Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Mice, Inbred C57BLVirus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Bacterial Infections and Mycoses: Infections caused by bacteria and fungi, general, specified, or unspecified.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Inbred BALB CMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Protein PrecursorsToll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.MycosesSalmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.OsteomyelitisMice, Inbred C3HHair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.ConjunctivitisImmunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Cilastatin: A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.PeptidoglycanImmunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Communicable DiseasesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Inbred ICRRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Bacterial Infections of Humans:Epidemiology & Control. 1982 at pg 195. Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id= ...
Major bacterial infections in humans can be traced back to livestock. The family Enterobacteriaceae includes many opportunistic ... Zhang, Sarah (2013). "Pig-manure fertilizer linked to human MRSA infections". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13752.. ... Effects in humans[edit]. The effects of antibiotic usage in livestock transferring to humans has been well documented for over ... Thus, certain mutations or recombinant bacteria strains, which are more efficient in translation to human to human events, can ...
"Bacterial Infections of Humans". Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved 25 May 2017. Fountain, Henry (25 January 1996). " ...
This resistance threatens the efficiency of medical treatment for humans fighting bacterial infections. Contaminated surface ... The spill also contributed to an outbreak of Pfiesteria piscicida, which caused health problems for humans in the area ... "Climate Impacts on Human Health: Air Quality Impacts". EPA. 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-10-24.. ... Critics have long argued that the "retail prices of industrial meat, dairy, and egg products omit immense impacts on human ...
Angulo, Frederick J.; Swerdlow, David L. (1995). "Bacterial Enteric Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency ... Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella. Symptoms generally start one to two days after ... "Analysis of Data Gaps Pertaining to Shigella Infections in Low and Medium Human Development Index Countries, 1984-2005". ... Severe infections may last three to six weeks. Antibiotics, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin may be given ...
infections (bacterial or viral). *flight from predators (including humans). *social bonds within a group, so that the pod ... is second only to humans.[16] In some whales, however, it is less than half that of humans: 0.9% versus 2.1%. The sperm whale ( ... Relationship to humansEdit. Research historyEdit. See also: Cryptid whale and Whale § In myth, literature and art ... "Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2: 3. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00003. PMC 3417395. PMID 22919595.. ...
In 1940, penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.[12] ... and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that implicate a higher risk to human health from GE foods ... Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed ... Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40 (6): 883-914. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. I began this article with the testimonials ...
Evans, Alfred S. (2013). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer. p. 605. ISBN 9781475711400. ... The test may be falsely negative within 10 weeks of infection, in those less than 6 months old, and in those who have been ...
Philip S. Brachman and Elias Abrutyn (2009-07-23). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. ISBN 9780387098425 ...
Philip S. Brachman and Elias Abrutyn (2009-07-23). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. ISBN 9780387098425 ... Chlamydiae is the most common bacterial STD in the United States and 2.86 million chlamydiae infections are reported annually. ... The Chlamydiae are bacterial phylum and class whose members are a group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are ... Chlamydial isolates cultured in the yolk sacs of embryonating eggs were obtained from a human pneumonitis outbreak in the late ...
Evans, Alfred S.; Brachman, Philip S. (2013). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer. p. 839. ISBN ... They are caused by specific types of bacterial infection. Epidemic typhus is due to Rickettsia prowazekii spread by body lice, ... An examination of a cluster of cases in Pennsylvania concluded the source of the infection was flying squirrels. Sylvatic cycle ... McQuiston, JH (2010). "Brill-Zinsser disease in a patient following infection with sylvatic epidemic typhus associated with ...
Function in Humans[edit]. Mucins have been found to have important functions in defense against bacterial and fungal infections ... At least 20 human mucin genes have been distinguished by cDNA cloning - MUC1, MUC2, MUC3A, MUC3B, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, ... Li Y, Martin LD, Spizz G, Adler KB (November 2001). "MARCKS protein is a key molecule regulating mucin secretion by human ... in human prostate carcinomas". The Prostate. 66 (4): 421-9. doi:10.1002/pros.20372. PMID 16302265.. ...
... that MYD88 is dispensable for human resistance to common viral infections and to all but a few pyogenic bacterial infections, ... "Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency". Science. 321 (5889): 691-6. doi:10.1126/science.1158298. PMC ... male mutants had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. The human ortholog MYD88 seems to function similarly to ... "Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections". Nature Immunology. 3 (1): 91-7 ...
Evans, Alfred S.; Brachman, Philip S. (2013). Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer. p. 839. ISBN ... The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infection.[1] Epidemic typhus is due to Rickettsia prowazekii spread by ... Harvest mites on humans or rodents Queensland tick typhus[12] or "Australian tick typhus" (and a spotted fever[13]) Rickettsia ... Naomi Baumslag, Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005, page 133 ...
"Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with IRAK-4 deficiency". Science. 299 (5615): 2076-9. doi:10.1126/science.1081902. PMID ... In one study, no significant bacterial infections were documented in all investigated patients over the age of 14 with IRAK4 ... Children with IRAK4 deficiency have been found to have decreased immunity to some specific bacterial infections yet not to ... "Selective predisposition to bacterial infections in IRAK-4-deficient children: IRAK-4-dependent TLRs are otherwise redundant in ...
"Predicting bacterial infection outcomes using single cell RNA-sequencing analysis of human immune cells". Nature Communications ... A typical human cell consists of about 2 x 3.3 billion base pairs of DNA and 600 million bases of mRNA. Usually a mix of ... Bulk bacterial studies typically apply general rRNA depletion to overcome the lack of polyadenylated mRNA on bacteria, but at ... July 2014). "The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos". Nature. 511 (7511): 606-10. Bibcode:2014Natur.511..606G. ...
Compounds in the skin secretions may be effective against bacterial and fungal infections of the epidermis; some are ... potentially dangerous to human life. Play media Fire Salamanders are found in most of southern and central Europe. They are ...
Bacterial infections attributed to sting injuries also pose a problem and may require further medical attention. Most humans ... Reactions seen in humans vary; some are hypersensitive to venom while others show resilience. Hypersensitivity can be ... These proteins most likely account for the anaphylactic reactions seen in humans sensitive to the venom. However, not all of ... The pustules remain for approximately 24 hours, whereas in humans they can last for several days. In livestock, red imported ...
It should not be confused with the bacterial tick-borne infection, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The type species of the genus ... The CTFV was first isolated from human blood in 1944. The virus particle, like other coltiviruses, is about 80 nm in diameter ... The disease develops from March to September, with the highest infections occurring in June. The disease is found almost ... To avoid tick bites and infection, experts advise: Avoid tick-infested areas, especially during the warmer months. Wear light- ...
People with C3 deficiency are susceptible to bacterial infection. One form of C3-convertase, also known as C4b2b, is formed by ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". de Bruijn MH, Fey GH (Feb 1985). "Human complement component C3: cDNA ... In humans it is encoded on chromosome 19 by a gene called C3. C3 plays a central role in the activation of complement system. ... In humans, C3 is predominantly synthesised by liver hepatocytes and to some degree by epidermis keratinocytes. Levels of C3 in ...
Bartonellosis is a serious chronic bacterial infection shared by both cats and humans. Spinella found that one patient with ... Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has infected more than 60 million people worldwide. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein contains ... Chronic fatigue syndrome is debilitating illness of unknown cause that often follows an acute viral infection. According to one ... Beyond cat scratch disease: a case report of bartonella infection mimicking vasculitic disorder. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2012;2012 ...
The lesions ooze bacterial cells that, when dispersed by windblown rain, can spread to other plants in the area. Infection may ... citri can be transmitted by mechanical means such as humans and machinery. As a sanitation measure, the workers in citrus ... Aerosol inoculum is able to cause infection in wetted foliage in the zone of bacterial dispersal. Vehicles can also become ... The infection can form on fruit, foliage and young stem. The varied size of lesions on citrus fruit is because of the multiple ...
"HPA Press Statement: Infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli". "Therapeutic use of bacteriophages in bacterial infections ... In humans : gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis. In rarer cases, virulent strains are also ... Girard M, Steele D, Chaignat C, Kieny M (2006). "A review of vaccine research and development: human enteric infections". ... Reid G, Howard J, Gan BS (September 2001). "Can bacterial interference prevent infection?". Trends Microbiol. 9 (9): 424-428. ...
Overview of bacterial infections and main species involved.[166]. Further information: Microbes in human culture ... as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices, and ... Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics, which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria, or ... In many ways, bacterial metabolism provides traits that are useful for ecological stability and for human society. One example ...
Antibacterials are used to treat bacterial infections. The drug toxicity to humans and other animals from antibacterials is ... The discovery, development and use of antibacterials during the 20th century has reduced mortality from bacterial infections. ... Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level, making ... In medicine, they are used as a treatment for infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm and thrush and work by exploiting ...
Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ...
... break the skin and lead to secondary bacterial infections. This is commonly know as Impetigo or a staph infection. Scabies is ... Scabies is the term referring to the parasitic infection of human skin by Scabies Mites. Scabies are tiny mites that burrow ... This rash is infected with a secondary bacterial infection that must be treated ... Other human parasites are bed bugs. Bed Bugs are very different than scabies mites as these bugs are large enough to see and ...
Other Bacterial Skin Infections - Massachusetts General Hospital.... Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & ... How to Recognize Skin Bacterial Infections. This article gives an overview about skin bacterial infections in humans. Its ... infection) Skin Infections. Learn about types of bacterial, fungal, and viral skin infections. Bacterial Skin Infections. ... Bacterial Skin Infection Symptoms - Bacterial skin infection symptoms vary. Learn more about bacterial skin infection symptoms ...
How to diagnose a Scabies infection in humans? Diagnosing scabies infections is usually made on the clinical presentation of ... What are complications from Scabies infections?. The main complication is a secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), ... What is a Scabies infection?. Scabies is a skin infestation with the human parasitic itch mite called Sarcoptes scabiei var. ... What are signs and symptoms of a Scabies infection?. Symptoms typically begin to occur in a first scabies infection within 2-6 ...
... and infections (e.g., cytomegalovirus infections, varicella-zoster virus infection and recurrent bacterial infection) after ... Pediatric AIDS - The late stage of the human immunodeficiency virus. *Pediatric or Adult HIV Associated Thrombocytopenia ... Parvovirus - A chronic B19 infection with severe anemia. *Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome - A syndrome of muscle weakness, ... IgG Deficiencies - Selective IgG subclass deficiencies with severe infection for persons meeting selection criteria require ...
In humans, it is caused due to an infestation of the skin by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei. What if scabies go untreated? ... Beside, due to bacterial infection this can progress beyond skin. Yes, it can cause septicemia and your kidney can also be ... In humans, it is caused due to an infestation of the skin by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei. ... Scabies® homeopathic scabies soap cleanses and protects your skin to prevent future infections. ...
Detection of intracellular bacterial communities in human urinary tract infection.. Rosen DA1, Hooton TM, Stamm WE, Humphrey PA ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic ... TEM analysis of human cystitis urine specimens (A) revealed large collections of bacteria associated with nuclei and other ... This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an ...
Evans, Alfred S. is the author of Bacterial Infections of Humans with ISBN 9780306409677 and ISBN 0306409674. ... Bacterial Infections of Humans. Bacterial Infections of Humans. by Evans, Alfred S., Feldman, Harry A. by Evans, Alfred S., ...
"The healthy human mouth is home to a tremendous variety of microbes including viruses, fungi, protozoa and bacteria," said ... species are part of the normal microbial flora in humans and are also associated with various oral diseases and infections in ... Device-Related Infections: Patient-Ready Bronchoscopes Found to be Contaminated Despite Cleaning and Disinfection ... Tooth decay and gum disease are the most common bacterial diseases of man and are caused by changes in the microbes normally ...
Escherichia colia friendly and ubiquitous bacterial resident in the guts of humans and other animalsmay occasionally colonize ... Further, APEC infections may pose a risk to humans, due to their zoonotic potentialtheir ability to infect human hosts. A ... an APEC strain was found to adhere to human cervical cells in a manner similar to human ExPEC infections. Further, the results ... This finding suggests that ECP could be considered as a potential antigen for vaccines for both human and poultry infections. ...
... infection are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia in addition to opportunistic infection. However, the risk factors for ... bacterial pneumonia and its incidence in this population are not well defined. METHODS. In a multicenter, prospective, ... Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia in addition to ... Bacterial pneumonia in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study ...
RE: Gallium disrupts bacterial iron metabolism and has therapeutic effects in mice and humans with lung infections ... Gallium disrupts bacterial iron metabolism and has therapeutic effects in mice and humans with lung infections ... Gallium disrupts bacterial iron metabolism and has therapeutic effects in mice and humans with lung infections ... Gallium disrupts bacterial iron metabolism and has therapeutic effects in mice and humans with lung infections ...
Bacterial adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Infection ... Bacterial adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro.. S K Ogawa, E R Yurberg, V B Hatcher, M A Levitt, F D Lowy ... Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient ... was developed to simulate the host surface encountered in acute bacterial endocarditis by using confluent monolayers of human ...
Laurent Abel on Human genetics of infectious diseases: the example of bacterial/mycobacterial infections, part of a collection ... Human genetics of infectious diseases: the example of bacterial/mycobacterial infections. *Dr. Laurent Abel - University Paris ... Human genetics of infectious diseases: the example of bacterial/mycobacterial infections. Embed in course/own notes ... Abel, L. (2009, October 29). Human genetics of infectious diseases: the example of bacterial/mycobacterial infections [Video ...
Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Prevents Bacterial Biofilm Formation. Joerg Overhage, Andrea Campisano, Manjeet Bains, Ellen C ... Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Prevents Bacterial Biofilm Formation. Joerg Overhage, Andrea Campisano, Manjeet Bains, Ellen C ... Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Prevents Bacterial Biofilm Formation. Joerg Overhage, Andrea Campisano, Manjeet Bains, Ellen C ... aeruginosa lung infections in CF patients (19, 48), examples of biofilm infections are chronic wound and sinus infections, ear ...
The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection. Julia J. van Rensburg, ... The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection ... The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection ... The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection ...
... to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors by using matched bacterial expression and proviral infection vectors ... to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors by using matched bacterial expression and proviral infection vectors ... to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors by using matched bacterial expression and proviral infection vectors ... to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors by using matched bacterial expression and proviral infection vectors ...
... Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald URI: http://hdl. ... Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus ... remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens ... The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, ...
Predictive Value of CD19 Measurements for Bacterial Infections in Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Rebecca ... Predictive Value of CD19 Measurements for Bacterial Infections in Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... Predictive Value of CD19 Measurements for Bacterial Infections in Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... Predictive Value of CD19 Measurements for Bacterial Infections in Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A. ... Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. ... Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A ... Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A ...
Thread: Dog with Nasal Bacterial Infection/meds not working. Answered by Dr. Guindon ...
Puppies sold at Petland are spreading a serious bacterial infection that has affected 55 people in 12 states, according to the ... Puppies being sold at the national pet store chain Petland are spreading a serious bacterial infection that has affected 55 ... Even worse? This bacterial infection is said to be resistant to antibiotics. Yikes! ... This particular infection can be spread by coming in contact with an infected puppys poop, by engaging in sexual contact with ...
We need a more comprehensive understanding of the antigenic targets important in the context of human infection. To investigate ... skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis (PHO). ... However, to date all candidate vaccines have failed to induce protective immune responses in humans. ... patients were sampled at initial presentation and during convalescence from three types of clinical infection; ...
Bacterial Biofilm: Its Composition, Formation and Role in Human Infections. Muhsin Jamal*, Ufaq Tasneem, Tahir Hussain and ... E. cloacae is a Gram positive bacteria causing a range of nosocomial infections in human i.e. lower respiratory tract infection ... Bacterial biofilm is less accessible to antibiotics and human immune system and thus poses a big threat to public health ... intra-abdominal infections, septic arthritis, skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis and ophthalmic infections. ...
Tolerance of Viral/Bacterial Co-infections. While infection biology has largely focused on studying the immune response to a ... Several genera of fungi are important human pathogens, with invasive fungal infections responsible for the death of ... COBRE Center for Computational Biology of Human Disease. COBRE Center for Computational Biology of Human Disease Brown ... single infection, it is becoming increasingly clear that many infections involve more than one pathogen. ...
Escherichia coli K1 strain (E. coli K1) is the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis. ... Our study found that the increase of HBMEC autophagy level during E. coli K1 infection could decrease the survival of ... We concluded that nicotine could inhibit HBMEC autophagy upon E. coli K1 infection and decrease the scavenging effect on E. ... Our study found that the increase of HBMEC autophagy level during E. coli K1 infection could decrease the survival of ...
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