Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Pongo: A genus of orangutans in the family HOMINIDAE, comprising two species. Among the PRIMATES, the orangutan is second in size only to the gorilla (GORILLA GORILLA).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.PrimatesDNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Adenoviruses, Simian: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.ThymineRNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Hylobates: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Animals, ZooNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.GuanineGene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.

*Chimpanzee genome project

Human and chimpanzee chromosomes are very similar. The primary difference is that humans have one fewer pair of chromosomes ... At the site of fusion, there are approximately 150,000 base pairs of sequence not found in chimpanzee chromosomes 2A and 2B. ... Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and other great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes. In the human evolutionary lineage, two ... producing human chromosome 2. There are nine other major chromosomal differences between chimpanzees and humans: chromosome ...

*Y chromosome

The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs. The Y chromosome is passed only from father to ... With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest-evolving parts of the human genome ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... However, comparisons of the human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes (first published in 2005) show that the human Y chromosome has ...

*TBR1

The human TBR1 gene is located on the q arm of the positive strand of chromosome 2. It is 8,954 base pairs in length. TBR1 is ... Orthologs of the human TBR1 gene have been identified in chimpanzee, dog, cow, rat, mouse, and zebrafish. In mice, TBR1 has ... "Identification of a novel gene on chromosome 7q11.2 interrupted by a translocation breakpoint in a pair of autistic twins". ... The TBR1 found in zebrafish (zf-TBR1) has 83-97% amino acid identity to orthologs in humans (hu-TBR1), xenopus (x-EOMES), and ...

*Enhancer (genetics)

A more thorough characterization showed that a 500 base pair enhancer sequence is responsible for turning on Pitx1 expression ... HACNS1 has undergone the most change during the evolution of humans following the split with the ancestors of chimpanzees. An ... 2011). "Human-specific loss of regulatory DNA and the evolution of human-specific traits". Nature. 471 (7337): 216-9. doi: ... as some have been found located in several hundred thousand base pairs upstream or downstream of the start site. Enhancers do ...

*Molecular evolution

Human chromosome 2 was created from a fusion of two chimpanzee chromosomes and still contains central telomeres as well as a ... Typical molecular systematic analyses require the sequencing of around 1000 base pairs. Depending on the relative importance ... The ant Myrmecia pilosula has only a single pair of chromosomes whereas the Adders-tongue fern Ophioglossum reticulatum has up ... Birds, unlike humans, produce nucleated red blood cells, and larger nuclei lead to lower levels of oxygen transport. Bird ...

*NBPF1

The NBPF1 gene in humans is located on the minus strand of 1p36.3 in humans and is 51179 base pairs long including exons and ... The transcript for NBPF1 in humans is a 6183 base pair mRNA that is made of 28 exons. There are more than 14 alternative ... while the DUF1220 domains are approximately 65 base pairs long with high sequence similarity. = Human NBPF1 has been shown to ... Humans have on average 272 DUF1220 domains in their NBPF genes, while chimpanzees have 125, macaques have 35, and dolphins only ...

*Archaeogenetics

The human-chimpanzee and neanderthal-chimpanzee hybridization are of similarly weak strength. This suggests that humans and ... Extension occurs when Taq polymerase is added to the sample and matches base pairs to turn the two single strands into two ... compared the aDNA sequence from Neanderthal Vi-80 fossil with modern human X and Y chromosome sequence, and they found a ... Single-stranded DNA segments of both species are allowed to form complementary pair bonding with each other. More closely ...

*Human evolutionary genetics

The human genome has been sequenced, as well as the chimpanzee genome. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, while chimpanzees, ... They estimated that the mutation that led to the inactivation (a two base pair deletion) occurred 2.4 million years ago, ... humans and chimpanzees appear to be most closely related, but some point to a human-gorilla or chimpanzee-gorilla clade. ... Human accelerated regions are areas of the genome that differ between humans and chimpanzees to a greater extent than can be ...

*Human mitochondrial molecular clock

Given that the mitogenome is about 16553 base pairs in length (each base-pair which can be aligned with known references is ... The human mutation rate is usually estimated by comparing the sequences of modern humans and chimpanzees and then ... These studies have obtained similar results: central estimates for the whole chromosome, in substitutions per site per year: ... As noted in the table above, the rate of evolution is so high that site saturation occurs in direct chimpanzee and human ...

*Copy-number variation

... when it re-clamps to continue replication and instead of clamping to the correct base pairs, it may shift a few base pairs and ... Chimpanzees, the closest evolutionary relatives to humans, were found to have 2 diploid copies of the AMY1 gene that is ... During meiotic recombination, homologous chromosomes pair up and form two ended double-stranded breaks leading to Holliday ... Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 8: 17-35. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...

*Chromosome

Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell ... Chimpanzees, the closest living relatives to modern humans, have 48 chromosomes as do the other great apes: in humans two ... The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs ... Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ...

*DISC1

Another potential aetiological base pair change in PCM1 was rs445422 which altered a splice site signal. A further mutation, ... Characterized by a deletion of four base-pairs, the mutation was found in two siblings, one with schizophrenia and the other ... A recent family study has reported a large chromosome 1 deletion that includes loss of DISC1 in a young boy diagnosed with ... No known functional homologues exist for this protein in humans, although it does have broad homology to scaffold proteins. The ...

*Mutation

For example, a specific 32 base pair deletion in human CCR5 (CCR5-Δ32) confers HIV resistance to homozygotes and delays AIDS ... Zhang J, Wang X, Podlaha O (May 2004). "Testing the chromosomal speciation hypothesis for humans and chimpanzees". Genome ... A point mutation are modifications of single base pairs of DNA or other small base pairs within a gene. A point mutation can be ... For example, in the Homininae, two chromosomes fused to produce human chromosome 2; this fusion did not occur in the lineage of ...

*Human Genome Project

The larger, 150,000 base pairs go together to create chromosomes. This is known as the "hierarchical shotgun" approach, because ... but not for anything nearly as large as the three billion base pair human genome. Celera initially announced that it would seek ... Chimpanzee Genome Project ENCODE EuroPhysiome Genome Compiler HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee Human Brain Project Human ... Many questions about the similarities and differences between humans and our closest relatives (the primates, and indeed the ...

*Papillomaviridae

The papillomavirus genome is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule ~8,000 base pairs in length. It is packaged within the L1 ... 1992). "Human papillomavirus type 13 and pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1: comparison of the genome organizations". ... Genetic changes, such as integration of the viral DNA into a host cell chromosome, that inactivate E2 expression tend to ... All papillomaviruses (PVs) have similar genomic organizations, and any pair of PVs contains at least five homologous genes, ...

*Major histocompatibility complex

In humans, the MHC region occurs on chromosome 6, between the flanking genetic markers MOG and COL11A2 (from 6p22.1 to 6p21.3 ... sometimes of greater homology to a chimpanzee MHC alleles than to some other human alleles of the same gene. MHC allelic ... about 29Mb to 33Mb on the hg19 assembly), and contains 224 genes spanning 3.6 megabase pairs (3 600 000 bases). About half have ... each person inherits a pair of HLA-DP genes (DPA1 and DPB1, which encode α and β chains), a couple of genes HLA-DQ (DQA1 and ...

*CpG site

For example, in the human genome, which has a 42% GC content, a pair of nucleotides consisting of cytosine followed by guanine ... In mammalian genomes, CpG islands are typically 300-3,000 base pairs in length, and have been found in or near approximately 40 ... in humans and chimpanzees. TLR9, detector of unmethylated CpG sites DNA methylation age Jabbari K, Bernardi G (May 2004). " ... Based on an extensive search on the complete sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22, DNA regions greater than 500 bp were ...

*Gene conversion

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes in humans, which are known to have high recombination rates also ... While comparing the homologous genes of human SIGLEC11 and its pseudogene in the chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan, it ... For example, when a T:G mismatch occurs, it would be more or less likely to be corrected to a C:G pair than a T:A pair. This ... Conversion of one allele to the other is often due to base mismatch repair during homologous recombination: if one of the four ...

*Evolution

This allows the chromosomes from each parental species to form matching pairs during meiosis, since each parent's chromosomes ... For example, these DNA sequence comparisons have revealed that humans and chimpanzees share 98% of their genomes and analysing ... Varki, Ajit; Altheide, Tasha K. (December 2005). "Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a ... DNA is a long biopolymer composed of four types of bases. The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specify the ...

*Comparative genomics

A pair of orthologous sequences is called orthologous pairs (orthologs), a pair of paralogous sequence is called collateral ... "Divergent Whole-Genome Methylation Maps of Human and Chimpanzee Brains Reveal Epigenetic Basis of Human Regulatory Evolution". ... Comparative genomics has revealed high levels of similarity between closely related organisms, such as humans and chimpanzees, ... The system helps researchers to identify large rearrangements, single base mutations, reversals, tandem repeat expansions and ...

*Polymorphism (biology)

Non-human apes have similar blood groups to humans; this suggests rather strongly that this kind of polymorphism is quite ... Painter T. S. (1933). "A new method for the study of chromosome rearrangements and the plotting of chromosome maps". Science. ... On the hereditary base of colour polymorphism in moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss). I. Light mid-dorsal stripe. In: Herpetological ... Dimorphic pairs may have an advantageous balance between parental care and aggressive territorial defense. In addition, as in ...
I chose to read an article about the classification of chimpanzees population status. It discussed how chimpanzees are currently classified as an "endangered species" as of September 14, 2015 under the Endangered Species Act which was put in place in 1873 in order to protect and recover any specie that is at risk of being instinct or that our ecosystem depends on. Since chimpanzees are an officially endangered species, scientists are now required to have a specific permit before they can preform any biomedical experiments on chimpanzees. The article goes on to describe the tedious process of qualifying for a chimpanzee experiment permit; you must prove that your research would benefit the survival of the species. But besides research that directly pertains to the expansion of chimp population, no future experiments will be conducted on chimpanzees any time in the near future. Also, laboratories that previously privately owned ...
The discovery that viruses related to HIV were found naturally in healthy African primates was first made in the mid-1980s, and in 1989 came the first publication (by Martine Peeters group) demonstrating that SIVs that were related to HIV-1 were found in common chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. (The actual genetic sequences were published by Simon Wain-Honbsons group in 1990.) Given this sound start, it is rather surprising that so little progress was made in SIV research in central Africa during the next nine years. Early in 1999, the Hahn/Sharp group claimed that they had found the most closely related SIV to HIV-1 in Pan troglodytes troglodytes (Ptt), a chimpanzee subspecies found in Congo Brazzaville, Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, and drew a distinction between these SIVs, and others SIVs found in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (Pts), the chimp subspecies that is located further east, in the DRC, Uganda and Tanzania. Superficially, this seemed reasonable, in that those Ptt SIVs that ...
The potential of human activities, including research, to alter parasite transmission ecology in wildlife is unknown. We examined gastrointestinal parasitism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Trail use and time spent on the ground was recorded during 10 months of observations in four sites with differing human disturbance. Disturbance was quantified using transect plots (n = 320). Fecal (n = 435) samples were examined for helminth eggs, larvae, and for protozoan cysts. Individuals that spent more time on the ground had more infections and higher intensity infections. Prevalence of 13 parasite species was similar across sites, but percentage of multiple infections and infection intensity differed, as did ground use. Chimpanzees at the long-term research site spent more time on the ground or on human trails. We hypothesize that researcher presence and trail creation may influence ground ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. Direct immunofluorescence was used to identify Giardia and Cryptosporidium from faecal samples. PCR and DNA sequencing was performed on positive results. Giardia cysts were identified from 5.5% (5/90) of captive chimpanzees and 0% (0/11) of captive mandrills in the Republic of Congo; 0% (0/10) of captive chimpanzees in Norway; and 0% of faecal samples (n = 49) from wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys. Two Giardia positive samples were also positive on PCR, and sequencing revealed identical isolates of Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the samples. In these primate groups, in which interactions with humans and human environments are quite substantial, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are rare pathogens. In ...
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of ...
ATLANTA - Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, have shown chimpanzees have a significant bias for prosocial behavior. This, the study authors report, is in contrast to previous studies that positioned chimpanzees as reluctant altruists and led to the widely held belief that human altruism evolved in the last six million years only after humans split from apes. The current study findings are available in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. According to Yerkes researchers Victoria Horner, PhD, Frans de Waal, PhD, and their colleagues, chimpanzees may not have shown prosocial behaviors in other studies because of design issues, such as the complexity of the apparatus used to deliver rewards and the distance between the animals. "I have always been skeptical of the previous negative findings and their over-interpretation, says Dr. de Waal. "This study ...
Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an outdoor laboratory site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain ...
Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects while they gestured to food placed out of their reach. The distribution of hand use was examined in relation to sex, age,
Chimpanzees are animals that, regardless of whether theyre male or female, normally do not have a propensity to kill. In normal, non-threatening situations, they are peaceful animals. As Jane Goodall once said, they are "far more peaceable than humans." This can be seen in populations that have not been greatly mucked about by humans, such as Goualougo and Fongoli, two reservations in the Congo and Senegal. However, chimpanzees are also very intelligent and sensitive animals and, once their environment is stressed, either directly by humans or indirectly by humans, can develop many behavioral symptoms. These symptoms have been explored by Margaret Clark (1991). When the population is too large for the area, when there are too many males per female or in one place, when the animals normal pattern of dispersion is disturbed, etc., animals, ...
Synonyms for Troglodytes aedon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Troglodytes aedon. 1 synonym for Troglodytes aedon: house wren. What are synonyms for Troglodytes aedon?
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 174707 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7260898 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. It was collected by Richard Garner near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 220063 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7275275 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. This individual was collected by Charles R. Aschemeier in Animba near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and one carried out in cooperation. The evidence of group predation involved the chimpanzees adopting different roles as pursuers and ambushers. Prey was partially eaten in some cases, but not in the social episode. This study confirms that naturalistic environments allow chimpanzees to enhance species-typical behavioral patterns.
Our current readings on tool use in chimpanzees are three articles by Boesch & Boesch, Alp, and Huffman & Kalunde. All the information comes from data collected in long-term studies. Boesch & Boesch comparatively discuss tool use and creation by wild chimpanzees in three long-term study locations. Alp briefly mentions chimpanzee tool use in the Sierra Leone, as well as cultural variation in wild chimpanzees. Huffman et al reports on the creation and use of a tool for predation by a chimpanzee, and includes some speculations regarding chimpanzee tool use. Boesch & Boesch discuss tool use amongst the Tai chimpanzees, and compare it to Gombe and Mahale chimpanzee tool use, as all three areas are part of long-term studies. To avoid classification of nest-building as tool use, they give the following definition: "an object held in the hand, foot, or mouth and used so as to enable the operator to attain an immediate goal." They find that Tai ...
Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Type Species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type Species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type Species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes with long arms and reddish, sometimes brown, hair native to Malaysia and Indonesia. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... ...
This study tested whether the human ITB is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimp FL. We conducted detailed anatomical experiments on the largest sample of chimp lower extremities to date, and we analyzed musculoskeletal models of both humans and chimps to test four hypotheses.. First, we asked whether the muscles inserting on the human ITB have a greater force-generating capacity than the muscles inserting on the chimp FL, after accounting for body mass (H1). We found that, in total, the force-generating capacity of the muscles inserting on the ITB is three times greater than the force-generating capacity of the muscles inserting on the FL, suggesting substantially greater forces are transmitted via the ITB compared with the FL. This greater capacity for force primarily stems from the fact that only about 10% of the chimp TFL, GMaxCr and GMaxCd mass inserts in the FL, whereas nearly 60% of the human ...
Here, I compare NCC and chimpanzees on 22 modes of tool use [25] (the electronic supplementary material, table S2 gives definitions). Chimpanzees show all 22 modes, but two of these (cut, hang) have been seen only in captivity.. Absorb. Wild chimpanzees use crushed leaves as sponges to extract drinking water from tree holes [54,55]. This is a chimpanzee universal, found in all populations subject to long-term study [30].. Affix, apply, drape. Wild chimpanzees apply faeces to surfaces, such as buttress roots of trees, in order to extract passed seeds for re-ingestion (W. C. McGrew et al. 1976-1979, unpublished data). Wild chimpanzees drape themselves around the neck with vines or animal skins while walking quadrupedally [54]; in one case, a strip of colobus skin was knotted, creating a necklace [56]. No case of apes affixing with adhesive an object is known.. Bait, entice. Wild chimpanzees, especially ...
Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning6, 7, 8, 9. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved ...
The in vitro anthelmintic evaluation of the crude extracts and solvent partitions on Pheretima posthuma and Ascarissuum (eggs and L2 stage) respectively showed significant results at the same concentration (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/ml). This study provides a clear evidence for usage of Mucuna pruriens and Canarium schweinfurthii as an anthelmintic. The most potent ovicidal partition of C. schweinfurthii (Engl) leaves and bark and leaves of M. pruriens (DC) is hexane (100.00 ± 0.33), chloroform (98.20 ± 0.12) and chloroform (98.70 ± 0.88) partitioned crude respectively at 80 mg/ml while the most potent larvicidal partition is hexane (0.06%), chloroform (0.1%) and chloroform (0.2%). The active compounds are predominantly in the non-polar solvent which supports the tegumental diffusing activity of the compounds.
We compared the performance of dichromats and trichromats in a discrimination task. We examined tri- and dichromatic individuals of two species: brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We also examined one protanomalous chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The results demonstrate that dichromatic nonhuman primates possess a superior visual ability to discriminate color-camouflaged stimuli, and that such an ability may confer selective advantages with respect to the detection of cryptic foods and/or predators. ...
Humans and chimpanzees are more sensitive to endotoxin than are mice or monkeys, but any underlying differences in inflammatory physiology have not been fully described or understood. We studied innate immune responses in Cmah−/− mice, emulating human loss of the gene encoding production of Neu5Gc, a major cell surface sialic acid. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) loss occurred ∼2-3 million years ago, after the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, perhaps contributing to speciation of the genus Homo. Cmah−/− mice manifested a decreased survival in endotoxemia following bacterial LPS injection. Macrophages from Cmah−/− mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines with LPS stimulation and showed more phagocytic activity. Macrophages and whole blood from Cmah−/− mice also killed bacteria more effectively. Metabolic reintroduction of Neu5Gc into Cmah−/− macrophages suppressed ...
Tau lesions also were found in the forms of NFT and clusters of tau-positive neurites (for example, pieces of dying neurons). NFT are observed in AD patients, but the tau-immunoreactive neuritic clusters in the neocortex appear specific to chimpanzees, said Dr. Patrick R. Hof, M.D., the Regenstreif professor and vice-chair of neuroscience at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. In addition, NFT pathology was observed in apes that exhibited plaques and moderate or severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy and in one individual with virtually no Aβ pathology.. The presence of amyloid and tau pathology in aged chimpanzees indicates these AD lesions are not specific to the human brain as generally believed, Hof said. Whether these pathologies play a key role in age-related cognitive decline requires continued investigation of this species, said Dr. Elliott Mufson, professor and the Greening Chair in Aging at the Barrow Neurological Institute.. This research adds to ...
American Journal of Primatology 70:254-260 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE Consistency of Hand Preference Across Low-level and High-level Tasks in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) ALAYNA L. LILAK AND KIMBERLEY A. PHILLIPS Department of Psychology, Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio Numerous studies investigating behavioral lateralization in capuchins have been published. Although some research groups have reported a population-level hand preference, other researchers have argued that capuchins do not show hand preference at the population level. As task complexity influences the expression of handedness in other primate species, the purpose of this study was to collect hand preference data across a variety of high- and low-level tasks to evaluate how task complexity influences the expression of hand preference in capuchins. We tested eleven captive brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to determine if they show consistent hand preferences across multiple high- and lowlevel tasks. Capuchins were expected to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interphase chromosome profiling a method for conventional banded chromosome analysis using interphase nuclei. AU - Babu, Ramesh. AU - Van Dyke, Daniel L.. AU - Dev, Vaithilingam G.. AU - Koduru, Prasad. AU - Rao, Nagesh. AU - Mitter, Navnit S.. AU - Liu, Mingya. AU - Fuentes, Ernesto. AU - Fuentes, Sarah. AU - Papa, Stephen. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Context.-Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. Objective.-To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. Design.-To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly ...
Circadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organisms endocrine and behavioral rhythms are synchronized to environmental cues. In mammals, a master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and may synchronize circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues. Light signal is the dominant synchronizer for master SCN clock. Downstream from the retina, glutamate and PACAP are released and trigger the activation of signal transduction cascades, including CamKII and nNOS activity, cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Of non-photic entrainment, important phase shifting capabilities have been found for melatonin, which inhibits light-induced phase shifts through inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC). Multiple entrainment pathways converge into CREB regulation. In turn, phosphorylated CREB activates clock gene ...
Mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme catalyzes the last three of the four reactions of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway. The mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway is the major energy-producing process in tissues and is performed through four consecutive reactions breaking down fatty acids into acetyl-CoA. Among the enzymes involved in this pathway, the trifunctional enzyme exhibits specificity for long-chain fatty acids. Mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme is a heterotetrameric complex composed of two proteins, the trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha/HADHA carries the 2,3-enoyl-CoA hydratase and the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, while the trifunctional enzyme subunit beta/HADHB described here bears the 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity.
Of the seven human and nine chimpanzee lineage III KIR genes, only KIR2DS4 and Pt-KIR2DS4 are orthologous. All other lineage III KIR are the products of species-specific evolution that occurred after the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In humans, the genes encoding activating KIR outnumber by 2.5 to 1 those encoding inhibitory KIR, the latter consisting of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL2/3. Whereas KIR2DL1 is exquisitely specific for C2 epitopes, the KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 allotypes of the KIR2DL2/3 locus are less specific; they principally react with C1, but exhibit cross-reactivities with some C2-bearing allotypes (31, 42). These cross-reactions are more apparent for KIR2DL2, a stronger receptor than KIR2DL3. By contrast to the human situation, in chimpanzees the activating KIR are outnumbered 2-fold by the inhibitory KIR, for which the functions and specificities have been the focus of this investigation. ...
A method is described for localizing DNA sequences hybridized in situ to Drosophila polytene chromosomes. This procedure utilizes a biotin-labeled analog of TTP that can be incorporated enzymatically into DNA probes by nick-translation. After hybridization in situ, the biotin molecules in the probe serve as antigens which bind affinity-purified rabbit antibiotin antibodies. The site of hybridization is then detected either fluorimetrically, by using fluorescein-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, or cytochemically, by using an anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. When combined with Giemsa staining, the immunoperoxidase detection method provides a permanent record that is suitable for detailed cytogenetic analysis. This immunological approach offers four advantages over conventional autoradiographic procedures for detecting in situ hybrids: (i) the time required to determine the site of hybridization is decreased markedly, (ii) biotin-labeled probes are chemically stable ...
To be classified as communicative, a gesture had to include eye contact with the conversational partner, be accompanied by vocalization (non-speech sounds) or include a visible behavioral effort to elicit a response. The same standard was used for all three species. For all three, gestures were usually accompanied by one or more behavioral signs of an intention to communicate.. Charles Darwin showed in his 1872 book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" that the same facial expressions and basic gestures occur in human populations worldwide, implying that these traits are innate. Greenfield and her colleagues have taken Darwins conclusions a step further, providing new evidence that the origins of language can be found in gestures and new insights into the co-evolution of gestures and speech.. The apes included in the study were named Panpanzee, a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and Panbanisha, a female bonobo (Pan paniscus). They were raised together at the Language ...
Cardiovascular disease in general, and cardiac arrhythmias specifically, is common in great apes. However, the clinical significance of arrhythmias detected on short-duration electrocardiograms is often unclear. Here we describe the use of an implantable loop recorder to evaluate cardiac rhythms in 4 unanesthetized adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 1 with a history of possible syncope and 3 with the diagnosis of multiform ventricular ectopy (ventricular premature complexes) and cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of ventricular ectopy was defined further by using the implantable loop recorder. Arrhythmia was ruled out as a cause of collapse in the chimpanzee that presented with possible syncope because the implantable loop recorder demonstrated normal sinus rhythm during a so-called syncopal event. This description is the first report of the use of an implantable loop recorder to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in an unanesthetized great ape species ...
A phosphorylated epitope is differentially expressed at the kinetochores of chromosomes in mitotic cells and may be involved in regulating chromosome movement and cell cycle progression. During prophase and early prometaphase, the phosphoepitope is expressed equally among all the kinetochores. In mid-prometaphase, some chromosomes show strong labeling on both kinetochores; others exhibit weak or no labeling; while in other chromosomes, one kinetochore is intensely labeled while its sister kinetochore is unlabeled. Chromosomes moving toward the metaphase plate express the phosphoepitope strongly on the leading kinetochore but weakly on the trailing kinetochore. This is the first demonstration of a biochemical difference between the two kinetochores of a single chromosome. During metaphase and anaphase, the kinetochores are unlabeled. At metaphase, a single misaligned chromosome can inhibit further progression into anaphase. Misaligned ...
The cell nucleus is highly organized and functionally compartmentalized. Double-stranded naked DNA is complexed with core histones and assembled into nucleosomes and chromatin, which are surrounded by nuclear domains composed of RNAs and proteins. Recently, three-dimensional views of chromosome organization beyond the level of the nucleosome have been established and are composed of several layers of chromosome domains. Only a small portion of the human genome encodes proteins; the majority is pervasively transcribed into noncoding RNAs whose functions are under intensive investigation. Importantly, the questions of how nuclear retained noncoding RNAs play roles in orchestrating the chromatin structure that have been addressed. The novel noncoding RNA clusters, Eleanors, are derived from a large chromatin domain. They accumulate at the site of their own transcription to form RNA clouds in the nucleus, and they activate gene expression in the chromatin domain. Noncoding RNAs have emerging ...
The Wolfgang Köhler Primate Research Center (Pongoland) is a project of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. It is operated in collaboration with the Leipzig Zoo. Research focuses on the behavior and cognition of the four species of great ape: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Organgutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and bonobos (Pan paniscus). There is a special focus on the ontogeny of chimpanzee cognition. Researchers and students from the University of Leipzig, and other universities around the world, conduct their research projects at the center guided by the personnel of the Center ...
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Unlike the conventional methods such as de novo artificial chromosome synthesis, our method has no limitation on the size of the inserted chromosome fragment. The inserted DNA size can be precisely defined and the processed chromosome can retain its intrinsic structure and integrity. Therefore, our technique provides a high quality alternative approach to directed genetic recombination, and can be used for chromosomal repair, removal of defects and artificial chromosome ...
Author Summary Proper chromosome segregation is essential during the production of eggs and sperm. Chromosome missegregation during meiosis results in the lethality of the offspring or in children carrying extra copies of a given chromosome (for example, Down syndrome). Recombination results in homologous chromosomes becoming physically interlocked in a manner that is normally sufficient to ensure proper segregation. Chromosomes that fail to undergo recombination require additional mechanisms to ensure their proper segregation. In Drosophila melanogaster oocytes we show that chromosomes that fail to recombine undergo dynamic movements on the meiotic spindle prior to their proper segregation. Although previous studies had shown that non-recombinant chromosomes move to opposite sides of the developing meiotic spindle, we show that these chromosomes can cross the spindle and re-associate with their homologs to attempt ...
In mitosis and meiosis, the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes changes dramatically. In interphase, chromosomes occupy relatively large territories in which individual sister chromatids cannot be distinguished (Bolzer et al., 2005; Cremer et al., 2006). In prophase, the volume that is occupied by chromosomes becomes much smaller, chromosomes can thus be observed as individual elongated structures, and sister chromatids are partially resolved from each other in chromosome arm regions (Swedlow and Hirano, 2003). These morphological changes are believed to facilitate the attachments of chromosomes to the mitotic or meiotic spindle and the separation of chromosomes or sister chromatids in anaphase.. The morphological changes of chromosomes in early mitosis and meiosis are caused at least in part by changes in chromosomal protein composition and in the post-translational modification of ...
Estrogen, when present in early embryonic development, regulates sexual differentiation in the avian nestling and adult. In this study, I developed a procedure to extract and quantify levels (by radioimmunoassay) of the estrogen, 17[beta]-estradiol, in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) egg yolk. Levels of 17[beta]-estradiol found in one clutch of eggs increased with the order of laying, indicating female house wrens may be capable of regulating the levels of 17[beta]-estradiol received by the offspring. Since the attraction of mates is often aided by the display of sex differences, maternal control of 17[beta]-estradiol levels in the embryo may influence the future reproductive success of her offspring.
ID H2R1N2_PANTR Unreviewed; 1956 AA. AC H2R1N2; DT 21-MAR-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 21-MAR-2012, sequence version 1. DT 31-JAN-2018, entry version 50. DE RecName: Full=Sodium channel protein {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361132}; GN Name=SCN10A {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSPTRP00000042609}; OS Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; OC Catarrhini; Hominidae; Pan. OX NCBI_TaxID=9598 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSPTRP00000042609, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002277}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSPTRP00000042609, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002277} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=16136131; DOI=10.1038/nature04072; RG Chimpanzee sequencing and analysis consortium; RT "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the RT human genome."; RL Nature 437:69-87(2005). RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002277} RP ...
Analysis of 3H-thymidine autoradiograms of late third instar larval salivary glands of Drosophila pseudoobscura revealed a unique example of asynchrony of replication in the autosome complement. The two autosomal arms, 2 and 3, show similar labeling pattern during the initial phases, DD to 3C, and thereafter, the chromosome 3 has fewer labeled sites than chromosome 2 until the most terminal pattern, 1D. Detailed sitewise analysis of 3H-thymidine labeling shows that while nearly 54% of the sites examined in chromosome 2 have a labeling frequency greater than 50%, only 13% of all sites in chromosome 3 have labeling frequency at that range. The number of labeled sites on chromosome 3 plotted against that on chromosome 2 shows a hyperbolic profile rather than a linear relationship. The silver grain ratio of the 2nd to 3rd increases from 1.5 to 3.1 through different stages of the cycle. These results suggest that both chromosomes start replication simultaneously but the third chromosome appears ...
Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs which separate accurately at anaphase. polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes Mad2s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 species of fruit fly Stormo and Fox discovered two distinct ways in AR-231453 which cells respond to extra chromosome duplications. One response occurs in cells that were experimentally engineered to undergo an extra chromosome duplication. These cells ...
Abstract The karyotype of the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor was studied by examining metaphase chromosome spreads from the testis tissues (TE) and the mitotic cells in division from the regeneration callus of the new forming limb (FL). The sampled tissues showed the same results. A total of 111 mitotic metaphases, 67 TE + 44 FL, were examined and the diploid chromosome number ranged from 179 to 207 per metaphase with a mode at 188, the latter being considered the diploid chromosome number (2n = 188) of the species. The karyotype consisted of 70 metacentric, 42 submetacentric, 48 subtelocentric and 28 telocentric chromosome pairs. The sex chromosomes were cytologically indistinguishable.
Deciphering the impact of genetic variants on gene regulation is fundamental to understanding human disease. Although gene regulation often involves long-range interactions, it is unknown to what extent non-coding genetic variants influence distal molecular phenotypes. Here, we integrate chromatin profiling for three histone marks in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 75 sequenced individuals with LCL-specific Hi-C and ChIA-PET-based chromatin contact maps to uncover one of the largest collections of local and distal histone quantitative trait loci (hQTLs). Distal QTLs are enriched within topologically associated domains and exhibit largely concordant variation of chromatin state coordinated by proximal and distal non-coding genetic variants. Histone QTLs are enriched for common variants associated with autoimmune diseases and enable identification of putative target genes of disease-associated variants from genome-wide association studies. These analyses provide insights ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccination against hepatitis C virus infection. T2 - Miles to go before we sleep. Choo Q-L, Kuo G, Ralston R, Weiner A, Chien D, Van Nest G, Han J, Berger K, Thudium K, Kuo C, Kansopon J, McFarland J, Tabrizi A, Ching K, Moss B, Cummins LB, Houghton M, Muchmore E. Vaccination of chimpanzees against infection by the hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91:1294-1298. AU - Koziel, Margaret James. AU - Liang, T. Jake. PY - 1994/9. Y1 - 1994/9. N2 - A high incidence of community-acquired hepatitis C virus infection that can lead to the progressive development of chronic active hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma occurs throughout the world. A vaccine to control the speread of this agent that represents a major cause of chronic liver disease is therefore needed. Seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been immunized with both putative envelope glycoproteins [E1 (pg33) and E2 (pg72)] that were copurified from HeLa cells ...
Meiosis Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Meiosis I- results in two diploid daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meiosis I- results in two diploid daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. Tetrad- structure formed by the pairing of homologous chromosomes Tetrad- structure formed by the pairing of homologous chromosomes Crossing-over- exchanging portions of chromatids while forming tetrads Crossing-over- exchanging portions of chromatids while forming tetrads
Original text and figures were provided by N. Kurata). Chromosome number of cultivated rice was reported as 2n=24 by Kuwada in 1910. Until 1930 this number was confirmed by the observation of rice chromosomes at meiosis. However, due to the extreme smallness, the morphology and structure of rice chromosomes remained unclear and no karyotype analysis was reported until the1970s. Only some attempts of morphological identification based on the figures at pachytene stage in meiosis were reported in this period.. In 1978, Kurata and Omura (1978) invented a new method of chromosome preparation technique, with which karyotype analysis on rice chromosomes was first conducted and identification of all twelve chromosomes became realized. Furthermore, all extra chromosomes of 12 trisomics series of rice (2n=24+1) were identified with this method by Kurata et al. (1981) and Iwata et al. (1984) so that the relationship ...
Institution: I.M.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry; I.P.Pavlov Institute of Physiology Mission: Comparative study of monkey and childrens cognitive behavior. Principal Research Programs: Primates cognition, learning and memory; Study of monkey and Apes social organization in the wild and realization of instrumental reflexes in competitive situations.. Training Opportunities: Educational opportunities available for: Undergraduate, Graduate and Doctoral degrees (Ph.D., D.Sci.) for behavior physiology of mammals.. Number of Staff: 14. Supported Species: Cebus apella (tufted capuchin), Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque), Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque), Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon) Last Updated: 2004-03-28. ...
As you can see in the picture, lets see the normal chromosome first, I really dont know what is chromatid in that normal chromosome, does it have two chromatids? the upper one and the lower one? Then lets see the left, replicating chromosome. My teacher said the chromosome replicated and then became two chromosomeS, for an example, 46 chromomes in the nuclear, then they replicate, so now become 92? but in the picture, i think it is still one, you need to think it is as a whole though it consists of two? Are there four chromatids there? upper two and lower two? In the example i gave, so though they replicate, still 46? BTW, how the chromosome replicates? Is that like this )( , two put together, so ) is a chromosome, ( is another chromosome Or two cross to each other, like this X, so \ is a chromosome, / is another chromosome ...
Contents D1 Prokaryotic chromosome structure D2 Chromatin Structure The Escherichia. coli chromosome, DNA domains, Supercoling of the genome, DNA-binding proteins D2 Chromatin Structure Chromatin, Histones, Nucleosomes, The role of H1, Linker DNA, The 30 nm fiber, Highter order structure D3 Eukaryotic Chromosomal Structure The mitotic chromosome, The centromere, Telomeres, Interphase chromosome, Heterochromatin, Euchromatin, DNase Ⅰ hypersensitivity, CpG methylation, Histone variants and modification D4 Genome complexity Noncoding DNA, Reasociation Kinetics, Unique sequence DNA, Tandem gene clusters, Dispersed repetitive DNA, Satellite DNA, Genetic polymorphism D5 The flow of genetic information The central dogma, Prokaryotic gene expression, Eukaryotic gene expression
Simply put, chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. Genes are the individual instructions that tell our bodies how to develop and keep our bodies running healthy. In every cell of our body there are 20,000 to 25,000* genes that are located on 46 chromosomes. These 46 chromosomes occur as 23 pairs. We get one of each pair from our mother in the egg, and one of each pair from our father in the sperm. The first 22 pairs are labeled longest to shortest. The last pair are called the sex chromosomes labeled X or Y. Females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). Therefore everyone should have 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body. If a chromosome or piece of a chromosome is missing or duplicated, there are missing or extra genes respectively. When ...
BACKGROUND To understand immunological responses in chimpanzees vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccine (oral polio vaccine; OPV), serum neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were investigated over time. METHODS The neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were determined by microneutralization test using 100 ID(50) of poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 (Sabin strains). RESULTS Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were detected in 85.7%, 71.4%, and 65% of the serum from 42 chimpanzees tested 9 years post-vaccination. The neutralizing antibody titers in chimpanzees were similar to the documented levels in human studies as an indicator of vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSIONS This study reveals persistence of neutralizing antibodies in chimpanzees for at least 9 years after vaccination with OPV. This first study in chimpanzees provides useful ...
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 118:191-199 (2002) Chimpanzee Right-Handedness Reconsidered: Evaluating the Evidence With Funnel Plots A. Richard Palmer* Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada KEY WORDS primates; apes, behavior; laterality; statistics; meta-analysis; sampling error ABSTRACT Evidence for population-level right-handedness in nonhuman primates seems inconsistent and contradictory, and many hypotheses have been advanced to account for this volatility. Funnel plots (scatter plots of percent right-hand use vs. sample size) offer a straightforward graphical technique for assessing: 1) the strength and consistency of handedness, 2) whether variability is consistent with normal sampling variation, and 3) how likely reports of statistically significant handedness might have arisen due to chance (i.e., type I error). They are informative for both within- and among-population variation. Reexamination of within-population ...
Everyone has 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The science that relates to the study of these chromosomes is referred to as Cytogenetics. Our tests that we offer, analyzes the whole chromosome and identifies any disorders present.. Why do a Cytogenic Test?. There are many disorders that can be diagnosed by examining a persons whole chromosome.. Chromosome abnormalities constitute a major category of medical genetic disorders. In a clinical setting, chromosome abnormalities account for a large proportion of cases involving individuals referred with congenital malformations, developmental delay, mental retardation, or infertility; women with gonadal dysgenesis; spontaneous abortions, and couples with repeated spontaneous miscarriages.. Cytogenetic laboratories provide microscopic studies of human ...
Summary The chimpanzee displays a natural resistance to the blood forms of Plasmodium ovale but allows multiplication and growth of this phase when splenectomized. The tissue phase of P. ovale is able to grow and reproduce normally in chimpanzee liver and persists there for at least 39 days. The natural resistance of the chimpanzee to the blood phase is without effect upon the tissue phase of P. ovale. P. ovale is unchanged on passage through chimpanzees and is able to infect man following two chimpanzee-mosquito passages. Anopheles gambiae is established as an efficient vector of P. ovale. Schizonts of P. ovale in liver pieces of a chimpanzee taken 7, 18 and 39 days after infection with sporozoites are described and discussed.
Do you look a bit like your brothers and sisters? Do you look a bit like your parents? The similarities are because, unless you were adopted, you and the other members of your family have genetic material in common.. Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire life. The chromosomes are located within each cell nucleus. They provide the directions for how the cell is supposed to function and determine some characteristics about how the individual looks. Each chromosome contains a very complex molecule called DNA. The DNA molecule contains genes, which direct how an organisms body is built and maintained.. Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the ...
The Hominidae /hɒˈmɪnᵻdiː/ Hominid, whose pledge are well-known as great apes or Hominids, are a taxonomical family Hominid of tarsioidea that incorporate vii extant Hominid taxonomic category in four genera Hominid: Pongo Hominid, the Bornean Hominid and Sumatran orangutan Hominid; Gorilla Hominid, the eastern Hominid and western gorilla Hominid; Pan Hominid, the common chimpanzee Hominid and the bonobo Hominid; and Homo Hominid, the human Hominid. Several vision in elucidative the large acme have spawn the use of the referent "Hominid" to widen concluded time. Its first connotation critique alone to group Homo and heritor nearest relatives. That limiting connotation has now old person for the most part false by the referent "hominin", which be all pledge of the humanness biological group after the acrobatic stunt from the pan paniscus Pan. (See below, for a workman elaboration of correlated and real sympathetic terms, at Terminology Hominid.) The current, 21st century, ...
Dianne N. Janczewski. Evaluation of the Genetic Distance of Orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and P. p. abelii) and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus) and its Implication on Conservation of the Orang utan ...
We determined the structures of long (L)-wavelength-sensitive and middle (M)-wavelength-sensitive opsin gene array of 58 male chimpanzees and we vestigated relative sensitivity to red and green lights by electroretinogram flicker photometry. One subject had protanomalous color vision, while others had normal color vision. Unlike in humans, a polymorphic difference in the copy number of the genes and a polymorphic base substitution at amino acid position 180 were not frequently observed in chimpanzees. ...
Laughter in animals other than humans describes animal behavior which resembles human laughter. Several non-human species demonstrate vocalizations that sound similar to human laughter. A significant proportion of these species are mammals, which suggests that the neurological functions occurred early in the process of mammalian evolution. Chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact such as wrestling, play chasing or tickling. This behavior is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting.[citation needed] It sounds similar to screeching. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the ...
Since time immemorial, humans have had a knack for being complete and utter dicks to the other animals we share our planet with. Often, we even manage to screw things up for other species without meaning to. A study published earlier this month in the journal of Emerging Infectious Disease has retroactively uncovered one such incident: That time we gave a town of chimpanzees a cold bug that ultimately left five dead, including an adorable 2-year-old baby named Betty (pictured above).
Anthony, N.M., Johnson-Bawe, M., Jeffery, K., Clifford, S.L., Abernethy, K.A., Tutin, C.E., Lahm, S.A., White, L.J.T., Utley, J.F., Wickings, E.J. and Bruford, M.W. 2007. The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla genetic diversity in central Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 20432-20436.. Arandjelovic, M., Bergl, R.A., Ikfuingei, R., Jameson, C., Parker, M. and Vigilant, L. 2015. Detection dog efficacy for collecting faecal samples from the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) for genetic censusing. Royal Society Open Science 2: 140423.. Bennett, E.L. 2014. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations. Conservation Biology 29: 54-60.. Bergl, R.A. 2006. Conservation Biology of the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). City University of New York.. Bergl, R.A. and Vigilant, L. 2007. Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent ...
2017 the Authors Conflict between groups is a notable feature of many animal societies. Recent theoretical models suggest that violent intergroup conflict can shape patterns of within-group cooperation. However, despite its prevalence in social species, the adaptive significance of violent intergroup conflict has been little explored outside of humans and chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. A barrier to current understanding of the role of intergroup conflict in the evolution of social behaviour is a lack of information on the causes and consequences of aggression between groups. Here, we examined the causes and fitness consequences of intergroup conflict in the banded mongoose, Mungos mungo, using a 16-year data set of observed intergroup interactions, life history and behaviour. Banded mongooses are cooperative breeders that live in highly territorial groups and engage in frequent, aggressive and violent intergroup interactions. We found that intensified ...
The social organization of black spider monkeys is closely related to their ecological niche as large-bodied frugivores. In addition to ranging over large areas to find the amount of fruit necessary to meet their feeding requirements, black spider monkeys exhibit another behavior that helps them cope with seasonally restricted fruit. Like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), spider monkeys exhibit a fission-fusion social system; there is a large community of individuals that regularly associate with one another but individuals within the larger community spend much of their time traveling in smaller, temporary sub-groups led by dominant adult females (Mittermeier & van Roosmalen 1981; van Roosmalen 1985). Spider monkeys break up into small foraging groups that travel together and feed throughout the day within a core area of the larger groups home range (Simmen & Sabatier 1996). The subgroups or parties that are formed by individuals within the troop are temporary and can change in composition ...
This story appeared first at news.wisc.edu.. In the wild, chimpanzees face any number of dire threats, ranging from poachers to predators to deforestation.. Thats why scientists, investigating an outbreak of respiratory disease in a community of wild chimpanzees in Ugandas Kibale National Park, were surprised and dismayed to discover that a human "common cold" virus known as rhinovirus C was killing healthy chimps.. "This was an explosive outbreak of severe coughing and sneezing," says Tony Goldberg, a professor in the University of Wisconsin-Madisons School of Veterinary Medicine and one of the senior authors of a report documenting the event. The report was published online today (Dec. 13, 2017) in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.. "It was completely unknown that rhinovirus C could infect anything other than humans," says Goldberg, referencing a two-year-old chimp named Betty, who succumbed to the virus and whose ...
Era Of Chimp Research Ends At Maryland Lab - All of Gods creatures have rights, a fact that most people dont seem to recognize, This includes both human and non-human animals, but not all of them can speak for themselves
Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized1, 2; however, its study is critical for understanding population history3, 4, 5, 6, recombination7, selection8 and susceptibility to disease9, 10. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants ...
Tool manufacture is much rarer than simple tool use and probably represents higher cognitive functioning. Soon after her first discovery of tool use, Goodall discovered other chimpanzees manual labor up leafy twigs, stripping off the leaves and colonialism the stems to lateral line organ for insects. This change of a leafy twig into a tool was a major discovery. Prior to this, scientists thought that only humans manufactured and utilised tools, and that this ability was what separated humans from other animals. Both bonobos and chimpanzees have also been discovered making "sponges" out of leaves and moss that suckle up water and are utilised as grooming tools. Sumatran orangutans have been discovered making and colonialism tools. They will suspend off a azedarach division that is about 30 cm long, snap off the twigs, fray one end and then use the stick to dig in azedarach holes for termites.145 ...
The largest, but most mysterious, sub-region of prefrontal cortex is the rostral PFC (RPFC). As a proportion of whole-brain volume, some have estimated the human RPFC to be twice as large as the corresponding region in the chimpanzee brain. Yet curiously, patients with damage restricted to the RPFC often perform well on standard neuropsychological tests, including classical tests of executive function such as the Wisconsin card sorting test. Instead, patients with damage to this region seem to have particular difficulty in real-world multitasking situations, such as organising a shopping trip when there are few strict constraints - participants are relatively free to organise their behaviour however they like - but there are also multiple instructions to be remembered, rules to be followed, and potential distractions in the environment. Recent accounts have focused on the role of RPFC in the most high-level human abilities, such as combining two distinct cognitive operations ...
In the second section Casey tries to cast doubt on the bipedality of Lucy by quoting from a News and Views article by Collard and Aiello. The Collard and Aiello article reports on a "letter" to Nature by Richmond and Strait called Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor. In that paper Richmond and Strait claim to do two things. First they provide evidence that Australopithecus anamensis and A. afarensis both share wrist morphology indicative of knuckle-walking. They then argue that knuckle-walking is a synapomorphy that links the African apes and humans. Once upon a time, and not all that long ago, the relationships between chimps, gorillas, and humans was considered an unresolved trichotomy. Quite a few people argued that chimps and gorillas were more closely related to each other than either was to humans. Others argued, based on ...
Territory: Unlike gorillas, common chimpanzees and bonobos, which live in large social groups, orangutans lead a mainly solitary life. The males constantly move from one area of forest to another. The dominant male ranges over a particular area for several months mating with any receptive females he comes across. When all the females have been mated, he moves on to another area. The adult male advertises his presence to females and other males by making a long, booming call. Adult females spend very little time with other orangutans, but may occasionally travel together or feed in the same tree - although they dont usually take much notice of each other! Young orangutans which have left their mother may move around in groups of two or three.. Daily life: The orangutan is diurnal - that is, active during daylight hours. It lives high above the ground in the forest canopy, moving slowly and carefully through the trees, using all four limbs. The hands and feet are hook-shaped, designed for ...
Tests performed by three independent laboratories on 1950s-era polio vaccine samples from The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, failed to find any traces of SIV, HIV-1, or DNA indicating that chimpanzee cells were used to prepare the vaccine, according to the scientist who coordinated the testing. Dr. Claudio Basilico, chairman of microbiology at New York University Medical Center and head of Wistars external AIDS/Poliovirus Advisory Committee, announced the findings today at a Royal Society meeting in London entitled "Origins of HIV and the AIDS Epidemic.". Taken together, the findings provide strong evidence to refute the theory that an oral polio vaccine prepared at The Wistar Institute and administered to people in the then Belgian Congo in the late 1950s provided the route of transmission for HIV or HIV-related viruses from chimpanzees to humans, as has been proposed by Mr. Edward Hooper in his book The River (Little, Brown and Co., 1999).. A linchpin ...
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology is leading opposition to the Great Ape Protection Act (H.R. 1326), a bill that would end all invasive research on great apes, including chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, orangutans and gibbons. (Note: Gibbons are not technically great apes, but they are defined as such in the legislation.). In a letter sent to all members of the U.S. House of Representatives, FASEB, along with other scientific organizations, patient-advocacy groups and research institutions, expressed concern that the bill would "harm medical research that helps both humans and great apes." The legislation was reintroduced in the 111th Congress after failing to gain support in the previous Congress and has rapidly gained more than 100 co-sponsors. Passage of the legislation is considered a high priority by a number of animal-rights groups, including the Humane Society of the United States and the Physicians ...
Looking for online definition of Great Apes in the Medical Dictionary? Great Apes explanation free. What is Great Apes? Meaning of Great Apes medical term. What does Great Apes mean?
Naturalists found in one of the caves at the foot of Mount Koitendag in Turkmenistan an extremely unusual arthropod creature adapted to life in total darkness,
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. In 2002 a fossil specimen of an ape skeleton was unearthed in Spain. The researchers who discovered the remains assigned it a new genus and species, Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, estimating that the ape lived about 11.9 million years ago. The researchers argued that the ape could be the last common ancestor of modern great apes, which include chimpanzees, orangutans, bonobos, gorillas and humans.. Now a new study led by a University of Missouri integrative anatomy expert has revealed that the shape of the ape´s pelvis indicates that it lived near the beginning of the great ape evolution after the lesser apes started to independently develop but before the great ape species began to diversify.. The international team was led by Ashley Hammond, a Life Sciences Fellow in the MU Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, and included members from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the University ...
Zoologist, media consultant, and science writer, Dr Karl Shuker is also one of the best known cryptozoologists in the world. Author of such seminal works as Mystery Cats of the World (1989), The Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the 20th Century (1993; greatly expanded in 2012 as The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals), In Search of Prehistoric Survivors (1995), The Unexplained (1996), Mysteries of Planet Earth (1999), The Beasts That Hide From Man (2003), and more recently Extraordinary Animals Revisited (2007), Dr Shukers Casebook (2008), Karl Shukers Alien Zoo: From the Pages of Fortean Times (2010), Cats of Magic, Mythology, and Mystery (2012), Mirabilis: A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History (2013), Dragons in Zoology, Cryptozoology, and Culture (2013), A Manifestation of Monsters (2015), Heres Nessie! (2016), and what is already considered to be his magnum opus, Still In Search Of Prehistoric Survivors (2016), his many fans have been badgering him to join ...
OrangutanOrangutan Kalimantan The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are the two exclusively Asian species of extant great apes. Native to Indonesia and Malaysia, orangutans are currently found in only the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra. Classified in the genus Pongo, orangutans were considered to be one species. Since 1996, they have been divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus) and the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii). In addition, the Bornean species is divided into three subspecies. Based on genome sequencing, the two extant orangutan species evidently diverged around 400,000 years ago. The orangutans are also the only surviving species of the subfamily Ponginae, which also included several other species, such as the three extinct species of the genus Gigantopithecus, including the largest known primate Gigantopithecus blacki. The ancestors of the Ponginae subfamily split from the main ape line in Africa 16 to 19 million years ago (mya) ...
The Kumamoto Sanctuary, formally known as the Uto Sanctuary, is located in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan. The sanctuary is home to 51 chimpanzees who were all formerly used in research by the Nagoya-based Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. pharmaceutical company. The company helped initiate and run the sanctuary after ending its use of chimpanzees in 2006; Japan placed an unofficial ban on invasive chimpanzee research that same year. Although invasive research is prohibited, cognitive and behavorial research behavioral involving the chimpanzees is allowed. In 2011, the Uto Sanctuarys name was changed to the Kumamoto Sanctuary and is now under the authority of Kyoto University.. Top Δ. ...
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THURSDAY, Oct. 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) - Humans preference for using the right hand may have developed earlier than thought, a new study suggests.. Striations on teeth in a 1.8-million-year-old Homo habilis jaw found in Tanzania offer the earliest fossil evidence of right-handedness, according to researchers.. The striations on the lip side of the upper front teeth mostly veer from left down to right, suggesting they were made when a stone tool held in the right hand was used to cut food held in the mouth while pulling with the left hand.. Those marks suggest that this Homo habilis was right-handed and is the first potential evidence of right-hand dominance in pre-Neanderthal humans, according to the study. It was published online Oct. 20 in the Journal of Human Evolution.. "We think that tells us something further about lateralization of the brain," said study author David Frayer, a professor emeritus of anthropology at the University of ...
We have previously reported (Villa et al. (1993), Genomics 18: 223) the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain an ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee ...
The following editorial comment summarises detailed information given within the LITERATURE REPORTS. Links to the LITERATURE REPORTS are provided at the bottom of this box. WILD POPULATION - IMPORTANCE: The total population is estimated at somewhere between 1,000 and 100,00, and declining.. GENERAL LEGISLATION: Bonobos are listed as Class A in the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and listed as Threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.. CITES LISTING: Appendix I. RED-DATA LIST STATUS: Endangered under criteria A4cd (version 3.1). THREATS: Major threats include habitat destruction and hunting - for bushmeat and for parts used in religious rituals. Even in areas where bonobos are not hunted specifically, snares can result in severe injury and loss of digits or limbs. The timber trade, by facilitating assess into the forest, and transport of both people and bushmeat, creates a market for bushmeat; forest workers often are not provided with domestic meat, ...
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A method and an apparatus for emulating a console at a graphics workstation terminal uses a second central processing unit to perform the console emulation. A windowing system operating on a first central processing unit interfaces with the operation of the console from the second central processing unit to provide non-destructive console emulation at the workstation terminal. The windowing system maintains a separate console window that the second central processing unit can access transparently to the other windows. The first or host cpu can still perform graphics functions while the second cpu operates the console.
Doctoral thesis (2015). According to the IUCN, the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage & Wyman) is a critically endangered species. This species would play an important role in tropical forest dynamics ... [more ▼]. According to the IUCN, the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage & Wyman) is a critically endangered species. This species would play an important role in tropical forest dynamics. Indeed, its highly frugivorous diet and its large body mass would result in the implication of gorilla in the seed dispersal of many plant species. Moreover, by building its nest sites in open canopy forest, it would deposit the majority of seeds in habitats displaying potentially suitable light condition for their germination and for the subsequent seedling development. However, given the expansion of timber exploitation in Central Africa, ecological services dispensed by gorilla could be threatened. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the impacts of ...
In more recent times evolutionary biologists and other scientists in the fields of biology and more specifically, anthropology, have postulated that humans have been around in anatomically modern form for approximately 200,000 years[6]. One version of this theory maintains that Homo sapiens evolved from Homo ergaster or Homo erectus, and from other earlier primates. Humans closest living relative is the chimpanzee. However, despite sharing 98.4% of their DNA sequence and a common ancestor six million years ago, the genetic difference between chimpanzees and humans is 10 times greater than between unrelated humans. [7] Humans evolved on the African savannah during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Bipedalism was one of the first traits that our ancestors developed. This occurred around four million years ago. The recovered ...
The Sua Pan or Sowa Pan is a large natural topographic depression within the Makgadikgadi region of Botswana. It is located near the village of Sowa, whose name means salt in the language of the San.[1][2] The Sua salt pan is one of three large pans within the Makgadikgadi, the other two being Nxai Pan and Nwetwe Pan.[3] The Sua Pan was first described to the European world by David Livingstone, pursuant to his explorations in this region.[4] Significant archaeological recoveries have been made within the Nwetwe Pan, featuring stone-age tools from peoples who lived in this area[5] when a large year-round lake occupied the Sua and Nwetwe Pans.[6] The Brines of Sua Pan being one of the largest playa lakes in the world spans approximately 24000 square kilometers. While sodium chloride is the prime constituent, there are many other salts found within this area such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulfate, and minor amounts of potassium chloride (potash).[7] Currently, Sua Pan is a ...
Successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is defined as the absence of viremia 6 months after therapy cessation. We previously reported that trace amounts of HCV RNA, below the sensitivity of the standard clinical assay, can reappear sporadically in treatment responders. Here, we assessed the infectivity of this RNA and infused 3 chimpanzees sequentially at 9-week intervals with plasma or PBMCs from patients who tested positive for trace amounts of HCV RNA more than 6 months after completing pegylated IFN-α/ribavirin therapy. A fourth chimpanzee received HCV RNA-negative plasma and PBMCs from healthy blood donors. The 3 experimental chimpanzees, but not the control chimpanzee, generated HCV-specific T cell responses against nonstructural and structural HCV sequences 6-10 weeks after the first infusion of patient plasma and during subsequent infusions. In 1 chimpanzee, T cell responses declined, and this animal developed high-level viremia at week 27. Deep sequencing of ...
e-mail : [email protected] ORANGUTAN DENGAN SEBELAH MATA BUTA DAN GIGI RONTOK TERTANGKAP WARGA MUARA SAMU. PASER - BKSDA Kalimantan Timur menghubungi Centre for Orangutan Protection (COP) tentang ditemukannya satu orangutan jantan dewasa dalam kondisi terikat kaki dan tangannya selama 19 jam. Orangutan tersebut tidak mau makan dan minum, terlihat stres dan lemas pada 27 Januari 2016 di desa Bui, Muara Samu, Kalimantan Timur. Sore itu, BKSDA Kaltim meminta bantuan COP untuk mengevakuasi orangutan tersebut.. Kepala Seksi III BKSDA Kalimantan Timur, Ibu Suriawati Halim, S.Hut., M.P. menyampaikan, "Orangutan sudah berhasil dipindahkan dari lokasi tertangkap. Pemindahan ini dilakukan karena kawatir keamanan dan terlalu ramainya orang yang ingin melihat. Saat ini orangutan berada di Pos Penajam.". "Berdasarkan pengalaman COP sejak tahun 2007, hampir 100% orangutan yang ditangkap manusia mengalami luka serius di kepala dan tangan.", ujar Ramadhani, direktur pelaksana COP. "Hampir seluruhnya karena ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Resolution of infection.Inherent to interpretation of the data from this experiment is the observation that the chimpanzee cleared viremia by week 8 and that peak serum ALT levels did not coincide with the decline in viral RNA levels in the serum or liver. These results suggest that viral clearance was not associated with extensive hepatocellular death. This is consistent with our observations that some animals clear viral infection without a significant rise in serum ALT values (6, 36). Noncytolytic mechanisms of viral RNA clearance have been demonstrated for hepatitis B virus; in this case, however, the clearance is associated with elevations in expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α and a measurable increase in T-cell markers in the liver (16, 30).. Viral clearance in this study was not associated with measurable increases in markers for lymphocytic infiltrates (CD3, CD8, and CD4). Additionally, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA levels in the liver remained essentially unchanged by microarray analysis, ...
The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades. Originally, the group was restricted to humans and their extinct relatives, with the other great apes being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. This definition is still used by many anthropologists and by lay persons. However, that definition makes Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species appears to be more closely related to humans than other great apes. Most taxonomists nowadays encourage monophyletic groups so this would require the use of Pongidae to be restricted to one of the great ape groups only. Thus many biologists consider Hominidae to include Pongidae as the subfamily Ponginae, or restrict the latter to the orangutans and their extinct relatives like Gigantopithecus. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the two theories of human and great ape relationships.. ...
GREAT apes in captivity are subject to contraceptive regimes to control fertility in an environment that only approximates their habitat in the wild. The clinical caseload of one author (Masters N, personal communication) suggested that captive female great apes (Hominidae) experience a high incidence of pathological lesions of the reproductive tract and that some exhibit stereotypic or other behaviours indicative of stress. Understanding the effects of contraception and/or the physical environment on captive great apes is critical if the authors are to maximise reproductive management.. Various reproductive tract pathological lesions have been reported in non-human primates (NHPs). Congenital abnormalities occur with a similar incidence to the human being, affecting 0.3 to 0.9 per cent of births (Peterson and others 1997). In addition, endometriosis and adenomyosis produce pathological lesions and clinical signs similar to those experienced by women, including reduced ...
Welcome to the family of critters with sequenced genomes, orangutans. In Nature this week, scientists unveil the draft DNA sequencing of our great ape cousins-the only great apes that live exclusively in Asia.. The researchers assembled the draft genome of the female Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) using a whole-genome "shotgun" strategy, an old-fashioned approach that cost about $20 million. In addition, the researchers gathered sequence data from five wild Sumatran orangutans and five Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) using a faster and thousandfold cheaper next-generation platform. [LiveScience]. What did scientists find in there? For one thing, orangutans share about 97 percent of the their genome with humans, compared to the 99 percent we famously share with chimpanzees. The two orangutan species-inhabiting the Indonesian islands of Borneo and Sumatra-diverged about 400,000 years ago, lead author Devin Locke says. Thats much more recently than ...
Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida:Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of central Montana, Ronald A. Jenner, Cees H.J. Hof, Frederick R. Schram [TOC] [Abstract] [Article] ...
Mohammed Wazir Ahkspaidar. You forgot to mention camels are the new vector? I guess Allahs doing the world a favour and culling the troglodytes, being his will and all. @Sorry about that. Yawn.. "jokes on you." Well theres a witty rejoinder. Sarcasm.. Your statement regarding swine flu is irrelevant and has no baring on the fact that pig byproduct is used to make bullets. A fact that makes me smile, every time, I hear of a jihadi who had grand plans about dying and aspiring toward some unproven heavenly reward. Oh, dear to be sullied by a pig before little Mo jihadi ever had a chance to get to heaven, and then the indignity to be trounced at the finish line by a little pig-hopefully and most likely multiple times. Ha, one can only hope that a higher power is delivering such dramatic irony. Who cares what the Koren says? Not me. Humans have been around far longer then the Koren and have done just fine. We are here in spite of the Koren, not because of it. Only the feeble ...
This bird has a wider range than the species of the foregoing and closely allied genus. It is common near Port Famine in Tierra del Fuego, and on the west coast in the thickly wooded islets of the Chonos Archipelago. I was assured by an intelligent collector that this bird is met with, though rarely, in central Chile; and Mr. Gould informs me, that he has received specimens from that country. It has found its way over to the Falkland Islands, where, instead of inhabiting forests, it frequents the coarse herbage and low bushes, which in most parts conceal the peaty surface of that island. In general appearance the Scytalopus fuscus might at first be mistaken for a Troglodytes, but in habits it is closely allied to the several species of Pteroptochos. In a skulking manner, with its little tail erect, it hops about the most entangled parts of the forests of Tierra del Fuego; but when near the outskirts, it every now and then pops out, and then quickly back again. It utters many loud and strange ...
A couple of decades ago I was visiting Okinawa for a wedding. I was staying on an American military base - these bases take up acre after acre of the small island, with golf courses included. Walking down a street I saw what looked like a workmans hole in the ground. It was explained to me that a Japanese Veteran of WII had lived in the hole for years along side the fence separating the street from a USBase golf course as a protest against American occupation. He was a sort of a troglodyte - a dwelling underground street person. One day I saw him pop out, a small octagenerian with a youthful determination in the eyes. Here was complete material poverty, but not a hint of the humility we imagine accompanies poverty, for this old man evinced no need. Need, the acknowledgement of incompleteness is, at least the beginning of humility, and ultimately that need should be understood not in temporal terms, but in light of the eternal. The generation before me were ...
Why do we feel genuine love and friendship for our dogs? The social relationship between humans and dogs is not just special, it is downright AMAZING! Domestic dogs are the only species that we know of that will spontaneously respond to cooperative human gestures, such as pointing or gazing in a specific direction, without any training or prior experience. Wolves and even non-human great apes require extensive experience with people to understand these human gestures. Dogs, on the other hand, are so naturally in-tune with our gestures that they, like human children, are likely to interpret eye contact as communicative, even when it is not. New research has found that eye contact between ourselves and our canine companions may fuel an interspecies physiological feedback loop that keeps our two species living as best friends. ...
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A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome | ScienceA Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome | Science

... human, and chimpanzee genomes, filtering out genomic regions that may be duplicated in either humans or chimpanzees (SOM Text ... Average DNA divergence between Neandertals and humans. To estimate the DNA sequence divergence per base pair between the ... by individual pairs of humans (Table 4), (ii) by chromosome, (iii) by substitutions that are transitions or transversions, (iv ... Implications for modern human origins. One model for modern human origins suggests that all present-day humans trace all their ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/328/5979/710?ijkey=ee80dd23707e970058ae20d79165234aa8f92eb3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome | ScienceA Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome | Science

... human, and chimpanzee genomes, filtering out genomic regions that may be duplicated in either humans or chimpanzees (SOM Text ... Average DNA divergence between Neandertals and humans. To estimate the DNA sequence divergence per base pair between the ... by individual pairs of humans (Table 4), (ii) by chromosome, (iii) by substitutions that are transitions or transversions, (iv ... Implications for modern human origins. One model for modern human origins suggests that all present-day humans trace all their ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/328/5979/710?ijkey=b53887e54ccf26fe2686850f382f25d078815972&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Scientists analyze chromosomes 2 and 4Scientists analyze chromosomes 2 and 4

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes - one less pair than chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and other great apes. For more than ... Chromosome 2 is noteworthy for being the second largest human chromosome, trailing only chromosome 1 in size. It is also home ... They subsequently identified a 36,000 base pair stretch of DNA sequence that likely marks the precise location of the inactived ... in the human genome and uncovered more evidence that human chromosome 2 arose from the fusion of two ancestral ape chromosomes ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-42703.html

What is Theistic Evolution?What is Theistic Evolution?

Chimpanzees and other apes have about 23,000 base pairs of DNA at their telomeres. Humans are unique among primates with much ... is not the same as the DNA from a human. For instance, there are single base pair substitution differences:. ... at the end of each chromosome is a string of repeating DNA sequences called telomeres. ... the difference between humans and chimpanzees includes about 35 million DNA bases that are different, about 45 million in the ...
more infohttp://reformedanswers.org/answer.asp/file/46768

An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the...An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the...

... of disrupted genes were revealed in human chromosomes 21 when compared to homologous proteins from humans, chimpanzees, and ... The genomes are massive; human genome, for example, consists of over three billion base pairs (bps) with over 30,000 genes and ... The single base-pair substitution introduced a premature TGA termination codon in the human type I hair keratin gene [34]. The ... those that are specific to chimpanzees or humans (in panel I and II) were defined as chimpanzee- or human-specific respectively ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2009/406421/

Flipped genetic sequences illuminate human evolution and diseaseFlipped genetic sequences illuminate human evolution and disease

33 of which span regions larger than 100,000 base pairs--a sizeable chunk of DNA. The average human gene is smaller, only about ... Although humans and chimpanzees diverged from one another genetically about six million years ago, the DNA sequences of the two ... Instead of identifying sequence changes between the two genomes at the base-pair level, Scherer focused his research on large ... structural variations in chromosomes between humans and chimps, specifically genetic inversions. Inversions can disrupt the ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-50851.html

5 06 Biology Concepts & Connections 2000 (1) | Evolution | Mutation5 06 Biology Concepts & Connections 2000 (1) | Evolution | Mutation

EVOLUTION ADDENDUM For Chapters 1, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19 In the TextbookBIOLOGY: Concepts and Connections by N.A. Campbell, L.G. ... A human chromosome consists of about 65 million base pairs on average which means that ---D sugar---Phosphate---D sugar--- ... Humans and chimpanzees are especially closely related: human DNA differs from chimpanzee DNA by less than 3%. Vol. Darwin. p. ... Phosphate-base pair # # base pair # # base pair # # base pair # # ---D sugar---Phosphate---D sugar---Phosphate---D sugar--- ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/76941627/5-06-Biology-Concepts-Connections-2000-1

A Short History of Science and ReligionA Short History of Science and Religion

There are 3.2 billion base pairs in the human genome, yet there are over 4,000 known diseases that are caused by an error in a ... single base pair. The human genome contains 23 chromosomes and about 20,000-25,000 genes (each gene codes for one or more ... Finally, human DNA is 99.1 per cent identical to chimpanzees. Can there be much doubt about our evolution from the flora and ... Between humans, our DNA differs by only 0.2 per cent, or 1 in 500 base pairs. ...
more infohttp://www.spafer.org/index.php/lectures/15-articles/39-a-short-history-of-science-and-religion

A Short History of Science and ReligionA Short History of Science and Religion

There are 3.2 billion base pairs in the human genome, yet there are over 4,000 known diseases that are caused by an error in a ... single base pair. The human genome contains 23 chromosomes and about 20,000-25,000 genes (each gene codes for one or more ... Finally, human DNA is 99.1 per cent identical to chimpanzees. Can there be much doubt about our evolution from the flora and ... Between humans, our DNA differs by only 0.2 per cent, or 1 in 500 base pairs. ...
more infohttp://www.spafer.org/index.php/about/about-us/39-a-short-history-of-science-and-religion?showall=1

Human Genome Search at The University of Oklahoma, by Tom RayHuman Genome Search at The University of Oklahoma, by Tom Ray

"The sequence of a second chimpanzee Y chromosome ...reveals the recent gain of one [gene] on the human lineage....". ...Humans ... one mutation in every 30 million base pairs....". 23 Jul 2009: Primate-specific genes were inserted de novo, not generated by ... in an 81 base pair module otherwise highly constrained among terrestrial vertebrates were sufficient to confer the human- ... Jinxiu Shi et al., "Divergence of the genes on human chromosome 21 between human and other hominoids and variation of ...
more infohttps://panspermia.org/tomray01.htm

Sandwalk: How Much of Our Genome Is Sequenced?Sandwalk: How Much of Our Genome Is Sequenced?

22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes. The sequences of the X and Y chromosomes bring it to 24. ... For the whole of the Human Genome. Assembly: GRCh37.p7, Feb 2009. Database version: 67.37. Base Pairs: 3,287,209,763. Golden ... Im not concerned about your feelings with respect to the difference between humans and chimpanzees. Deal with the facts. ... 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes). Sorry if it is a stupid question. ...
more infohttp://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2012/02/how-much-of-our-genome-is-sequenced.html

Apologetics Press - Do Human and Chimpanzee DNA Indicate an Evolutionary Relationship?Apologetics Press - Do Human and Chimpanzee DNA Indicate an Evolutionary Relationship?

... to compare every single nucleotide base pair between humans and primates-something that was not possible prior to the human ... that one human chromosome contains a fusion of two small chimpanzee chromosomes; and that the tips of each chimpanzee ... For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA" (99 ... of the whole human genome matched chimpanzee nucleotide sequences. [Only 4.8% of the human Y chromosome could be matched to ...
more infohttp://www.apologeticspress.org/APContent.aspx?category=9&article=1038

Apologetics Press - The Molecular Evidence of Human Origins [Part I]Apologetics Press - The Molecular Evidence of Human Origins [Part I]

For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA (99: ... individual nucleotide base pair sequences between humans and primates-something that was not possible prior to the Human Genome ... that one human chromosome contains a fusion of two small chimpanzee chromosomes; and that the tips of each chimpanzee ... International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium (2004), "DNA Sequence and Comparative Analysis of Chimpanzee Chromosome 22," ...
more infohttp://www.apologeticspress.org/APContent.aspx?category=9&article=4027&topic=281

Complex evolution of the GSTM gene family involves sharing of GSTM1 deletion polymorphism in humans and chimpanzees | BMC...Complex evolution of the GSTM gene family involves sharing of GSTM1 deletion polymorphism in humans and chimpanzees | BMC...

We further showed experimentally that the GSTM1 was polymorphically deleted in both humans and also in chimpanzees, through ... To generalize our results, we searched for genic deletions that are polymorphic in both humans and chimpanzees. Consequently, ... gene in humans has been shown to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism and associated with bladder cancer. However, the ... The common deletion of the glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-018-4676-z

Chimps, our brothers ?Chimps, our brothers ?

... the genomes of humans and chimpanzees have only 2.4 billion (76%) of almost 3.2 billion base pairs that align correctly. But to ... and very often in inner regions of DNA in various chromosomes, as in chromosome 2 and human Y. The Y chromosome has about 0.25 ... of differences represented by pair of bases exchanged. Moreover, there are variations in the number of copies, which causes ... suggests a supposed evolutionary fusion of chromosomes 2A and 2B chimpanzee chromosome 2 in humans. It was thought then that ...
more infohttp://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2272-chimps-our-brothers

mathbionerd: August 2013mathbionerd: August 2013

The rate of mutation the authors use is 0.82x10-9 mutations per base pair per year (95% CI: 0.72-0.92x10-9 mutations per base ... The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from a non-sex ancestor. The X is still regular-sized, but the Y is degraded and puny. Dr ... and all other humans are descended from this pair of first humans.. Simple enough.. What are the Y and mtDNA?. Each person has ... and from human-chimpanzee divergence, which lengthens the tree compared to previous estimates. The mutation rate was calibrated ...
more infohttp://mathbionerd.blogspot.co.uk/2013_08_01_archive.html

Creationist Confusion, page 7Creationist Confusion, page 7

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes while chimpanzees have 24. Some evolutionists believe that one of the human chromosomes has ... 1000 base pairs long. Interestingly, the insertion/deletions added an additional 3.4 % of unique base pairs. Previous studies ... I was wondering if with more than one pair of a gene eccentric proportions of of a trait might be expressed. If it were a ... The Y chromosome in particular is of a different size and has many markers that do not line up between the human and chimpanzee ...
more infohttp://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread95780/pg7

Apologetics Press - 15 Answers to John Rennie and <i>Scientific Americans</i> Nonsense ...Apologetics Press - 15 Answers to John Rennie and <i>Scientific American's</i> Nonsense ...

... and would contain over 3 billion base pairs. It has been estimated that if all the DNA in an adult human were placed end-to-end ... Or, transfer that into the living world of animals or humans. In both animals and humans, numerous complex mechanisms ( ... Producing a two-winged fly, or adding a pair of legs to the head of an animal, is a far cry from explaining how plants, animals ... Even the cleverest dog or chimpanzee could not work out a code of any kind. It is obvious then that chance cannot do it.... ...
more infohttp://apologeticspress.org/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=533&article=452

Act first, dont think laterAct first, don't think later

Instead, the human locus contains approximately 150 thousand additional base pairs NOT found in chimpanzee chromosome 12 and 13 ... Chimpanzees have 48 (24 pairs) chromosomes while man has 46 (23 pairs). This is due to the fact that one pair of chromosomes ... Someone asked why humans have less chromosomes than Chimps. This was the answer (my emphasis added) (click to expand):. Quote: ... Chimpanzees have 48 (24 pairs) chromosomes while man has 46 (23 pairs). Evolutionists claim, without evidence, that two ...
more infohttp://www.thethinkingatheist.com/forum/Thread-Act-first-don-t-think-later

Human Triallelic Sites: Evidence for a New Mutational Mechanism? | GeneticsHuman Triallelic Sites: Evidence for a New Mutational Mechanism? | Genetics

Y SNP in humans is coincident with an X ↔ Y SNP in chimps, but little or no excess of X ↔ Y in humans and X ↔ Z in chimpanzees ... 1998 Neighboring-nucleotide effects on the rates of germ-line single-base-pair substitution in human genes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. ... A conclusive test can be made using Y chromosome data, and the 1000 human genome project is likely to provide sufficient ... but effects decline away from indels across several hundred base pairs (Tian et al. 2008). It is unlikely that an increase in ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/184/1/233

On the Origin of Humans | TASCOn the Origin of Humans | TASC

The human genome consists of roughly 3 billion base pairs, 23 chromosomes (chimpanzees have 24) each with 50-250 million ... 23 Alleles in modern humans usually come as heterozygous pairs, as would be expected if humanity started as a pair of ... But if the human Y chromosome mutates only slowly, how can it then be so different from the chimpanzee Y chromosome if indeed ... The genes in chimpanzee chromosomes 2a and 2b are dissimilar from the genes found in human chromosome 2. And even if a fusion ...
more infohttps://tasc-creationscience.org/article/origin-humans

Archaeogenetics - WikipediaArchaeogenetics - Wikipedia

The human-chimpanzee and neanderthal-chimpanzee hybridization are of similarly weak strength. This suggests that humans and ... Extension occurs when Taq polymerase is added to the sample and matches base pairs to turn the two single strands into two ... compared the aDNA sequence from Neanderthal Vi-80 fossil with modern human X and Y chromosome sequence, and they found a ... Single-stranded DNA segments of both species are allowed to form complementary pair bonding with each other. More closely ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeogenetics

Nucleic Acids | Encyclopedia.comNucleic Acids | Encyclopedia.com

... in humans and most organisms, is the genetic material and represents a collection of instructions (genes) for making the ... 1] are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) and multiple forms of ribonucleic acid (RNA ). DNA ... Within the approximately 3.2 × 109 base pairs (3.2 Gbps) in human DNA, the Human Genome Project has determined that there are a ... T base pair; while a G-C base pair contains three hydrogen bonds. These interactions possess a specificity that is pivotal to ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/nucleic-acids

DNA and Inheritance Facts, Worksheets, Inheritance & Building Blocks For KidsDNA and Inheritance Facts, Worksheets, Inheritance & Building Blocks For Kids

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes wherein one chromosome from each pair is inherited from the mother and the other pair from ... identical to a chimpanzee genome. Compared to gorillas with 97% similarity, humans are closer to chimpanzees and random human ... The rungs or the ladder of the DNA is formed when complementary bases are pair together. Each base pair is joined by hydrogen ... Both males and females have 22 pairs of chromosomes called autosomes. The 23rd pair, known as the sex chromosomes, differ ...
more infohttps://kidskonnect.com/science/dna-and-inheritance/

Phlit: A Newsletter on Philosophy and Literature: Sherwin Nuland, Robert Crumb, etc.: 2008-10 CPhlit: A Newsletter on Philosophy and Literature: Sherwin Nuland, Robert Crumb, etc.: 2008-10 C

The human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes."5 Chapter 5 is a bit murky, but if ... Primates (monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas, humans, etc.) *Chiroptera (bats); "Chiroptera" means "winged hand" *Artiodactyls ( ... "base pair" (adenine-thymine is also a "base pair"). Like computers, DNA packs a great deal of binary information into a small ... DNA is organized into chromosomes, and "the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, is approximately 220 million base ...
more infohttp://www.ljhammond.com/phlit/2008-10c.htm
  • We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other. (sciencemag.org)
  • The objective is to comparatively analyze mutations specifically those that caused the frameshift and nonsense mutations and to assess their scale and potential impacts on human-chimpanzee divergence. (hindawi.com)
  • However, researchers suspect such regions are important to human biology because they have been conserved throughout the evolution of mammals and birds, and work is now underway to figure out their exact functions. (innovations-report.com)
  • A "less-is-more" model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. (hindawi.com)
  • Chapter 1 What Is Evolution? (scribd.com)
  • Where were the various links of the evolution of icons like those in Figure 2 - connecting apes and modern humans with our common ancestor ape - the Dryopithecus? (catsboard.com)
  • Nevertheless, the results were exactly what evolutionists were looking for, and as such, the claim has reverberated through the halls of science for decades as evidence that humans evolved from an ape-like ancestor. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Nevertheless, the results matched what evolutionists had hoped to find, and as such, the claim has reverberated through the halls of science for decades as compelling evidence that humans evolved from an ape-like ancestor. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Scherer said that his group looked at only a very small subset of the human population when assessing the prevalence of polymorphisms. (innovations-report.com)
  • We further showed experimentally that the GSTM1 was polymorphically deleted in both humans and also in chimpanzees, through independent deletion events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As preliminary data from the genome project began to arrive, a special issue of Science , published on February 16, 2001, set the number of genes in the human genome at between 35,000 and 40,000 (see Pennisi, 2001, 291:1178). (apologeticspress.org)
  • The common deletion of the glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 ( GSTM1 ) gene in humans has been shown to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism and associated with bladder cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosome 4 has long been of interest to the medical community because it holds the gene for Huntington's disease, polycystic kidney disease, a form of muscular dystrophy and a variety of other inherited disorders. (innovations-report.com)