stability of TM1 and TM2 strains of subtype B feline immunodeficiency virus in long-term infection. AU - Ikeda, Yasuhiro H. AU - Miyazawa, Takayuki. AU - Nishimura, Yorihiro. AU - Nakamura, Kazuya. AU - Tohya, Yukinobu. AU - Mikami, Takeshi. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - To know the genetic changes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in long-term infection in cats, we inoculated three specific pathogen-free cats with FIV isolates and determined a partial env sequence covering the V3-V5 region. In 2 cats infected with subtype B strains TM1 and TM2, only one amino acid change in region V3 was observed at 9 years post infection (y.p.i.), and no nucleotide substitutions were observed between 9 and 10 y.p.i., indicating that these strains are genetically stable. On the other hand, in a cat infected with subtype A strain Petaluma at 8.7 y.p.i., 3 nucleotide insertions (one amino acid insertion) in region V5, and 1 ...
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p24 gag Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p24 gag Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Definition of Feline immunodeficiency virus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
FIV gag polypeptides and a method and device for determining a feline immunodeficiency virus infection in an animal. The method includes contacting a biological sample from a felid with the FIV polypeptides and determining the binding of antibodies in the sample to the polypeptides. A device for detecting FIV antibodies is provided.
The first stage of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus infection is called the "acute" stage and is characterized by fevers, susceptibilities to skin & intestinal infections, and swollen lymph nodes. These symptoms usually occur 4-6 weeks after infection. At this time there may be elevated levels of your cats antibodies present.. * The second stage is called the "latent", more formally the subclinical stage, and therere no signs of the disease. This stage may last for years, but during this period the immune system is slowly being destroyed.. * The third stage is the final, AIDS-like stage when the immunodeficiency becomes severe. It occurs most commonly in cats 5-12 years of age. In this clinical stage the cats immune system isnt operating properly and she is prone to infections that under normal circumstances her body would easily ward off. But since her immune system cannot keep these infections under control, they multiply rapidly causing disease. ...
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) like to HIV in human. In Argentina FIV infection is greater than feline leukemia virus what result in an excellent model to study HIV infection as well as to improve pet cats health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AZT-response in cats with FIV.. Material and Methods. A longitudinal analysis, on 7 cats were performed during 12 months under Zidovudine (AZT) 5mg/kg (bid) every other month as only treatment. CD4/CD8 ratio, AGP, Albumin/Globulin ratio and viral load were studied. These variables were analysed at basal time, 6 and 12 months of treatment. FIV was confirmed by serology and PCR. In addition to the evaluation of the clinical signs blood chemistry, hematology and other complementary diagnostic methods. CD4/CD8 ratio was performed with: 8100-01 Sowthern Biotechnology, anti ...
We used feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease (PR) as a mutational framework to define determinants for the observed substrate and inhibitor specificity distinctions between FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PRs. Multiple-substitution mutants were constructed by replacing the residues in and around the active site of FIV PR with the structurally equivalent residues of HIV-1 PR. Mutants included combinations of three critical regions (FIV numbering, with equivalent HIV numbering in superscript): I37(32)V in the active core region; N55(46)M, M56(47)I, and V59(50)I in the flap region; and L97(80)T, I98(81)P, Q99(82)V, P100(83)N, and L101(84)I in the 90s loop region. Significant alterations in specificity were observed, consistent with the involvement of these residues in determining the substrate-inhibitor specificity distinctions between FIV and HIV PRs. Two previously identified residues, I35 and I57 of FIV PR, were intolerant to substitution ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the lentivirus of domestic cats responsible for feline AIDS, establishes a latent infection in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells approximately eight months after experimental inoculation. In this study, cats experimentally infected with the FIV-C strain in the asymptomatic phase demonstrated an estimated viral load of 1 infected cell per approximately 103 CD4+ T-cells, with about 1 copy of viral DNA per cell. Approximately 1 in 10 proviral copies was capable of transcription in the asymptomatic phase. The latent FIV proviral promoter was associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, which is consistent with a condensed chromatin structure. In contrast, the transcriptionally active FIV promoter was associated with histone acetylation and demethylation. In addition, RNA polymerase II appeared to be paused on the latent viral promoter, and short promoter-proximal transcripts were detected. Our findings for the FIV promoter ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and ...
By systematically dissecting the Rev proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), we have identified within each a short peptide that is functionally interchangeable with the effector domains found in Rev-like proteins from other retroviruses. The active sequences from FIV and EIAV differ in several respects from other known effectors and may represent a distinct class of effector domain. ...
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Looking for online definition of lymphadenopathy-associated virus in the Medical Dictionary? lymphadenopathy-associated virus explanation free. What is lymphadenopathy-associated virus? Meaning of lymphadenopathy-associated virus medical term. What does lymphadenopathy-associated virus mean?
Title:Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Djeneba Audrey Djibo*, Foday Sahr, J. Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G. Araneta, Stephanie K. Brodine and Richard A. Shaffer. Affiliation:Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106, Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106, Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106 , Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106, Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106, Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Naval Health Research ...
Description of disease Early symptomatic HIV infection. Treatment Early symptomatic HIV infection. Symptoms and causes Early symptomatic HIV infection Prophylaxis Early symptomatic HIV infection
To the editior: Walsh and colleagues (1) and Abrams and colleagues (2) recently described the successful treatment of immune thrombocytopenia with steroids or splenectomy in patients with antibodies to the lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human T-lymphotropic virus type III (LAV/HTLV III). We report our experience with intravenous gammaglobulin in such patients.. Immune thrombocytopenia occurred in 17 patients (12 hemophiliacs, 4 intravenous drug users, 1 homosexual man) out of 248 LAV/HTLV-III-seropositive patients seen in our hospital since 1981. The presence of these antibodies was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELA-VIA; Diagnostics Pasteur, France) and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Thrombocytopenia was severe ...
Barillari G, Sgadari C, Palladino C, Franzese O, Ensoli B. Antagonists of the a?ß3 integrin as potential tools for the therapy of AIDS-associated Kaposis sarcoma. In: Centro di coordinamento, organizzazione e verifica dei progetti per la lotta allAIDS, ed. Second national research program on AIDS. Progress report. Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Rome, July 12-16,1999. Roma: Istituto Superiore di Sanità; 1999. ( Rapporti ISTISAN 99/11). p.52 ...
On the other hand, the health of outdoor cats is threatened by contagious diseases such as feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis and rabies.. Feline immunodeficiency virus, or feline AIDS, for example, is a fatal disease that is carried by up to 14 percent of the cat population. It is transmitted from cat to cat by blood and saliva. This happens primarily through biting so outdoor and male cats that fight with other cats are at greatest risk. Parasites such as fleas, ticks and worms most commonly attack outdoor cats. If you allow your cat to go in and out at will, he will carry these parasites back into your home. Outdoor cats are more likely to contract diseases such as toxoplasmosis, ringworm and roundworms, all of which are zoonotic meaning they can be transmitted to people.. Outdoor cats may be attacked by wildlife or free-roaming domestic animals. ...
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The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi s sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 n=687 were followed clinically and with consecutive CD4 cell count...
My project examines the health effects of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) on African lions (Panthera leo) living in Kruger National Park, South Africa. FIV is an immunosuppressive lentivirus related to human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively). It has been linked to AIDS in domestic cats, with derangements of immune cells, blood biochemistry, and secondary infections reflective of the related syndrome seen in humans. While FIV is thought to be less severe in wild felid species, its behavior has not been well characterized, and animals living in free-ranging populations are exposed to a diverse assemblage of pathogens that may bear significant costs for host health. My study focuses on immunologic, clinical, and endocrine changes associated with FIV infection in lions. Additionally, it characterizes coinfections with native and non-native parasites and pathogens to examine the importance of FIV ...
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is passed from one cat to another through saliva, blood, and to some extent, urine and feces. The virus commonly causes anemia or lymphoma, but because it suppresses the immune system, it can also predispose cats to deadly infections.. Exposure to the feline leukemia virus doesnt have to be a death sentence; approximately 70% of cats who encounter the virus are able to resist infection or eliminate the virus on their own.. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a viral disease which affects the immune system of domestic cats, leaving the infected cat vulnerable to many other infections. The primary mode of transmission for FIV is through bite wounds. Cats in households with stable social structures where housemates do not fight are at little risk of acquiring FIV infections.. ...
As of October 15, 1985, there have been 204 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (or 1% of the total number of cases) reported in American children. Serologic testing has detected additional high-risk children (eg, hemophiliacs) who are human T lymphotropic virus type Ill/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/ LAV) antibody positive and are apparently well. Some of these children are of school age; thus, a policy on school attendance of children with HTLV-III infection is required.. The present AAP recommendations are based on (1) a review of available data related to potential transmission of HTLV-III by school-aged children and (2) the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) statement of August 30, 1985.. BACKGROUND These recommendations apply to all children known to be infected with HTLV-III/LAV including (1) children with AIDS as defined for reporting purposes (see Table); (2) children determined to have an illness due to infection with ...
For decades, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) positive cats basically faced two fates: euthanasia, or a lifetime without a forever home. Due in part to a lack of conclusive studies on the virus, and made all the worse by the stigma associated with other immunodeficiency viruses, the public had long been convinced that FIV+ cats could only live with other FIV+ cats, which made placing these cats into homes nearly impossible.. Fortunately, recent veterinary studies, a growing appreciation of special needs cats, and a new interest in addressing behavioral issues in felines have revealed that these cats can in fact live long, healthy lives in the company of FIV negative cats with no issue.. So heres everything you need to know if youre thinking about opening up your heart and home to one of these felines! (spoiler alert: they are awesome.). What is FIV?. FIV is a viral disease in the same class as HIV. It suppresses the ...
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at SYMPTOMA.com Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is considered to be the most severe stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is…
Representational difference analysis was used to isolate unique sequences present in more than 90 percent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) tissues obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These sequences were not present in tissue DNA from non-AIDS patients, but were present in 15 percent of non-KS tissue DNA samples from AIDS patients. The sequences are homologous to, but distinct from, capsid and tegument protein genes of the Gammaherpesvirinae, herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus. These KS-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) sequences appear to define a new human herpesvirus. ...
Definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Meaning of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a finance term. What does acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons. T2 - Results from a randomized trial. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Parker, Robert A.. AU - Robbins, Gregory K.. AU - Dubé, Michael P.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. Alternatively, albuminuria may improve with HAART as a result of treating renal parenchymal HIV infection. Longitudinal studies have not been performed previously addressing the effects of HAART on albuminuria. Methods. We evaluated the effects of HAART on albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) during the initial 64 weeks of therapy in 68 ...
leukemia in cats - 28 images - feline leukemia test how cat leukemia is diagnosed, felv facts diagnosis and transmission petfinder, feline leukemia cats at highest risk of infection, feline leukemia symptoms in cats petmeds 174, leukemia in cats felv expectancy symptoms
There are many commerical kits available for in-clinic diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). This study evaluated seven FIV and eight FeLV test kits. The researchers tested 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats. Positive FIV tests were confirmed with Western blot and positive FeLV tests were confirmed by virus isolation. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of eact test were determined. All test kits performed well, with the exception of one kit that produced unacceptable numbers of invalid test results and results that are difficult to interpret. Positive test results should always be confirmed, especially in a healthy cat from a low-risk environment ...
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the causative agent of the most important fatal infectious disease complex of American domestic cats today. it is an RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus belonging to the family Retroviridae. Oncogenic (tumor-causing) retroviruses similar to FeLV have been identified in a number of animal species: cattle, domestic fowl, certain nonhuman primates, and rodents. The oncogenic retroviruses are commonly referred to as RIVA tumor viruses, or oncornaviruses (oncogenic RNA viruses).. Other retroviruses, known as lentiviruses, can produce noncancerous diseases in cats, sheep, goats, and horses. The feline lentivirus, known as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (see in later section), is the cause of an immunodeficiency syndrome similar to that produced in humans by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac structure and function in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection treated with zidovudine. AU - Lipshultz, Steven E. AU - Orav, E. John. AU - Sanders, Stephen P.. AU - Hale, Andrea Rubin. AU - Mcintosh, Kenneth. AU - Colan, Steven D.. PY - 1992/10/29. Y1 - 1992/10/29. N2 - Background. Abnormalities of cardiac structure and function are common in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is unclear, however, whether these abnormalities are attributable to the disease itself, associated infections, or possible cardiotoxic effects of the most commonly used treatment, zidovudine. Methods. We performed echocardiography in 24 children with symptomatic HIV infection immediately before they started zidovudine therapy and a mean of 1.32 years after therapy began. Sixteen of these children were also studied a mean of 1.26 years before starting zidovudine treatment. Comparison groups included 27 age-matched children with ...
Learn how SNAP Feline Triple makes it easy for veterinarians to screen for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and heartworm.
BACKGROUND Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences have recently been found in lesions from patients with Kaposis sarcoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is not known whether these sequences are also present in classic Kaposis sarcoma or in the Kaposis sarcoma that occurs in homosexual men who are seronegative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS We analyzed DNA in tissue samples from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposis sarcoma, patients with classic Kaposis sarcoma, and HIV-seronegative homosexual men with Kaposis sarcoma. We also analyzed DNA in samples of uninvolved tissue from these patients and in control tissue from healthy subjects. All samples were tested blindly by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers to amplify KS330(233), a herpesvirus-like DNA sequence. RESULTS The KS330(233) PCR product was found in 20 of 21 tissue samples (95 percent) from the patients with Kaposis sarcoma, ...
No. 91 January 1995 AIDS MORTALITY IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1988-92 Elizabeth Barnett, Ph.D. ABSTRACT JM* 24 W95 .. f. 3RARY Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a leading cause of death for young adults in the United States. A detailed examination of AIDS mortality in North Carolina has not previously been published. In this report, sociodemographic patterns of AIDS mortality in North Carolina were investigated for the 5-year period 1988-1992. Young adults aged 25-44 accounted for 78 percent of AIDS deaths in North Carolina during the study period. AIDS mortality rates were higher among men than women, and much higher among blacks compared to whites. AIDS mortality increased rapidly among adults aged 25-44 during the 5- year study period, becoming the leading cause of death among black men, the second leading cause of death among black women, and the fourth leading cause of death among white men by 1992. AIDS mortality was associated with a ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of several risk/protective factors and predictors on the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infections in 302 stray cats captured during a trap-neuter-release programme in a mixed urban-rural area from Belgium, from 2010 to 2012. The impact of selective removal of FIV-positive cats on the apparent prevalence in the remaining population over this three-year period was also assessed. The seroprevalences over three years were 18.8 per cent for FIV and 0.7 per cent for FeLV. For FIV, the seroprevalence decreased significantly from the first year of the programme (2010; 30.5 per cent) to the last (2012; 13.1 per cent). Sex (male) and age (adult and old cats) were risk factors, while the year of sampling (years 2011 and 2012) was a protective factor. Age, sex and location were the most relevant predictors of FIV status. The data presented in this study revealed a very ...
Please DO NOT vaccinate for FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - aka "feline AIDS"), FIP (Feline Infectious Peritonitis), bordatella, giardia, or chlamydia.. Keep in mind that if you do decide to vaccinate for FIV (a very ineffective and adjuvanted vaccine), your cat will now test positive since the FIV test cannot tell the difference between an infected cat and a vaccinated cat. FVRCP:. Most people are familiar with the abbreviation FVRCP which stands for Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (herpes), Calici, Panleukopenia. FVRCP is a combination vaccine that includes 3 out of the 5 vaccines that will be discussed on this webpage.. This vaccine can either be modified live (NON-adjuvanted) or killed (adjuvanted). The route of delivery can be either injectable or intranasal.. Only use a modified live (NON-adjuvanted) - never a killed (adjuvanted) - FVRCP vaccine, with injectable (not intranasal) being the preferred route of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of replication-competent simian immunodeficiency virus vectors that express gamma interferon. AU - Giavedoni, Luis D.. AU - Yilma, Tilahun. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We report the construction and characterization of several replication- competent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vectors with a deletion in the viral nef gene (SIV(Δnef)) that express gamma interferon (IFN-γ). The expression of the cytokine gene was controlled either by the simian virus 40 early promoter or by the SIV 5 long terminal repeat regulatory sequences, utilizing the nef gene splice signals. To enhance the expression of IFN-γ, the two in-frame nef start codons were mutated without altering the Env amino acid sequence (SIV(Hy-IFN)). Plasmids containing full-length proviral genomes were used to obtain high-titer stocks of each recombinant virus in cell cultures. Expression of IFN-γ by SIV(HyIFN) reached levels as high as 106 U/ml after 11 days in ...
Feline Leukemia Viral Issues Feline Leukemia Virus is a fairly common viral disease of cats that is transmitted through fluids from other felines. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus is not as common in felines, but is also contagious from cat to cat via bodily fluids.... read more ...
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Marriage is by no means common for people with Down Syndrome has always been with us, but it was not until the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that anyone thought to research and will look to integrate my findings into my current Energy Psychology sessions and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a baby with Down syndrome, but it is caused due to primary adrenal tumor.. By the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome above 42 are at major risk of prevalence is about 23.4% and 11% in individuals suffering from Down syndrome later. In the early childhood girls suffering from depression, alcoholism, malnutrition and panic disorders also have Fibromyalgia. The most common techniques used are computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Computerized tomography actually produces a series of X-ray ...
DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is a disorder of the immune system. The condition is characterized by recurrent infections that are severe and can be life-threatening. The infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Skin infections cause rashes, blisters, accumulations of pus (abscesses), open sores, and scaling. People with DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome also tend to have frequent bouts of pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. Other immune system-related problems in people with DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome include an inflammatory skin disorder called eczema, food or environmental allergies, and asthma.. DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is characterized by abnormally high levels of an immune system protein called immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood; the levels can be more than 10 times higher than normal for no known reason. IgE normally triggers ...
Synonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 2 words related to acquired: nonheritable, noninheritable. What are synonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?
To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Read about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS & HIV
This is, to our knowledge, the first study that has aimed to identify and quantify AIDS deaths misclassification and under-report at a National level in Brazil. Other authors have estimated the extent of AIDS death misclassifications in the state of Rio de Janeiro by linking data of patients from two HIV/AIDS cohorts with data from the Mortality Information System in Rio de Janeiro.7 Their methodology is, unfortunately, impossible to apply at a National level. However, the method presented in this study has been demonstrated to be a simple and easy replicable way for countries to assess misclassification and under-report of AIDS deaths and yielded similar results to the study conducted in Rio de Janeiro (23% of misclassification in our study for 2000-2006 and 25% in the study conducted in Rio de Janeiro for the same period).. This study identified five HIV/AIDS related causes of death that are sources of HIV/AIDS deaths misclassification. Other septicaemias and pneumonias accounted for the ...
Kaposis sarcoma. Close-up of a Kaposis sarcoma lesion on the skin of the leg of a male patient suffering from AIDS. This is a cancerous skin tumour, typically coloured purple with silver scales. It is a feature of up to 20% of all AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) male patients. Until AIDS, it was a rare cancer found mainly in elderly Mediterranean men. Kaposis sarcoma begins on the feet and ankles, spreading up the legs to hands and arms. As an aggressive cancer, it may cause internal bleeding if the gut and lungs are affected. Kaposis sarcoma can prove fatal in AIDS patients. Radiotherapy or anticancer drugs are the common treatment. - Stock Image M112/0213
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the tumor response rate of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposis sarcoma to topical halofuginone (halofuginone hydrobromide) versus vehicle control.. II. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of topical halofuginone and vehicle in patients with AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the ability of topical halofuginone to inhibit expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) and Collagen type I in AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma.. II. To explore the relationship between baseline cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 counts, HIV viral load and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) viral load and response to halofuginone.. III. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of halofuginone.. OUTLINE: Twelve treatable Kaposis sarcoma lesions are selected on each patient, and these 12 lesions are randomized equally to 1 of 2 treatment arms (6 lesions receive study treatment and 6 lesions receive placebo); ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the tumor response rate of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposis sarcoma to topical halofuginone (halofuginone hydrobromide) versus vehicle control.. II. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of topical halofuginone and vehicle in patients with AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the ability of topical halofuginone to inhibit expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) and Collagen type I in AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma.. II. To explore the relationship between baseline cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 counts, HIV viral load and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) viral load and response to halofuginone.. III. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of halofuginone.. OUTLINE: Twelve treatable Kaposis sarcoma lesions are selected on each patient, and these 12 lesions are randomized equally to 1 of 2 treatment arms (6 lesions receive study treatment and 6 lesions receive placebo); ...
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness and Information Day is observed each year on February 7 to call attention to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the black population in the United States. The event is sponsored by a coalition of nongovernment organizations, with support from CDC. During 2000--2003, more than half of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in 32 states were among blacks, although blacks represented only 13% of the population of those states. In 2003, black men had the highest rate of HIV/AIDS diagnoses of any racial/ethnic population, approximately seven times the rate among white men and twice the rate among black women (1). Black women are also severely impacted by HIV. During 2000--2003, approximately 69% of women who had HIV/AIDS diagnosed were black. In 2003, the rate of HIV/AIDS was 18 times greater among black women than among non-Hispanic white women (1). ...
The number of AIDS-related deaths and the rate of new HIV infections have both dropped dramatically as access to better treatments has increased, according to a new report from the U.N
Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline. Introductory Comments Virus versus bacteria Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses How RNA containing viruses can replicate Origins of HIV Dr. Hahn and colleagues Characteristics of HIV Particle Slideshow 6705718 by natalie-mcmillan
Definition of aids dementia complex in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of aids dementia complex. What does aids dementia complex mean? Information and translations of aids dementia complex in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Neopterin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection Bruce J. Brew, MB, FRACP, Ravi B. Bhalla, PhD,? Morris Paul, PhD,* H. Gallardo, MS,* Justin C. McArthur, MBBS,S Morton K. Schwartz, PhD,t and &chard W. Price, MD We evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of neopterin, a putative marker of activated macrophages, in 97 subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who had a spectrum of neurological complications. The highest CSF neopterin concentrations occurred in those with neurological opportunistic infections, primary central nervous systems lymphoma, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)dementia complex. In general, the CSF concentration of neopterin was independent of CSF cell count and blood-brain barrier disruption to albumin. In the patients with AIDS dementia complex, CSF neopterin concentrations correlated with severity of disease and decreased in ...
Recent scientific articles (1-11), including one in this issue of the Annals (12), provide information relevant to the association of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with the receipt of blood or blood products. The diverse topics covered in these articles show the number and complexity of the issues involved. The uncertainty about the cause and natural history of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome makes it difficult to place in proper perspective the risk of developing the syndrome from transfusions.. Of the 3064 cases of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) by 22 December 1983, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slowed saccades in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AU - Nguyen, Ngoc. AU - Rimmer, Steve. AU - Katz, Barrett. PY - 1989/4/15. Y1 - 1989/4/15. N2 - We recorded eye movements using infrared oculography in ten patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ten control subjects of similar age. Peak saccadic velocity for the AIDS group was significantly lower than that of the control group for both adducting and abducting saccades (P , .001). Saccadic duration for the AIDS group was significantly greater than that of the controls for both adducting and abducting saccades (P , .02 for adduction and P , .01 for abduction). There was no difference in saccadic latencies between the two groups. We add slowed saccades to the ocular motility manifestations of AIDS. Our study indicated that analysis of ocular motility may be of value in providing early detection of neurologic ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Cats overrun squalid home in Petaluma / S.F. woman arrested on cruelty charges after 170 are removed Harried animal control officers spent yesterday chasing scores of feral cats through the filth-splattered confines of a Petaluma home that a wealthy San Francisco woman bought exclusively for her felines. More than 170 cats and kittens had been removed from the reeking two-story house by days end, but dozens more remained hidden or simply scurried out of reach whenever an officer got too close. Authorities arrested Barletta, 61, Tuesday and charged her with animal cruelty after finding three dead cats in the house and what they believe to be the remains of others. Barlettas ex-husband, Joseph Barletta, is a former member of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission and a former president of the now- defunct San Francisco Newspaper Agency. Even after a day spent chasing cats in a scene straight out of a madcap Disney movie, seasoned officers still struggled to comprehend the horrors ...
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
Neuropsychological impairment is widely accepted as being common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) but infrequent in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The neuropsychological function of a homogenous sample of HIV-infected haemophiliacs was investigated. Neuropsychological impairment, the nature of which is compatible with that described in the existing literature, was found in one of four AIDS cases. Eleven AIDS related complex (ARC) and 12 asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals were free of neuropsychological deficit.. ...
Test‐it™ HIV nano range of HIV tests are ultra-modern 3rd and 4th generation qualitative immunoassays utilising the latest cutting edge technology to detect Human Immunodeficiency Virus types 1 and 2 (HIV‐1 and HIV‐2).. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV 1+2) are enveloped single strand RNA virus that cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV‐1 has been isolated from patients with AIDS and AIDS‐related complex, and from healthy individuals with high risk for developing AIDS. HIV‐2 has been isolated from West African AIDS patients and from seropositive asymptomatic individuals. Both HIV‐1 and HIV‐2 virus elicit strong immune responses, including the production of anti‐virus antibodies. Presence of specific anti HIV‐1 and/or anti HIV‐2 virus antibodies in blood, serum, or plasma indicates exposure of an individual to the HIV‐1 and/or HIV‐2 virus, and is of great value in clinical diagnosis. HIV nano and ...
Brazilian AIDS and HIV-1-seropositive patients have had free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since November 1996. Although secondary data based on official mortality statistics indicate a sharp decrease in AIDS mortality, few if any studies tried to estimate the prognosis for patients with HIV who have been followed from the beginning of the HAART era. An observational study, with retrospective and prospective components, was done in 233 adult HIV-1-infected subjects who were recruited in the last 10 years at the outpatient sector of the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clinicas da FMUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The definition of AIDS followed the guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1987. One hundred sixty patients were asymptomatic, 46 had AIDS, 24 had AIDS-related complex, and 3 presented with acute infection at study entry. Twenty-nine (18%) of the asymptomatic subjects developed AIDS during follow-up, with
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of clinical lipodystrophy in children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and to relate it to the antiretroviral regimen employed, to changes in lipid profile and to insulin resistance. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 children and adolescents (median age = 9.1 years) with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome during 2004 and 2005. The following clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed: classification of HIV infection, anthropometric measurements (weight and height), serum glycemia, serum insulin and lipid profile (LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides). Lipodystrophy was diagnosed using clinical parameters. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All of the patients were taking antiretroviral therapy regularly (median duration of 28.4 months); 80% were on three drugs in combination (highly active therapy) and 30% ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
National Gay Mens HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is observed each year on September 27 to focus on the disproportionate effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic on gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2007, the estimated HIV diagnosis rate among MSM was 692 per 100,000, which was 44 to 86 times the rate for other men and 40 to 77 times the rate for women (1).. Although MSM represent approximately 2% of the U.S. population (1), in 2006 they accounted for 57% of all new HIV infections (2). From 2005 to 2008, estimated diagnoses of HIV infection increased approximately 17% among MSM in 37 states (3). In 2008, black MSM had the highest estimated number of diagnoses of HIV infection, followed by white and Hispanic MSM (3). In recent years, new HIV diagnoses have increased significantly among young black MSM (4).. CDC supports a range of efforts to reduce HIV infection among MSM. These include HIV prevention services that aim to reduce the risk for acquiring and ...
By Dr. Jose Castillo-Mancilla. Hispanic/Latinos are the fastest growing minority ethnic group in the United States, accounting for 17 percent of the current population. This is projected to increase to 31 percent by 2060. As we celebrate the National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, it is time to think about how HIV/AIDS affects the Hispanic/Latino community in the US and what can you do to stop it.. The CDC indicates that more than 95,000 U.S. Hispanic/Latinos have died of HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic, and that this disease continues to affect us disproportionately. About 20 percent of the new HIV infections occur in individuals of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, both men and women, and the lifetime likelihood of being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in is higher for Hispanic/Latinos compared to whites. This also translates into a much more advanced disease stage once the diagnosis is made, which is fueled by factors such as lack of healthcare access, health illiteracy, poverty, stigma and ...
The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, meeting at its 29th Ordinary Session in Tripoli, the Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 23rd April to 7th May 2001: Noting the rampant escalation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa especially in sub-Saharan Africa where estimates show that some 9 million people have died and within the next decade some 25 million people will become infected;. Noting with satisfaction the convening of the Africa Summit on HIV/AIDS in Abuja, Nigeria, from 24th to 26th April 2001 where the crisis was declared and interventions of emergency proportions called for;. Welcoming the statement of the Abuja Summit and the emergency measures declared there especially the announcement by the Secretary General of the UN on the establishment of a US$10 billion war chest to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa;. Welcoming the forthcoming UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS to be held in June 2001 and trusting that it will increase awareness of the need for ...
A survey sent to medical and radiation oncologists to identify factors contributing to observed disparities in cancer treatment between patients infected with HIV and those not infected "found that a substantial proportion of physicians (21%) would alter their treatment recommendations based on HIV status," Gita Suneja, MD, of the University of Salt Lake City, Utah, and colleagues reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice. "The likelihood of offering standard treatment was associated with concerns about toxicity, efficacy, and comfort level with discussing cancer treatment adverse effects and prognosis," the investigators stated.. Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy improved survival in HIV-infected individuals, "cancers in HIV-infected individuals were largely AIDS-defining cancers related to severe immunosuppression, such as Kaposi sarcoma," the researchers wrote. With improved survival in HIV-infected individuals, cancers considered non-AIDS-defining cancers, "such as ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.aiatsis.gov.au/resource/-12UeLmnfng/ typeof=Intangible http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Concept,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.aiatsis.gov.au/resource/-12UeLmnfng/,AIDS (Disease) -- Australia -- Prevention , Cross cultural studies,/a,,/span, - ,span property=offers typeOf=Offer,,span property=offeredBy typeof=Library ll:Library resource=http://link.aiatsis.gov.au/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.aiatsis.gov.au/,Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS),/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
CDC marked Tuesday, National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, by stressing its commitment to ending an epidemic that disproportionately affects African Americans. "At CDC, HIV prevention in black communities remains one of our top priorities," said Dr. Kevin Fenton, director of CDCs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention. "Last year, we invested more than half of our HIV prevention budget to fight HIV among African Americans. "Weve expanded initiatives to reach more African Americans with HIV testing, increased the number and reach of HIV prevention programs in black communities, and are working with our partners, like those in the Act Against AIDS Leadership Initiative, to launch campaigns aimed at increasing HIV testing and awareness among black women and black gay and bisexual men, among other groups," Fenton said. The director said testing and awareness are the best ways to prevent future HIV infections. "We must also tackle factors such as homophobia and stigma ...
Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). T2 - Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study, 1992-2015. AU - Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Kim, Sang Il. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Park, Dae Won. AU - Kang, Chun. AU - Kee, Mee Kyung. AU - Choi, Ju yeon. AU - Kim, Soo Min. AU - Choi, Bo Youl. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Kim, June Myung. AU - Choi, JunYong. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. AU - Kim, Min Ja. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - Hur, Ji An. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Lee, Sang Ah. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Eom, Joong Shik. AU - Lee, Jin Seo. AU - Park, So Yeon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Choi, Hee Jung. AU - Choi, Jun Yong. AU - Ku, Nam Su. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Kim, Tae ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS knowledge is an important component of HIV/AIDS risk prevention strategies that may influence engagement in high risk behaviour. This qualitative study examines HIV/AIDS knowledge and factors that inhibit female young adults between ages 25-29 years old from negotiating condom usage with their sexual partners. A representative sample of 12 unemployed female young adults lived in Parkgate KwaZulu Natal, South Africa were used for this study. The main problem was that the HIV/AIDS rate was reported to be high amongst the age group of 25 to 29 years, especially in women as opposed to men. There are lot of government‟s, NGOs and private sector interventions designed for the public using different modes of communication but the statistics show that these interventions somehow do not reach all intended audiences. For whatever reason people are still failing to use condoms. There is still lot of work that needs to be done in ensuring that awareness interventions reach all ...
For the first time, National Faith HIV/AIDS Awareness Day will appear on our awareness calendars. The designated day is August 27 and the event, organized by RAHMA (a faith-based HIV/AIDS nonprofit) and its partners, will seek to highlight the importance of faith in the lives of many Americans, including those living with HIV/AIDS, and the power of faith communities to destigmatize the disease, raise awareness, and become more inclusive and safer spaces for those affected by the pandemic. "Together We Are Stronger!" is the rallying cry of the organizers, who hope that the day will soon achieve official recognition on the HIV.gov calendar.. The day seeks to enjoin Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, and Bahai faith communities across the U.S. to show their support of the fight against AIDS. Organizers have enlisted thirteen Faith Ambassadors across fifteen cities hard-hit by HIV/AIDS, including New York City, Washington D.C./ Baltimore, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta, ...
The majority of preclinical and clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development efforts have focused on HIV-1 subtype B strains from the western world. However, the overwhelming majority of HIV/AIDS-related deaths occur in the developing world and are from other HIV-1 subtype strains. Therefore, we sought to develop and generate the first mucosally transmissible simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge stocks from HIV-1 subtype AE env sequences. The sequences were identified from acutely infected HIV-1 individuals from Southeast Asia. The challenge stocks efficiently infected rhesus monkeys, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic setpoint viremia. The SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the evaluation of vaccines and other interventions aimed at controlling the spread of HIV-1 subtype AE infection.. ...
To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated ...
At the IV South Africa AIDS Conference, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit (RHRU) of University of Witwatersrand, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, and Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) called upon government to urgently implement expanded roles for health care workers in the delivery of comprehensive HIV/AIDS services through task-shifting, in order to achieve the treatment targets set forth in the South African National Strategic Plan (NSP) for HIV/AIDS 2007-2011. The NSP calls for decentralisation of comprehensive HIV/AIDS services to the primary health care level, a larger role for nurses in the provision of life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and ART coverage for 80% of people in urgent clinical need. At the close of the AIDS conference taking place in Durban, there were 999 days until the NSP targets are supposed to be met. The NSP recommends professional nurses initiate and manage ART for adults and children (now the domain of ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients with AIDS from 1982 to 1988. SETTING--An academic centre for AIDS. PATIENTS--196 Patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms examined from 1982 to 1988. INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine treatment, which was introduced to The Netherlands on 1 May 1987 for patients with severe symptoms of HIV infection (Centers for Disease Control groups IVA, B, C, and D). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS--The AIDS dementia complex was diagnosed in 40 of the 196 (20%) patients with AIDS. Thirty eight of 107 patients with AIDS (36%) not taking zidovudine developed the AIDS dementia complex compared with two of the 89 (2%) taking the drug (p less than 0.00001). The incidence of the AIDS dementia complex ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS. T2 - Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. AU - Soeiro, Ruy. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. AU - Rashbaum, William K.. AU - Lyman, William D.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Pediatric AIDS is increasing in frequency due to a rise in the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-infected women of childbearing age. Because outcome studies reveal that most children infected peripartum manifest HIV-1-related disease in the first year of life, intrauterine infection has been suspected. Fetal tissues from 23 second-trimester abortuses were examined. The presence of HIV-1 nucleic acid sequences was determined by the polymerase chain reaction and used to define infection of the fetus. By analysis of available tissues, 7 of 23 fetuses were infected, while control fetal tissue was negative. In situ hybridization for HIV-1 DNA showed that only 1 of 8 infected abortuses was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased Mortality Associated With Vitamin A Deficiency During Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. AU - Semba, Richard David. AU - Graham, Neil M H. AU - Caiaffa, Waleska T.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Clement, Liliana. AU - Vlahov, David. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether plasma vitamin A levels are associated with immunologic status and clinical outcome during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Patients and Patients and Methods: Analysis of vitamin A levels, CD4 T cells, complete blood cell count, and serologic markers for liver disease in a random subsample of 179 subjects from a cohort of more than 2000 intravenous drug users with longitudinal follow-up to determine survival. Results: Mean (±SE) follow-up time was 22.8±1.1 months, and 15 subjects died during follow-up. More than 15% of the HIV-l-seropositive individuals had plasma vitamin A levels less than 1.05 μmol/L, a level consistent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal studies of viral sequence, viral phenotype, immunologic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in perinatally infected twins with discordant disease courses. AU - Hutto, Cecelia. AU - Zhou, Y. I.. AU - Jun, H. E.. AU - Geffin, Rebeca. AU - Hill, Martin. AU - Scott, Walter. AU - Wood, Charles. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease and are variable in both the age of the patient at onset of serious disease and the progression of the clinical course. Heterozygotic perinatally infected twins with a marked difference in their clinical courses were monitored during the first 2 years of life. Twin B, the second-born twin, developed AIDS by 6 months of age and died at 22 months of age, while twin A remained minimally symptomatic through the first 2 years. Sequential blood specimens were obtained from the twins in order to ...
In Europe before the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), fatal cases of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans resembling acute meningitis were rarely described and never in young adults. However, rapidly fatal cryptococcal meningitis in young Africans has been known to exist in central Africa for at least 30 years, mainly in the lower area of the Congo River basin. Cases have been reported in this area since 1953, particularly in young patients during the 1950s. It is also known that central African AIDS patients frequently suffer from cryptococcosis, and there is a possibility that earlier clinical reports of encephalitis were actually fatal cases of AIDS in young Africans. It appears possible that the central part of the African continent is the area where human immunodeficiency virus originated. Rapidly fatal cryptococcal meningitis has existed in central Africa for more than 30 years, mainly in the lower area of the ...
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to contributing to declines in the incidence of several opportunistic infections, HAART is affecting the incidences of several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies. 1
Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P,0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Early abnormalities of the antibody response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection. AU - Saltini, Cesare. AU - Amicosante, Massimo. AU - Girardi, Enrico. AU - Antonucci, Giorgio. AU - Ippolito, Giuseppe. AU - Ameglio, Franco. AU - Monno, Laura. AU - Congedo, Pierpaolo. AU - Angarano, Gioacchino. AU - Babudieri, Sergio. AU - Guaraldi, Giovanni. AU - Visco, Giuseppe. AU - Piccolella, Enza. AU - Paone, Gregorino. AU - Pallotta, Giovanni. AU - Bisetti, Alberto. PY - 1993/12. Y1 - 1993/12. N2 - Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, those who react against purified protein derivative (PPD) have higher risk of tuberculosis. Since PPD testing has limited predictive power in HIV-positive populations, new markers of antituberculous immunity were sought by analyzing antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (PPD and its fraction A60) in 102 HIV-positive subjects, some PPD-positive and some PPD-negative, ...
Clinical trial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus | Infection | HIV infection , Switch Study to Evaluate Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine in Virologically Suppressed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Positive Adults (TANGO)
INTRODUCTION. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the virus JC and characterized by lytic infection of the oligodendrocytes and demyelination10, tipically occuring in the context of severe immunodepression. After the advent of the HIV epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) became the most common predisposing disorder for PML1. This disease has been diagnosed in up to 5% of HIV-infected patients in developed countries in the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era10. However, the incidence of PML has decreased less dramatically when compared to other CNS diseases in the HAART era6,21. Interestingly, PML has rarely been reported in HIV-infected patients from developing countries8,11,12. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and radiological features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic ...
To the Editor:. HIV infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developed countries, life expectancy has increased considerably since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996.1 However, a number of reports have documented some unexpected adverse effects from HAART, including a group of conditions characterized by altered lipid and glucose metabolism and alterations in body fat distribution in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.2,3 Clinical presentations have included the accumulation of adipose tissue in the dorsocervical region, commonly referred to as buffalo hump; fatty infiltration and bulging of supraclavicular fat pads, called Madelung disease; visceral abdominal fat accumulation ("crix belly"); benign symmetric lipomatosis; and subcutaneous fat wasting of the face and limbs.. The pathogenesis of body fat redistribution and metabolic changes occurring among HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Dallas, Texas, experience. AU - Burns, D. K.. AU - Risser, R. C.. AU - White, C. L.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Postmortem neuropathologic changes were evaluated in 141 consecutive patients dying with human immunodeficiency virusinfection at publicly supported hospitals affiliated with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, between August 1984 and September 1990. Morphologic abnormalities were identified in 112 cases (79%). Cytomegalovirus was the most common opportunistic infection encountered, with characteristic viral inclusions identified in 23 patients, and presumptive evidence of infection in six additional patients. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was present in four patients. Gram-positive bacterial infections were identified in six patients, and mycobacterial infections in three patients. Opportunistic fungal infections included cryptococcosis (13 ...
In HIV-infected people who develop active tuberculosis (TB), levels of HIV in the bloodstream increase five- to 160-fold, according to investigators at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The new findings, which build on previous work at NIAID and elsewhere, help explain why HIV-infected people with active TB have a poorer prognosis than HIV-infected people without TB.. Delia Goletti, M.D., Ph.D., of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation (LIR) and her colleagues report their findings in the Aug. 1 Journal of Immunology.. Recent research has demonstrated that high levels of HIV in the blood correlate with an increased risk that an HIV-infected person will develop AIDS or die," says LIR Chief and NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Our new findings that active TB disease boosts HIV levels in the blood underscore the importance of diagnosing and effectively treating tuberculosis in HIV-infected people.". In addition, adds Dr. Goletti, "These results highlight ...
Virologic and immunologic studies were performed on five patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors specific for cells expressing antigens of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env were detected at or within 3 weeks of presentation in four of the five patients and were detected in all five patients by 3 to 6 months after presentation. The one patient with an absent initial CTL response had prolonged symptoms, persistent viremia, and low CD4+ T-cell count. Neutralizing antibody activity was absent at the time of presentation in all five patients. These findings suggest that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and indicate a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV-1 in vivo. ...
Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) in Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) was reported at 63.45 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) - Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus and is the causative organism for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1]. Two major subtypes of HIV-HIV-1 and HIV-2-are known to exist [2]. Over 95% of patients infected with HIV will, without treatment, develop progressive immunodeficiency as indicated by falling CD4-positive T cell counts and/or development of AIDS defining illnesses within 10 years of seroconversion [3, 4]. In general, disease progression is slower in those infected with HIV-2 compared with the globally more common HIV-1 [1, 2].. HIV infection is associated with myriad central nervous system (CNS) sequelae. These include, but are not limited to, toxoplasmosis, primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), tuberculous meningitis (TBM), cryptococcal meningitis and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) [5-8]. These may all disrupt cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation causing an ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) in Saudi Arabia was reported at 60 % in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Saudi Arabia - Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.

AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System - Zanesville, OhioAIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System - Zanesville, Ohio

AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and weakens the bodys immune system. The immune system ... cells form in the lymph system of patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... cells form in the lymph system of patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the lung, lymph ...
more infohttps://www.genesishcs.org/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000257993

AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Forrest HealthAIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Forrest Health

AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and weakens the bodys immune system. The immune system ... cells form in the lymph system of patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... cells form in the lymph system of patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the lung, lymph ...
more infohttps://www.forresthealth.org/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000257993

Cat-scratch Disease | Encyclopedia.comCat-scratch Disease | Encyclopedia.com

Definition Cat-scratch disease [2] is an uncommon infection that typically results from a cats scratch or bite. Most sufferers ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) -An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A person ... AIDS- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A disease that attacks the immune system.. Antibiotics- A category of manufactured ... Cat-scratch disease (also called cat-scratch fever ) is caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium, which is found in cats ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/cat-scratch-disease

AIDS Filter StrategyAIDS Filter Strategy

OR htlv antibodies OR htlv antigens OR htlv infections OR human herpesvirus 6 OR feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR ... "simian immunodeficiency virus" OR simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR saids [tw] OR mason-pfizer monkey virus OR saids ... OR murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR murine aids [tw] OR (maids [tw] AND immunologic deficiency syndromes) OR bovine ... OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [mh] OR aids-related OR aids-related opportunistic infections[mh] OR htlv OR htlv-blv ...
more infohttps://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed_subsets/aids_strategy.html

Cat health - WikipediaCat health - Wikipedia

... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... Food dangerous to cats[edit]. A number of common human foods ... Feline hepatic lipidosis also known as Feline Fatty Liver Syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats.[5 ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV.[2]. *Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer.. *Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_health

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Evaluation of Viral Load With Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR)...Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Evaluation of Viral Load With Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR)...

... infection in domestic cats results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) like to HIV in human. ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Evaluation of Viral Load With Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR) ... Feline α-1 glycoprotein (AGP) was performed with radial immunodiffusion test provided by Ecos Institute, Japan. Viral load was ... In Argentina FIV infection is greater than feline leukemia virus what result in an excellent model to study HIV infection as ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?id=3866739&pid=11268

Viruses  | Free Full-Text | Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) | HTMLViruses | Free Full-Text | Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) | HTML

... is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non- ... of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus ( ... infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs ... similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/5/708/htm

The Use of Reiki for Patients With Advanced AIDSThe Use of Reiki for Patients With Advanced AIDS

Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an advanced stage of a human immunodeficiency virus infection. The antiretroviral therapy ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human ... to characterize the seropositive elderly for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/123047/The-Use-of-Reiki-for-Patients-With-Advanced-AIDS.html

feline immunodeficiency virusfeline immunodeficiency virus

... is the feline analog of human immunodeficiency virus and a small animal model of human acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( ... cats*feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome*cat diseases*viral antibodies*feline leukemia virus*viral vaccines*virus ... cat*Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88*human*Human immunodeficiency virus 1*Feline immunodeficiency virus*mouse*Rhesus monkey*Feline ... b>Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, yet in ...
more infohttps://www.labome.org/topics/organisms/viruses/rna/retroviridae/lentivirus/feline/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-3396.html

FIV or Feline AIDS in Cats | petMDFIV or Feline AIDS in Cats | petMD

... infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Learn more about the symptoms, causes ... "It is in the same class of viruses as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency ... syndrome (AIDS) in people." (1). There is no genetic susceptibility for infection, although genetics may play a role in the ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FIV) in Cats. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/infectious-parasitic/c_ct_feline_immunodeficiency_virus_infection

Cat-Scratch Disease - swollen, symptoms, meaning, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptomsCat-Scratch Disease - swollen, symptoms, meaning, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) -An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A person ... Cat-scratch disease (also called cat-scratch fever) is caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium, which is found in cats ... When cat-scratch disease is suspected, the doctor will ask about a history of exposure to cats and look for evidence of a cat ... infected cat will not display any symptoms. Kittens (cats younger than one year old) are more likely than adult cats to be ...
more infohttp://www.healthofchildren.com/C/Cat-Scratch-Disease.html

Recombinant DNA Approaches to Feline Leukemia Virus Immunization | SpringerLinkRecombinant DNA Approaches to Feline Leukemia Virus Immunization | SpringerLink

... human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the acquired immunodeficiency... ... in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). Experience with ... Gardner, M.B., and P. Marx (1985) Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Adv. Viral Onc. 5:57-81.Google Scholar ... Jarrett, O. (1974) Feline leukemia virus subgroups. In Feline Leukemia Virus, W.D. Hardy and A.J. McClelland, eds. Elsevier/ ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5110-8_18

Feline AIDS: Feline Immunodeficiency Viris (FIV)Feline AIDS: Feline Immunodeficiency Viris (FIV)

Feline AIDS is caused by the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Boosting the immune system and reducing stress are essential ... AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and is generally well known to people with respect to HIV, or Human ... Immunodeficiency Syndrome.. HIV only affects humans. FIV only affects members of the cat family. So, if your cat has been ... Feline AIDS: Immune Deficiency in Cats. The condition known as Feline AIDS is caused by the presence of the Feline ...
more infohttps://www.cat-lovers-only.com/feline-aids.html

Preventing Common Cat Diseases - KTRE.com | Lufkin and Nacogdoches, TexasPreventing Common Cat Diseases - KTRE.com | Lufkin and Nacogdoches, Texas

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FIV is similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but it is not the same ... There is no link between feline leukemia and human forms of leukemia. There are blood tests to determine if your cat may be ... Basic Training for Cats. Basic Training for Cats. Before training your cat, determine how well she will respond well to ... All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other ...
more infohttp://www.ktre.com/story/859056/preventing-common-cat-diseases

Health Wise Foods, Inc. Condition CenterHealth Wise Foods, Inc. Condition Center

... including those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or leukemia, and ... Cats claw: Originally found in Peru, the use of cats claw (Uncaria tomentosa) has been said to date back to the Inca ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, adenoma, adrenal, AIDS, anemia, Beaus lines, benign, biologic therapy, bladder cancer, ... human immunodeficiency virus, human papilloma virus, hyperpigmentation, immune system, immune therapy, immunity, laetrile, ...
more infohttp://www.healthwisefoods.com/promog/ConditionCenter.asp?ConditionID=9&StoreID=A5873C6647A44549902CE64E9C752E24

Preventing Common Cat Diseases - KCBD NewsChannel 11 LubbockPreventing Common Cat Diseases - KCBD NewsChannel 11 Lubbock

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FIV is similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but it is not the same ... There is no link between feline leukemia and human forms of leukemia. There are blood tests to determine if your cat may be ... Basic Training for Cats. Basic Training for Cats. Before training your cat, determine how well she will respond well to ... All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other ...
more infohttp://www.kcbd.com/story/859056/preventing-common-cat-diseases

FIV - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus | Manhattan Cat SpecialistsFIV - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus | Manhattan Cat Specialists

... from a cat with clinical symptoms that were strikingly similar to those seen in humans with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... AIDS), the disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. FIV is classified as a retrovirus. ... The FIV virus is a feline immuno-suppressive disease transmitted by cats through bite wounds. The virus was isolated by Dr. ... from a cat with clinical symptoms that were strikingly similar to those seen in humans with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ...
more infohttps://www.manhattancats.com/article-archive/infectious-diseases/FIV-the-Feline-Immunodeficiency-Virus/

FIV: Feline HIVFIV: Feline HIV

... is similar to the human HIV, which is a virus that can cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This disease suppresses ... Feline HIV cannot be transmitted to humans, and human HIV cannot be transmitted to cats. ... Dont allow your cat outdoors, to prevent infections and to prevent other cats from contracting the virus. A cat with FIV can ... If you have a cat with feline HIV, you should keep him isolated from other cats to make sure he wont infect others. To prevent ...
more infohttps://www.vetinfo.com/fiv-feline-hiv.html

Preventing Common Cat Diseases - WBRC FOX6 News - Birmingham, ALPreventing Common Cat Diseases - WBRC FOX6 News - Birmingham, AL

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FIV is similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but it is not the same ... There is no link between feline leukemia and human forms of leukemia. There are blood tests to determine if your cat may be ... Basic Training for Cats. Basic Training for Cats. Before training your cat, determine how well she will respond well to ... All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other ...
more infohttp://www.wbrc.com/global/story.asp?s=859056

Preventing Common Cat Diseases - Tucson News NowPreventing Common Cat Diseases - Tucson News Now

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FIV is similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but it is not the same ... There is no link between feline leukemia and human forms of leukemia. There are blood tests to determine if your cat may be ... Basic Training for Cats. Basic Training for Cats. Before training your cat, determine how well she will respond well to ... All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other ...
more infohttp://www.tucsonnewsnow.com/story/859056/preventing-common-cat-diseases

Cancer - The Source Natural FoodsCancer - The Source Natural Foods

... including those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or leukemia, and ... Cats claw: Originally found in Peru, the use of cats claw (Uncaria tomentosa) has been said to date back to the Inca ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, adenoma, adrenal, AIDS, anemia, Beaus lines, benign, biologic therapy, bladder cancer, ... human immunodeficiency virus, human papilloma virus, hyperpigmentation, immune system, immune therapy, immunity, laetrile, ...
more infohttp://www.thesourcenatural.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=DHAP6V4FB7SR2NM700AKHLBD3CMFBXMD&DocID=condition-cancer

Diseases That Cats Can Transmit To Humans - Kitty kondoDiseases That Cats Can Transmit To Humans - Kitty kondo

... have conditions that affect the immune system like Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), or taking immunosuppressive drugs ... It can be acquired from direct contact with an infected cat through cuts on the skin. In humans, sporotrichosis commonly ... Diseases That Cats Can Transmit To Humans. Over the years cats have become the worlds most popular pet owing to their ... A cat with fleas could be a danger hazard for humans. It is very important to make sure that an infected cat does not bite you ...
more infohttps://www.kittykondo.com/diseases-that-cats-can-transmit-to-humans.htm

What is Feline Immunodeficiency Virus? - Critter CuresWhat is Feline Immunodeficiency Virus? - Critter Cures

Indeed, since FIV doesnt lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as often as HIV does with humans, the biggest risk for FIV ... What is Feline Immunodeficiency Virus?. Filed under: feline immunodeficiency virus,FIV,FIV positive cats - Dr. Amber Reed @ 3: ... Approximately 2% of cats in the United States are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) which is a retrovirus that ... While unlikely, cats can contract FIV by sharing food or water with previously infected cats and the mother cat can pass FIV to ...
more infohttp://www.crittercures.com/blog/2010/04/what-is-feline-immunodeficiency-virus.html

Histamine H1 Receptors | Antagonists development strategies and therapeutic applicationsHistamine H1 Receptors | Antagonists development strategies and therapeutic applications

FIV causes a fatal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic cats and is an animal model for human AIDS [5,9]. Like ... human being interleukin-12 (HuIL-12; Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA), feline IL-12 (IL-12; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), ... while all the cats BIBW2992 had been 12C16 weeks outdated. All pet cats were taken care of and used based on the protocols and ... Research 8 utilized the vaccinated/shielded cats from Research 3 (Group 3B). Pet cats challenged with FIVFC1 (subtype-B) had ...
more infohttp://healthyfutureforkids.com/category/histamine-h1-receptors/

BIBW2992 | Antagonists development strategies and therapeutic applicationsBIBW2992 | Antagonists development strategies and therapeutic applications

FIV causes a fatal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic cats and is an animal model for human AIDS [5,9]. Like ... human being interleukin-12 (HuIL-12; Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA), feline IL-12 (IL-12; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), ... while all the cats BIBW2992 had been 12C16 weeks outdated. All pet cats were taken care of and used based on the protocols and ... Research 8 utilized the vaccinated/shielded cats from Research 3 (Group 3B). Pet cats challenged with FIVFC1 (subtype-B) had ...
more infohttp://healthyfutureforkids.com/tag/bibw2992/
  • Occasionally, the symptoms of cat-scratch disease take the form of what is called Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • URIs are similar in many ways to the common cold in humans and produce many of the same symptoms: sneezing, runny nose and eyes, reddened eyes, fever, and decreased appetite. (ktre.com)
  • Separate any new cat from your other cats for at least three weeks until you are sure your newcomer doesn't have any symptoms of a URI. (ktre.com)
  • But if your cat does come down with cold-like symptoms, contact your veterinarian right away. (ktre.com)
  • Some cats can have the disease for many years before it is diagnosed, or before any symptoms are present. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Once the cat is infected with HIV, there will be no immediate symptoms. (vetinfo.com)
  • In average healthy humans, Cat Scratch Disease symptoms are mild flu-like but they might be severe for those who are immunocompromised. (kittykondo.com)
  • If your cat has been infected with FIV, you'll need to visit a veterinarian and work out a program to control the symptoms of the illness. (crittercures.com)
  • Your veterinarian can provide supportive care for your cat and can treat some of the secondary illnesses that develop as a result of the disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Many diseases common to cats can be prevented in two ways: by keeping your cat indoors, and by having your cat vaccinated according to your veterinarian's advice. (ktre.com)
  • Since there is no cure, it is important to keep your cat indoors (and away from contact with stray cats) and vaccinated. (kcbd.com)
  • The best prevention is to keep your cat indoors, up-to-date on vaccines, and away from strange animals. (kcbd.com)
  • The implication here is that you should keep your cat indoors in order to protect her from getting to the rodents, and the fleas. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Owners of FIV-positive cats should keep their cats strictly indoors, not only to prevent their cat from spreading the disease to others, but to prevent their immunosuppressed cat from being exposed to infectious agents carried by other animals. (manhattancats.com)
  • Owners of FIV-negative cats should keep their cats indoors, to avoid encounters with infected cats. (manhattancats.com)
  • To prevent your cat from getting infected in the first place, you should consider keeping him indoors. (vetinfo.com)
  • Because the main method of transmission is biting, many veterinarians recommend keeping your cat indoors, especially if your cat is infected with FIV. (crittercures.com)
  • Researchers suspect that the first step in the development of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome occurs when Bartonella henselae bacteria pass from a cat's saliva to its fur during grooming. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Feline HIV can be transmitted through saliva, blood and other bodily secretions. (vetinfo.com)
  • This is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae found in the saliva of infected cats. (kittykondo.com)
  • Most of these diseases can spread from cat to cat via airborne pathogens or through direct or indirect contact, while others require a vector such as a tick or mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are a Feline zoonosis and transmittable to human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indoor cats are not exposed to a lot of diseases and cat fights, and will have a higher life expectancy. (vetinfo.com)
  • This places them in close contact with people which increases the risk of cats transmitting diseases to humans. (kittykondo.com)
  • Diseases that may be transmitted between animals and humans are called zoonoses. (kittykondo.com)
  • How Can People Get Zoonotic Diseases From Cats? (kittykondo.com)
  • There are a number of ways by which people can get zoonotic diseases from cats. (kittykondo.com)
  • Some cat diseases are feco-orally transmitted. (kittykondo.com)
  • What Are The Diseases I May Catch From My Cat? (kittykondo.com)
  • Only cats are susceptible to these diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Cats that receive the FIV vaccine may show a false positive when tested for FIV. (vetinfo.com)
  • Diabetes Feline hyperaldosteronism Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bartonella henselae is uncommon or absent in cold climates, which fleas have difficulty tolerating, but prevalent in warm, humid places such as Memphis , Tennessee , where antibodies were found in 71 percent of the cats tested. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fleas can carry parasites that can harm your cat, so flea control is important. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Flea control for cats involves keeping rats and mice away as well, as they can carry fleas. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • A cat with fleas could be a danger hazard for humans. (kittykondo.com)
  • This bacteria is also found in the body of cat fleas and may be transmitted between cats through the bite of these infected fleas. (kittykondo.com)
  • It is very important to make sure that an infected cat does not bite you or lick any open wounds you may have. (kittykondo.com)
  • The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, cats make up 4.6% of reported cases of rabies infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • If your cat bites anyone, you may need to show proof of rabies vaccination. (ktre.com)
  • Prevent rabies through vaccination and by keeping your cat inside. (ktre.com)
  • Bartonella henselae can infect people who are scratched or (more rarely) bitten or licked by a cat. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A longitudinal analysis, on 7 cats were performed during 12 months under Zidovudine (AZT) 5mg/kg (bid) every other month as only treatment. (vin.com)
  • Most cats recover with no treatment, and are rarely presented for veterinary care in this stage. (manhattancats.com)
  • Fortunately, many cats infected with FIV respond as well as their uninfected counterparts to appropriate medications and treatments, although a longer or more aggressive course of treatment is often needed. (manhattancats.com)
  • In fact, with proper diet and treatment, FIV positive cats can live a relatively normal life. (crittercures.com)
  • Most importantly, remember that your FIV positive cat is no risk to your family and that with careful treatment your cat will life a happy, healthy life. (crittercures.com)
  • Prevention is the best approach to URIs-have your cat vaccinated. (ktre.com)
  • See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm Cryptococcus Veterinary parasitology studies both external and internal parasites in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cat will be weaker and will become ill more frequently. (vetinfo.com)
  • Most cats become infected with FIV when they are bitten while fighting with an infected cat. (blogspot.com)