A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The area within CELLS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
"Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide ... However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell ... 2004). "Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas ... 2003). "Structural characterization of a human cytosolic NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase and implication in human NAD biosynthesis ...
These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. These filamentous ... Liu JL (May 2010). "Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila". Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan ... cell model of leukemia though such mutations were not found in human patients with ara-C resistance. Pyrimidine biosynthesis ... "Glutamine analogs promote cytoophidium assembly in human and Drosophila cells". Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan Xue ...
... activity in Schwann cells: immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". Journal of Neuroscience ... "Four genes for the calpain family locate on four distinct human chromosomes". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 53 (4): 225-9. ... "Capn4 mRNA level is correlated with tumour progression and clinical outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma". The Journal of ... Human CAPNS1 genome location and CAPNS1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Suzuki K, Sorimachi H, Yoshizawa T, ...
... activity in Schwann cells: immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". J. Neurosci. Res. 29 (3): ... "Four genes for the calpain family locate on four distinct human chromosomes". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 53 (4): 225-9. doi:10.1159/ ... produce necrotic but not apoptotic cell death in human CHP100 neuroblastoma cultures via a mechanism involving calpain". ... Calpain-1 catalytic subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN1 gene. The calpains, calcium-activated neutral ...
In tissues and cells that consume ATP rapidly, especially skeletal muscle, but also brain, photoreceptor cells of the retina, ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM (January 1992). "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and ... In the cells, the "cytosolic" CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be either B (brain type) or M (muscle type). There ...
In the human brain microvascular endothelial cells, two systems initiate the choline absorption. The first system is known as ... on acetylcholine release and compartmentation in synaptosomes from electric organ of Torpedo marmorata". Toxicon. 28 (9): 1039- ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... and CTL2 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells". Neurochemistry International. 93: 40-50. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2015.12 ...
... is critical to cell survival. Nearly every eukaryotic cell, from plants to yeast to humans, expresses a form of the GCL protein ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ... In the majority of cells and tissues, the expression of GCLM protein is lower than GCLC and GCLM is therefore limiting in the ... However, in cancer, GCL expression and activity is enhanced, which serves to both support the high level of cell proliferation ...
"Planar polarization of node cells determines the rotational axis of node cilia". Nature Cell Biology. 12 (2): 170-6. doi: ... Humans and mice, for instance have two homologues, Lefty 1 and Lefty 2, whose differential expression leads to distinct ... but simply ensures the correct compartmentation of the left-determining molecules. In the absence of the lefty-1 barrier, lefty ... Kothapalli R, Buyuksal I, Wu SQ, Chegini N, Tabibzadeh S (May 1997). "Detection of ebaf, a novel human gene of the transforming ...
There is only a small amount of ATP in cells, but as it is continuously regenerated, the human body can use about its own ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...
Riboside as a Nutrient and Conserved NRK Genes Establish a Preiss-Handler Independent Route to NAD+ in Fungi and Humans". Cell ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... "Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival". Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. ... The actual concentration of NAD+ in cell cytosol is harder to measure, with recent estimates in animal cells ranging around 0.3 ...
The catalytic subunit α of protein kinase A is a key regulatory enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACA gene. This ... Another transcript, called Cα2, is found primarily in sperm cells and differs from Cα1 only in the first 15 amino acids. In ... Dodge-Kafka KL, Langeberg L, Scott JD (Apr 2006). "Compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the heart: the role of A- ... This optimizes where and when cellular communication occurs within the cell. Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number ...
Upon low frequency stimulation of knockout cells, these molecules are likely to diffuse out of the cell before a concentration ... In humans, many heritable disorders characterized by mental retardation are linked to mutations in genes important to the actin ... Developmentally regulated changes in cellular compartmentation and synaptic distribution of actin in hippocampal neurons. J. ... Cell 107:605-16 Fischer M, Kaech S, Knutti D, Matus A. 1998. Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines. Neuron 20:847-54 ...
Rijksen G, Staal GE, Beks PJ, Streefkerk M, Akkerman JW (December 1982). "Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. ... to human chromosome band 5q35.3 by somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (3): 187 ... "Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by ... "Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by ...
While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with cell compartment, a space often bound by one or ... Badano JL, Mitsuma N, Beales PL, Katsanis N (September 2006). "The ciliopathies: an emerging class of human genetic disorders ... Fuerst JA (October 13, 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell, that has a specific function. The name organelle ...
Proliferative Activity In Vitro and DNA Repair Indicate that Adult Mouse and Human Sertoli Cells Are Not Terminally ... DYM, M.; FAWCETT, D. W.. The blood-testis barrier in the rat and the physiological compartmentation of the seminiferous ... Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, roč. 30, s. 36 - 44. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-21]. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.02 ... The Sertoli cell: Novel clinical potentiality. HORMONES, roč. 14, čís. 4, s. 504 - 514. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-21]. DOI ...
Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Review. Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi: ... Each human cell contains roughly two meters of DNA. During most of the cell cycle these are organized in a DNA-protein complex ... The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for the small amount of mitochondrial DNA and, in plant cells, ...
Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ... Each human cell contains roughly two meters of DNA. During most of the cell cycle these are organized in a DNA-protein complex ...
Riboside as a Nutrient and Conserved NRK Genes Establish a Preiss-Handler Independent Route to NAD+ in Fungi and Humans". Cell ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... "Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. PMC 3366687. PMID 17889652.. ... "Cell. 155 (7): 1624-1638. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.037. PMC 4076149. PMID 24360282.. ...
"Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide ... Gilley J, Ribchester RR, Coleman MP (October 2017). "S, Confers Lifelong Rescue in a Mouse Model of Severe Axonopathy". Cell ... 2004). "Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas ... Raffaelli N, Sorci L, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Mazzola F, Magni G (Oct 2002). "Identification of a novel human nicotinamide ...
Subsequently, NAADP has been detected in sources as diverse as human sperm, red and white blood cells, liver, and pancreas, to ... The NAADP/TPC axis has been reported to exhibit such signal compartmentation, such local Ca2+ signalling, in different ... such that human and sea urchin TPC1 are more closely related than are human TPC1 and human TPC2). Moreover, the TPC isoforms ... other cell types have followed suit, as exemplified by the pancreas (acinar and beta cells), T-cells, and smooth muscle. Levels ...
... and TNF-alpha-induced modulation of human B cell function: proliferation, cyclic AMP generation, Ig production, and B-cell ... "Cyclic AMP compartmentation due to increased cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in transgenic mice with a cardiac-directed ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... "Different chromosomal localization of two adenylyl cyclase genes expressed in human brain". Human Genetics. 90 (1-2): 126-30. ...
... in small amounts in certain rat lung cells, in pancreatic islet cells, and in periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus in ... GKRP was found to serve a similar function in livers of mice and humans as well as other animals. Cats are unusual in lacking ... "Dual role of phosphofructokinase-2/fructose bisphosphatase-2 in regulating the compartmentation and expression of glucokinase ... "Cell biology assessment of glucokinase mutations V62M and G72R in pancreatic beta-cells: evidence for cellular instability of ...
Wallimann T, Hemmer W (1994). "Creatine kinase in non-muscle tissues and cells". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 133-134 ( ... Bong SM, Moon JH, Nam KH, Lee KS, Chi YM, Hwang KY (November 2008). "Structural studies of human brain-type creatine kinase ... "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating ... Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ...
Human security, building a framework of human rights, civil institutions and individual protections, public safety (fire, ... For example, the French Revolution had no cell system, and in the American Revolution, little to no attempt was made to ... Internal instability and security issues do not require compartmentation and secrecy at national level. The "war on terrorism" ... Human rights and rule of law differences do not limit cooperation. Most needs are identical. Co-operation can be separated from ...
Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle (95%), while the remainder is ... Hanna-El-Daher L, Braissant O (August 2016). "Creatine synthesis and exchanges between brain cells: What can be learned from ... Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM (January 1992). "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and ... Creatine is not an essential nutrient as it is naturally produced in the human body from the amino acids glycine and arginine, ...
The human protein, hsaMrs2p, has been localised to the mitochondrial membrane in mouse cells using a GFP fusion protein. Very ... "Extracellular Mg2+ regulates intracellular Mg2+ and its subcellular compartmentation in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces ... The investigation of the TRPM genes and proteins in human cells is an area of intense recent study and, at times, debate. ... across the plasma membrane of the cell affected both the rate of Mg2+ uptake and the free Mg2+ content of the cell; ...
... termination of the operational cells is rather obvious. If there are support cells in the operational area, they may be ... For any number of reasons, a human source operation may need to be suspended for an indefinite time, or definitively terminated ... Suvorov emphasizes that the process of forming new illegal residencies was the Soviet doctrine for imposing compartmentation. ... Cell systems are evolving to more decentralized models, sometimes because they are enabled by new forms of electronic ...
A cell wall that contains chitin Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions called ... Youngson RM (2006). Collins Dictionary of Human Biology. Glasgow: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-722134-9. Nelson DL, Cox MM ( ... pores in the cell wall that link adjacent cells and allow plant cells to communicate with adjacent cells. Animals have a ... The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer outside the cell membrane, providing ...
Goldring, SR (1987). "Human giant cell tumors of bone identification and characterization of cell types". J Clin Invest (79(2 ... 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... Görlich, Dirk (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (15): 607-660. doi: ... Görlich, Dirk; Kutay, U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (15): 607- ...
Neoh, K.B. Termites and human society in Southeast Asia (PDF). The Newsletter. 2013, 30 (66): 1-2 [2020-07-04]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于 ... Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 2009, 66 (12): 1100-5. PMID 19746415. doi:10.1002/cm.20417.. ... resolution analysis of gut environment and bacterial microbiota reveals functional compartmentation of the gut in wood‐feeding ... Bodenheimer, F.S. Insects as Human Food: A Chapter of the Ecology of Man. Netherlands: Springer. 1951: 331-350. ISBN 978-94-017 ...
Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival». Cell, 130, 2007, pàg. 1095-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell. ... Stoichiometry and compartmentation of NADH metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae». FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 25, 1, 2001, pàg. 15- ... les vies de recuperació són essencials en els humans; una manca de niacina a la dieta causa pel·lagra,[27] una malaltia basada ... 50,0 50,1 Diefenbach J, Bürkle A «Introduction to poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism». Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 62, 7-8, 2005, pàg. 721- ...
The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 100 to 150 moles of ATP daily, which is around 50 to 75 kg. In ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096.. ... In humans this list commonly includes iron, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, and molybdenum.[11] Although chromium ...
A cell wall that contains chitin. *Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions ... Youngson RM (2006). Collins Dictionary of Human Biology. Glasgow: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-722134-9.. ... Cell wallEdit. Main article: Cell wall. The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer ... Plant cellEdit. Main article: Plant cell. Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic organisms. ...
Gitai Z (2005). "The new bacterial cell biology: moving parts and subcellular architecture". Cell 120 (5): 577-86. doi:10.1016/ ... Gorbach S (1990). "Lactic acid bacteria and human health". Ann Med 22 (1): 37-41. doi:10.3109/07853899009147239 . PMID 2109988 ... Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro. ... Gitai Z (March 2005). "The new bacterial cell biology: moving parts and subcellular architecture". Cell 120 (5): 577-86. doi: ...
... they press against the cell walls of the phytobiont's root cells. Often the fungal and plant cell walls become almost ... Mass planting of these species often require human addition of inoculum from native EcM fungi in order for the trees to prosper ... doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2005.00044.x. Lasat, M.M.; Baker, A.J.M.; Kochian, L.V. (1998). "Altered Zn compartmentation in the ... Upon the connection of fungal hyphae and root cap cells, growth must continue inwards to the epidermal cells wherein the hyphae ...
Palisade mesophyll cells can contain 30-70 chloroplasts per cell, while stomatal guard cells contain only around 8-15 per cell ... "Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... "What Do Human Parasites Do with a Chloroplast Anyway?". PLoS Biology. 9 (8): e1001137. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001137. PMC ... This event is called endosymbiosis, or "cell living inside another cell with a mutual benefit for both". The external cell is ...
... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. 1. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN ... Coughlan, Andy (2016) "Smallest ever genome comes to life: Humans built it but we don't know what a third of its genes actually ... The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates ... The data suggest that viruses originated from ancient cells that co-existed with the ancestors of modern cells. These ancient ...
Human security, building a framework of human rights, civil institutions and individual protections, public safety (fire, ... In 2005, the NSA worked closely with the CIA to deploy airborne cameras and intercept cell phone signals around Iraq. This gave ... Internal instability and security issues do not require compartmentation and secrecy at national level. The "war on terrorism" ... Human rights and rule of law differences do not limit cooperation. Most needs are identical. Cooperation can be separated from ...
while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0-7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is growing. The viscosity of cytoplasm is ... Aw, T.Y. (2000). "Intracellular compartmentation of organelles and gradients of low molecular weight species". Int Rev Cytol. ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ...
The plasma membrane of mammalian cells contains detergent-resistant membrane rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids and ... we show that T cell activation leads to a striking compartmentation in the rafts of activated T cell receptor and associated ... Membrane compartmentation is required for efficient T cell activation Immunity. 1998 Jun;8(6):723-32. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613( ... Cell Compartmentation / immunology * Cell Membrane / immunology* * Dogs * Humans * Jurkat Cells * Lymphocyte Activation* ...
Indeed, the capacity of E3/19K to inhibit transport of HLA class I (HLA-I) to the cell surface, thereby preventing peptide p … ... Adenoviruses, Human / immunology* * Cell Compartmentation* * Gene Expression * Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology ... In functional assays, deletion of E3/19K rendered Ad-infected cells more sensitive to NK cell recognition. We report the first ... However, HLA-I downregulation has the potential to render Ad-infected cells vulnerable to natural killer (NK) cell recognition ...
"Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide ... However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell ... 2004). "Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas ... 2003). "Structural characterization of a human cytosolic NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase and implication in human NAD biosynthesis ...
1986) Turnover of phosphomonoester groups and compartmentation of polyphosphoinositides in human erythrocytes. Biochem J 235(3 ... Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane. YongKeun Park, Catherine A. Best, Thorsten Auth, Nir S. Gov, Samuel ... Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane. YongKeun Park, Catherine A. Best, Thorsten Auth, Nir S. Gov, Samuel ... Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane. YongKeun Park, Catherine A. Best, Thorsten Auth, Nir S. Gov, Samuel ...
Metabolic compartmentation and substrate channelling in muscle cells. Role of coupled creatine kinases in in vivo regulation of ... 2G [humans] and Fig. 6 [mice]). Whereas 100 μmol/L ADP consistently decreased mitochondrial H2O2 emission rates in rodents, ... Human Participants. Middle-aged males were screened using a medical questionnaire and were excluded if they were diagnosed as ... Ceramide content is increased in skeletal muscle from obese insulin-resistant humans. Diabetes 2004;53:25-31pmid:14693694. ...
e, epidermal cells; la, laticifer cells; pt, petals; sp, sepals. Arrowheads point to laticifer cells in stem. Bars in (A) to (L ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ... cl, cross-connecting laticifer cells; le, lower epidermis; pm, palisade mesophyll cells; sm, spongy mesophyll cells; t, ... 1989). Cell and tissue cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don: A literature survey. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 18, 231- ...
These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. These filamentous ... Liu JL (May 2010). "Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila". Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan ... cell model of leukemia though such mutations were not found in human patients with ara-C resistance. Pyrimidine biosynthesis ... "Glutamine analogs promote cytoophidium assembly in human and Drosophila cells". Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan Xue ...
Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues. *Energy and Cellular Metabolism. *Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties ... Lab Description: This is the laboratory part of Human Physiology and is taken in conjunction with the main course. The ... Prerequisite: Human Anatomy and Principles of Chemistry with a grade of C or better. ... Describe the functions of the major organ systems of the human body, and provide examples of coordinated interactions among ...
Adherent U373-CD14-EGFP (□) and U373-EGFP (▵) cells cultured in 96-well plates were incubated with L ... Cell Compartmentation. *Glycosylphosphatidylinositols. *Golgi Apparatus/metabolism. *Green Fluorescent Proteins. *Humans. * ... Health and Human Services • 8600 Rockville Pike,Bethesda,MD 20894 Privacy • Accessibility • Freedom of Information Act • ... Health and Human Services • 8600 Rockville Pike,Bethesda,MD 20894 Privacy • Accessibility • Freedom of Information Act • ...
Monoacylglycerol metabolism in human intestinal Caco-2 cells: Evidence for metabolic compartmentation and hydrolysis. J Biol ... Anandamide uptake by human endothelial cells and its regulation by nitric oxide. J Biol Chem 275: 13484-13492.PubMedGoogle ... CB1 and CB2 receptor mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from various donor types. Adv Exp Med ... Effect of lipid rafts on Cb2 receptor signaling and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol metabolism in human immune cells. J Immunol 177: ...
Cell Adhesion Molecules; Neuronal/immunology/*metabolism, Cell Compartmentation/drug effects/immunology, Cells; Cultured, ... Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors.. ... Humans, Interleukin-4/pharmacology, Macrophages/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism, Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology/ ...
Retinal ganglion cells: energetics, compartmentation, axonal transport, cytoskeletons and vulnerability. Prog Retin Eye Res. ... Methods of Retinal Ganglion Cell Differentiation From Pluripotent Stem Cells. A formula for human retinal ganglion cell ... Directed differentiation and functional maturation of cortical interneurons from human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. ... Chemically induced specification of retinal ganglion cells from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells ...
Cell Compartmentation. *Cytoplasm/metabolism. *Gene Products, env/genetics/immunology. *Gene Products, nef/genetics/immunology ... Health and Human Services • 8600 Rockville Pike,Bethesda,MD 20894 Privacy • Accessibility • Freedom of Information Act • ... Thus, on a per cell basis, cells expressing the rapidly degraded UbRNef construct are ,30-fold more effective at stimulating a ... Thus, on a per cell basis, cells expressing the rapidly degraded UbRNef construct are ,30-fold more effective at stimulating a ...
NAMPT also has a crucial role in cancer cell metabolism, is often overexpressed in tumour tissues and is an experimental target ... of NAMPT and highlight progress made in identifying the physiological role of NAMPT and its relevance in various human diseases ... Here, Antje Garten and colleagues discuss the physiological functions of NAMPT and its relevance in various human diseases and ... Nikiforov, A., Dölle, C., Niere, M. & Ziegler, M. Pathways and subcellular compartmentation of NAD biosynthesis in human cells ...
This review summarizes general considerations on glutamate metabolism in human brain. Biochemical coupling between neurons and ... glia is discussed with respect to glutamate metabolism and its compartmentation. Glutamate recycling and the role of key ... Coupling between Neuronal and Glial Cells via Glutamate Metabolism in Brain of Healthy Persons and Patients with Mental ...
It is present in all cells of humans, mainly in membranes and especially in specialized areas of the plasma membrane... ... Liscum, L., and Underwood, K.W., 1995, Intracellular cholesterol transport and compartmentation, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15443-15446 ... Modeling Cholesterol in Humans: Update and Dealing with the Problem of Exchange in Vivo Using the Blood Cell-Lipoprotein ... It is present in all cells of humans, mainly in membranes and especially in specialized areas of the plasma membrane such as ...
... compartmentation, cell-cycle control, proteolysis, protein phosphorylation and RNA splicing. These genes may have originated ... Fifty genes have significant similarity with human disease genes; half of these are cancer related. We identify highly ... conserved genes important for eukaryotic cell organization including those required for the cytoskeleton, ...
... cells. Since many of the studied processes are of relevance for human disease, a particular focus of the research was on the ... Several groups studied how these pathogens exploit and alter the existing intracellular compartmentation to ensure their own ... Cell, Molecular Cell, Nature Chemical Biology, Nature Cell Biology, Cell Metabolism, PNAS, EMBO Journal, Genes and Development ... The biological research of the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC 593) was focused on the topic of how eukaryotic cells ...
This is largely due the lack of tools to evaluate cell-specific compartmentation of lactate in the living brain, in particular ... to gain unprecedented access to lactate compartmentation in the Human brain and its modifications during brain activity, ... This is largely due the lack of tools to evaluate cell-specific compartmentation of lactate in the living brain, in particular ... Summary The idea has emerged that compartmentation of brain lactate, i.e. its distribution between different cell types and the ...
Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide ... MDA-MB-231 cells and derivatives were described previously (27). Cell lines expressing human MPG (WT), human MPG (N169D), FLAG- ... Cell Culture and Cell Line Development. The cell line LN428 is an established glioblastoma-derived cell line with mutations in ... cell death in the BER-deficient cells with little or no cell death in the control cells (Supplementary Fig. S2A). Many reports ...
Prostaglandin biosynthesis and its compartmentation in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Annu Rev Physiol 1986. 48: ... In both human and mouse platelets, the primary stimulus for increases in cAMP is likely to be through activation of IP. The ... smooth muscle cells, or endothelial cells) than in healthy vessels (5). PGE2 is the predominant prostaglandin released in ... Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human atherosclerotic carotid arteries. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2000. 20:146-152. View this ...
Our future studies will therefore also focus on TSHR surface compartmentation as a response to sialylic acid load. ... human thyrocytes, transfected L cells and baculovirus-infected insect cells). Eur J Biochem 222: 711-719. ... Sialylation of Human Thyrotropin Receptor Improves and Prolongs Its Cell-Surface Expression. Romy Frenzel, Knut Krohn, Markus ... Sialylation of Human Thyrotropin Receptor Improves and Prolongs Its Cell-Surface Expression. Romy Frenzel, Knut Krohn, Markus ...
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL COMPARTMENTATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND THE DIFFERING FUNCTIONS OF THESE COMPARTMENTS All mammalian ... Stem Cell Term Paper 1867 words , 8 pages English Section 1 Stem Cell Research Term Paper Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells ... Bowen Family Systems Theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking ... Cells are the smallest units of life • All cells come from preexisting cells • TOK: cell theory replaces the former ideas of ...
Metabolism and Toxicity of 9-β-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine in Human Malignant T Cells and B Cells in Tissue Culture ... Kinetics and Compartmentation of Erythrocyte Pyrimidine Metabolism E. H. Harley, P. Zetler, S. Neal ... Human 5′-nucleotidase. Properties and Characterization of the Enzyme from Placenta, Lymphocytes and Lymphoblastoid Cells in ... Effect of Allopurinol on Pyrimidine Metabolism in Human White Blood Cells. Role of the Salvage Pathway ...
2015) A CDC20-APC/SOX2 signaling axis regulates human glioblastoma stem-like cells. Cell Reports 11(11):1809-1821. ... 2005) Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide ... Cells were harvested by scraping and cell suspensions were clarified by centrifugation at 800 × g at 4 °C for 5 min. Cells were ... Informed consent was obtained from patients for use of human tissue and cells. All protocols using human tissue were approved ...
CNS Nervous System PET brain cell enzyme genes neurochemistry neuroscience positron emission tomography (PET) protein ... Human Brain Postmortem Studies of Neurotransmitters and Related Markers E. D. Bird, L. L. Iversen ...
Cell Biology, mechanistic and novel approaches to understand the process of cell compartmentation, division, growth, and tissue ... deep learning applied to biology and human health, and single cell biology. ... Cell and Developmental Biology: Sebastian Maurer, Vivek Malhotra. *Gene Regulation Stem Cells and Cancer: Bernhard Payer, ... [email protected]: Whole-Cell Modeling. *[email protected]: Advanced Proteomics Course for Molecular Biologists and Clinicians (29/06-03/07 ...
Therefore, differential phosphorylation of survivin by PKA in subcellular microdomains regulates tumor cell apoptosis via its ... Cell death pathways are likely regulated in specialized subcellular microdomains, but how this occurs is not understood. Here, ... Animals; Apoptosis; *Cell Compartmentation; Cell Line, Tumor; Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; *Cytoprotection; Humans; ... Cell death pathways are likely regulated in specialized subcellular microdomains, but how this occurs is not understood. Here, ...
Cell Compartmentation; Cell Degranulation; Cytoskeleton; Epinephrine; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Leukocyte Elastase; ...
  • The biological research of the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC 593) was focused on the topic of how eukaryotic cells generate, maintain and alter their intracellular compartmentation in both healthy and diseased states. (uni-marburg.de)
  • First, several CRC groups were interested in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cellular compartmentalization processes in eukaryotic cells. (uni-marburg.de)
  • All mammalian cells are eukaryotic, and whilst the eukaryotic type of cell is not exclusive to mammals, mammalian cells differ from other eukaryotic cells because of the organelles that are or are not present. (educationindex.com)
  • Topics include the origin of life, the development of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, biological energy conversions, compartmentation of biochemical functions within the cell, inter- and intra-cellular communications. (kingsu.ca)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (bionity.com)
  • It includes studying the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, microbial nutrition and types of microbial growth, metabolism and energy generation, microbial control by physical and chemical agents, the bases of bacterial taxonomy and genetics and an introduction to the general characteristics and diversity of the various groups of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and micro-algae. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • SUMOylation, a posttranslational modification of proteins, has been recently described as vital in eukaryotic cells. (chemweb.com)
  • Here we show that while infection with wild-type Ad enhances synthesis of the NKG2D ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB), their expression on the cell surface is actively suppressed. (nih.gov)
  • A similar decrease in intracellular fluorescence associated with U373-EGFP cells was observed in response to LPS-sCD14 complexes (Fig. 8), indicating that the compartments released contained GPI-anchored proteins in addition to mCD14-EGFP. (nih.gov)
  • This included i) the transport of metals, metal complexes, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins to, within and out of various cell compartments such as mitochondria, ii) the assembly and activation of plasma membrane ion channels in the secretory pathway, and iii) the intracellular vesicle transport and protein sorting in (polarized) cells. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. (genecards.org)
  • The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. (jove.com)
  • Determining the subcellular localization of novel proteins is an important step toward elucidating their role in the cell, because proteins are spatially organized according to their function ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Human KB cells produce two immunologically cross-reactive folate-binding proteins: a particulate cell-associated protein which is solubilized by Triton X-100, and a soluble protein which is released into their growth medium. (elsevier.com)
  • This compartmentation of these two folate-binding proteins provides a convenient system for studies of their biochemical relationship. (elsevier.com)
  • Differences in the levels and specific activities of the two folate-binding proteins of cells exposed to cycloheximide compared with simultaneous controls after pulsing with [ 35 S]methionine suggest that, whereas the cell-associated folate-binding protein is probably produced by de novo protein synthesis, the soluble folate-binding protein seems to be produced from a cellular pool of an already synthesized protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The two folate-binding proteins behave similarly to the purified particulate and soluble folate-binding proteins of human milk in analysis by radioactive folate binding, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration profiles, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in either Triton X-100 or sodium dodecyl sulfate, and in Triton X-100 binding based on sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation in H2O and D2O. (elsevier.com)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explain the basic mechanisms of homeostasis by integrating the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. (brandman.edu)
  • There was degeneration of the interstitial tissues and associated loss of interstitial cells of Leydig. (ispub.com)
  • Variable expression levels of three PDE3A variants were also observed in human tissues and HeLa cells. (bioscirep.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjunction with the damage-associated alarmin molecule HMGB1, CXCL12 mediates immune effector and stem/progenitor cell migration towards damaged tissues for subsequent repair. (chemweb.com)
  • Creatine kinase ( CK ), also known as creatine phosphokinase ( CPK ) or phosphocreatine kinase , is an enzyme ( EC 2.7.3.2 ) expressed by various tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tissues and cells that consume ATP rapidly, especially skeletal muscle , but also brain, photoreceptor cells of the retina , hair cells of the inner ear , spermatozoa and smooth muscle , PCr serves as an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering and regeneration of ATP in situ , as well as for intracellular energy transport by the PCr shuttle or circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-workers and Jha recommended that might use systems associated with Na+ tissues tolerance, such as for example intracellular compartmentation and elevated accumulation of suitable solutes, as was hypothesized before [28] and evidently, a number of the potato cultivars respond within this genuine method. (fak-signaling.com)
  • We identify highly conserved genes important for eukaryotic cell organization including those required for the cytoskeleton, compartmentation, cell-cycle control, proteolysis, protein phosphorylation and RNA splicing. (nih.gov)
  • The main structural elements of the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and keeps its contents separated from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (bionity.com)
  • Cell death pathways are likely regulated in specialized subcellular microdomains, but how this occurs is not understood. (umassmed.edu)
  • Therefore, differential phosphorylation of survivin by PKA in subcellular microdomains regulates tumor cell apoptosis via its interaction with XIAP. (umassmed.edu)
  • Anchoring protein that mediates the subcellular compartmentation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). (genecards.org)
  • Studies reported in this thesis demonstrate that human platelets, VECs and VSMCs each contain distinct cyclic nucleotide signaling complexes, and that based on their composition and selective subcellular localization, regulate specific cellular functions. (queensu.ca)
  • In pancreatic β-cells, binding of PFK2 activates glucokinase by posttranslational mechanisms ( 31 ), whereas in hepatocytes PFK2 has a dual role in regulating glucokinase expression and its subcellular compartmentation ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • This review summarizes general considerations on glutamate metabolism in human brain. (ovid.com)
  • Biochemical coupling between neurons and glia is discussed with respect to glutamate metabolism and its compartmentation. (ovid.com)
  • However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. (jneurosci.org)
  • To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a novel noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic approach. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intracellular fluxes of the CHO-K1 cell line central carbon metabolism were successfully determined for a complex network using non-stationary 13 C metabolic flux analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolism of cancer cells is different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several groups studied how these pathogens exploit and alter the existing intracellular compartmentation to ensure their own survival. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The lack of senescence in the more tolerant cultivars during elevated leaf Na+ levels (Physique 1) suggests that tolerant cultivars detoxify elevated leaf Na+ levels by intracellular compartmentation. (fak-signaling.com)
  • Intracellular compartmentation might point to the importance of a high capacity for Na+-sequestration in the vacuoles as has been shown before [28], [32]. (fak-signaling.com)
  • It is present in all cells of humans, mainly in membranes and especially in specialized areas of the plasma membrane such as caveolae and rafts. (springer.com)
  • Expression of these NIPs sensitized yeast cells to As(III) and antimonite (Sb(III)), and direct transport assays confirmed their ability to facilitate As(III) transport across cell membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modification of transmembrane electron transport activity in plasma membranes of simian virus 40 transformed pineal cells. (naver.com)
  • Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers. (humpath.com)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, there are no inter-cell compartments separated by internal membranes that would allow different processes to be carried out at the same time. (pap.pl)
  • Anammox bacteria are unique in this respect because they have membranes inside their cells, including the membranous structure called anammoxosome. (pap.pl)
  • In: Principles, Development and Applications of Self-Referencing Electrochemical Microelectrodes to the Determination of Fluxes at Cell Membranes. (core.ac.uk)
  • Similar to DAG and ceramides, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA) accumulation is associated with insulin resistance in humans, and consumption of a high-fat diet rapidly accumulates LCFA-CoA moieties in association with insulin resistance ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whereas inhibition of critical steps in the BER pathway result in the accumulation of cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks, we report that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity due to deficiency in the BER protein Polβ triggers cell death dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase activation yet independent of PAR-mediated apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation or PAR glycohydrolase, suggesting that cytotoxicity is not from PAR or PAR catabolite signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The status of zinc in malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) infected human red blood cells: stage dependent accumulation, compartmentation and effect of dipicolinate. (naver.com)
  • This article summarizes how accumulation of total lipids, specific lipid species, and localization of lipids influence insulin sensitivity in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Muscle DAG accumulation has been implicated in insulin resistance, first in denervated rodent muscle ( 18 ), as well as following intralipid infusion in humans ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sphingolipids have also been implicated in insulin resistance, with muscle ceramide accumulation first reported in obese insulin-resistant humans ( 25 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This lack of optimal performance at all times by the defence systems may result in an accumulation of DNA damage to critical levels within T cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest or even apoptosis [ 7 ], with the potential to impact adversely on the T cell mediated immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these findings suggest a redefining of brain glutamate neurotransmitter release and recycling as a series of metabolic interactions between glial cells and neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However because glucose is metabolized in both neurons and glia, this approach requires assumptions to separately determine metabolic flows in these two different cell populations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Metabolic Control at the Cytosol-Mitochondria Interface in Different Growth Phases of CHO Cells. (insilico-biotechnology.com)
  • Studies of transgenic creatine kinase and adenylate kinase deficient mice, along with pharmacological targeting of individual enzymes, have revealed the importance of near-equilibrium reactions in the dissipation of metabolite gradients and communication of energetic signals to distinct intracellular compartments, including the cell nucleus and membrane metabolic sensors. (biologists.org)
  • Surprisingly, constitutive redistribution of NAD(+) from the cytosol to the mitochondria by stable expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial NAD(+) transporter NDT2 in HEK293 cells resulted in dramatic growth retardation and a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, despite the elevated mitochondrial NAD(+) levels. (fairdomhub.org)
  • However, this is being hampered by the high complexity of metabolic networks, particularly concerning compartmentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolic compartmentation and extracellular transport reversibility proved essential to successfully reproduce the dynamics of the labeling patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Economic importance and ease of cultivation make CHO cells a desirable candidate for metabolic studies in eukaryotic systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolic flux analysis has been applied for mammalian cells for a long time already but mostly only using metabolite balancing [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mammalian cells, exchange with the extracellular pools [ 21 ] delays the intracellular isotopic steady state usually beyond the possibility to maintain metabolic steady state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymes act as catalysts - they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly - and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction, for example in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This course will explore the metabolic, muscular, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor aspects of human physiology. (reed.edu)
  • Since metabolic features of breast tumour cells are critical in cancer progression and drug resistance, we hypothesized that the lipid content of malignant cells might be a useful indirect measure of cancer progression. (chemweb.com)
  • In this study Multivariate Curve Resolution was applied to cellular Raman spectra to assess the metabolic composition of breast cancer cells undergoing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. (chemweb.com)
  • The highly successful work of the CRC 593 groups has improved the mechanistic understanding of many biochemical and cell biological pathways. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Brief summaries of the results of the individual groups are found in a special issue of European Journal of Cell Biology published in 2015 ( https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/european-journal-of-cell-biology/vol/94/issue/7 ). (uni-marburg.de)
  • Chapter 2 IB Biology 2.1 Cell Theory 2.1.1 Outline the cell theory (2). (educationindex.com)
  • Cell Biology , mechanistic and novel approaches to understand the process of cell compartmentation, division, growth, and tissue organization. (crg.eu)
  • Among topics considered are structure and function of plants and animals, relations of organisms to each other and to their environment, energy relations of organisms, integrative and coordinating mechanisms of organisms, cell biology principles, genetics, molecular biology, reproduction, development and growth, and the evidence for organic evolution. (reed.edu)
  • Lectures will emphasize the cell biology, anatomy, and physiology of vertebrate reproductive systems and present a comparative approach to understanding sex determination. (reed.edu)
  • This course aims to provide an in-depth approach toward understanding fundamental key aspects of cell biology and genetics, including structural and functional features of cell components and organelles as well as the pattern of inheritance involved in different traits. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • To develop acquaintance of the techniques used in genetics and cell biology and how to utilize these techniques in empirical investigation of biological phenomena. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Lipid rafts control signaling of type-1 cannabinoid receptors in neuronal cells. (springer.com)
  • Cortical spreading depression is a slowly propagating wave of near-complete depolarization of brain cells followed by temporary suppression of neuronal activity. (uio.no)
  • Further investigation into the sequelae for PregS-stimulated trafficking of NMDARs to the neuronal cell surface may uncover a new target for the pharmacological treatment of disorders in which NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This is the laboratory part of Human Physiology and is taken in conjunction with the main course. (brandman.edu)
  • Plant and cell physiology. (rothamsted.ac.uk)
  • Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach broke ground with its thorough coverage of molecular physiology seamlessly integrated into a traditional homeostasis-based systems approach. (biobooks.co.kr)
  • An introductory study of the human body which includes anatomy and physiology. (kingsu.ca)
  • A introductory study of human physiology. (kingsu.ca)
  • The number of mitochondrion in a cell differs dependent of independent cell function, for example a goblet cell will use lots of ATP in the secretion of mucus, and will there for have a large amount of mitochondria in the cell. (educationindex.com)
  • In fact, each mitochondrion has several copies of its own genome, and there are several hundred to several thousand mitochondria per cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • However, whether the endogenous NMNAT3 protein is functionally effective at generating NAD(+) in mitochondria of intact human cells still remains to be demonstrated. (fairdomhub.org)
  • We provide further support for the alternative possibility, namely intramitochondrial NAD(+) synthesis, by demonstrating the presence of endogenous NMNAT3 in the mitochondria of human cells. (fairdomhub.org)
  • In this review, we provide a brief overview of the canonical mitochondrial death pathway in order to put into perspective this new insight into the GB action on the mitochondria to trigger ROS-dependent cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • Their measured Ca content is 4.1 +/- 1.4 (SEM) mmol/kg dry wt in the cytoplasm and 3.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg dry wt in the mitochondria, or an average cell calcium content of approximately 3.8 mmol/kg dry wt. (meta.org)
  • 2) 'Nonviable' cells, defined by the presence of dense inclusions in their mitochondria and a K/Na concentration ratio of approximately 1. (meta.org)
  • The Ca content is 15 +/- 2 mmol/kg dry wt in the cytoplasm and 685 +/- 139 mmol/kg dry wt in the mitochondria of such cells. (meta.org)
  • 2007). Feasibility of pathways for transfer of acyl groups from mitochondria to the cytosol to form short chain acyl-CoAs in the pancreatic beta cell. (core.ac.uk)
  • The defining feature of a eukaryotic cell is usually its membrane bound nucleus (the exception being the red blood cell) [1]. (educationindex.com)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Brown was studying orchids microscopically when he observed an opaque area, which he called the areola or nucleus, in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (bionity.com)
  • In 1838 Matthias Schleiden proposed that the nucleus plays a role in generating cells, thus he introduced the name "Cytoblast" (cell builder). (bionity.com)
  • The earlier form of the cells is called prokaryotic, which lacks nucleus and membrane-bound organelle. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • A cell with nucleus and membrane-bound organelle is called eukaryotic, which leads to the diversity of the life on the earth. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Targeting a type I transmembrane protein, the HIV-1 envelope (env) protein, for expression in the cytoplasm, rather than allowing its normal co-translational translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, sensitized target cells expressing this mutant more rapidly for lysis by an env-specific CTL clone. (nih.gov)
  • It is also expressed in numerous cancer cell lines, including HeLa cells and A549 cells. (bioscirep.org)
  • The encoded protein is expressed in endothelial cells, cultured fibroblasts, and osteosarcoma cells. (genecards.org)
  • Cells of the cardiovascular system such as platelets, vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) maintain cyclic nucleotide compartmentation through coordinating signaling complexes containing a cAMP or cGMP effector protein and PDEs. (queensu.ca)
  • This detailed understanding of the mechanism of cell death induced by combining a DNA-damaging agent (temozolomide) and a PARP1 inhibitor suggests that PARP1 inhibition would be effective against many tumors but may be ineffective against tumors that are resistant to apoptosis ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A transformed cell is identified by the loss of control of proliferation and deregulation of apoptosis producing an excess of cell number and forming a mass (tumor). (hindawi.com)
  • Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Cascade of Events Leading to Cell Death, Apoptosis or Necrosis. (usc.edu)
  • GA cleaves its substrates after lysine or arginine residues to trigger a caspase-independent, B cell CLL/lymphoma 2- (Bcl2-) insensitive, and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization- (MOMP-) independent cell death pathway with the morphological feature of apoptosis [ 23 - 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We aimed to establish an efficient method for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using defined factors. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, Notch signal inhibition facilitated differentiation into MATH5-positive progenitors at 90% efficiency by day 20, and these cells further differentiated to BRN3B and ISLET1 double-positive RGCs at 45% efficiency by day 40. (arvojournals.org)
  • Phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), a member of the cGMP-inhibited cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, plays important roles in oocyte maturation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. (bioscirep.org)
  • The localization of individual PDEs to specific intracellular sites or molecular complexes helps regulate the compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling [ 3 , 5 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Mapping the intracellular fluxes for established mammalian cell lines becomes increasingly important for scientific and economic reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have the ability to recognize and eliminate virally infected cells before new virions are produced within that cell. (nih.gov)
  • Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor, whose expression is up-regulated in activated lymphocytes, is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a cytosolic enzyme involved in NAD biosynthesis. (nature.com)
  • Expression of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a mouse tumor cell line reduces tumorigenicity and elicits PSA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells are essential to the host defense against pathogen-infected or transformed cells [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this Review, we discuss current understanding of the functions of NAMPT and highlight progress made in identifying the physiological role of NAMPT and its relevance in various human diseases and conditions, such as obesity, NAFLD, T2DM, cancer and ageing. (nature.com)
  • The Bergstrom muscle biopsy technique has been an essential tool for the direct assessment of human skeletal muscle responses to a variety of physiological perturbations ( Bergstrom, 1975 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ROS concentration and compartmentation determine their physiological or pathological effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Students will gain an understanding of human gross anatomy and a working knowledge of the integration of the human body's major physiological systems. (kingsu.ca)
  • This course examines the human physiological systems which are the basis of normal body function and homeostasis. (kingsu.ca)
  • By monitoring the condition that elicited the highest yield of cells expressing stage-specific markers, we determined the optimal concentrations and combinations of signaling pathways required for efficient generation of RGCs from hPSCs. (arvojournals.org)
  • Precise modulation of signaling pathways, including Wnt, insulin growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor, in combination with mechanical isolation of neural rosette cell clusters significantly enriched RX and PAX6 double-positive eye field progenitors from hPSCs by day 12. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, the impact of these antioxidants on different MAP kinase pathways in T cells from donors of different ages was also examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T cell clones were derived from healthy 26, 45 and SENIEUR status 80 year old people and the impact of titrated concentrations of Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine on their proliferation and in vitro lifespan, GSH:GSSG ratio as well as levels of oxidative DNA damage and on MAP kinase signaling pathways was examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analysis of MAP kinases showed that pro-apoptotic pathways become activated in T cells with increasing in vitro age and that Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine could decrease activation (phosphorylation) in T cells from 26 or 45 year old donors, but not from the SENIEUR status 80 year old donor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PDEs regulate discrete aspects of intracellular signaling through spatial and functional diversification, and their dysfunction affects numerous clinically relevant pathways linked to human diseases [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Acetoacetate and -hydroxybutyrate in combination with other metabolites release insulin from INS-1 cells and provide clues about pathways in insulin secretion. (core.ac.uk)
  • Thus, E3/19K has a dual function: inhibition of T-cell recognition and NK cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Cell death is rescued by the NAD + metabolite β-nicotinamide mononucleotide and is synergistic with inhibition of NAD + biosynthesis, showing that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity mediated via BER inhibition is primarily dependent on cellular metabolite bioavailability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, understanding the mechanisms that are responsible for the increase in cell death due to BER inhibition or BER failure is critical in tailoring treatment as well as designing rational adjuvant or combination treatments that may further increase overall response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further, cell death induced by PARP1 inhibition suggested a requirement for homologous recombination in the cellular response to the accumulated DSBs, prompting preclinical and clinical trials of PARP1 inhibitors in the treatment of homologous recombination-defective tumors ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell model, we have shown that loss of Polβ can significantly improve the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide ( 12 ), suggesting that inhibition of Polβ may improve response to temozolomide in human tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heparan sulfate promotes recovery from acute liver injury: Inhibition of progressive cell death or enhanced regeneration? (usc.edu)
  • Cyclic AMP inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover in human neutrophils. (naver.com)
  • In contrast with the single SEIPIN genes in humans and yeast, there are three SEIPIN homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana , designated SEIPIN1 , SEIPIN2 , and SEIPIN3 . (plantcell.org)
  • To quantify associations between microvascular density and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal volume in the laminar compartments of the human optic nerve head (ONH). (arvojournals.org)
  • ADP compartmentation analysis reveals coupling between pyruvate kinase and ATPases in heart muscle. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Glycolytic enzymes, especially the age-dependent ones, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1, HK), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40, PK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6PD) were studied during reticulocyte maturation and further red cell senescence. (vumc.nl)
  • In functional assays, deletion of E3/19K rendered Ad-infected cells more sensitive to NK cell recognition. (nih.gov)
  • Bioinformatics, Genomics and Population Genomics , including methods and technology development, data integration, systems modelling and deep learning in the areas of genomics, proteomics, image bioinformatics, single-cell omics, and high throughput functional screens. (crg.eu)
  • Evidence exists to support the concept of functional compartmentation of ATP in myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Introductory study of the human body which includes structural and functional components of selected systems. (kingsu.ca)
  • The functional Rho device research cell victim( LARG) plant kept overlooked as a cell development of the academic download Lab( MLL) loan in important biological cookie( Kourlas et al. (sprintseries.org)
  • A better understanding of the distinctive role that individual PDEs play in shaping the cAMP signal in heart cells may lead to the development of new strategies for selective pharmacologic manipulation of cAMP signalling in defined functional domains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The number of functional cell-surface NMDARs in cortical neurons increases 60-100% within 10 minutes of exposure to PregS, as shown by surface biotinylation and affinity purification. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The commitment to differentiate into specialized structures involves the perception by cells in the meristem of a complex array of signals, which communicate cellular age, position in relation to other cells, and hormonal balance. (plantcell.org)
  • We offer a mechanistic justification for the elevated alkylation-induced cytotoxicity of Polβ-deficient cells, suggesting a linkage between DNA repair, cell survival, and cellular bioenergetics. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The results represent the first direct information ever obtained concerning the effects of cryopreservation, as carried out under real working conditions, on the cellular and noncellular structural integrity of the human body. (alcor.org)
  • These assumptions, based on animal models and cellular studies, may not hold in the human brain under all conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cells of the cardiovascular system translate incoming extracellular signals from hormones and drugs through binding of cell surface receptors, and activation of intracellular signaling cascades allowing modulation of specific cellular function. (queensu.ca)
  • cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers that activate specific signaling machinery used to promote or inhibit cellular functions such as cell migration, cell adhesion and proliferation. (queensu.ca)
  • The term eukaryotic refers to the cell having specific membrane bound organelles, which are not present in prokaryotic cells. (educationindex.com)
  • Medical Genomics , including clinical and statistical genetics, medical and single cell genomics, molecular mechanisms of disease and disease heterogeneity, and evolutionary medicine. (crg.eu)
  • Model Systems in Aging( Topics in Current Genetics, Vol. together, whole Rho-GEFs, Looking Dbl, Vav, and Lfc, hope used prepared as cells recognized on in vitro NIH3T3 replication : contents( Schmidt and Hall 2002). (sprintseries.org)
  • The plasma membrane of mammalian cells contains detergent-resistant membrane rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. (nih.gov)
  • For instance some plant cells have chloroplasts which are not present in mammalian cells, but both plant cells and mammalian cells are eukaryotic in nature. (educationindex.com)
  • [4] In mammalian cells, the average diameter typically varies from 11 to 22 micrometers (μm) and occupies about 10% of the total volume. (bionity.com)
  • Phorbol esters modulate thrombin-operated calcium mobilisation and dense granule release in human platelets. (naver.com)
  • Assuming 25 to 30% of the cell volume is mitochondrial, the overall calcium content of such nonviable cells is approximately 210 mmol/kg dry wt. (meta.org)
  • The scope of NAD-mediated regulatory processes is wide including enzyme regulation, control of gene expression and health span, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and calcium signaling. (scribd.com)
  • Two isozymes with CTP synthase activity exist in humans, encoded by the following genes: CTPS - CTP synthase 1 CTPS2 - CTP synthase 2 Active CTP synthase exists as a homotetrameric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa cells with compromised expression of the genes encoding lamins were analyzed using high-resolution imaging and pull-down assays. (biologists.org)
  • The nature and function of genes and genomes, using human case studies. (reed.edu)
  • The biological research was conducted with a wide spectrum of model organisms such as yeast, filamentous fungi, various pathogens, cell culture systems and transgenic animals using state-of-the-art instrumentation including three core facilities in Proteomics, Protein Spectroscopy, and Bioimaging. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Arsenic is acutely toxic to all organisms and is rated as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research of Cancer [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An introduction to the structure and function of cells in organisms. (kingsu.ca)
  • This allows it to form liposomes spontaneously, or small lipid vesicles, which can then be used to transport materials into living organisms and study diffusion rates into or out of a cell membrane. (humpath.com)
  • The organisms classified within the kingdom Euglenozoa all: cause serious human diseases. (otonous.info)
  • But the multicellular organisms, groups of cells specialized functions each, no one cell from the multicellular organisms can survive on its own. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • The organisms themselves as a group of cells, the multicellular organisms can be advanced, because each cells have their specialized function, but as one cell, the unicellular organisms have more complex characteristics and one cell can survive itself. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Mutations in the CTP synthase have been seen to confer resistance to cytotoxic drugs such as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell model of leukemia though such mutations were not found in human patients with ara-C resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • They trigger target cell death either through the death receptor pathway or through the cytotoxic granule pathway, which relies on perforin-dependent delivery of granzyme serine proteases into the cytosol of the target cell [ 7 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Quarfort, S.H., and Hilderman, H.L., 1970, Quantitation of the in vitro free cholesterol exchange between human red cells and lipoproteins, J. Lipid Res . (springer.com)
  • In silico Modeling for the Prediction of Dose and Pathway Related Adverse Effects in Humans from in vitro Repeated-Dose Studies. (insilico-biotechnology.com)
  • In contrast, human recombinant NMNAT3 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and is able to catalyze NAD(+) biosynthesis in vitro. (fairdomhub.org)
  • Every human cell has a "second" genome, found in the cell's energy-generating organelle, the mitochondrion. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Human Anatomy and Principles of Chemistry with a grade of C or better. (brandman.edu)
  • Human Anatomy and Principles of Chemistry suggested. (westcottcourses.com)
  • Twenty-four (24) mature male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200g, obtained from the animal house of the Human Anatomy department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar were kept in well ventilated experiment section of the animal house. (ispub.com)
  • Photomicrographs and their interpretations were carried out in the Histology Laboratory of the Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar. (ispub.com)
  • U373-CD14-EGFP cells were grown in 96-well tissue culture plates, and both total and intracellular fluorescence was measured before and at various times after exposure to LPS-sCD14 complexes (see Materials and Methods). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, transcription of PDE3A was lower in human cervical adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cervical tissue. (bioscirep.org)
  • These junctional complexes ensure the cell cohesion in the tissue and separate the plasma membrane into an apical and a basolateral compartment. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • CXCL12 and its unique receptor CXCR4, is critical for the homing of a variety of cell lineages during both development and tissue repair. (chemweb.com)
  • Adding another layer of complexity, localization of lipids within the cell appears to influence the relationship between these lipids and insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Model systems as well as human studies, aided by advances of mass spectrometry, have shifted the field beyond triglycerides to recognize that specific complex lipids within muscle may be more deleterious than others and are more likely implicated in mechanisms underlying insulin resistance ( 12 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BODIPY-LPS presented to the transfectants as complexes with soluble CD14 first colocalized with mCD14-EGFP on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • Adherent U373-CD14-EGFP (□) and U373-EGFP (▵) cells cultured in 96-well plates were incubated with LPS-sCD14 complexes (40 ng/ml LPS) at 37°C for the times indicated. (nih.gov)
  • A decrease of ∼20% in the intracellular fluorescence was observed after a 15-min incubation of U373-CD14-EGFP cells with LPS-sCD14 complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic epithelial cells form a sheet of contiguous cells, called epithelium, by means of the establishment of well-developed junctional complexes. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The concentration-dependent displacement of the radioligand by nonlabeled substrates for P-gp should be a suitable principle for the determination of drug affinity to the respective binding sites at the human intestinal multidrug transporter P-gp. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upregulated CTP synthase activity has been widely seen in human and rodent tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • 1990). Establishment of a pancreatic beta cell line that retains glucose-inducible insulin secretion: special reference to expression of glucose transporter isoforms. (core.ac.uk)
  • 2000). Glucose-regulated anaplerosis and cataplerosis in pancreatic -cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • However, the critical test of this strategy is to determine whether cells expressing the degradation targeted construct are better able to stimulate primary and secondary CTL responses. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether the rapid degradation of the UbRNef construct permits enhanced stimulation of secondary human CTL responses, autologous B-LCL infected with recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing either UbMNef or UbRNef were used to stimulate nef-specific memory CTLs present in PBMCs obtained from an HIV-1 seropositive donor. (nih.gov)
  • The potency of LCs to enhance CD8+T-cell responses could be further increased through activation of LCs with the toll-like receptor 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C). Altogether, the data provide evidence that human LCs are able to cross-present antigens after langerin-mediated internalization. (vumc.nl)
  • Malonaldehyde administered to rats produced an increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and pancreatic islet cell adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • A long-term gavage study of malonaldehyde produced adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and adenomas of the pancreatic islet cells in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. (jove.com)
  • The organization, morphology and cell structure of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria and fungi. (kingsu.ca)
  • Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to demonstrate the competencies in the following subjects: cell organization and cell communication, cycle control and programmed cell death, DNA replication, transcription, and protein synthesis. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Genetic ablation of either G9a or GLP/EuHMTase 1 dramatically diminished global H3K9 dimethylation in mouse embryonic stem cells ( 35 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel human pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor. (nature.com)
  • Integrating the study of two dimensional movement of animals and humans with the study of the manner in which forces on biomechanical structures such as bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles and joints cause motion. (ubc.ca)
  • The major theme will be devoted to describe and analyze the molecules of life, cell structure and function, and plants/animals diversity, structure and function. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • The human optic nerve head (ONH) is composed of approximately 1.2 million retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and is one of the most metabolically active sites in the central nervous system. (arvojournals.org)
  • Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • In marked contrast, d4h and dat mRNAs were associated with the laticifer and idioblast cells of leaves, stems, and flower buds. (plantcell.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of the immediate-early Ad gene E1A is associated with efficient induction of ligands for the key NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D. (nih.gov)
  • By analyzing a range of cell lines and viruses carrying mutated versions of the E3 gene region, E3/19K was identified as the gene responsible for this activity. (nih.gov)
  • Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMNAT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the reversible and competitive interaction of numerous substrates with P-gp, a radioligand-binding assay was developed by taking [ 3 H]verapamil and [ 3 H]vinblastine as radioligands and the human intestinal Caco-2 cells, overexpressed with P-gp by culturing in the presence of vinblastine or transfecting with multidrug resistance gene MDR-1 as receptor preparation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. (jove.com)
  • While each cell contains only two copies of a given nuclear gene (one on each of the paired chromosomes), there are thousands of copies of a given mt gene per cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • Furthermore, overexpression of PDE3A induced sensitivity to anticancer therapeutic agent, 6-(4-(diethylamino)-3-nitrophenyl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-one (DNMDP), in HeLa cells. (bioscirep.org)
  • Nascent transcripts in permeabilized HeLa cells were elongated by approximately 30-2,000 nucleotides in Br-UTP or biotin-14-CTP, before incorporation sites were immunolabelled either pre- or post-embedding, and visualized by light or electron microscopy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • p90RSK expression significantly inhibited Kv4.3- and Kv4.3 and KChIP2-encoded channel activities in HEK 293 cells, whereas p90RSK's effects were blocked by amino acid mutation(s) at phosphorylation site(s) in Kv4.3. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, raft integrity is a prerequisite for efficient T cell receptor signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet ( LD ) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Therefore, we concluded that the elaboration of the major leaf alkaloids involves the participation of at least two cell types and requires the intercellular translocation of a pathway intermediate. (plantcell.org)
  • In breast cancer the presence of cells undergoing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is indicative of metastasis progression. (chemweb.com)
  • Microbiopsies of human skeletal muscle are increasingly adopted by physiologists for a variety of experimental assays given the reduced invasiveness of this procedure compared to the classic Bergstrom percutaneous biopsy technique. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microbiopsies of human skeletal muscle can be utilized for assessing mitochondrial respiratory kinetics in PmFB when assay conditions are supplemented with BLEB, but fiber type differences with this method should be considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • More recently, percutaneous microbiopsy needles have been adopted as an alternative approach to sample skeletal muscle in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anecdotally, microbiopsies are often perceived as less invasive than Bergstrom given they obtain smaller samples and do not require an incision on the skin and fascia for the common procedure of sampling human vastus lateralis skeletal muscle. (frontiersin.org)