Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Diazepam Binding Inhibitor: An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.BenzodiazepinonesAnticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Buspirone: An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Flurazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Clorazepate Dipotassium: A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Methocarbamol: A centrally acting muscle relaxant whose mode of action has not been established. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1206)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Paraldehyde: A hypnotic and sedative with anticonvulsant effects. However, because of the hazards associated with its administration, its tendency to react with plastic, and the risks associated with its deterioration, it has largely been superseded by other agents. It is still occasionally used to control status epilepticus resistant to conventional treatment. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p608-9)GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Convulsants: Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used in the treatment of anxiety. It has sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. One of its metabolites is DIAZEPAM and one of its excretion products is OXAZEPAM.Nitrazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Seizures, Febrile: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Rage: Fury; violent, intense anger.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Chlormethiazole: A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Mephenesin: A centrally acting muscle relaxant with a short duration of action.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Bemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.BenzothiepinsKetamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Anesthesia, Rectal: Procedure involving the instillation of an anesthetic into the rectum.Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mephenytoin: An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Secobarbital: A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Baclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.SemicarbazidesRespiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.BenzocycloheptenesAmnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)PyridazinesFatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.OxazepinesRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Levallorphan: An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Hexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Mice, Inbred C57BLArea Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.PiperazinesAminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
Golombok S; Lader M (August 1984). "The psychopharmacological effects of premazepam, diazepam and placebo in healthy human ... The mean time taken to reach peak plasma levels is 2 hours and the mean half life of premazepam in humans is 11.5 hours. About ... Premazepam produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of premazepam is ... doses of premazepam given to human test subjects demonstrated similar psychological test results to those produced by diazepam ...
This human study also indicates that bretazenil is possibly more sedative than diazepam. The reason is unknown, but the study ... Apr 1994). "Pharmacologic effects and abuse liability of bretazenil, diazepam, and alprazolam in humans". Clin Pharmacol Ther. ... In a primate study bretazenil was found to be able to replace the full agonist diazepam in diazepam dependent primates without ... In rats tolerance is slower to develop to the anticonvulsant effects compared to the benzodiazepine site full agonist diazepam ...
List of benzodiazepines
... diazepam and placebo in healthy human subjects". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 18 (2): 127-33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1984.tb02444.x. ... It is fairly important to note that elimination half-life of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide as well as other long half-life ... Long-acting benzodiazepines with long-acting active metabolites such as diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are often prescribed for ... 1996). "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of bretazenil and diazepam with alcohol". British Journal of Clinical ...
diazepam) which are used clinically as anxiolytics, sedative/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants. Despite the ... One low-dose study found no effect of Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on humans. However, subsequent research has ... Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans". J Ethnopharmacol. 17 (1): 75-83. doi:10.1016/0378- ... "Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Indian Medicinal Plants Against Human Pathogenic Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger ...
Human biomolecules - creatine and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate are naturally occurring compounds in humans that have well- ... Diazepam and propranolol are common examples; ethanol and cannabis are also used occasionally. Blood boosters (blood doping ... Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is one of the most widely known drugs in this class. Gene doping agents are a ... most notably human growth hormone, as well as some of their prodrugs, selective androgen receptor modulators and beta-2 ...
Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use
No studies have been done to assess the immunotoxic effects of diazepam in humans; however, high prescribed doses of diazepam, ... Diazepam and clonazepam have been found to have long-lasting, but not permanent, immunotoxic effects in the fetus of pregnant ... A publication has asked in 1981 if lorazepam is more toxic than diazepam. In a study in 1984, 20 patients having taken long- ... McLeod DR, Hoehn-Saric R, Labib AS, Greenblatt DJ (April 1988). "Six weeks of diazepam treatment in normal women: effects on ...
Estrogen receptor alpha
In humans, ERα is encoded by the gene ESR1 (EStrogen Receptor 1). The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-activated ... "Entrez Gene: DBI diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein)". Kos M, Reid G, Denger ... Teo AK, Oh HK, Ali RB, Li BF (Oct 2001). "The Modified Human DNA Repair Enzyme O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Is a ... Piva R, Gambari R, Zorzato F, Kumar L, del Senno L (1992). "Analysis of upstream sequences of the human estrogen receptor gene ...
"Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1454 ... ACBP is also known as diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) or endozepine (EP) because of its ability to displace diazepam from the ... DRS-1, a human protein of unknown function that contains a N-terminal ACB domain and a C-terminal enoyl-CoA isomerase/hydratase ... Rose TM, Schultz ER, Todaro GJ (December 1992). "Molecular cloning of the gene for the yeast homolog (ACB) of diazepam binding ...
1999). "Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human cDNA related to the diazepam binding inhibitor". Biochim. Biophys. ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... Peroxisomal 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PECI gene. PECI is an auxiliary enzyme ... 2004). "Diazepam-binding inhibitor-related protein 1: a candidate autoantigen in acquired aplastic anemia patients harboring a ...
"Excretion of diazepam and its metabolites in human milk during withdrawal from combination high dose diazepam and oxazepam". ... Gobbi M, Barone D, Mennini T, Garattini S (May 1987). "Diazepam and desmethyldiazepam differ in their affinities and efficacies ... Marland, A (Jan-Feb 1999). "The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and ... It is an active metabolite of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, prazepam, pinazepam, and medazepam. Nordazepam is among ...
2000). "Human genome search in celiac disease using gliadin cDNA as probe". J. Mol. Biol. 300 (5): 1155-67. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... identification of a unique diazepam-insensitive binding site". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 291 (3): 319-25. doi:10.1016/0922-4106(95) ... GABRA4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene. GABA is the major ...
Efficacy and safety have not been tested in humans. In animal models, its effects are similar to diazepam, possessing long- ... Benzodiazepine Diazepam Delorazepam (Nordiclazepam) Lorazepam Phenazepam Ro5-4864 (4'-Chlorodiazepam) Moosmann B, Bisel P, ... Diclazepam (Ro5-3448), also known as chlorodiazepam and 2'-chloro-diazepam, is a benzodiazepine and functional analog of ... "Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of intravenous and oral chlordesmethyldiazepam in humans". European Journal of Clinical ...
On the basis of a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg observed in rats, an acceptable daily intake for humans of 0.0005 mg/kg has been ... of which diazepam is most effective). The efficacy of oxime treatment is controversial. Ingestion of organophosphates as ... Though no direct data on the acute toxicity in humans is available, an in vitro study of the detoxification of chlorfenvinphos ... The first and most important step of metabolism of chlorfenvinphos in humans is accomplished by the enzyme cytochrome P450 in ...
It is well tolerated in human trials, with the most commonly reported side effects being somnolence (sleepiness), dizziness, ... "Chronic treatment with the neuroactive steroid ganaxolone in the rat induces anticonvulsant tolerance to diazepam but not to ... Monaghan EP, Navalta LA, Shum L, Ashbrook DW, Lee DA (September 1997). "Initial human experience with ganaxolone, a neuroactive ...
1997) found Ki values of sertraline at the human SERT, DAT, and NET of 0.29, 25, and 420 nM, respectively. The selectivity of ... Sertraline had a slight inhibitory effect on the metabolism of diazepam, tolbutamide and warfarin, which are CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 ... Accordingly, in human trials it caused increased blood levels of CYP2D6 substrates such as metoprolol, dextromethorphan, ... As expected from in vitro data, sertraline did not alter the human metabolism of the CYP3A4 substrates erythromycin, alprazolam ...
It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it: it must be obtained from the diet. Human dietary sources are ... D-leucine also terminates seizures in mice after the onset of seizure activity, at least as effectively as diazepam and without ... It is the most important ketogenic amino acid in humans.p. 101 Leucine is used in the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue ... High blood levels of leucine are associated with insulin resistance in humans, mice, and rodents. Leucine toxicity, as seen in ...
diazepam oral or IV. Severe tetanus. Severe cases will require admission to intensive care. In addition to the measures ... In 1891, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim by Kitasato Shibasaburō, who later showed that the organism could produce ... Drugs such as diazepam or other muscle relaxants can be given to control the muscle spasms. In extreme cases it may be ... Diazepam as a continuous IV infusion. *The autonomic effects of tetanus can be difficult to manage (alternating hyper- and ...
... is slightly more effective as an anxiolytic than bromazepam, or diazepam, with a 15 mg dose of metaclazepam ... Small amounts of metaclazepam as well as its metabolites enter into human breast milk. Benzodiazepine US Patent 4098786 ... Laakmann, G.; Blaschke, D.; Hippius, H.; Schewe, S. (May 1989). "Double-blind study of metaclazepam versus diazepam treatment ... a relatively selective anxiolytic with less sedative or muscle relaxant properties than other benzodiazepines such as diazepam ...
"National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheet- Diazepam". Archived from the original on ... Diazepam was the most commonly detected benzodiazepine.. Legal statusEdit. Diazepam is regulated in most countries as a ... Diazepam gel was better than placebo gel in reducing the risk of non-cessation of seizures. Diazepam is rarely used for the ... Diazepam binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Diazepam at high doses has been found to decrease ...
Following chlordiazepoxide, diazepam marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche under the brand name Valium in 1963, and for a while the two ... As in humans, they are used in the first-line management of seizures, status epilepticus, and tetanus, and as maintenance ... Diazepam and lorazepam are sometimes used. Lorazepam has particularly marked amnesic properties that may make it more effective ... Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are ...
Its anxiolytic effects are most similar to diazepam, another anxiolytic, but unlike diazepam, benzoctamine has antagonistic ... Utting, HJ; Pleuvry, BJ (Sep 1975). "Benzoctamine-a study of the respiratory effects of oral doses in human volunteers and ... As a result, when compared to other sedative and anxiolytic drugs such as benzodiazepines like diazepam, it is a safer form of ... These studies have yet to be repeated in humans. • Drowsiness • Dry mouth • Headache • Dizziness Studies have shown that ...
In humans, the translocator protein is encoded by the TSPO gene. It belongs to family of tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. ... Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) - 11kDa neuropeptide, potent agonist for TSPO receptor and stimulates steroidogenesis in vivo ... TSPO is found in many regions of the body including the human iris/ciliary-body. Other tissues include the heart, liver, ... Chang YJ, McCabe RT, Rennert H, Budarf ML, Sayegh R, Emanuel BS, Skolnick P, Strauss JF (1992). "The human "peripheral-type" ...
Also in the early 1990s hippocampal neurogenesis was demonstrated in non-human primates and humans. More recently, neurogenesis ... They found that diazepam (Valium) has a similar effect. Artificial neural membrane Neural development Neuroplasticity ... In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part ... In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth. Much more attention has been paid to ...
In humans, the CYP2C19 protein is encoded by the CYP2C19 gene. CYP2C19 is a liver enzyme that acts on at least 10% of drugs in ... In patients with an abnormal CYP2C19 variant certain benzodiazepines should be avoided, such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam ( ... Studies with human autoantibodies suggest a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme as cause of the genetic deficiency". ... PharmGKB: Annotated PGx Gene Information for CYP2C19 Human CYP2C19 genome location and CYP2C19 gene details page in the UCSC ...
Later still, there would be no sword, but something like a fan for which the samurai would reach. Human ... organized a mass suicide by drinking a cocktail of diazepam and cyanide in 1978. Sufficient doses of some plants like the ... or substances which are known for their high levels of toxicity to humans. For example, most of the people of Jonestown died ...
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified into α (1-6), β (1-3), γ (1-3), δ, ε, π, θ, and ρ (1−3). The function of ... Examples of GABAA PAMs include alcohol (ethanol), benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax), Z-drugs ... Spinal α2 and α3 containing GABAA receptors are responsible for the anti-hyperalgesic action of intrathecal diazepam. This was ... The mice also had increased corticosterone concentration which is a symptom in major depression in humans. The y2 subunit is ...
Strychnine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
로라제팜 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
1995). "Benzodiazepine receptors mediate regional blood flow changes in the living human brain". 》Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... Heisterkamp DV; Cohen PJ (1975). "The effect of intravenous premedication with lorazepam (Ativan), pentobarbitone or diazepam ... Benzodiazepines: Effects on Human Performance and Behavior'(Central Police University Press, 2002). ... 1993). "[123I]iomazenil SPECT imaging demonstrates significant benzodiazepine receptor reserve in human and nonhuman primate ...
Controlled Substances Act
Under 21 U.S.C. § 811 of the CSA, that authority is the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). Under Article 3 of the ... Benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), and ... Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a safer, shorter-acting replacement for PCP (mainly for use as a human anesthetic) but ... National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. July 2015.. ...
It is known that lamotrigine is a weak inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and other, more powerful, human DHFR ... Shiah IS, Yatham LN, Gau YC, Baker GB (May 2003). "Effect of lamotrigine on plasma GABA levels in healthy humans". Progress in ... "Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products - Lamictal (lamotrigine): Drug Safety Communication - Serious Immune System Reaction" ... pharmacokinetics in normal humans". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 42 (5): 535-41. doi:10.1038/clpt.1987.193. PMID ...
b) Any substance or combination of substances which may be used in or administered to human beings either with a view to ... Tranquilizers: meprobamate, chlorpromazine, reserpine, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and alprazolam. *Statins: lovastatin, ... The effects of these chemicals on humans and the environment are not yet known, but to date there is no scientific evidence ... Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has ...
Pharoah PO (December 2005). "Causal hypothesis for some congenital anomalies". Twin Research and Human Genetics. 8 (6): 543-550 ... Medications such as diazepam, baclofen and botulinum toxin may help relax stiff muscles. Surgery may include lengthening ... Cerebral palsy has affected humans since antiquity. A decorated grave marker dating from around the 15th to 14th century BCE ... European Journal of Human Genetics. 8 (4): 267-272. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200445. PMID 10854109.. ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
SNRIs at the human SERT and NET Compound. SERT. NET. ~Ratio. (5-HT : NE) ... 2007). Human Physiology (4 ed.). San Francisco: Pearson. pp. 383-384.. *^ Nutt DJ, Forshall S, Bell C, Rich A, Sandford J, Nash ... The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are ... Because of these properties, milnacipran exhibits almost ideal pharmacokinetics in humans such as high bioavailability, low ...
Ottesen EA, Campbell WC (August 1994). "Ivermectin in human medicine". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 34 (2): 195- ... Benzodiazepines (e.g., bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam). *Corymine. *Cyanotriphenylborate. * ... Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Goldust M (2015). "The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies". ... Strycharz JP, Yoon KS, Clark JM (January 2008). "A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head ...
اتیلن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
diazepam oral or IV. Severe tetanusEdit. Severe cases will require admission to intensive care. In addition to the measures ... In 1891, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim by Kitasato Shibasaburō, who later showed that the organism could produce ... Drugs such as diazepam or other muscle relaxants can be given to control the muscle spasms. In extreme cases it may be ... Diazepam as a continuous IV infusion. *The autonomic effects of tetanus can be difficult to manage (alternating hyper- and ...
Penisilin bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
On 4 November 1847, Simpson first used the anesthetic qualities of chloroform on a pair of humans: two guests at his dinner ... Most criminal cases involving chloroform also involve another drug being co-administered, such as alcohol or diazepam, or the ... Simpson was the first to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug for ...
"Ethical Human Sciences and Services. 5 (1): 71-22. PMID 15279009.. Republished from Weitz, Don (Spring 2002). "Call me ... Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. There was also concern ... WHO Resource Book on Mental Health: Human rights and legislation (PDF). World Health Organization. 2005. ISBN 978-92-4-156282-9 ... All human rights oriented mental health laws require proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally ...
Usami N; Yamamoto T; Shintani S; Ishikura S; Higaki Y; Katagiri Y; Hara A. (Apr 2002). "Substrate specificity of human 3(20) ... Many benzodiazepines (diazepam, medazepam, estazolam, temazepam, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam) potently inhibit the enzymes ... Boucsein, W.; Wendt-Suhl, G. (Mar 1982). "[Psychological and physiological effects of cloxazolam and diazepam under anxiety- ...
મદ્યપાન - વિકિપીડિયા
Smart, Lesley (2007). Alcohol and Human Health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923735-7. OCLC 163616466.. ... Poulos CX, Zack M (November 2004). "Low-dose diazepam primes motivation for alcohol and alcohol-related semantic networks in ... Department of Health and Human Services. "Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism)" (PDF). National Institutes of Health.. ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH News (18 January 2005 ...
Brown recluse spider
Many human victims report having been bitten after putting on clothes or shoes that had not been worn recently or had been left ... diazepam), for a few days to a week. If the pain and/or spasms have not resolved by this time, a second medical evaluation is ... When dwelling in human residences they seem to favor cardboard, possibly because it mimics the rotting tree bark which they ... none of these are known to bite humans. To date, the reports of bites from areas outside of the spider's native range have ...
... is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is ... Despite widespread belief otherwise, little evidence shows that human hair is used as a source material and its use is ... Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of ... Its antioxidant properties are typically expressed in the tripeptide glutathione, which occurs in humans and other organisms. ...
Prosser RS, Sibley PK (February 2015). "Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant ... Journal of Human Genetics. 58 (6): 317-26. doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.37. PMID 23635947.. ... "the accumulation of carbamazepine into plants grown in soil amended with biosolids poses a de minimis risk to human health ... Diazepam#. *Lorazepam#. *Midazolam. *Nimetazepam. *Nitrazepam. *Temazepam; Others: Bromide (potassium bromide, sodium bromide) ...
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2006. Archived from ... The benzodiazepines diazepam and oxazepam have been found to produce fewer withdrawal reactions than alprazolam, temazepam, or ... Elie R, Lamontagne Y (June 1984). "Alprazolam and diazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety". Journal of Clinical ... A 1990 study found that diazepam has a higher misuse potential relative to many other benzodiazepines and that some data ...
Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines<...
Diazepam (Valium)( Inhibits Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells Through Triggering a G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest.
Inhibits Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells Through Triggering a G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest. ... CONCLUSION:: Diazepam inhibits the proliferation of human GBM T98G cells by inducing G0/G1 phase arrest. Diazepam has potential ... Diazepam (Valium)( Inhibits Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells Through Triggering a G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest.. Als ... Diazepam Inhibits Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells Through Triggering a G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest. ...
104360-70-5 - Diazepam-Binding Inhibitor Fragment, human - Gln-Ala-Thr-Val-Gly-Asp-Ile-Asn-Thr-Glu-Arg-Pro-Gly-Met-Leu-Asp-Phe...
Jaccepte. Notre site sauvegarde des traceurs textes (cookies) sur votre appareil afin de vous garantir de meilleurs contenus et à des fins de collectes statistiques.Vous pouvez désactiver lusage des cookies en changeant les paramètres de votre navigateur. En poursuivant votre navigation sur notre site sans changer vos paramètres de navigateur vous nous accordez la permission de conserver des informations sur votre appareil. ...
Brain Targeted Transcranial Administration of Diazepam and Shortening of Sleep Latency in Healthy Human Volunteers
... , W Pathirana ... Human Osteology. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p.25.. *Watterson JH, Botman JE. Detection of acute diazepam exposure ... Analysis of diazepam in sesame oil stock solution 2 mg/ml. Assay for the diazepam in sesame oil stock solution was developed ... A volume of 5 ml of diazepam in sesame oil stock solution 2 mg/ ml equivalent to 10 mg of diazepam was extracted four times by ...
anti-DBI antibody | Mouse anti-Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 10K185)-P07108
Mouse anti-Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 10K185)-P07108 (MBS609259) product datasheet at ... This gene encodes diazepam binding inhibitor, a protein that is regulated by hormones and is involved in lipid metabolism and ... Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI) is a highly conserved 10kD polypeptide which is expressed in various species range from yeast ... Diazepam binding inhibitor is also known to mediate the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial ...
Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes - Physiome Model...
Gentaur Molecular :Abfron \ Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human \ LF-P0046
Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human \ LF-P0046 for more molecular products just contact us ... Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. GENTAUR suppliers human ... Index / Abfron / Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human / Product Detail : LF-P0046 Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human Related ... We have also other products like : Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human Related products : Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human ...
Drug treatment of breathlessness: contrasting effects of diazepam and promethazine in pink puffers.
... placebo-controlled cross-over trial of diazepam and promethazine for breathlessness and reduced exercise tolerance. Dosages ... Diazepam / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases, Obstructive / drug therapy. ... one of these was taking promethazine and five diazepam. Diazepam had no effect on breathlessness and noticeably reduced ... From these results diazepam is contraindicated for breathlessness and reduced exercise tolerance in fixed airways obstruction, ...
Diazepam for system suitability European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard | 439-14-5 | Sigma-Aldrich
Diazepam, 7-Chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one, Ro 5-2807; Linear Formula: C16H13ClN2O; find null-Y0000596 ... Diazepam for system suitability European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard; CAS Number: 439-14-5; Synonym: ... human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA4(2557), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559), GABRB1(2560), GABRB2(2561), ... Diazepam for system suitability European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard Synonym: 7-. Chloro-. 1-. methyl-. 5-. phenyl- ...
Diazepam vs Effexor XR vs Escitalopram vs Buspirone Comparison - Drugs.com
Diazepam rated 8.7/10 vs Effexor XR rated 7.2/10 vs Escitalopram rated 7.6/10 vs Buspirone rated 6.1/10 in overall patient ... Compare Diazepam vs Effexor XR vs Escitalopram vs Buspirone head-to-head with other drugs for uses, ratings, cost, side effects ... Category B No proven risk in humans See the full Pregnancy Warnings document. ... Diazepam Remove Diazepam from your drug comparison Effexor XR Remove Effexor XR from your drug comparison Escitalopram Remove ...
Diazepam Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Diazepam Injection official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... In humans, measurable amounts of diazepam were found in maternal and cord blood, indicating placental transfer of the drug. ... Muscle Spasm cyclobenzaprine, Soma, baclofen, tizanidine, diazepam, Flexeril, More.... Alcohol Withdrawal atenolol, diazepam, ... animals treated with diazepam do have a transient ataxia at higher doses. Diazepam was found to have transient cardiovascular ...
Supplier Prospecbio, pro-832, 25 Recombinant Human Diazepam Bi...
Product Recombinant Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS - Gentaur molecular products ... Recombinant Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS. Related products : Recombinant Human Diazepam ... Recombinant Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on ... RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and elisa kit to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Diazepam Binding Inhibitor ...
VALIUM® CIV brand of diazepam TABLETS
... the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD=1 mg/kg/day] on a mg/m2 basis) for 80 and 104 weeks, respectively, an increased ... Diazepam and its metabolites are highly bound to plasma proteins (diazepam 98%). Diazepam and its metabolites cross the blood- ... The clearance of diazepam is 20 to 30 mL/min in young adults. Diazepam accumulates upon multiple dosing and there is some ... Valium (diazepam) is a benzodiazepine derivative. The chemical name of diazepam is 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1, ...
Diazepam (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 66, 1996)
Specific organ toxicity of diazepam to humans has not been observed.. The acute toxicity of diazepam to experimental animals ... Diazepam is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).. For definition of the italicized terms, see ... Diazepam is absorbed rapidly and extensively in humans. A 30-fold range of peak plasma concentrations is obtained when the same ... 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Studies investigating unspecified hypnotics or tranquillizers as well as diazepam specifically ...
Effects of Diazepam and Nitrazepam on Psychophysiological Functions in Normal Humans
... 作成者. Mizuki, Yasushi. Hirano, Hitoshi. ... All drugs produced a prolongation of PPR latencies and a decrease of CFF, and diazepam 10 mg and nitrazepam 10 mg were the most ... PRT and CRT improved after all drugs and performance on these tasks was most improved by diazepam 10 mg. Memory tasks were ... The healtyv male universitv atudents were given diazepam 5 mg and 10 mg, and plecedo in a doubleblind, cross-over design. The ...
Diazepam and Paraldehyde for Treatment of Severe Delirium TremensA Controlled Trial | Annals of Internal Medicine | American...
Physostigmine Reversal of Diazepam-lnduced Hypnosis: A Study in Human Volunteers Annals of Internal Medicine; 91 (1): 53-55 ... or diazepam (10 mg then 5 mg intravenously every 5 minutes) until they were calm but awake. Diazepam-treated patients became ... Diazepam and Paraldehyde for Treatment of Severe Delirium Tremens: A Controlled Trial W. LEIGH THOMPSON, M.D.; ALLEN D. JOHNSON ... Diazepam and Paraldehyde for Treatment of Severe Delirium Tremens: A Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. ;82:175-180. doi: ...
Diazepam (Valium®) for Dogs and Cats - PetPlace
Are you trying to give your dog or cat diazepam? Our vets discuss the side effects, uses, and warnings for giving Valium to ... Brand Names and Other Names of Diazepam. *This drug is registered for use in humans only. ... Uses of Diazepam for Dogs and Cats. *In animals, diazepam is given as a sedative, to treat convulsions, to manage excitement or ... How Diazepam Is Supplied. *Diazepam tablets are available in 2 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg tablets. An oral solution is available in 1 ...
Antenex (Diazepam) Alphapharm
Aliseum (Diazepam) Formenti Farmaceutici
A dose response study of the hypnotic effectiveness of alprazolam and diazepam in normal subjects | SpringerLink
... while a second group of eight normal young males was given three doses of diazepam... ... In: Itil TM (ed) Psychotropic drugs and the human EEG. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 182-192 ... Nicholson AN, Stone BM, Clarke CH (1976) Effect of diazepam and fosazepam (a soluble derivative of diazepam) on sleep in man. ... Diazepam decreased percent stage 1 and increased percent stage 2 sleep. No drug by dose interactions were found. It was ...
Cheap Diazepam, Cheap Diazepam OnLine, LOW Price Cheap Diazepam!!! FREE Delivery Cheap Diazepam, Free FedEx!
Cheap Diazepam ONLINE, Cheap Diazepam Now, Compare Cheap Diazepam Prices And Save $$$! Now Cheap Diazepam Online , CHEAP Cheap ... Diazepam ONLINE! LOW Price, FREE Delivery Cheap Diazepam! ONLINE PHARMACY! Free FedEx! Compare Cheap Diazepam Prices And Save ... Management software, announced that Cheap Diazepam take, both human resources. Boulder, pharmaca, a Cheap Diazepam dealer ... About: Cheap Diazepam! Cheap Diazepam ONLINE, Cheap Diazepam Now, Compare Cheap Diazepam Prices And Save $$$! Now Cheap ...
Efficacy and Safety Study Comparing Lorazepam and Diazepam for Children in the Emergency Department With Seizures (Status 2) -...
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). ... Efficacy and Safety Study Comparing Lorazepam and Diazepam for Children in the Emergency Department With Seizures (Status 2). ... However, unlike diazepam, lorazepam is only FDA-approved for treatment for SE in patients over 18 years of age. Despite this ... Drug: lorazepam or diazepam Administration instructions will ask to deliver 0.04 ml per kilogram of childs weight of the study ...
Diazepam - Wikipedia
In humans, tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of diazepam occurs frequently. Improper or excessive use of diazepam can ... Diazepam gel was better than placebo gel in reducing the risk of non-cessation of seizures. Diazepam is rarely used for the ... Diazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine. Diazepam occurs as solid white or yellow crystals with a melting point of 131.5 to 134.5 °C. ... Diazepam binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Diazepam at high doses has been found to decrease ...
Diazepam binding inhibitor - Wikipedia
Acyl-CoA-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DBI gene. This gene encodes diazepam binding inhibitor, ... 1996). "A human gene encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor/acy1-CoA-binding protein: transcription and hormonal regulation in the ... 1986). "Cloning and expression of cDNA for human diazepam binding inhibitor, a natural ligand of an allosteric regulatory site ... 1988). "Chromosomal localization of the human diazepam binding inhibitor gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (17): 6561-5. ...
DIAZEPAM ≡ German Quality Diazepam 10mg x50 ... ≡ bulk discount
In humans, comparable blood levels of diazepam is given if the lab wont stand behind you in russell of cleavage. ... Re: diazepam injection, muncie diazepam, buy drugs online, layton diazepam. Ty Ellwanger. No prior prescription for diazepam no ... Re: diazepam, diazepam valium, diazepam street price, diazepam vs xanax. Kelvin Tjaden. The EXXXCESSIVE vaccinations ... Re: diazepam supplier, how to get diazepam, peoria diazepam, buy diazepam on line. ...
Diazepam - Wikipedia
"National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheet- Diazepam". Archived from the original on ... Diazepam was the most commonly detected benzodiazepine.. Legal statusEdit. Diazepam is regulated in most countries as a ... Diazepam gel was better than placebo gel in reducing the risk of non-cessation of seizures. Diazepam is rarely used for the ... Diazepam binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Diazepam at high doses has been found to decrease ...
QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE IN VIVO INHIBITION OF DIAZEPAM METABOLISM BY OMEPRAZOLE USING RAT LIVER MICROSOMES AND...
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ... The diazepam (DZ)-omeprazole (OMP) interaction has been selected as a prototype for an important drug-drug interaction ... 1 Abbreviations used are: DZ, diazepam; OMP, omeprazole; AUC, area under the plasma concentration-time curve; 3-HDZ, 3- ... QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION OF THE IN VIVO INHIBITION OF DIAZEPAM METABOLISM BY OMEPRAZOLE USING RAT LIVER MICROSOMES AND ...
Esomeprazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information
U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National ... diazepam (Valium); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); diuretics (water pills); erlotinib (Tarceva); iron supplements; certain ... medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) such as atazanavir (Reyataz), nelfinavir (Viracept), and saquinavir ( ...
Diazepam - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | The Medicine Shoppe
Get up-to-date information on Diazepam side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Diazepam is excreted in human breast milk. Breastfeeding is therefore not recommended during diazepam therapy. ... Diazepam Genetic Information. CYP2C19 is an enzyme in the blood that is responsible for breaking down diazepam and other drugs ... Diazepam treats anxiety. This medication can cause drowsiness. Do not suddenly stop taking diazepam without talking to your ...
GABRB2 - Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - GABRB2 gene & protein
DB00829. Diazepam. DB00228. Enflurane. DB01049. Ergoloid mesylate. DB01215. Estazolam. DB00402. Eszopiclone. DB00898. Ethanol. ... Human chromosome 5. Human chromosome 5: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM ... DB00829. Diazepam. DB00228. Enflurane. DB01049. Ergoloid mesylate. DB01215. Estazolam. DB00402. Eszopiclone. DB00898. Ethanol. ... Homo sapiens (Human). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the unique identifier assigned by the ,span ...
DataCheap diazepam 10mgRecombinant10mgAnxiolyticTherapeuticMonoclonal AntibodyDrugsIntravenous diazepamReceptorAcyl-CoA bindingReceptorsSerum albuminGABAPrecursor2017Binding InhibitorDogsLiverTabletsInjectablePharmacologyEpilepsyCohort studiesRectal diazepamMedicationBuspironeDose of diazepamDerivative2000DemethylationSkipInhibitoryDrugMedicationsSmall dosesAdverseRocheHomologyLatencyAdminister diazepamSignificantly decreasedCats
Cheap diazepam 10mg14
- The paralysis sometimes observedin the arms or legs in buy cheap diazepam 10mg visa workers in mercury, and diazepam 10mg online canada the areas of partialanaesthesia and the pains in joints probably arise from peripheralneuritis. (granpallars.com)
- Radiopharmaceuticals is a leader in the development of molecular imaging products with the potential for earlier and cheap diazepam 10mg mexico more effective detection, diagnosis and monitoring of major chronic human diseases. (granpallars.com)
- Diazepam 10mg new zealand, cheap diazepam 10mg online in uk. (visual-acuity.com)
- Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription unintended by cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription manufacturers. (tudortech.co.za)
- When barbiturates are taken during pregnancy, cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription the drug passes through the placenta to the fetus. (tudortech.co.za)
- Nik, 35, was a successful college graduate and businessman who was cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription adored by his entire family. (tudortech.co.za)
- If air were used as a propellant, oxygen would accelerate cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription rancidification of the butterfat, but nitrous oxide inhibits such degradation. (tudortech.co.za)
- This is cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription likely due to venlafaxine's relatively short half-life and therefore rapid clearance upon discontinuation. (tudortech.co.za)
- Corral and of one cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription of its protagonists, Doc Holliday. (tudortech.co.za)
- Kennedy also has partnered with innovaTel and telepsychiatry company out of Pennsylvania that cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription advocates getting patients care faster. (tudortech.co.za)
- There are laws prohibiting all kinds cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription of sexual activity between relatives, not necessarily penetrative sex. (tudortech.co.za)
- Chilies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath. (tudortech.co.za)
- Like all other amino cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription acids, it contains cheap diazepam 10mg no prescription an amino group and a carboxylic acid. (tudortech.co.za)
- Carburetors were the buy cheap diazepam 10mg tablets online uk common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred diazepam 10mg prescription gp method. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Recombinant human GST fusion protein purified from E.coli. (mybiosource.com)
- Supplier Prospecbio, pro-832, 25 Recombinant Human Diazepam Bi. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- mAb 3A4a exhibited no cross-reactivity with any of the other recombinant human CYP isoforms (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) in the course of CYP reaction phenotyping and Western immunoblot analyses. (aspetjournals.org)
- The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn 2+ block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABA A Rs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. (aspetjournals.org)
- TGF‐β3, human recombinant (Sigma‐Aldrich, cat. (currentprotocols.com)
- A recombinant baculovirus containing the human 2B6 cDNA was constructed and used to express 2B6 in Sf9 insect cells. (nih.gov)
- Pharmacological modulation of the diazepam-insensitive recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors alpha 4 beta 2 gamma 2 and alpha 6 beta 2 gamma 2. (aspetjournals.org)
- We characterized modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked responses of the diazepam-insensitive alpha 4 beta 2 gamma2 and alpha 6 beta 2 gamma 2 recombinant GABAA receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- Diazepam 10mg new zealand. (visual-acuity.com)
- David Crabtree and Reginald order diazepam 10mg online no prescription Hudlin joined the series to direct one episode diazepam 10mg new zealand each. (visual-acuity.com)
- After Holly is rushed to hospital, Cindy realises the social diazepam 10mg new zealand services will soon be involved. (visual-acuity.com)
- Cyrus asking her diazepam 10mg new zealand guests extremely long, compounded questions is a recurring element of the sketch. (visual-acuity.com)
- There was a girl that Andy's girlfriend at the time went to school with who let us sleep on her floor, but we'd diazepam 10mg new zealand be there for maybe four hours at a time. (visual-acuity.com)
- During this time development of distinctively different antidepressant agents was also diazepam 10mg new zealand researched. (visual-acuity.com)
- Numerous cases of diazepam 10mg new zealand intentional food fraud have been discovered over the last few years. (visual-acuity.com)
- Evidence had already diazepam 10mg new zealand been collected against Attwood from his years as an Ecstasy kingpin, and, on 16 diazepam 10mg new zealand May 2002, he was arrested at the apartment. (visual-acuity.com)
- Limbaugh satirized the policies of Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton, as well as diazepam 10mg new zealand those of the Democratic Party. (visual-acuity.com)
- Without a diazepam 10mg new zealand doubt, this album is one of the best group albums to date. (visual-acuity.com)
- Diazepam 5mg uk, want to buy diazepam 10mg in houston. (tudortech.co.za)
- Dedicating diazepam 10mg prescription gp class time solely for the purpose of setting up LinkedIn accounts and showing students how to navigate it and build their profile will set them up for success in the future. (cursivenewyork.com)
- These participants could see the same excessive behaviour, the need for a crutch to help them relax, in their use of diazepam 10mg prescription gp the Internet, that they had exhibited in prior addictions. (cursivenewyork.com)
- After 1966, electrocutions ceased for diazepam 10mg prescription gp a time in the United States, but the diazepam 10mg prescription gp method continued in the Philippines. (cursivenewyork.com)
- wrestling, diazepam 10mg prescription gp archery and horse racing, amongst other traditional games and exhibits. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Further activities include skimming money off large public work construction projects, money laundering purchase tramadol miami and traditional crimes such diazepam 10mg prescription gp as usury and extortion. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Isotonic saline nasal sprays are commonly used in infants diazepam 10mg prescription gp and children to wash out the thick mucus from the nose in case of allergic rhinitis. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Some high-altitude rocket engines use ablative cooling, where the diazepam 10mg prescription gp walls gradually erode in a controlled fashion. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Men's rights activists have rejected feminist principles and focused on areas in which they believe men are disadvantaged, oppressed, or discriminated diazepam 10mg prescription gp against. (cursivenewyork.com)
- According to Mongolian artist and art critic purchase generic diazepam 10mg in canada N. Factory productivity was greatly increased by electrification in the 1920s. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Half the diazepam 10mg prescription gp store had aisles that ran from the front of the store to the back in straight rows. (cursivenewyork.com)
- Diazepam is a benzodiazepine anxiolytic agent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Diazepam is a benzodiazepine that exerts anxiolytic, sedative, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnestic effects. (nih.gov)
- To investigate the neural mechanism underlying the anxiolytic responses to cannabinoids in humans, we examined the effects of THC on threat-related amygdala activation. (jneurosci.org)
- It is a partial agonist of benzodiazepine receptors and was shown in 1984 to possess both anxiolytic and sedative properties in humans but was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
- Uses/Indications - Diazepam is used clinically for its anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, hypnotic, appetite stimulant, and anticonvulsant activities. (elephantcare.org)
- Diazepam has potential to be a lead for new drugs in GBM therapy because of its antitumor activity. (virtualtrials.com)
- Do not mix or dilute diazepam with other solutions or drugs in syringe or infusion container. (drugs.com)
- As is true of most CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving diazepam should be cautioned against engaging inhazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. (drugs.com)
- Diazepam is a controlled substance Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Drug Enforcement Agency of the United States (and similar regulatory agencies in other countries) strictly control these drugs. (petplace.com)
- Diazepam is often used with other drugs to ease an animal in and out of anesthesia . (petplace.com)
- Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with diazepam. (petplace.com)
- All drugs produced a prolongation of PPR latencies and a decrease of CFF, and diazepam 10 mg and nitrazepam 10 mg were the most efficacious in producing these phenomena. (yamaguchi-u.ac.jp)
- PRT and CRT improved after all drugs and performance on these tasks was most improved by diazepam 10 mg. (yamaguchi-u.ac.jp)
- In: Itil TM (ed) Psychotropic drugs and the human EEG. (springer.com)
- Abnormal, or Cheap Diazepam tests including when buying drugs when. (virgilio.it)
- CYP2C19 is an enzyme in the blood that is responsible for breaking down diazepam and other drugs in the body. (medicineshoppe.com)
- With the advent of oral cheapest diazepam the uk drugs, the need for microsurgical intervention nowadays is not frequent. (granpallars.com)
- MyRX Drugs: Diazepam 10 to buy "on line" US stock! (dsaj.org)
- This buy diazepam most OTC drugs buy diazepam at this time. (angelfire.com)
- Human and Animal Drugs are coded under Industry Codes 60-66. (fda.gov)
- Due to the large volume of drug products, numbers 60 through 66 are reserved for Human and Animal Drugs. (fda.gov)
- Some important points to keep in mind when coding Human and Animal Drugs are listed below. (fda.gov)
- While the results of some previous studies have suggested that the administration of diazepam and other CNS depressant drugs following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) m ay impair the vestibular compensation process, the available evidence is unclear. (iospress.com)
- Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for status epilepticus. (wikipedia.org)
- However, intravenous lorazepam has advantages over intravenous diazepam, including a higher rate of terminating seizures and a more prolonged anticonvulsant effect. (wikipedia.org)
- Intravenous diazepam has been advocated as an appetite stimulant in anorexic cats. (issuu.com)
- Intravenous diazepam given at a low dose in cats acts as a central nervous system mediated appetite stimulant. (issuu.com)
- Arnbjerg invessmall number of cats ~ t u d i e d . ' ~ tigated the effect of solid food on gastric emptying and The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reported a range of gastric emptying time of 4 to 14 hours intravenous diazepam given as an appetite stimulant on the in 3 groups of normal cats fed various diets. (issuu.com)
- Too rapid of an injection of intravenous diazepam in small animals or neonates, may cause cardiotoxicity secondary to the propylene glycol in the formulation. (elephantcare.org)
- Sleep latency reduction following scalp application in both the phases are suggestive of transcranial migration of diazepam molecules to the receptor sites of the nerve tissue of the brain eliciting its pharmacological effect of sedation. (ijpsonline.com)
- modulate specific receptor activity in vivo or in vitro, and are particularly useful in the treatment of conditions associated with pathological receptor activation in humans, domesticated companion animals and livestock animals. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- DIAZEPAM is the brand name diazepam sale a specific benzodiazepine receptors have been deinstitutionalized. (angelfire.com)
- Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- Thus, although the alpha 4 beta 2 gamma 2 receptors are insensitive to benzodiazepine binding site full agonists, such as diazepam, they can be modulated by certain ligands acting as partial and inverse agonists at diazepam-sensitive receptors and thereby contribute to the respective pharmacological profiles. (aspetjournals.org)
- Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI) is a highly conserved 10kD polypeptide which is expressed in various species range from yeast to mammals. (mybiosource.com)
- Diazepam binding inhibitor is also known to mediate the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial release of cholecystokinin, in addition to its role as a mediator in corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis. (mybiosource.com)
- Diazepam Binding Inhibitor, Human Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Thus, the team of Erminio Costa has isolated from rat brain extracts an 11-kDa polypeptide able to competitively displace tritiated diazepam on synaptosomes, which has been called diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Diazepam was found to have transient cardiovascular depressor effects in dogs. (drugs.com)
- Which dogs are candidates for home treatment with rectal diazepam? (canine-epilepsy.com)
- A dose of 2 mg per kg of body weight is usually recommended for dogs taking phenobarbital (phenobarbital is known to increase the dose requirement for diazepam). (canine-epilepsy.com)
- Diazepam for dogs is the same formula used for humans. (answers.com)
- Dogs shouldn't be administered human tranquilizer pills. (vetinfo.com)
- Don't know about humans, but in animals, particularly dogs chronic administration of Metronidazole can cause toxicity. (cassiopaea.org)
- Although rare, diazepam can cause a severe liver problem in cats that can be fatal. (petplace.com)
- The potency of mAb-induced inhibition is insensitive to substrate concentration in human liver microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Therefore, mAb 3A4a was used to assess the quantitative role of CYP3A4/5 to the metabolism of testosterone and diazepam in five human liver microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- In addition, mAb 3A4a significantly inhibited testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity in rhesus monkey liver microsomes to a degree equal to that observed with CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- The selectivity of ketoconazole, a chemical inhibitor of CYP3A4, was probed with mAb 3A4a and was shown to be highly concentration dependent in the diazepam N- demethylation by human liver microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Initial studies are oftenconducted usingin vitroexperimental systems, such as caco-2cell permeability, to determine the likelihood of oral absorp-tion, or human liver microsome to determine the likelihoodof metabolic stability. (granpallars.com)
- In the cat, cases of liver failure have been reported after several days use of diazepam. (marvistavet.com)
- Global Transcriptional Response of Human Liver Cells to Ethanol Stress of Different Strength Reveals Hormetic Behavior. (nih.gov)
- MAb 49-10-20 was used to determine the contribution of 2B6 to the metabolism of phenanthrene and diazepam in human liver. (nih.gov)
- The degree of inhibition by the 2B6 specific MAb 49-10-20 defines the contribution of 2B6 to phenanthrene and diazepam metabolism in each human liver. (nih.gov)
- This treatment uses commercially available diazepam injectable solution. (canine-epilepsy.com)
- The manufacturers of injectable diazepam do not recommend the drug be mixed with any other medication or IV diluent. (elephantcare.org)
- The injectable form of diazepam is often used in anesthetic protocols. (marvistavet.com)
- Multidisciplinary teams are essential in industrialresearch requiring collaboration and effective communication;frequently a hundred or more scientists may be involved in dis-covering and developing a diazepam vs clonazepam compound into a useful drug.some industrial research laboratories are organized accordingto scientific disciplines, such as departments of organic diazepam vs clonazepam chemis-try or pharmacology. (granpallars.com)
- Administration instructions will ask to deliver 0.04 ml per kilogram of child's weight of the study medication up to a maximum of 1.6 ml. 0.04 ml/kg (maximum dose 1.6 ml) will deliver 0.1 mg/kg of lorazepam (maximum dose 4 mg) and 0.2 mg/kg of diazepam (maximum dose 8 mg). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Controlled substance diazepam no prescription all on the medication. (angelfire.com)
- As a result, the current research team exposed bacteria to diazepam and ACB (a benzophenone) to analyse whether the medication could be broken down by natural microbes. (phys.org)
- Despite the widespread use of this medication in the human field, it is still unclear exactly how this medication is able to affect the brain. (marvistavet.com)
Dose of diazepam4
- Your doctor may adjust your dose of diazepam if you are a poor metabolizer. (medicineshoppe.com)
- The syringe is filled with the appropriate dose of diazepam and then attached to a 1-inch teat cannula or similar device. (canine-epilepsy.com)
- What dose of diazepam is used? (canine-epilepsy.com)
- Isn't this a high dose of diazepam? (canine-epilepsy.com)
- Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative chemically designated as 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. (drugs.com)
- Nicholson AN, Stone BM, Clarke CH (1976) Effect of diazepam and fosazepam (a soluble derivative of diazepam) on sleep in man. (springer.com)
- Leave a Cheap Diazepam plant derivative. (virgilio.it)
- Thus argentamine, a 10 per cent, solution of silver phosphate in 10 rcent, ethylendiamine solution, has been used, cheapest diazepam the uk in gonorrhoea diluted to 1 : the following web browsers, with the exception of safari, are supported for these applications on ms windows xp and 2000. (granpallars.com)
- Jan would post an article by galileo S. To skip this screen in the publicity issue of the American Veterinary Medical triceratops contiguous a bullock that appears to be teratogenic when used during the concert would be concede as well as the diazepam and any court DIAZEPAM was nasty under inger. (angelfire.com)
- This study investigates whether diazepam has inhibitory effect on proliferation of GBM cell line T98G and explores its possible mechanism. (virtualtrials.com)
- This technique using inhibitory MAb 49-10-20 determines the contribution of 2B6 to the metabolism of its substrates in a human tissue containing multiple P450s. (nih.gov)
- Possibility of transcranial drug delivery was investigated in healthy human volunteers using electroencephalography techniques by assessing the ability of transcranially administered diazepam in bringing about b activity in the electroencephalographic wave patterns and shortening of the sleep latency period. (ijpsonline.com)
- Diazepam is classified as a benzodiazepine class drug. (petplace.com)
- Diazepam is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian. (petplace.com)
- This drug is registered for use in humans only. (petplace.com)
- Diazepam should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. (petplace.com)
- In some animals, however, diazepam causes the paradoxical drug reaction of excitement. (petplace.com)
- Diazepam is a controlled drug because it has high abuse potential in people. (petplace.com)
- Inc., and email, drug products is Cheap Diazepam a Cheap Diazepam evaluation. (virgilio.it)
- The FDA, under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, has requested that a study comparing diazepam, a drug that is labeled by the FDA for this indication, with lorazepam be performed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Diazepam is the drug of choice for treating benzodiazepine dependence with its long half-life allowing easier dose reduction. (wikipedia.org)
- Diazepam is the drug of choice for treating benzodiazepine dependence with its long half-life allowing easier dose reduction. (wikipedia.org)
- The diazepam (DZ)-omeprazole (OMP) interaction has been selected as a prototype for an important drug-drug interaction involving cytochrome P450 inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
- This is not a complete list of diazepam drug interactions. (medicineshoppe.com)
- In this study current disease, stress factors and drug a d m i n i ~ t r a t i o n . ~ ~ ~diazepam ~' was a possible confounding factor influencing Solid food empties from the stomach under different control gastric function. (issuu.com)
- Diazepam is seen as an essential drug by the World Health Organisation, but it is excreted into waste water treatment works because people take more than can be metabolised in their body. (phys.org)
- Generic drug diazepam down emotionally, mentally guide. (amazonaws.com)
- Diazepam is sometimes used as an appetite stimulant but its sedating properties preclude it from being the drug of choice for this purpose. (marvistavet.com)
- Because of the large number of human and animal drug products, you will need to rely on information from the manufacturer or the product label when you code human and animal drug products. (fda.gov)
- Normally, your first step in coding human and animal drug products would be to search for the name of the active ingredient. (fda.gov)
- You should note that there may not be a specific Human and Animal Drug product code for every drug or drug product. (fda.gov)
- It may not always be obvious if a human and animal drug product requires a prescription for sale in the U.S (Rx) or may be sold without a prescription (non-Rx). (fda.gov)
- There are numerous Class codes associated with the seven Human and Animal Drug Industry Codes. (fda.gov)
- Included below is a drop down list with the Class Codes associated with each of the Human and Animal Drug Industry Codes. (fda.gov)
- Experts estimate that the drug thalidomide led to the death of about diazepam 5mg uk 2,000 children and serious birth defects in more than 10,000 children, about 5,000 of them in West Germany. (tudortech.co.za)
- Diazepam may interact with other medications. (petplace.com)
- Do not take diazepam if you are allergic to any of its ingredients, or if you are allergic to similar medications ( Xanax , Ativan , Klonopin , Restoril and others). (medicineshoppe.com)
- Should you not utilizing a waters filtration you should consider things that may be covering inside your water: Chlorine, Deposit and Rust, Prescribed Medications, Professional Waste materials, and Human Fecal material may well all be from your faucet water. (diazepampill247.com)
- If it is not feasible to administer diazepam directly I.V., it may be injected slowly through the infusion tubing as close as possible to the vein insertion. (drugs.com)
- Veterinarians typically administer diazepam by vein to quickly stop a seizure, but most clients are not adept at intravenous injections. (canine-epilepsy.com)
- Diazepam has been suspected to delay gastric emptying in cats. (issuu.com)
- The purpose of this study was to determine if diazepam influences gastric emptying times in normal cats. (issuu.com)
- The gastric emptying half-time of solid food in normal, non-diazepam treated cats has been previously determined using a scintigraphic technique using '''Tc-sulfur colloid to radiolabel solid dry food. (issuu.com)
- gastric emptying time of solid food in normal cats using a scintigraphic technique labeling solid food with 9 9 m T ~ 'Department of Radiological Health Sciences, 'Department of Clinical sulfur c01loid.l~ Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biological Sciences ColoSince the diazepam treated cats ate approximately 3.5 rado State University, 300 W Drake, Fort Collins, CO 80523. (issuu.com)