Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
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A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-I ANTIGENS.
Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-II ANTIGENS.
Antibodies reactive with various types of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma antigens or bovine leukemia virus antigens.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 that is genetically similar to STLV-3.
Antigens associated with the DELTARETROVIRUS; HTLV-I ANTIGENS and HTLV-II ANTIGENS belong to this group.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.
A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.

Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation. (1/1876)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis.  (+info)

Stabilization from autoproteolysis and kinetic characterization of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proteinase. (2/1876)

We have developed a system for expression and purification of wild-type human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proteinase to attain sufficient quantities for structural, kinetic, and biophysical investigations. However, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase, HTLV-1 proteinase also undergoes autoproteolysis rapidly upon renaturation to produce two products. The site of this autoproteolytic cleavage was mapped, and a resistant HTLV-1 proteinase construct (L40I) as well as another construct, wherein the two cysteine residues were exchanged to alanines, were expressed and purified. Oligopeptide substrates representing the naturally occurring cleavage sites in HTLV-1 were good substrates of the HTLV-1 proteinase. The kinetic parameters kcat and Km were nearly identical for all the three enzymes. Although three of four peptides representing HTLV-1 proteinase cleavage sites were fairly good substrates of HIV-1 proteinase, only two of nine peptides representing HIV-1 proteinase cleavage sites were hydrolyzed by the HTLV-1 proteinase, suggesting substantial differences in the specificity of the two enzymes. The large difference in the specificity of the two enzymes was also demonstrated by inhibition studies. Of the several inhibitors of HIV-1 or other retroviral proteinases that were tested on HTLV-1 proteinase, only two inhibit the enzyme with a Ki lower than 100 nM.  (+info)

Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. (3/1876)

The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (4/1876)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

The human T cell leukemia virus type I-tax gene is responsible for the development of both inflammatory polyarthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory ankylotic arthropathy in transgenic mice. (5/1876)

We previously reported that inflammatory arthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops among transgenic mice carrying the long terminal repeat (LTR)-env-pX-LTR region of human T cell leukemia virus type I (LTR-pX-Tg mice). Because four genes are encoded in this region, we produced transgenic mice that only express the tax gene to examine its role in the development of arthritis. Transgenic mice were produced by constructing DNAs that express the tax gene alone under the control of either its own LTR or CD4 enhancer/promoter and by microinjecting them into C3H/HeN-fertilized ova. We produced seven transgenic mice carrying the LTR-tax gene and nine mice carrying the CD4-tax and found that one of the LTR-tax-Tg mice and five of CD4-tax-Tg mice developed RA-like inflammatory arthropathy similar to LTR-pX-Tg mice, indicating that the tax gene is arthritogenic. On the other hand, the other two LTR-tax-Tg mice had ankylotic changes caused by new bone formation without inflammation. In these ankylotic mice, tax mRNA, inflammatory cytokine mRNA, and autoantibody levels except for TGF-beta1 level were lower than those in LTR-pX- or CD4-tax-Tg mice. These results show that Tax is responsible for the development of inflammatory arthropathy resembling RA and that this protein also causes ankylotic arthropathy.  (+info)

Interaction of Gli2 with CREB protein on DNA elements in the long terminal repeat of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 is responsible for transcriptional activation by tax protein. (6/1876)

The long terminal repeat (LTR) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has two distinct DNA elements, one copy of TRE2S and three copies of a 21-bp sequence that respond to the viral trans-activator protein, Tax. Either multiple copies of the 21-bp sequence or a combination of one copy each of TRE2S and 21-bp sequence is required for efficient trans activation by Tax. In the trans activation of multiple copies of 21-bp sequence, CREB/ATF protein plays an essential role in forming a complex with Tax. To understand the role of TRE2S in trans activation of one copy of 21-bp sequence, we examined protein binding to the DNA elements by DNA affinity precipitation assay including Gli2 protein binding to TRE2S and CREB protein binding to 21-bp sequence. Binding of CREB to a DNA probe containing both elements, TRE2S-21bp probe, was dependent on Gli2 protein under restricted conditions and was enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion by the binding of Gli2 protein to the same probe. Mutation in either element abolished the efficient binding of CREB. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of a fragment of Gli2 was able to bind to CREB. Therefore, Gli2-CREB interaction on the DNA probe is proposed to stabilize CREB binding to DNA. Tax can bind to CREB protein on the DNA; therefore, stabilization of DNA binding of CREB results in more recruitment of Tax onto DNA. Conversely, Tax increased the DNA binding of CREB, although it had almost no effect on the binding of Gli2. These results suggest that Gli2 binds to the DNA element and interacts with CREB, resulting in more recruitment of Tax, which in turn stabilizes DNA binding of CREB. Similar cooperation of the protein binding to TRE2S-21bp probe was also observed in nuclear extract of an HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. Consistent with the Gli2-CREB interaction on the DNA elements, Tax-mediated trans activation was dependent on the size of the spacer between TRE2S and 21-bp sequence. The effective sizes of the spacer suggest that TRE2S in the LTR would cooperate with the second and third copies of the 21-bp sequence and contribute to trans activation of the viral gene transcription.  (+info)

Human T-cell leukemia retrovirus-Tax protein is a repressor of nuclear receptor signaling. (7/1876)

The Tax oncoprotein promotes cellular transformation and is associated with the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax expression activates transcription via the cAMP enhancer binding protein/activating transcription factor (CREB/ATF) and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast to its positive action, here we demonstrate that Tax is a potent repressor of steroid and retinoid receptor transcription. The Tax protein becomes localized in the promyelocytic (PML) oncogenic domain, and unexpectedly, expression of the PML protein reverses Tax-induced repression. These results suggest that PML and Tax may act in opposing manners to influence nuclear receptor transcription and human T-cell leukemia retrovirus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in primary adult T-cell leukemia cells. (8/1876)

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is an etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The viral protein Tax induces the activation and nuclear translocalization of transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is proposed to play a crucial role in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-I. However, the HTLV-I genes including Tax are not expressed significantly in primary leukemic cells from ATL patients. In this study, we examined the basis for NF-kappaB activation in freshly isolated leukemic cells from ATL patients. We found that leukemic cells from ATL patients, like HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines, display constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and increased degradation of IkappaBalpha (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB). Whereas the NF-kappaB binding activity in Tax-expressing T-cell lines consisted mostly of p50/c-Rel, fresh ATL samples contained p50/p50 and p50/p65 heterodimers. One T-cell line derived from ATL leukemic cells, TL-Om1, displayed constitutive NF-kappaB activity, as well as enhanced degradation of IkappaBalpha, despite the lack of detectable Tax expression. Interestingly, the NF-kappaB in TL-Om1 consists of p50/p50 and p50/p65 like that in fresh primary leukemic cells. Our results suggest that activation of NF-kappaB occurs through a Tax-independent mechanism in leukemic cells of ATL patients, possibly due to differential NF-kappaB subunit activation.  (+info)

Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect and/or identify antigens or serum antibody titers to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (also called human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus) type II (HTLV-II). HTLV-II retrovirus is a tumor-producing RNA virus of the subfamily Oncovirinae that may cause leukemia and other hematological diseases. Tests using these reagents are not widely utilized; these reagents may have questionable clinical usefulness, and easier or less expensive tests may be available.. Entry Terms : Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus Determination Reagents , HTLV-II Determination Reagents , Reagents, Serology, Virus, Retrovirus, Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-II. UMDC code : 19435 ...
1. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vezinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983;220:868-871 2. Wattel E, Vartanian JP, Pannetier C, Wain-Hobson S. Clonal expansion of human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected cells in asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers without malignancy. J Virol. 1995;69:2863-2868 3. Gessain A, Gallo RC, Franchini G. Low degree of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I genetic drift in vivo as a means of monitoring viral transmission and movement of ancient human populations. J Virol. 1992;66:2288-2295 4. Wain-Hobson S. Running the gamut of retroviral variation. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:135-141 5. Komurian F, Pelloquin F, de The G. In vivo genomic variability of human T-cell leukemia virus type I depends more upon geography than upon pathologies. J Virol. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 oncoprotein tax promotes S-phase entry but blocks mitosis. AU - Liang, Min Hui. AU - Geisbert, Thomas. AU - Yao, Yao. AU - Hinrichs, Steven H.. AU - Giam, Chou Zen. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax exerts pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular regulatory processes to bring about NF-κB activation, aberrant cell cycle progression, and cell transformation. Here we report that Tax stimulates cellular G1/S entry but blocks mitosis. Tax expression in naive cells transduced with a retroviral vector, pBabe-Tax, leads to a significant increase in the number of cells in the S phase, with an accompanying rise in the population of cells with a DNA content of 4N or more. In all cell types tested, including BHK-21, mouse NIH 3T3, and human diploid fibroblast WI-38, Tax causes an uncoupling of DNA synthesis from cell division, resulting in the ...
This confirmatory assay should be ordered only on specimens that are consistently reactive by an anti-HTLV-I/-II screening immunoassay.. For an evaluation that includes screening and confirmation, order HTLVI / Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types I and II (HTLV-I/-II) Antibody Screen with Confirmation, Serum.. ...
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 encodes transactivator protein Tax that interacts with various cellular factors to modulate transcription and other biological functions. Additional cellular mediators of Tax-mediated transcriptional activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) remain to be identified and characterized. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of group I p21-activated kinases (Paks) in Tax-induced LTR activation. Both wild-type and kinase-dead mutants of Pak3 were capable of potentiating the activity of Tax to activate LTR transcription. The effect of Paks on the LTR was attributed to the N-terminal regulatory domain and required the action of CREB, CREB-regulating transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) and p300/CREB-binding protein. Paks physically associated with Tax and CRTCs. Paks were recruited to the LTR in the presence of Tax. siRNAs against either Pak1 or Pak3 prevented
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Primary pulmonary hypertension in association with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in a hemophiliac. by Toru Suzuki
The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects 10 to 20 million people worldwide, as estimated by seroprevalence studies. However, HTLV-I is associated with disease in only approximately 5 percent of infected individuals.
While human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia, a close relative, HTLV-2, is not associated with any leukemia. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode the Tax1 and
Infection of human cells by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins. The gp46 surface glycoprotein binds to cell surface receptors, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin 1, and glucose transporter 1, allowing the transmembrane glycoprotein to initiate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. The envelope glycoproteins are recognized by neutralizing Abs and CTL following a protective immune response, and therefore, represent attractive components for a HTLV-1 vaccine. To begin to explore the immunological properties of potential envelope-based subunit vaccine candidates, we have used a soluble recombinant surface glycoprotein (gp46, SU) fused to the Fc region of human IgG (sRgp46-Fc) as an immunogen to vaccinate mice. The recombinant SU protein is highly immunogenic and induces high titer Ab responses, facilitating selection of hybridomas that secrete mAbs targeting SU. Many of these mAbs recognize envelope displayed on the ...
Infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was found to up-regulate expression of human immuno-deficiency virus and human T cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat sequence (LTR), and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gD chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructs transfected into the T cell line, J. Jhan. Activation by HHV-6 was due to one or more viral proteins produced early in infection and, in the case of the HTLV-I LTR, was synergistic to induction mediated by the HTLV-I tax gene product. Neither the HTLV-I enhancer nor basal promoter elements of the HSV-1 gD gene were essential for activation and no increase in accumulated HTLV-I mRNA was observed due to HHV-6 infection. Induction by HHV-6 was found to be dependent on the reporter construct used, because the CAT gene and, to a lesser extent, the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene were responsive to HHV-6 infection although no significant activation of growth hormone constructs was observed. Our results bear a strong
Objectives : Although human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-1 - associated uveitis has been well recognized in Japan, related studies in Brazil are scarce. We performed a serologic survey for HTLV-infection among patients with uveitis and investigated the ocular findings in HTLV-1-asymptomatic carriers. Methods : One hundred ninety serum...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is associated with a variety of immunoregulatory disorders. HTLV-1 has been shown to bind to and infect a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. However, both in vivo and in vitro, the provirus is mostly detected in and preferentially transforms CD4+ T cells. The molecular mechanism that determines the CD4+ T-cell tropism of HTLV-1 has not been determined. Using cocultures of purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an HTLV-1 producing cell line, we measured viral transcription by using Northern (RNA) blot analysis, protein production by using a p24 antigen capture assay and flow cytometric analysis for viral envelope, and proviral integration by using DNA slot blot analysis. We further measured HTLV-1 long terminal repeat-directed transcription in purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by using transient transfection assays and in vitro transcription. We demonstrate a higher rate of viral ...
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The individual T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IB kinases (IKKs) and NF-B and promote cell survival; nevertheless, the essential ubiquitinated elements downstream of Taxes included in cell alteration are unidentified. of HTLV-1 changed cells and the immortalization of principal Testosterone levels cells by HTLV-1. As a result, T63-connected polyubiquitination represents a story regulatory system managing MCL-1 balance that provides been usurped by a virus-like oncogene to precipitate cell success and alteration. Writer Overview HTLV-1 infections is certainly etiologically connected to the advancement of the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 linked myelopathy/exotic spastic paraparesis (Pig/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an intense Compact disc4+Compact disc25+ malignancy. The HTLV-1 regulatory proteins Taxes constitutively activates the IB kinases (IKKs) and NF-B to promote cell success, transformation and proliferation. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against multiple epitopes on the C‐terminal half of envelope gp46 of human T‐cell leukemia virus type‐I (HTLV‐I). AU - Tanaka, Yuetsu. AU - Yasumoto, Masazumi. AU - Nyunoya, Hiroshi. AU - Ogura, Tsutomu. AU - Kikuchi, Masayoshi. AU - Shimotohno, Kunitada. AU - Shiraki, Hiroshi. AU - Kuroda, Naotaka. AU - Shida, Hisatoshi. AU - Tozawa, Hideki. PY - 1990/10/15. Y1 - 1990/10/15. N2 - In order to study the antigenicity of envelope 46 kDa glycoprotein (gp46) of human T‐cell leukemia virus type‐l (HTLV‐I), we have generated monoclonal anti‐gp46 antibodies (MAbs), REY‐7, REY‐11, REY‐16, REY‐30, MET‐2 and MET‐3 from rats and mice. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays showed that these MAbs recognize gp46 and its related antigens, and specifically stained HTLV‐I‐bearing cells. All MAbs reacted with a recombinant gp46 antigen, NI47, expressing the 147 amino acids in the C‐terminal half of gp46. ...
Line immunoassay for the confirmation and discrimination of antibodies to Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II) in human serum and plasma.
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Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent for adult T cell leukemia (ATL). The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. Tax down-regulated the expression of human beta-polymerase (hu beta-pol), a cellular enzyme involved in host cell DNA repair. This finding suggests a possible correlation between HTLV-I infection and host chromosomal damage, which is often seen in ATL cells. ...
There are a limited number of medical conditions in which breastfeeding is contraindicated, including an infant with the metabolic disorder of classic galactosemia. Alternating breastfeeding with special protein-free or modified formulas can be used in feeding infants with other metabolic diseases (such as phenylketonuria), provided that appropriate blood monitoring is available. Mothers who are positive for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I or II84 or untreated brucellosis85 should not breastfeed nor provide expressed milk to their infants Breastfeeding should not occur if the mother has active (infectious) untreated tuberculosis or has active herpes simplex lesions on her breast; however, expressed milk can be used because there is no concern about these infectious organisms passing through the milk. Breastfeeding can be resumed when a mother with tuberculosis is treated for a minimum of 2 weeks and is documented that she is no longer infectious.86 Mothers who develop varicella 5 days ...
in Oncogene (2011). Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a fatal adult T-cell leukemia. Through deregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways the viral Tax protein has a pivotal role ... [more ▼]. Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a fatal adult T-cell leukemia. Through deregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways the viral Tax protein has a pivotal role in T-cell transformation. In response to stressful stimuli, cells mount a cellular stress response to limit the damage that environmental forces inflict on DNA or proteins. During stress response, cells postpone the translation of most cellular mRNAs, which are gathered into cytoplasmic mRNA-silencing foci called stress granules (SGs) and allocate their available resources towards the production of dedicated stress-management proteins. Here we demonstrate that Tax controls the formation of SGs and interferes with the cellular stress response pathway. In ...
Psychological and medical predictors of disease course in breast cancer: a prospective study (pages 383-400). Shulmaith Kreitler, Hans Kreitler, Samario Chaitchik, Shlomo Shaked and Tal Shaked. Version of Record online: 4 DEC 1998 , DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0984(199712)11:5,383::AID-PER300,3.0.CO;2-#. ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p21X protein: the complete amino acid sequence of p21X is contained within the C-terminal portion of p27rex
Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent for adult T cell leukemia (ATL). The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. Tax down-regulated the expression of human beta-polymerase …
Information about Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) I/II Antibody Confirmation. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and review in-depth information about each test.
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HTLV-2 RNA in PBMCs and cell subsets.HTLV-2 taxRNA was revealed in the PBMCs of 7 of the 12 patients without PSP (58.3%) and in those of 4 of the 6 patients with PSP (66.7%). All but one of the patients with proviral loads of ,0.01 PU/103were negative for HTLV RNA.. The median titer of HTLV-2 RNA in PBMCs was lower than that of HTLV-2 DNA (median titer, 0.01 PU/103 cells; range, 0 to 1 PU/103 cells). No significant correlation between HTLV-2 DNA and RNA titers was observed. No difference was found between the RNA titers of the subjects with and without PSP.. Reverse transcription-PCR could also be performed on the CD14+ and CD19+ cells of two patients each (patients 1 and 3 and patients 8 and 11, respectively) and on the CD3+ cells of six patients (patients 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 11). All the CD14+ cell samples, one CD19+ cell sample, and three of the six CD3+ cell samples showed HTLV-2 tax RNA sequences.. The titers of tax RNA in the CD14+ cells of patient 1 (3.7 PU/103 cells) and the CD19+cells of ...
Two regions of the gene for the human T-cell leukemia virus subgroup I (HTLV-I) envelope were expressed in Escherichia coli by use of the vector pJLA16. One corresponds to the carboxyl terminal region of the major envelope protein p46, and the other corresponds to the transmembrane protein p21E. Reactivity of the expressed protein with human serum was tested by the Western blot procedure. Each of 11 sera tested that had been shown to contain antibodies to HTLV-I or HTLV-II by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recognized the bacterially synthesized envelope proteins. There was no reaction detected when 17 control sera were tested. This system will be useful for large-scale seroepidemiological surveys for HTLV-I and related human retroviruses. ...
Here, we report a novel interaction between the scaffolding protein hDlg and the envelope glycoproteins of HTLV-1. We demonstrate that hDlg binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the HTLV-1 Env and that the two proteins are concentrated in cell contact sites at the plasma membrane of infected T-lymphocytes. We also show that preventing Env/hDlg interaction in the context of a complete HTLV-1 virus leads to decreased ability of Env to trigger cell-to-cell fusion between T lymphocytes. These findings constitute the first example of a functional interaction between a MAGUK family member and a viral structural protein.. Like other members of this subfamily of MAGUKs, hDlg is composed of protein interaction modules including three PDZ domains, a central SH3 domain, and a C-terminal GUK domain (Gonzalez-Mariscal et al., 2000). Sequence analysis showed that the four C-terminal residues of Env-CD (E-S-S-L) were conserved between the most distant HTLV-1 strains (Gessain et al., 1993; Malik et al., 1988), and ...
Retroviruses have evolved complex mechanisms to regulate their cellular tropism and gene expression. It is generally accepted that productive infections proceed via interactions between viral envelope molecules and specific receptors on the host cell surface. Currently, there is no known receptor for HTLV-1, though a number of factors that enhance entry have been identified. In an effort to identify a cellular receptor or attachment factor for HTLV-1, we carried out a retroviral cDNA library screen, in which cDNA from permissive HeLa S3 cells was introduced into poorly susceptible NIH 3T3 cells. These cells were selected after infection with HTLV-1 envelope pseudotyped viral particles expressing a drug resistance gene. We isolated approximately 460 cDNAs, of which 20 were prioritized as potential candidates. These candidates are being tested to determine if they participate in viral entry. In addition to encoding the structural and enzymatic genes common to all retroviruses, HTLV-1 also encodes several
Table 2: The prevalence of HTLV1 antibodies in studied subjects according to the age distribution of women and their gestational age ...
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A type of virus that infects T cells (a type of white blood cell) and can cause leukemia and lymphoma. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is spread by sharing syringes or needles, through blood transfusions or sexual contact, and from mother to child during birth or breast-feeding. Also called HTLV-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 ...
Looking at socioeconomic parameters as measured by the percentage of heads of household with income below the minimum wage it was noted that the poorest sub-areas, i.e., Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, match the sub-areas with the highest HTLV-1/2 seropositivity (Figure 2). Figure 3 shows a similar geographic correlation, in which sub-areas with heads of household with formal education equal to or lesser than 1 year overlap with the ones presenting higher proportions of HTLV-1/2 seropositive mothers, again Jequitinhonha and Mucuri. DISCUSSION. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a neonatal screening program, covering all newborns in a population of almost 20 million inhabitants, was used to both identify HTLV-1/2 seropositive mothers and to intervene to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of the virus from mother to child. In 2007, the seropositivity in the HTLV-1/2 screening test (ELISA) was 8 per 10 000, for blood donors at the Hemominas Foundation, and 2 per 10 000 with a ...
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is frequently resistant to current available therapies and has a very poor prognosis. To prevent the development of ATL among carriers it is important to control HTLV-1-infected cells in infected individuals. Therefore, the establishment of novel therapies with drugs specifically targeting infected cells is urgently required. This study aimed to develop a potential therapy by generating recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) that lack an envelope glycoprotein G and instead encode HTLV-1 receptor(s) with human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan 1 (SDC1), designated as VSVΔG-GL, VSVΔG-NP, or VSVΔG-SD, respectively ...
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1. Gingerich O (2006). Gods Universe. (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press), p.72 2. Wolpert L (2006). Six Impossible Things Before Breakfast. (London: Farber and Farber), p.214 3. Karpas A (2005). Human retroviruses in leukaemia and AIDS: reflections on their discovery, biology and epidemiology. Biol Revs Camb Philos Soc79, 911 4. Mortreux F, Gabet A-S and Wattel E (2003). Molecular and cellular aspects of HTLV-1 associated leukemogenesis in vivo. Leukemia17, 26; Tsukasaki K, Koeffler P and Tomonaga M (2000). Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol13, 231 5. An artificial retrovirus carrying a therapeutic gene has also produced leukaemia. In each patient, one insertion event targeted and dysregulated a key (LMO2) gene. Every derived leukaemic cell possessed the same (clonal) provirus insert. See Hacein-Bey-Abina S, Von Kalle C, Schmidt M et al (2003). LMO2-associated clonal T cell proliferation in two patients after gene therapy for SCID- X1. Science302, ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus Human T-lymphotropic virus Virus classification Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT) Family: Retroviridae Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae Genus:
Background: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is controlled by the key regulatory proteins Tax and Rex. The concerted action of these proteins results in a two-phase kinetics of viral expression that depends on a time delay between their action. However, it is difficult to explain this delay, as Tax and Rex are produced from the same mRNA. In the present study we investigated whether HTLV-1 may produce novel mRNA species capable of expressing Rex and Tax independently.. Findings: Results revealed the expression of three alternatively spliced transcripts coding for novel Rex isoforms in infected cell lines and in primary samples from infected patients. One mRNA coded for a Tax isoform and a Rex isoform, and two mRNAs coded for Rex isoforms but not Tax. Functional assays showed that these Rex isoforms exhibit activity comparable to canonic Rex. An analysis of the temporal expression of these transcripts upon ex vivo culture of cells from infected patients and cell lines ...
The most recent milestones in tumor virology have come from the identification of additional human tumor viruses: human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Kaposis sarcoma virus.. HTLV-1: the first tumorigenic human retrovirus. In 1977, Kiyoshi Takatsuki and colleagues discovered a variable T-cell leukemia in Japanese adults with a unique set of properties that warranted the classification of the disease as a single syndrome called adult T-cell leukemia (ATL; ref. 92). Reminiscent of Burkitts lymphoma, ATL showed a distinct geographic distribution in Japan, with most cases clustered on the southern islands of Kyushu and Okinawa and the northern island of Hokkaido and with only sporadic cases found in remote coastal villages along the largest island of Honshu. These observations suggested the possibility of an infectious etiologic agent for ATL.. In the 1970s, decades of attempts to identify a human retrovirus had failed, despite the successful isolation of many ...
T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative factor for adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 genome encodes a viral transforming protein, T...
A multiplex nucleic acid assay was developed by Vet et al., 1999, that both identified and quantified the abundance of retroviruses including the HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T-lymphotropic virus type I and II. Amplification of the retroviral DNA sequences is performed through PCR assays in a spectrofluorometric thermal cycler. The amplified retroviral DNA is hybridized to specific fluorescent probes which include fluorescein for HIV-1, tetracholoro-6-carboxyfluorescein (TET) for HIV-2, tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) for HTLV-I and carboxyrhodamine (RHD) for HTLV-II. The fluorescence colour is crucial for identification of the specific retroviruses. Fluorescence spectrum at 500-650 nm is detected from the assay sample during the annealing phase of the thermal cycle. Quantification of the retro-viral DNA abundance is conducted in real-time, where the intensity of the fluorescence signal is increased significantly with the number of thermal cycles. The reliability of the assay is demonstrated with clinical ...
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Dr. Han received her MD from Harbin Medical University, China. She carried out doctoral studies on the detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 in a human T-lyphoblastic lymphoma xenotransplant in nude mouse and an exploration of the mechanism of horizontal oncogenesis in the xenograft, obtaining her Ph.D. She then carried out postdoctoral studies on gene targeting at the Institute of Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, followed by research on the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin and related signaling pathways in liver cancer at the Department of Pathology of University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. She generated two novel transgenic mice with targeted expression of the cPLA2alpha and COX-2, respectively, in the liver and gained significant expertise in a variety of in vitro and iv vivo model systems for the study of liver cell biology and cancer. In 2005 she was promoted as an assistant professor of ...
Dr. Han received her MD from Harbin Medical University, China. She carried out doctoral studies on the detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 in a human T-lyphoblastic lymphoma xenotransplant in nude mouse and an exploration of the mechanism of horizontal oncogenesis in the xenograft, obtaining her Ph.D. She then carried out postdoctoral studies on gene targeting at the Institute of Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, followed by research on the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin and related signaling pathways in liver cancer at the Department of Pathology of University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. She generated two novel transgenic mice with targeted expression of the cPLA2alpha and COX-2, respectively, in the liver and gained significant expertise in a variety of in vitro and iv vivo model systems for the study of liver cell biology and cancer. In 2005 she was promoted as an assistant professor of ...
Dodon MD، Hamaia S، Martin J، Gazzolo L (2002). Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 interferes with the binding of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 rex regulatory protein to its response element. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (21): 18744-52. PMID 11893730. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109087200. ...
The aim of this report is to review the relationship between viruses and the development of human cancer. It is currently known at least four viruses are directly implicated in the aetiology of human cancers and are involved in the induction of 15 to 20% of the worldwide tumor burden. Infection with these viruses seems to be an essential, but not sufficient, step in the multistage proces of carcinogenesis. Other changes, induced for instance by chemical carcinogens or radiation, are also required to change the virus infected cell into a tumor cell. The four most important human tumor viruses are: human T cell leukemia viruses (HTLV); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Because of HPV is probably involved in the development of over 10% of all human tumors and hence is the most important biological agent in relation to cancer, it is discussed more extensively in this report ...
Among mature postthymic T-cell leukemias, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) has characteristic clinicopathological entities. The association with the human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I is one of the distinctive etiopathogenetic features of this disease. However, unlike other acute transforming retroviruses, the human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I lacks an oncogene within its genome. Other human postthymic leukemias, such as T-prolymphocytic leukemias, involve mostly the CD4 cellular subset and share many similarities to ATLs (aggressive course, cutaneous involvement, CD4+, CD29+, CD45RA- phenotype, and alphanaphthyl-acetate esterase positivity). A chromosomal rearrangement at 14q32.1, involved in translocations or inversions with either the α/δ locus [t(14;14)(q11;q32.1), inv14(q11;q32.1)], or the β-chain locus of the T-cell receptor [t(7;14)(q35;q32.1)] is found. These rearrangements disregulate a gene, TCL1, located at the 14q32.1 region, that we show is physiologically ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proviral load and immune markers associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Peru. AU - Best, I.. AU - Adaui, V.. AU - Verdonck, K.. AU - González, E.. AU - Tipismana, M.. AU - Clark, D.. AU - Gotuzzo, E.. AU - Vanham, G.. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the aetiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The objective of this study is to identify which ex vivo and in vivo markers are associated independently with HAM/TSP in a Peruvian population. Eighty-one subjects (33 men/48 women) were enrolled: 35 presented with HAM/TSP, 33 were asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 13 were HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SCs). Ex vivo markers included T cell proliferation and Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ], Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5], proinflammatory [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ...
The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia. Although the exact mechanism by which HTLV-I contributes to leukemogenesis is still unclear, the Tax protein is thought to play a major role in this process. This 40-kDa polypeptide is able to interact with the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A). Consequently, Tax can activate the signaling pathway that lead to the release of E2F that in turn induces expression of factors required for cell cycle progression. In this paper, we demonstrate that Tax can also activate E2F-mediated transcription independently of p16(INK4A). Indeed, when Tax is coexpressed with the E2F-1 transcription factor in CEM T-cells, which lack expression of p16(INK4A), it strongly potentiates the E2F-dependent activation of a reporter construct driven by a promoter containing E2F binding sites. This stimulation is abrogated by mutations affecting the E2F-binding sites. In addition, Tax also stimulates the transcription of the E2F-1 gene ...
We describe an immunosuppressed patient who developed myelopathy after transfusion with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected blood products during cardiac transplantation; immunoglobulins and fibrinogen deposition indicated disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The low degree of inflammation and virus expression suggests that demyelination may have been caused by an antibody- and complement-mediated process and by an alteration of the spinal cord microenvironment with activation of microglial cells and astrocytes.. ...
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATLL occurs in approximately 3%-5% of HTLV-1 carriers during their lifetime and follows a heterogeneous clinical course. The Shimoyama classification has been frequently used for treatment decisions in ATLL patients, and antiviral therapy has been reportedly promising, particularly in patients with indolent type ATLL; however, the prognosis continues to be dismal for patients with aggressive-type ATLL. Recent efforts to improve treatment outcomes have been focused on the development of prognostic stratification and improved dosage, timing, and combination of therapeutic modalities, such as antiviral therapy, chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and molecular targeted therapy.
The details of bibliography - Genotyping of Human T cell lymphotropic virus Type 1 Australo-Melanesian topotype-specific oligonucleotide primer-based polymerase chain reaction: insights into viral evolution and dissemination
The details of bibliography - Genotyping of Human T cell lymphotropic virus Type 1 Australo-Melanesian topotype-specific oligonucleotide primer-based polymerase chain reaction: insights into viral evolution and dissemination
An epidemiological study was performed in French Guiana population 115,000 to determine the prevalence and incidence of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ATL associated with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I HTLV-I. From January 1990 to December 1993, all suspected cases of ATL were enrolled in this study, and their clinical,...
Human natural killer (NK)-cell receptors are expressed by NK cells and some T cells, primarily TCR+CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Inhibitory NK cell receptors (iNKRs) can down-regulate antigen-mediated T-cell effector functions, including cytotoxic activity and cytokine release. In the present study we demonstrate that CD3+ T cells that bind tetramers of HLA-E and express its ligand, the NK-cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A, were significantly decreased in frequency in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. These cells were either a or ?d T cells. T-cell receptor (TCR) V-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and spectratyping analysis revealed that the TCR repertoire in directly isolated HLA-E tetramer-positive cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was skewed in both HTLV-1-infected and healthy individuals. However, oligoclonally or ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of inflammatory CNS diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM-TSP). It is widely used as a marker for disease activity and progression. However, conventional MRI methods are only suitable to study gross anatomical features, such as size and shape of a particular area of the brain; questions regarding intrinsic microstructure and morphologic specificity cannot be addressed. But axonal damage or structural abnormalities even in normal appearing brain tissue may play an important role in the development of irreversible disability. Magnetization Transfer Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor MRI are imaging techniques described to be capable of the detection of such changes. Spectroscopy can detect molecular components in tissue, whereas the Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) allows the measurement of water-macromolecule ...
Both human T cell leukemia virus type I and simian Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) transform human T cells in vitro. Although IL-2-independent growth in human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells is associated with constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT kinases, we now demonstrate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the ability of HVS-transformed T cells to proliferate in the absence of exogenous cytokines. The IL-2 independence of an HVS-transformed cell line correlated with constitutive activation of protein tyrosine kinases known to be induced following TCR engagement. Thus, in these cells we observed increased phosphotransferase activity of Lck as well as constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-associated ZAP-70 kinase and expression of the related Syk protein tyrosine kinase. While Syk is generally not expressed in activated T cells, its introduction has been shown to enhance TCR responsiveness. These results suggest that distinct signal transduction cascades ...
A virus closely related to HTLV-I, human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-II) shares approximately 70% genomic homology (structural similarity) with HTLV-I. It is found predominantly in Native Americans, and South American Indian groups. And also in Asian countries. More common in Japan and Korea.[citation needed] It can be passed down from mother to child through breastmilk and genetically as well from either parent. HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease, but has been associated with several cases of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)- like neurological disease. An impact on platelet count has been observed. In the 1980s, HTLV-2 was identified in a patient with an unidentified T cell lymphoproliferative disease that was described as having characteristics similar to the B cell disorder, hairy cell leukemia. HTLV-2 was identified in a second patient with a T cell lymphoproliferative disease; this ...
The activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, contribute to central nervous system inflammation in various neurological diseases. In HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), MPs are reservoirs of HTLV-I, and induce proinflammatory cytokines and excess T cell responses. The virus-infected or activated MPs may play a role in immuneregulation and disease progression in patients with HTLV-I-associated neurological diseases. Results: Phenotypic analysis of CD14+ monocytes in HAM/TSP patients demonstrated high expression of CX3CR1 and HLA-DR in CD14lowCD16+ monocytes, compared to healthy normal donors (NDs) and asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in cultured CD14+ cells of HAM/TSP patients. CD14+ cells of HAM/TSP patients also showed acceleration of HTLV-I Tax expression in CD4+ T cells. Minocycline, an inhibitor of activated MPs, decreased TNF-alpha expression in CD14+ cells and ...
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurological disease observed only in 1-2 % of infected individuals. HTLV-1 provirus load, certain HLA alleles and HTLV-1 tax subgroups are reported to be associated with different levels of risk for HAM/TSP in Kagoshima, Japan. Here, it was determined whether these risk factors were also valid for HTLV-1-infected individuals in Mashhad in northeastern Iran, another region of endemic HTLV-1 infection. In Iranian HTLV-1-infected individuals (n=132, 58 HAM/TSP patients and 74 seropositive asymptomatic carriers), although HLA-DRB1*0101 was associated with disease susceptibility in the absence of HLA-A*02 (P=0·038; odds ratio=2·71) as observed in Kagoshima, HLA-A*02 and HLA-Cw*08 had no effect on either the risk of developing HAM/TSP or HTLV-1 provirus load. All Iranian subjects possessed tax subgroup A sequences, and the protective effects of HLA-A*02 were observed only in Kagoshima subjects
HTLV-1 infection causes an adult T cell leukemia in humans. The viral encoded protein tax, is thought to play an important role in oncogenesis. Our previous data obtained from a tax transgenic mouse model revealed that tax transforms mouse fibroblasts but not thymocytes, despite comparable levels of tax expression in both tissues. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of a 130-kD protein(s) was observed in the tax transformed fibroblast B line and in HTLV-1 transformed human lymphoid lines, but not in thymocytes from Thy-tax transgenic mice. Phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis with a set of Jak kinase specific antibodies, identified p130 as Jak2 in the tax transformed mouse fibroblastic cell line and Jak3 in HTLV-1 transformed human T cell lines. Phosphorylation of Jak2 in tax transformed cells resulted from high expression of IL-6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of this protein could also be induced in Balb/c3T3 cells using a supernatant from the B line, which was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outfoxing FoxO transcription factors. T2 - HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein inactivates FoxO4 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. AU - Shembade, Noula. AU - Harhaj, Edward. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Evaluation of: Oteiza A, Mechti N. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein tax controls forkhead box O4 activity through degradation by the proteasome. J. Virol. 85(13), 6480-6491 (2011). This study examines downstream signaling events of PI3K/AKT in the context of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The authors have demonstrated that the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein triggers the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the FoxO4 transcription factor. Phosphorylation by AKT is requisite for Tax-induced FoxO4 degradation since mutation of the AKT phosphorylation sites abrogates FoxO4 degradation. Furthermore, Tax enhances the interaction between FoxO4 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 which presumably leads to FoxO4 ubiquitination. Consistently, knockdown ...
DISCUSSION The present study has characterized HTLV-I molecular subtypes that are responsible for infection of a cohort of 42 HTLV-I-seropositive asymptomatic carriers, as well as 28 HAM/TSP patients, followed at the Infectious Diseases and Neurology outpatient clinics of the University of São Paulo Medical School Hospital from 1993 to 1998. Among all HTLV-I-infected subjects, cosmopolitan A was the most prevalent viral subtype, regardless of their clinical status. It was shown to account for 73.8% of infections among asymptomatic carriers and for 89.3% among myelopathic patients. This observation is concordant with previous evidence that indicates this viral subtype to be the most widespread of HTLV-I genotypic variants (Ureta-Vidal et al. 1994, Yamashita et al. 1996). In a previous study of 27 Brazilian HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers and patients with HAM/TSP from different parts of the country, cosmopolitan A subtype was also shown to predominate (Yamashita et al. 1999). However infections due ...
Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) I/II Qualitative Real-Time PCR assay detects and distinguishes HTLV-1 virus, which can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and other serious conditions, and HTLV-2 virus. HTLV-2 virus currently is not definitively known
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM B97.34 - includes detailed coding rules & notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index & annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma What every physician needs to know: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct subtype of mature or peripheral T-cell lymphomas associated with the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is endemic in certain parts of the world, including the northern and southern islands of Japan,…. ...
Differential patterns of serum biomarkers of immune activation in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ...
Differential patterns of serum biomarkers of immune activation in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ...
The polymorphism of IL28B was described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) were associated with HAM/TSP. The study included 144 subjects were classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (60 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (84 HAM/TSP patients). Blood samples were collected, and PBMC separated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. DNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the DNA was stored at -80°C for later analysis. After this, the proviral load was quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphism SNP rs12979860 was not independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome. In contrast, the SNP rs8099917 allele GG was ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT ...
Basel, 22 July 2015. New test for the Roche serology assay portfolio helps specialists to identify HTLV-I/II infection in donated blood and diagnostic samples. Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced the market availability* of the Elecsys® HTLV-I/II immunoassay, a diagnostic test to help detect antibodies against Human T-lymphotropic virus I or II infection in donated blood and routine diagnostic samples. Designed for the needs of blood centres and clinical laboratories for reliable and efficient detection of this infection, the test enhances Roches blood screening portfolio in serology testing. This test complements the most comprehensive diagnostics offering for blood safety solutions available on the market today.. Globally there are around 20 million people infected with HTLV-I/II, many of whom are unknown carriers. If the virus is undetected in donors, the risk of spreading the infection increases, said Roland Diggelmann, Chief Operating Officer of the Roche Diagnostics ...
Scientific conference (2017, November 16). ABSTRACT HTLV-1 (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus) is the etiologic agent of human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). More than 20 million people worldwide are infected with ... [more ▼]. ABSTRACT HTLV-1 (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus) is the etiologic agent of human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). More than 20 million people worldwide are infected with the HTLV-1 virus, but only about 5 % develop the associated pathologies. At present, efforts are invested in the search for treatments that may improve the survival expectancy of patients infected by the HTLV-1 virus. The diagnosis of HTLV-1 infection is hampered by the viral genome latency (up to 40 years) and treatment options are limited. To propose novel therapeutic opportunities, it thus is necessary to better understand the host molecular mechanisms perturbed by the HTLV-1 infection. The HTLV-1 genome encodes for the Tax-1 protein, ...
Scientific conference (2017, November 16). ABSTRACT HTLV-1 (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus) is the etiologic agent of human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). More than 20 million people worldwide are infected with ... [more ▼]. ABSTRACT HTLV-1 (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus) is the etiologic agent of human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). More than 20 million people worldwide are infected with the HTLV-1 virus, but only about 5 % develop the associated pathologies. At present, efforts are invested in the search for treatments that may improve the survival expectancy of patients infected by the HTLV-1 virus. The diagnosis of HTLV-1 infection is hampered by the viral genome latency (up to 40 years) and treatment options are limited. To propose novel therapeutic opportunities, it thus is necessary to better understand the host molecular mechanisms perturbed by the HTLV-1 infection. The HTLV-1 genome encodes for the Tax-1 protein, ...
My research area is Molecular Virology and specifically relates to the investigation of the pathogenesis of the human retroviruses human T cell leukemia viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively). HTLV-1 causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and chronic inflammatory disorders while HTLV-2 infection is not linked with specific virus related diseases. One key question that still remains unanswered despite intensive research in this area over the past 35 years is why HTLV-1 gives rise to disease while its closely related counter part HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with cancer development. The identification and characterization of key virus/host interactions that contribute to ATLL in individuals infected with HTLV-1 but not HTLV-2 has been the focus of much my HTLV research to date. The overall goal of such work is not only to provide insights into the different clinical outcomes of HTLV infections but also to identify and characterize key cellular players in ATLL ...
Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, the risk of developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) across lifetime differs between ethni
Patients must be at least 18 years old.. Patients must have a diagnosis of HAM/TSP as defined by the WHO criteria, including a positive HTLV-I EIA and confirmatory pattern on Western Blot analysis. Other causes of chronic progressive myelopathy are excluded by tests for serum B12 level, Lyme disease serologies, RPR, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) screen and magnetic resonance images of brain and spinal cord.. At least 7% of each patients peripheral blood mononuclear cell population must react with anti-CD122 immunofluorescent cell staining.. Spontaneous lymphoproliferation and HTLV-I specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses must be demonstrated by the patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells in ex vivo culture.. Patients must be willing to comply with all aspects of the dosing and evaluation procedure including taking the required medications and should be willing to return for the follow-up visits.. Patients must be able to provide written, informed consent ...
Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus Type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), together with their simian counterparts (STLV-1, STLV-2), belong to the Primate T lymphotropic viruses group (PTLV). The high percentage of homologies between HTLV-1 and STLV-1 strains, led to the demonstration that most HTLV-1 subtypes arose from interspecies transmission between monkeys and humans. STLV-3 viruses belong to the third PTLV type and are equally divergent from both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. They are endemic in several monkey species that live in West, Central and East Africa. In 2005, we, and others reported the discovery of the human homolog (HTLV-3) of STLV-3 in two asymptomatic inhabitants from South Cameroon whose sera exhibited HTLV indeterminate serologies. More recently, two other cases of HTLV-3 infection in persons living in Cameroon were reported suggesting that this virus is not extremely rare in the human population living in Central Africa. Together with STLV-3, these human viral strains belong to the PTLV-3
TY - JOUR. T1 - HTLV-2 tax immortalizes human CD4+ memory T lymphocytes by oncogenic activation and dysregulation of autophagy. AU - Ren, Tong. AU - Dong, Wen. AU - Takahashi, Yoshinori. AU - Xiang, Di. AU - Yuan, Yunsheng. AU - Liu, Xin. AU - Loughran, Thomas P.. AU - Sun, Shao Cong. AU - Wang, Hong-Gang. AU - Cheng, Hua. PY - 2012/10/5. Y1 - 2012/10/5. N2 - Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) are two closely related retroviruses with the former causing adult T cell leukemia. HTLV-2 infection is prevalent among intravenous drug users, and the viral genome encodes the viral transactivator Tax, which is highly homologous to the transforming protein Tax from HTLV-1. However, the link between HTLV-2 infection and leukemia has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of HTLV-2 Tax in promoting aberrant proliferation of human CD4 T lymphocytes. Tax2 efficiently immortalized CD4+ memory T lymphocytes with a CD3/TCRαβ/CD4/CD25/CD45RO/CD69 ...
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in Human T-Cell Lymphotrophic Virus type 1 -positive and negative leukemia cells.
Phillips et al identified prognostic risk groups for patients with HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. This can help to identify a patient who may benefit from more aggressive management. The authors are from Columbia University and multiple cancer centers in New York.
Purpose: Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), initially identified as a tumor suppressor gene, has recently been reported to be ectopically expressed in primary adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) cells. We incorporated CADM1 into flow cytometric analysis to reveal oncogenic mechanisms in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection by purifying cells from the intermediate stages of ATL development. Experimental Design: We isolated CADM1- and CD7-expressing peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and ATLs using multi-color flow cytometry. FACS-sorted subpopulations were subjected to clonal expansion and gene expression analysis. Results: HTLV-1-infected cells were efficiently enriched in CADM1+ subpopulations (D, CADM1posCD7dim; and N, CADM1posCD7neg). Clonally expanding cells were detected exclusively in these subpopulations in ACs with high proviral load, suggesting that the appearance of D and N could be a surrogate marker of progression from AC to early ATL. ...
Supplementary Materials [Supplemental Appendix and Desk] bloodstream-2008-05-155960_index. be linked to viral transactivation or defense response. HTLV-I and HTLV-II associations with higher platelet counts suggest viral effects on hematopoietic growth factors or cytokines. Introduction Human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) were first described in 1980 and 1982, respectively,1,2 as the first recognized retroviral human infections.3 HTLV-I is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL),4 HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM),5,6 and HTLV-associated uveitis.7 HTLV-I infection is associated with several other inflammatory syndromes, including pneumonitis,8 and may also impair the patients immune response to the helminth .20) with the outcomes; categoric variables were considered possibly associated and retained if any of the levels had a value less than .20. Statistical software (SAS 9.1.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used to perform these analyses using the PROC MIXED ...
This topic contains 6 study abstracts on Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Green Tea, Polyphenols, and Curcumin
Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL): overexpression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) contributes to immune evasion - presentation at the AACR 2017 annual meeting
We explored the influence of the ATLL CCR4 mutants on PI3K-dependent activation of AKT because it has been reported that binding of CCL22 to CCR4 activates AKT in CEM leukemic T cells and in human Th2 cells (Cronshaw et al., 2004). We first studied two ATLL cell lines: ED40515(+), which bears a CCR4-Q330* mutant allele, and KOB, in which CCR4 is WT. Immunoblot analysis revealed that baseline levels of phospho-AKT (P-AKT), a measure of AKT activation, were much lower in ED40515(+) than in KOB (Fig. 3 A, lane 2 vs. lane 6). However, ED40515(+) showed stronger induction of AKT phosphorylation at 10 min after CCL22 exposure than KOB (Fig. 3 A, lane 3 vs. lane 7). The activation of AKT was transient in both cell lines, decreasing by 30 min after stimulation (Fig. 3 A, lanes 4 and 8). These findings indicated that AKT activation is one of the signaling pathways downstream of CCR4 in ATLL cells and suggested that CCR4 mutations might affect the magnitude of AKT activation. To accurately evaluate the ...
The line was isolated from a patient who was negative for anti human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) antibody, and no HTLV-I sequences were detected in the cultured cells by Southern analysis.
An analysis of the cost effectiveness of screening should take several variables into account, such as the prevalence and incidence of infection in the population, the risks of transmission, the mortality and morbidity of those infected with the virus, and the expected survival rate of patients receiving blood components from donors infected with the virus.. The calculation of the expected seroprevalence of human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus types I and II in new blood donors was based on the prevalence in donors who did not come from endemic countries.16 A more strict assessment of donors has been introduced in Sweden and potential donors from areas endemic for infection with HIV, human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus, or hepatitis B are excluded from donating blood. However, an increasing number of Swedish citizens are born to immigrants from endemic areas.. The incidence of infection among already established blood donors was estimated from the prevalence in Swedes and was based on the ...
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), a highly aggressive peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I, is resistant to conventional chemotherapies and therefore carries a very poor prognosis. The observation that CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on ATL tumor cells prompted the development of KW-0761, a next-generation humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody with a defucosylated Fc region, which enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Preclinical studies using KW-0761 demonstrated robust antitumor responses, and a phase I clinical trial showed preliminary potent activity against ATL in patients. In a multicenter, single-arm phase II study, Ishida and colleagues investigated the efficacy, pharmacokinetic profile, and safety of KW-0761 monotherapy in patients with relapsed CCR4-positive ATL (acute, lymphoma, or unfavorable chronic type) who had failed one or more prior chemotherapy regimens. The 2 most common treatment-related adverse events, ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and HIV. Hypereosiophilia or eosinophilia may be associated with the following autoimmune diseases ... Human immunodeficiency virus infection Interstitial nephropathy Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome, an immune disorder ... Eosinophil counts in human blood normally range between 100-500 per/μL. Maintenance of these levels results from a balance ... Beeken WL, Northwood I, Beliveau C, Baigent G, Gump D (1987). "Eosinophils of human colonic mucosa: C3b and Fc gamma receptor ...
Verdonck K, González E, Van Dooren S, Vandamme AM, Vanham G, Gotuzzo E (April 2007). "Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent ... Shukla NB, Poles MA (May 2004). "Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human ... Even though their virus levels may be low they can still spread the virus to others. Twenty-seven different viruses have been ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-venereal fluids, semen, breast milk, blood HPV (Human Papillomavirus)-skin and mucosal contact. ' ...
April 2007). "Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 7 (4 ... November 1995). "Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in coastal natives of British Columbia: phylogenetic affinities and possible ... 2004). "Provirus load in breast milk and risk of mother-to-child transmission of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I". The ... December 1999). "The presence of ancient human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I provirus DNA in an Andean mummy". Nature ...
Eusebio-Ponce E, Candel FJ, Anguita E (August 2019). "Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and associated diseases in Latin ... Other maternal infections of concern include active untreated tuberculosis or human T-lymphotropic virus. Mothers who take ... "Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)". www.health.gov.au. Retrieved 16 December 2017. Mead MN (October 2008). "Contaminants in ... Sun Y, Irie M, Kishikawa N, Wada M, Kuroda N, Nakashima K (October 2004). "Determination of bisphenol A in human breast milk by ...
Viruses have also been linked to some forms of leukemia. For example, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell ... Adult T-cell leukemia is caused by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), a virus similar to HIV. Like HIV, HTLV infects CD4+ T- ... Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II) are endemic in certain areas of the world.[citation needed] Clonal ...
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses~treatment at eMedicine Prayson, Richard A. (2011-11-15). Neuropathology. Elsevier Health ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1988). "Licensure of screening tests for antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type I". ... Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio (2015). "Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type-1- ... Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo (2012). "Clinical Pathophysiology of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-Type 1-Associated Myelopathy/ ...
Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Genus Epsilonretrovirus; type species: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Many viruses including herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) ... "Human T-lymphotropic virus, type 1, tax protein triggers microtubule reorientation in the virological synapse". J. Biol. Chem. ... As viral synapses allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell, they also provide a means by which the virus can escape ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 induces a stop signal and virological synapse formation in noninfected CD4+ ...
AIDS-related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Acute ... a group of viral illnesses that can affect horses and humans; collectively termed Equine encephalitis. Experimental autoimmune ... 2015 Mar 8;12(1):46. Melania Spadaro et al. Histopathology and clinical course of MOG-antibody-associated encephalomyelitis. ...
Roucoux DF, Murphy EL (2004). "The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II". AIDS Rev. 6 (3): ... Feuer G, Green PL (September 2005). "Comparative biology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2". ... Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) has been isolated in a small number of patients with the variant form of HCL. In the ... "Integrated human T-cell leukemia virus II genome in CD8 + T cells from a patient with "atypical" hairy cell leukemia: evidence ...
Since 1987 Bangham has conducted research on the Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). His contributions include the discovery ... "Human immunodeficiency virus genetic variation that can escape cytotoxic T cell recognition". Nature. 354 (6353): 453-459. ... subscription required) Bangham, Charles R. M. (1987). The cellular immune response to respiratory syncytial virus in mouse and ... HIV and murine leukaemia virus (MLV) are transmitted from cell-to-cell, starting a new field in virology. Bangham was elected a ...
"Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica". Clin Infect Dis. 34 (12 ... Examples include: Chickenpox Chlamydia Herpes simplex or Neonatal herpes simplex HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis ... "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with glycoprotein 120 and 41 ... "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection". International Journal ...
... caused by varicella zoster virus) Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause ... 2002). "Virus Markers Associated with Vertical Transmission of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in Jamaica". Clinical ... June 1992). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with ... "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection". International Journal ...
Examples include galactosemia, untreated HIV, untreated active tuberculosis, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 or II, uses illicit ... "Blocking vertical transmission of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 through breastfeeding interruption". The ... An individual with T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 will have excessive amounts of T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1. This often ... If a mother contains this virus and is not aware of it the spread to her infant can be at an all time high of 25%. There is ...
This includes Human T-lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs), bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) and simian T-lymphotropic viruses (STLVs). ... "The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes". Journal of Virology ... Tax is produced by members of the retroviral family primate T-lymphotropic virus, which are classified as Deltaretroviruses. ... "Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Inhibits Innate Antiviral Signaling via NF-κB-Dependent Induction of SOCS1". Journal of ...
Voevodin, A; Gessain, A (1997). "Common origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I from Iran, Kuwait, Israel, and La Réunion ... an encyclopedia of monkey and ape viruses and non-human primate models of human viral diseases. All-USSR Prize for Young ... His research focused on the oncogenic viruses, mostly of non-human primates. In 1984 he defended his D.Sc. dissertation " ... "Antibodies reacting with human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-I) or related antigens in lymphomatous and healthy hamadryas ...
A human T-lymphotropic virus antibody test, developed by Mucke's team but never marketed, served to demonstrate the first ... High proviral load of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome carrying HLA-A26. Leuk ... He developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in human ... Association of human T-cell leukemia virus and myelodysplastic syndrome in a central European population. Cancer Res. 57(21), ...
It can enhance the activity of proteins for viruses that cause cancer such as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV), ... "A human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 enhancer of Myc transforming potential stabilizes Myc-TIP60 transcriptional ... Additionally, KAT5 reacts with human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer. Other proteins that KAT5 ... Van Den Broeck A, Nissou D, Brambilla E, Eymin B, Gazzeri S (Feb 2012). "Activation of a Tip60/E2F1/ERCC1 network in human lung ...
Bushmeat hunters in Central Africa infected with the human T-lymphotropic virus were closely exposed to wild primates. Results ... "Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Emergence of zoonotic diseases caused by transmission of highly variable retrovirus chains: Outbreaks of the Ebola virus in the ... Shooting an animal in a confined area (canned hunting). Stephen Corry, director of the human-rights group Survival ...
... 's anti-viral effect is present in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) cell culture model. hnRNPA1 inhibits ... As a result, the role of hnRNPA1 in HIV-1's life cycle is somewhat controversial. Mutations in hnRNP A1 are a cause of ... In the case of some viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), contradictory results have been reported in ... In the case of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive sense RNA virus, hnRNPA1 interacts with a crucial region near the 3' end of ...
Eusebio-Ponce, Emiliana; Candel, Francisco Javier; Anguita, Eduardo (August 2019). "Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and ... Other maternal infections of concern include active untreated tuberculosis or human T-lymphotropic virus. Mothers who take ... "Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)". www.health.gov.au. Retrieved 16 December 2017.. ... US Department of Health and Human Services.. *^ Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC (2010). "Use of mass media campaigns to change ...
1983: Mitsuaki Yoshida identified the molecular structure of Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 responsible for Adult T-cell leukemia ...
"Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica". Clin Infect Dis. 34 (12 ... "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection". International Journal ... "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with glycoprotein 120 and 41 ... Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 582-593. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu007. ISSN 1355-4786. PMID 24619876.. ...
... human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Transfusion. 34 (6): 478-83. doi: ... Criminal transmission of HIV is the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Benaissa has claimed she had been told by doctors that the risk of passing on the virus was "practically zero". The HIV trial ... E.J. Bernard (22 July 2010). "Where HIV is a crime, not just a virus: a global ranking of prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, ...
"Differential activation of viral and cellular promoters by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 tax and cAMP-responsive element ... CREM+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CREM genome location and CREM ... cAMP responsive element modulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREM gene, and it belongs to the cAMP- ... Less IL-2 will be produced from T cells in humans or mice with systemic lupus erythematousus (SLE). Some studies showed that an ...
Mariner JM, Lantz V, Waldmann TA, Azimi N (2001). "Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I Tax activates IL-15R alpha gene ... Mortier E, Bernard J, Plet A, Jacques Y (2004). "Natural, proteolytic release of a soluble form of human IL-15 receptor alpha- ... Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene ... Jacob CO, Mykytyn K, Varcony T, Drabkin HA (1993). "Mapping of the interleukin 5 receptor gene to human chromosome 3 p25-p26 ...
... studied adult T-cell leukemia that develops in individuals infected with the retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV ... Therapy of patients with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus I-induced adult T-cell leukemia with anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody ... Vaccinia virus-based multivalent H5N1 avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with IL-15 confer sterile cross-clade protection in ... A monoclonal antibody (anti-Tac) reactive with activated and functionally mature human T cells. I. Production of anti-Tac ...
In central Australia, Indigenous Australians have human T-lymphotropic virus 1 at a rate thousands of times higher than non- ... Allam, Lorena (24 April 2018). "'People are scared': the fight against a deadly virus no one has heard of". The Guardian. ... This prompted health and human rights activists to establish the "Close the Gap" campaign, which focused on health equality for ... "Close the Gap report - "Our Choices, Our Voices" (2019)". Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 15 January 2020. Bond, ...
II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1". J. ... 1996). "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and ... Wu-Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor RB (1995). "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans- ... Keen NJ, Gait MJ, Karn J (1996). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated ...
II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1". J. ... Agostini I, Navarro JM, Rey F, Bouhamdan M, Spire B, Vigne R, Sire J (1996). "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr ... Wu-Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor RB (1995). "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans- ... Keen NJ, Gait MJ, Karn J (1996). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated ...
... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human ... herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... V3 loop - vaccination - vaccine - vaccinia - vaginal candidiasis - valley fever - variable region - varicella zoster virus (VZV ...
Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Genus Epsilonretrovirus; type species: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
"Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome ... "Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome ... In 2003, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy G. Thompson designated Bell chairperson of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-10.. ...
... including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), Lyme disease, and syphilis.[11] Neurological ... meaning that multiple copies of the mutant human gene are inserted into the transgenic model, and partly because the human ... doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30163-1. PMID 28522180.. *^ a b c d e f g Dorst J, Ludolph A, Huebers A (9 October 2017). "Disease- ... These trials in humans went ahead on the basis of positive results in SOD1 transgenic mice, which are not a good animal model ...
1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... 1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". ... 2002). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort ... Tóth FD, Bácsi A, Beck Z, Szabó J (2001). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ...
"Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human ... 1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". ... O grupo de Montagnier denominou o seu novo virus illado virus asociado á linfadenopatía (LAV).[181] Como estes dous virus se ... Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (2002). "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 6): 1253-65. PMID 12029140. ...
De Thé, G.; Bomford, R.; Kazanji, M.; Ibrahim, F. (1994). "Human T cell lymphotropic virus: Necessity for and feasibility of a ... Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... Hepatitis E virus. Hepatitis E. Hepatitis E vaccine. Hecolin Human papillomavirus. Cervical cancer, Genital warts, anogenital ... Polio virus. Poliomyelitis. Polio vaccine. Kinrix, Quadracel, Pediarix, Pentacel, Pediacel, Ipol Rabies virus. Rabies. Rabies ...
en:Human orthopneumovirus (21) → 호흡기 세포융합 바이러스 *en:Human reproduction (12). *en:Human T-lymphotropic virus (18) ...
... human immunodeficiency virus; sering disingkat HIV) adalah dua spesies lentivirus penyebab AIDS.[2] Virus ini menyerang manusia ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Science 220, 868 ... a b c d Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W. (2002) Human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J. Gen. Virol. 83, 1253-1265 PMID 12029140 ... virus itu disebut ALV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus)[6] Bersama dengan Luc Montagnier, mereka membuktikan bahwa virus ...
Verdonck, K.; González, E.; Van Dooren, S.; Vandamme, A. M.; Vanham, G.; Gotuzzo, E. (April 2007). "Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Shukla N, Poles M (2004). "Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human ... VIH (Virus da inmunodeficiencia humana) - fluídos venéreos, seme, leite materno, sangue. *VPH (Virus do papiloma humano) - ... O virus afecta as áreas onde entra no corpo. Isto pode acontecer con bicos, sexo vaxinal, sexo oral e anal. O virus é máis ...
4 Hepatitis D virus Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachlorophene Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II Hycanthone mesylate Hydralazine ... Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in ... is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure ... category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans ...
Human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I ... Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with) Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with) Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma- ... is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used ... associated herpesvirus) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with) ...
이전에는 인간 T-세포 림프종 바이러스-III(Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-III, HTLV-III), 림프절 종창 연관 바이러스(Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus, LAV), ... 인간면역결핍 바이러스(人間免疫缺乏 바이러스, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV)는, 발병하게 되면 AIDS로 진행하는, 인간의 면역체계를 파괴하는 레트로바이러스이다. 기회감염에 의한 사망에 이를 수 ... Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (2002). "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". 》J. Gen. Virol.》 83 (Pt 6): 1253-65. PMID 12029140. ... Kahn, J. O. and Walker, B. D. (1998). "Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection". 》N. Engl. J. Med.》 331 (1): 33-39 ...
Perhaps the best example of the importance of CD4+ T cells is demonstrated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. ... Once the virus becomes lymphotropic (or T-tropic) however, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently (likely due to ... For example, the Th2 cytokine IL-10 inhibits cytokine production of both Th subsets in humans. Human IL-10 (hIL-10) suppresses ... This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are ...
"Human herpesvirus 7 is a T-lymphotropic virus and is related to, but significantly different from, human herpesvirus 6 and ... "Modulatory effects of human herpes virus-7 on cytokine synthesis and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear ... "CD4 is a critical component of the receptor for human herpesvirus 7: interference with human immunodeficiency virus". ... Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is one of nine known members of the Herpesviridae family that infects humans. HHV-7 is a member of ...
II carboxyl-terminal domain for activated transcription of human retroviruses human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and HIV-1". J. ... "The human immunodeficiency virus tat protein increases the transcription of human Alu repeated sequences by increasing the ... "Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II". Proc. Natl. ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat is an integral component of the activated transcription-elongation complex". Proc. Natl ...
37.0 37.1 Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (2002). "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 6): 1253-65. doi: ... 1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". ... "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human ... Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G (2011 Dec). "Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk". The Indian journal of medical ...
... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human ...
Virusnya sendiri bernama Human Immunodeficiency Virus (atau disingkat HIV) yaitu virus yang memperlemah kekebalan pada tubuh ... "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 ( ... HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. CD4+: Sel T pembantu CCR5: Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5. CDC: Centers for Disease ... Hal ini karena infeksi oleh virus DNA penyebab mutasi genetik; yaitu terutama virus Epstein-Barr (EBV), virus herpes Sarkoma ...
... and the clonal composition of virus populations in the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". J Infect Dis. ... ng kanyang pangkat mula sa pasyente ng AIDS ay mapapansing katulad sa hugis sa ibang pantaong T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) na ... Ang Human immunodeficiency virus infection / Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) ay isang sakit ng sistemang immuno ... 2009). "A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas". Nat. Med. 15 (8): 871-2. doi:10.1038/nm.2016. PMID 19648927. ...
Viruses have also been linked to some forms of leukemia. For example, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell ... Adult T-cell leukemia is caused by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), a virus similar to HIV. Like HIV, HTLV infects CD4+ T- ... Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II) are endemic in certain areas of the world. ...
... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human ... Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukaemia.[180] Human ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus and hepatitis B virus, which normally replicates as a mixed double and single-stranded DNA virus but ... The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). 0.03. Adult T-cell leukemia[50]. Human papillomaviruses (HPV). 5.2. The types 16 and 18 are ... DNA viruses[edit]. *Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1. *HTLV-2, 3, 4). *Simian-T-lymphotropic virus (types 1-4) ... এইচ.আই.ভি. (ইংরেজি: HIV; পূর্ণরূপ: Human Immunodeficiency Virus হিউম্যান ইমিউনো ডেফিশিয়েন্সি ভাইরাস) বা মানব প্রতিরক্ষা ... Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (২০০২)। "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2"। J. Gen. Virol.। 83 (Pt 6): 1253-65। ডিওআই:10.1099/ ... "Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_T-lymphotropic_virus_1 human T-lymphotropic virus 1] ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_E_virus hepatitis E virus], [//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_herpesvirus_7 Human herpesvirus 7] ... Hepatitis E virus: a zoonosis adapting to humans,. journal. czasopismo. =The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,. volume. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps_virus mumps virus]. ,,ref name="pmid19870227",{{. cite. cytuj. journal. pismo. ,doi=10.1084/jem. ...
... for preventing transmission of infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in the ... universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne ... rubeola virus [measles], varicella virus [chickenpox], M. tuberculosis, and possibly SARS-CoV). ... Guidance on when and how human rights can be restricted to prevent the spread of infectious disease is found in The Siracusa ...
... such as human T-cell leukemia virus, or HTLV, the first retrovirus identified in humans, which Bernard Poiesz, another post- ... Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schüpbach J, Gallo RC (May 1984). "Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic ... Gallo, Robert (1991). Virus Hunting: AIDS, Cancer & The Human Retrovirus. A Story of Scientific Discovery. ISBN 0-465-09806-1. ... He is best known for his role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the infectious agent responsible ...
Verdonck K, González E, Van Dooren S, Vandamme AM, Vanham G, Gotuzzo E (April 2007). "Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent ... Shukla NB, Poles MA (May 2004). "Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human ... HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-venereal fluids, semen, breast milk, blood. *HPV (Human Papillomavirus)-skin and mucosal ... HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) damages the body's immune system, which interferes with its ability to fight off disease- ...
... or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T- ... International Retrovirology Association Human+T-lymphotropic+virus+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... 2005). "Differences in viral and host genetic risk factors for development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)- ... Verdonck, K, González, E, Dooren, SV, Vandamme, AM, Vanham, G, Gotuzzo, E (2007). "Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent ...
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) Differentiation. TEST: 164129 Test number copied ... Transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II by blood transfusion. A retrospective study of recipients of blood ... Assessment of a new immunoassay for serological confirmation and discrimination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus infections. ... Combatting Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Statement. © 2018 Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings. All Rights ...
The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and type II: Etiologic role in human disease. Transfusion. 1991 ... Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2), Qualitative. TEST: 163246 Test number copied ... Qualitative detection of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus, types 1 and/or 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) ... Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. J Infect Dis. 1983; 4147(3):406-16. 6300254 ...
... virus; infection and transmission routes; malignant diseases caused by HTLV-1 virus. ... General information about structure and classification of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (north American isolate) *HTLV-1 subtype B *Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( ... NCBI classification of Human T-lymphotropic virus 1:. *HTLV-1 subtype A *Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (Caribbean ...
Two novel viruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 4 (HTLV-4), have ... Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) belong to the Retroviridae ... Higher Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) Provirus Load Is Associated with HTLV-I versus HTLV-II, with HTLV-II Subtype A versus ...
2012 Jan 1;54(1):43-50. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir766. Epub 2011 Nov 17. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Bronchiectasis is associated with human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection in an Indigenous Australian population.. Einsiedel L1 ... Recent studies suggest that infection with human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) might be associated with bronchiectasis among ... Cor pumonale (HTLV-1-positive group, 10/52; HTLV-1-negative group, 1/37; P = .023) was more frequent among HTLV-1-seropositive ...
Table 2: The prevalence of HTLV1 antibodies in studied subjects according to the age distribution of women and their gestational age ...
... exhibits significant amino acid sequence similarity to E5 oncoprotein of bovine papilloma virus I; binds to the beta chain of ... p12I protein, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1; ORF1 protein, HTLV-1; p12 protein, HTLV-I; p12(I) protein, HTLV-I; p12-I protein, ... Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p12I protein. Subscribe to New Research on Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p12I protein ... exhibits significant amino acid sequence similarity to E5 oncoprotein of bovine papilloma virus I; binds to the beta chain of ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p21X protein: the complete amino acid sequence of p21X is contained within the C-terminal portion ... Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p21X protein. Subscribe to New Research on Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 p21X protein ... p21X protein, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1; p21X protein, HTLV-I; p21X protein, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 ...
HTLV-1 prevalence may be high outside areas where HTLV-1 previously was known to be endemic. ... The prevalence of infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in blood donors from Israel is 1 infection/ ... Lin BT, Musset M, Szekely AM, Alexandre J, Fraitag S, Bodemer C, Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-positive T-cell leukemia/ ... Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 among blood donors from Mashhad, Iran. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2593-5. DOI ...
No other risk factors for bloodborne virus acquisition were identified. Onward sexual transmission has occurred. ... We report human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection associated with self-flagellation in 10 UK residents. These persons ... One person showed seroconversion in adulthood; 1 was co-infected with hepatitis C virus. ... We report human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection associated with self-flagellation in 10 UK residents. These persons ...
A high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV 1/2) infection among Afro-descendants, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador - ... Background: Infection with the Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 is endemic in South America. Although there ... A high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV 1/2) infection among Afro-descendants, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador - ... Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1/2 antibodies in this population, as determined with an ELISA, was 11.0%. Both the IF ...
In 252 patients treated with ivermectin, serum IgE levels and peripheral eosinophil counts were significantly lower in HTLV-1 ... In addition, the anthelmintic effect was significantly lower in patients with HTLV-1 infection compared with patients without ... Our prospective study demonstrated a prevalence rate for strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1 infections, and clearly demonstrated that ... HTLV-1). The prevalence rate of Strongyloides stercoralis and HTLV-1 infection were 6.3% and 14.0%, respectively. Among 2,185 ...
Immunoassays based on the highly immunogenic transmembrane protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) (protein ... Enhanced specificity of truncated transmembrane protein for serologic confirmation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( ... Enhanced specificity of truncated transmembrane protein for serologic confirmation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( ... Enhanced specificity of truncated transmembrane protein for serologic confirmation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( ...
1992) Human sera from varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections cross-react with human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): ... Human endogenous retroviruslike genome with type C pol sequences and gag sequences related to human T-cell lymphotropic viruses ... 1993) Human T lymphotropic virus type I/II in Lake Lindu Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6 ... 1991) Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) seroprevalence in Jamaica. I. Demographic determinants. Am. J. Epidemiol. 133: ...
Two individuals were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). One of these individuals was coinfected with ... and polymerase chain reaction analysis performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified HTLV-2 as the specific virus ... Abstract To assess the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infections among potentially high- ... The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 2% (2 of 105) among prostitutes, 7% (29 of 410) among prisoners, 1% (1 of 105) among homosexual/ ...
Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a major health problem that effects a variety of endemic ... of donated bloods in blood transfusion centers of Mazandaran province should be considered to decrease the risk of virus ... There is a lack of information about HTLV-1 prevalence among blood donors from Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.Objectives ... Serum samples from each blood donor were screened for HTLV-1 specific antibodies using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ...
Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy ... Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy ... One of the rare underlying diseases that can exhibit neurogenic bladder dysfunction is human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV- ... we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type ...
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax mediates enhanced transcription in CD4+ T lymphocytes.. G C Newbound, J M Andrews, J ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax mediates enhanced transcription in CD4+ T lymphocytes. ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax mediates enhanced transcription in CD4+ T lymphocytes. ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax mediates enhanced transcription in CD4+ T lymphocytes. ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus associated with adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated ... Cerebellitis in a human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carrier: a case report ... Cerebellitis in a human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carrier: a case report ...
Human T Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 1 and 2 (Virology). I am a... -- Select Persona --. Patient, Visitor or Carer. Health ... Human T Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 1 and 2 (Virology) Tropical spastic paraperesis ...
The Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) subtype C is endemic to central Australia where each of the major sequelae of ... Among 1889 Indigenous patients whose HTLV-1 serostatus was known, 635 (33.6 %) were HTLV-1 Western blot positive. Only one of ... Risk factors for HTLV-1 infection were retrospectively determined for a cohort of Indigenous Australians who were tested for ... Multiple modes of transmission are therefore likely to contribute to high rates of HTLV-1 infection in the Indigenous ...
Selective ablation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 p12I reduces viral infectivity in vivo. Blood 91:4701-4707. ... The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 p12I protein binds the interleukin-2 receptor beta and gamma(c) chains and ... The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I p12I protein cooperates with the E5 oncoprotein of bovine papillomavirus in ... Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 open reading frame I p12I is required for efficient viral infectivity in primary lymphocytes ...
Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive ... Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive ... Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive ... Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive ...
Factors associated with pain in individuals infected by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). by Logan Thomison , ... This cross-sectional study was conducted in a reference center for treatment of patients infected with HTLV-1 in Salvador, ... The study included individuals infected with HTLV-1, over 18 years, and excluded those with difficulty to respond the pain ... Despite the high prevalence of chronic pain in individuals infected with HTLV-1, predictive and protective factors for its ...
Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34( ... trends of seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus 1 ... Geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 among mothers of newborns tested during neonatal screening ... Human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are human retroviruses with tropism for T-lymphocytes. HTLV-1 was ...
Cell-to-cell transmission in the pathogenesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic ... human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) also utilizes cell-to-cell transmission. The transmission is undergone through so- ... Virus transmission is an important key factor for understanding the pathomechanism(s) of virus-related neurological diseases. ... In the past, cell-free transmission was believed to be a major route of virus spread for almost all viruses. However, attention ...
... we detected an association between human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) in ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is endemic to central Australia among Indigenous Australians. However, virologic and ... High Prevalence of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Infection in Indigenous Women from the Peruvian Amazon ... Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia ...
Human Ocular-Derived Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells Control Varicella Zoster Virus Replication in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial ... K Masuoka, K Sagawa, M Mochizuki, K Oizumi, K Itoh; Polyclonal use of T-cell receptor alpha for human T-cell lymphotropic virus ... Polyclonal use of T-cell receptor alpha for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T cells. ... Polyclonal use of T-cell receptor alpha for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T cells. ...
The immunopathology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) uveitis was addressed by using T cell clones (TCC) ... Immunopathological mechanisms of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) associated disease. Analysis of T-cell clones ... HTLV-I infection on TCC was confirmed by analysis of the viral mRNA,nucleotide sequence, virus-associated proteins and virus ...
  • Two individuals were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (ajtmh.org)
  • Of 1977 patients, 5 (0.3%) had antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), including 2 with HTLV-I and HIV-1 coinfection. (nih.gov)
  • Campos KR, Gonçalves MG, Costa NA, Caterino-de-Araujo A. Comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays for detecting human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (157.86.246)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) and human T‐cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV‐1 and ‐2) are retroviruses that share similar routes of transmission and some individuals may have a dual infection. (unicamp.br)
  • Chemokine receptors pivotal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in lymphocytes and macrophages (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4) are expressed on neural cells (microglia, astrocytes, and/or neurons). (elsevier.com)
  • While the epidemic by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 continues to spread without hope for much relief in sight, intriguing questions and answers in the area of diagnostics, clinical manifestations and therapeutical approaches to viral infections are unveiled daily. (springer.com)
  • A patient infected with HTLV can be diagnosed when antibodies against HTLV-1 are detected in the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (ATLA) in sera from patients with ATL and controls in Japan: A nation-wide seroepidemiologic study. (labcorp.com)
  • Because of reports of HTLV-1-associated diseases in Mashhadi Jews, the Israeli national blood services, Magen David Adom, began screening all blood units for HTLV-1 antibodies in 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunoassays based on the highly immunogenic transmembrane protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) (protein 21c) are capable of detecting antibodies in all individuals infected with HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. (asm.org)
  • However, most of these reports were based only on first-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests which were shown to be sensitive but not specific for the detection of HTLV-1 antibodies ( 11 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • To assess the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infections among potentially high-risk populations in the city of Tijuana, Mexico, the prevalence of specific antibodies was determined and information on risk behaviors was obtained between June and October 1988. (ajtmh.org)
  • The presence of HTLV-1/2 antibodies was determined by enzyme immunoassay and an immunofluorescence method, and positive reactions were confirmed by a radioimmunoprecipitation assay and Western blot. (ajtmh.org)
  • Serum samples from each blood donor were screened for HTLV-1 specific antibodies using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (magiran.com)
  • Samples that were repeatedly reactive for HTLV-1 specific antibodies on serological screening were additionally confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs). (magiran.com)
  • During September November 2007, the dry-blood samples taken from newborns on filter paper for routine screening were also tested for maternal IgG anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies. (scielosp.org)
  • Cell-to-cell transmission appears to be more effective, as progeny viruses do not have to encounter antibodies. (ovid.com)
  • The presence of anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies were primarily assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Ab Kit assay, contain antigens for the screening of antibodies to HTLV type 1 and 2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibodies [ 11 , 12 ] and cytotoxic T cells [ 13 ] that recognize recombinant proteins or peptides of the pX ORF I and II proteins are present in HTLV-1 infected patients and asymptomatic carriers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Age was described as mean ± standard de- began screening all blood units for HTLV-1 antibodies in viation. (cdc.gov)
  • All participants were screened for the presence of plasma anti-HTLV-1 antibodies (ELISA: Murex Biotech Limited, UK) and positivity was confirmed by qualitative nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis performed at the Hemope Foundation (blood center of PE). (fiocruz.br)
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against human CD3, CD8, IgE and FoxP3. (utmb.edu)
  • HTLV-1 patients with KCS, enrolled in a reference ambulatory of the city of Salvador, were tested for autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La. Two comparison groups were also included: (a) HTLV-1 patients without KCS and (b) seronegative patients with KCS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • METHODS: Two screening immunoassays and an immunoblot (confirmatory assay) were used for detection of HLTV-1/2 antibodies. (notifylibrary.org)
  • A 3-mL blood specimen was collected from each patient and tested for the presence of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (aimjournal.ir)
  • The present study evaluated a new confirmatory assay for antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) proteins performed with serum samples from various commercial sources. (asm.org)
  • Accurate confirmation of the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 antibodies and accurate discrimination of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 antibodies were obtained for all the HTLV-seropositive samples. (asm.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1' or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retrovirus is now generally called HTLV-I because later studies proved that ATLV is the same as the firstly identified human retrovirus called HTLV discovered by Bernard Poiesz and Francis Ruscetti and their co-workers in the laboratory of Robert C. Gallo at the National Cancer Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTLV-1 is a retrovirus belonging to the family retroviridae and the genus deltaretrovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTLV-1, a human type C retrovirus, is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other demyelinating and neoplastic conditions. (labcorp.com)
  • The Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type (HTLV) retrovirus is the causative agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), uveitis, infective dermatitis, inflammatory disorders, and emerging syndromes that are associated with HTLV 6 - 9 . (scielo.br)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus associated with adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). (bmj.com)
  • As a complex retrovirus, HTLV-1 contains typical structural and enzymatic genes, as well as regulatory and accessory genes encoded in the pX region. (asm.org)
  • Although it does not appear to dysregulate IL-2 receptor signaling pathways in HTLV-1-immortalized cell lines ( 10 ), the transduction of primary lymphocytes with a retrovirus vector expressing p12 I causes a modest increase in Stat5 phosphorylation and may reduce IL-2 requirements for T-cell proliferation ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus is a retrovirus belonging to the genus deltaretrovirus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HTLV-1 was the first known retrovirus linked to human disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HITV-1 is an endemic retrovirus and infects CD4 + T cells. (scirp.org)
  • Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with chronic, persistent infection of human T cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus. (pnas.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus identified in human. (aimjournal.ir)
  • A retrovirus is a type of RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus changing the genome of that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects 10 to 20 million people worldwide, as estimated by seroprevalence studies. (uptodate.com)
  • HTLV-1 infections can be confirmed and differentiated from HTLV-2 infections by using highly purified recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides which are either type common or type specific. (labcorp.com)
  • Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. (labcorp.com)
  • The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and type II: Etiologic role in human disease. (labcorp.com)
  • Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is an RNA virus which belongs to the genus Deltaretrovirus , subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, family Retroviridae. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • In the latest International Taxonomy Committee of Viruses (ICTV) classification (8th report), this genus includes three primate species: Primate T-lymphotropic virus type 1, 2, and 3 (PTLV-1, PTLV-2, PTLV-3). (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a cancerous growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cells with severe organ infiltration. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. (scielo.br)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) belong to the Retroviridae family and the genus deltaretrovirus. (scielo.br)
  • The prevalence of infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in blood donors from Israel is 1 infection/100,000 persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is prevalent mostly in Japan, Africa, the Caribbean Islands, and South America ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection associated with self-flagellation in 10 UK residents. (cdc.gov)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is transmitted sexually, by contaminated blood products, by organ transplantation, or from mother to child. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with the Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 is endemic in South America. (dovepress.com)
  • A large-scale study was undertaken to clarify the prevalence rate of strongyloidiasis in Okinawa, Japan and to evaluate the relationship between strongyloidiasis and infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (ajtmh.org)
  • Immunoepidemiologic studies of Strongyloides stercoralis and human T lymphotropic virus type I infections in Jamaica. (ajtmh.org)
  • Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 infection in Peru. (ajtmh.org)
  • Enhanced specificity of truncated transmembrane protein for serologic confirmation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 infections by western blot (immunoblot) assay containing recombinant envelope glycoproteins. (asm.org)
  • This recombinant GD21-I protein was used in conjunction with additional recombinant HTLV type-specific proteins and a whole virus lysate to develop a modified Western blot (immunoblot) assay (HTLV WB 2.4). (asm.org)
  • To gain insight on the significance of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) indeterminate serological reactivities, we studied villagers of South Cameroon, focusing on a frequent and specific HTLV-1 Gag indeterminate profile (HGIP) pattern ( gag p19, p26, p28, and p30 without p24 or Env gp21 and gp46). (asm.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia ( 48 ) and of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-l associated myelopathy ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a major health problem that effects a variety of endemic regions, including the Northeast of Iran. (magiran.com)
  • Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of the rare underlying diseases that can exhibit neurogenic bladder dysfunction is human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) associated myelopathy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax mediates enhanced transcription in CD4+ T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is associated with a variety of immunoregulatory disorders. (asm.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) establishes persistent infection and is associated with lymphoproliferative or neurodegenerative diseases. (asm.org)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, immortalizes and eventually transforms primary T lymphocytes after long-term culture ( 3 , 20 , 24 , 46 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive expression of the interleukin-5 gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells. (asm.org)
  • Factors associated with pain in individuals infected by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Although this mode of virus transmission was first highlighted in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis caused by a variant of measles virus, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) also utilizes cell-to-cell transmission. (ovid.com)
  • Polyclonal use of T-cell receptor alpha for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immunopathological mechanisms of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) associated disease. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The immunopathology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) uveitis was addressed by using T cell clones (TCC) established from the intraocular fluid of patients with HTLV-I uveitis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects 20 million individuals worldwide and is the causative agent of HTLV associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). (checkorphan.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a worldwide distribution and it is endemic in some regions of Iran. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in the southern part of Japan. (scirp.org)
  • Mise en évidence de structures de type "biofilm ", formées par le rétrovirus HTLV-1 générés par des cellules infectées (cellules du haut), qui ont été transmis à un autre lymphocyte (cellule du bas). (pasteur.fr)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated bronchioloalveolar disorder (HABA) is a unique chronic and progressive respiratory disorder occurring in patients with smouldering adult T-cell leukaemia or in HTLV-I carriers. (journalpulmonology.org)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), has been found in various body fluids, including blood, semen, and saliva. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolation of human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) from the tears of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cdc.gov)
  • The information and recommendations in this document are intended to assist health-care providers and state and local health departments in developing procedures to prevent perinatal transmission of human T-lympho- tropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cdc.gov)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transcription is controlled, in part, by the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors which bind promoter sequences and function as complexes with the viral oncogenic protein Tax. (elsevier.com)
  • Previous recommendations on preventing the transmission of the human T-lymphotropic virus type III/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the workplace have emphasized health care settings. (annals.org)
  • Northern African strains of human T - lymphotropic virus type 1 arose from a recombination event. (wroc.pl)
  • Human T - lymphotropic virus type 1 infective dermatitis in central Australia. (wroc.pl)
  • A chimeric human T cell leukemia virus type I bearing a deltaR Moloney-murine leukemia virus envelope infects mice persistently and induces humoral and cellular immune responses. (wroc.pl)
  • Molecular cloning of a novel human I-mfa domain-containing protein that differently regulates human T -cell leukemia virus type I and HIV-1 expression. (wroc.pl)
  • CREB-2, a cellular CRE-dependent transcription repressor, functions in association with Tax as an activator of the human T -cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter. (wroc.pl)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is transmitted primarily either through sexual intercourse or from mother to child . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), the role of viral gene expression in the progression to and maintenance of the leukemic state in vivo is unclear because of the inability of most previous studies to readily detect HTLV-I RNA in infected individuals. (pnas.org)
  • We report the cases of 5 adolescents with human T lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, acquired in all but 1 case from the mother. (oup.com)
  • Type 1 Infection in with the PRISM assay (Abbott Laboratories). (cdc.gov)
  • We considered infection to be acquired outside Israel when tropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in blood donors from Israel is 1 infection/100,000 persons. (cdc.gov)
  • H classification of geographic origin of blood donors (both uman T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is HTLV-1 positive and HTLV-1 negative) is given in the prevalent mostly in Japan, Africa, the Caribbean Is- online Technical Appendix (available from www.cdc.gov/ lands, and South America ( 1,2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: The Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (IDH), is a chronic relapsing dermatitis which usually presents in children older than 2years. (uct.ac.za)
  • To study the seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in a sexually active population and to determine sexual behavior risk factors for infection. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical associations of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 infection in an indigenous Australian population. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and spastic paraparesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus Type 1 among blood donors from Mashhad, Iran. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Influence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 coinfection on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 prevalence in Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar: an epidemiologic- based study and phylogenetic analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can induce adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-I) infection is currently a serious problem of public health in several areas of the world including Japan, some regions of Africa, the Caribbean coast and some South American countries, affecting more than 20 million of inhabitants worldwide (1-3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 open reading frame I p12(I) is required for efficient viral infectivity in primary lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On November 29, 1988, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations to screen all whole blood donations in the United States for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis is a demyelinating inflammatory neurologic disease associated with HTLV-1 infection. (pnas.org)
  • PCR tests were more efficient for identifying the virus type, detecting HTLV-2 infection and defining inconclusive cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cardoso DF, de Souza FV, Fonseca LAM, Duarte AJS, Casseb J. Influence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection on laboratory parameters of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. (157.86.246)
  • Hepatitis C virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 co-infection: impact on liver disease, virological markers, and neurological outcomes. (157.86.246)
  • Increased hepatitis C virus load among injection drug users infected with human immunodeficiency virus and human T lymphotropic virus type II. (157.86.246)
  • Hepatitis B virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 co-infection in the Northern Territory, Australia. (157.86.246)
  • Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many regions of the world, including Brazil, and has been associated to several immunological manifestations such as arthritis, uveitis, dermatitis and Sjögren's syndrome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Keratoconjunctivitis sicca of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected individuals is associated with high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunologic markers, uveitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Proviral load and immune markers associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Peru. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA viral load among asymptomatic patients and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ocular lesions in 200 patients infected by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in martinique (French West Indies). (semanticscholar.org)
  • A description of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-related chronic interstitial keratitis in 20 patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Delayed seroconversion and rapid onset of lymphoproliferative disease after transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from a multiorgan donor. (notifylibrary.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) screening of blood and organ donors is not mandatory in Germany because of its low prevalence (about 7/100 000). (notifylibrary.org)
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular pattern of all available Brazilian human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Env (n = 15) and Pol (n = 43) nucleotide sequences via epitope prediction, physico-chemical analysis, and protein potential sites identification, giving support to the Brazilian AIDS vaccine program. (krisp.org.za)
  • Citation: Mota-Miranda AC, de Oliveira T , Moreau DR, Bomfim C, Galvao-Castro B, Alcantara LC Jr. Mapping the molecular characteristics of Brazilian human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Env (gp46) and Pol amino acid sequences for vaccine design Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz,102(6):741-9 (2007). (krisp.org.za)
  • The prevalence of markers for human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2), human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was evaluated in a population of 305 multiply transfused thalassemia patients in Belgium, France, and Italy (Sicily). (uclouvain.be)
  • Mardani M, Tehrani S, Hemmatian M. Spontaneous Bladder Rupture in a Patient With Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: A Case Report, Arch Clin Infect Dis. (archcid.com)
  • Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare manifestation of hyporeflexic bladder due to HAM/TSP ( human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( HTLV1) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis). (archcid.com)
  • One of the rare underlying diseases that can exhibit neurogenic bladder dysfunction is human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 ( HTLV) ( 3 ).We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in a patient with a history of HTLV1 . (archcid.com)
  • Yahyapour Y, Aghajanipour K, Mir S M, Khademian A, Sadeghi F. Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in Blood Donors from Babol County Blood Transfusion Center: A Pilot Study From Northern Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 ( HTLV-1 ) is a worldwide health problem and is the etiological agent for aggressive T-cell malignancy, known as Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) as well as HTLV-1 -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) ( 1 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection has been recognized throughout the world, yet is found predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, south-west Japan, Caribbean basin, parts of South America, the Melanesian Islands, and the Middle East ( 3 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax exerts pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular regulatory processes to bring about NF-κB activation, aberrant cell cycle progression, and cell transformation. (utmb.edu)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). (pasteur.fr)
  • To examine the biochemical mechanism of Tax 1 transactivation, we have developed an in vitro transactivation assay in which wild-type Tax 1 is able to specifically transactivate a polymerase II promoter through upstream Tax 1 -responsive elements. (elsevier.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax 1 induces the activation and nuclear localization of the cellular transcription factor, NF-κB. (northwestern.edu)
  • Treatment of cells with calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, blocked induction of NF-κB DNA binding activity in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-transformed C81 cells and Tax 1 -stimulated murine pre-B cells, suggesting that PKC was an important intermediate in the NF-κB induction pathway. (northwestern.edu)
  • Transfection of Jurkat cells with wild-type Tax 1 stimulated membrane translocation of PKC. (northwestern.edu)
  • Iatrogenic transmission of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus through parenteral treatment and chemoprophylaxis of sleeping sickness in colonial Equatorial Africa. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Clonal proliferation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells has been detected by Southern blot analysis and inverse PCR in patients with adult T-cell leukemia, patients with HTLV-I-associated diseases, and even in asymptomatic carriers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are the only known human Oncoviridae . (asm.org)
  • Although HTLV-2 was initially isolated from two patients with hairy-cell leukemia, it has not been possible to conclusively associate the virus with any type of leukemia or other disease. (asm.org)
  • HTLV-1 decreases Th2 type of immune response in patients with strongyloidiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Atypical clinical presentation of strongyloidiasis in a patient co-infected with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type I. Am J Trop Med Hyg . (medscape.com)
  • See 'Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology' . (uptodate.com)
  • HTLV-2, despite its close relationship to HTLV-1, has distinctive pathogenesis and transmission characteristics, such as a lower provirus load 10 , 11 , a higher occurrence of pneumonia and bronchitis 12 , 13 and a similar prevalence in males and females, which suggests that sexual transmission of the virus might be equally efficient between the sexes 14 . (scielo.br)
  • i Reasons for HTLV-1 testing included: a) to investigate the cause of conditions thought to be HTLV-1 associated (Group 1, n = 1431), b) as part of a blood borne virus surveillance program among patients receiving haemodialysis (Group 2, n = 334) and c) after enrollment as subjects without current clinical evidence of HTLV-1 associated conditions in HTLV-1 pathogenesis studies (Group 3, n = 124). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. (pasteur.fr)
  • pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 II and p30 II , which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, visualization of antigen-specific T cells demonstrates that HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific CD8 + T cells are activated, persist during the chronic phase of the disease, and accumulate in cerebrospinal fluid, showing their pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this neurologic disease. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, in this study, no changes were observed in humoral immunity concerning production of certain autoantibodies in HTLV-1-infected patients with KCS, which suggests that other mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of this manifestation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The current evidence is quite scarce regarding the potential role of HTLV-1 in pathogenesis of hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. (aimjournal.ir)
  • For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that HTLV-1 virus is likely not involved in the pathogenesis of classic MF/SS since it drives a very different pathway of lymphomagenesis based on our findings in these cells. (nih.gov)
  • Simian-T-lymphotropic viruses, also Simian T-cell leukemia viruses (STLVs), are retroviruses closely related to the human sexually and breastfeeding transmissible viruses HTLV. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 was co-infected with hepatitis C virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Validation of Multiplex Serology for human hepatitis viruses B and C, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and Toxoplasma gondii. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serological assays for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) and the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) were developed and validated against established reference assays. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All HTLV-1-positive donors had negative sero- logic results for HTLV-2, human immunodeficiency virus, The Study hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B surface antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • The early innate response to several viruses such as influenza virus, Sendai virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and adenovirus consists of interleukin (IL)-1ß production via inflammasome activation. (fiocruz.br)
  • The impact of human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection on clinical and immunologic outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus. (157.86.246)
  • Castro E, Roger E. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 coinfection: regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs. (157.86.246)
  • 19. Le Marchand C, Bahia F, Page K, Brites C. Hepatitis C virus infection and spontaneous clearance in HTLV-1 and HIV co-infected patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. (157.86.246)
  • With the exception of HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, and anti-hepatitis B surface antigen assays, all markers were encountered more frequently in Sicilian patients than in French or Belgian patients. (uclouvain.be)
  • 9 mg/dL, blood urea = 36 mg/dL, LDH = 498 U/L, AST = 83 U/L, Alt = 33 U/L, total bilirubin = 0/6 (direct = 0/4), negative hepatitis B surface ( HBS ) Ag, anti HCV Ab, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab. (archcid.com)
  • As proxies for highly lethal HIV-1, we investigated risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infections, blood-borne viruses compatible with prolonged survival, in an area known in 1936-1950 as the most virulent focus of African trypanosomiasis. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Since July 1997, our group has been following a cohort to study the interaction of HTLV with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as HTLV‐1‐only infected asymptomatic carriers or those already presenting with TSP/HAM. (unicamp.br)
  • Hepatitis B virus ) viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis viruses (B and C) are responsible for 70-85% of primary liver cancers. (cancerquest.org)
  • Twenty-two percent (9 of 41) were serologically positive for HTLV-1/2, and polymerase chain reaction analysis performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified HTLV-2 as the specific virus prevalent in this group. (ajtmh.org)
  • Proviral DNA was quantified in blood and biopsies of organ recipients by HTLV-1 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (notifylibrary.org)
  • To document changes (if any) in levels of Epstein-Barr virus copy number by polymerase chain reaction during CHOP-alemtuzumab therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood samples are examined by polymerase chain reaction to detect cytomegalovirus antigen and to monitor Epstein-Barr virus copy number. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Assessment of a new immunoassay for serological confirmation and discrimination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus infections. (labcorp.com)
  • Infections with this virus have also been documented in the United States. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • ATLL is a highly aggressive malignancy and patients usually die within 1-2 years of diagnosis, typically due to infections, excess of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and bone lesions. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Of these, 73 HTLV-1 carriers were identified, for an overall prevalence of 5.8 infections per 100,000 donors. (cdc.gov)
  • The estimate of 5-10 million global infections excludes 85% of the general population, for which testing has not occurred, and is probably an underestimate ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the highly sensitive, GD21-I-based HTLV WB 2.4 assay eliminates the majority of false-positive transmembrane results, thereby increasing the specificity for serologic confirmation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections. (asm.org)
  • Thus, it was suggested that persons from South America, Melanesia, and Africa whose serum exhibits different isolated Gag reactivities did not have genuine HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 infections ( 19 , 21 , 22 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • A part of HTLV-1- infected patients develop ATL, who often suffer from opportunistic infections due to cellular immunodeficiency. (scirp.org)
  • Decline in human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 prevalence in urban areas of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: exploring the association with HIV infections. (lu.se)
  • This informa- tified, for an overall prevalence of 5.8 infections per 100,000 tion may reflect the distribution of HTLV-1 within the re- donors. (cdc.gov)
  • Assone T, Paiva A, Fonseca LA, Casseb J. Genetic markers of the host in persons living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV infections. (157.86.246)
  • Current prevalence and risk factors associated with HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections among HIV/AIDS patients in São Paulo, Brazil. (157.86.246)
  • Although usually asymptomatic, overwhelming infections can occur in Strongyloides and HTLV-1 co-infected individuals (SS/HTLV-1). (utmb.edu)
  • In order to prevent the spread of HTLV infections to areas where such infections are not endemic, various public health authorities have recommended the routine screening of blood donations for the presence of serological markers to these viruses ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Since infectious diseases are dynamic, the maps are presented in the context of a changing world, and how these changes are influencing the geographical distribution on human infections. (wiley.com)
  • Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. (labcorp.com)
  • Deltaretrovirus also includes bovine leukemia virus that infects cattle. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • ORF I mRNA can be detected in HTLV-1-infected cells derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers ( 5 , 7 - 9 , 22 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to Adult T-cell Leukemia and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, a significant correlation between infection by the virus and diseases such as uveitis, polymyositis, arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome, and infective dermatitis was also reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of the virus can cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), while most infected individuals remain in a carrier state for a long period of time. (scirp.org)
  • It can cause human adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma ( 1 ) and a slowly progressive demyelinating neurologic disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • HTLV-1 has been etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and several other conditions ( 12 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). (nih.gov)
  • Our work demonstrates that unlike classic advanced MF/SS cells that acquire many ongoing balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations, HTLV-1 + CTCL leukemia cells are diploid and exhibit only a minimal number of non-specific chromosomal alterations. (nih.gov)
  • The knowledge about HTLV-1 epidemiology is limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Ma- systematic screening of blood donors, enabled us to exam- gen David Adom National Blood Services, Ramat Gan, Israel (V. ine the global epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection. (cdc.gov)
  • We provide epidemiologic findings and HTLV-1 proviral load (HTLV-1 DNA copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) for this case-patient and 9 other asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers of similar demography who reported a history of self-flagellation in Iraq, Pakistan, India, or the United Kingdom ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • High circulating proviral load with oligoclonal expansion of HTLV-1 bearing T cells in HTLV-1 carriers with strongyloidiasis. (wroc.pl)
  • The current study investigated sexual transmission and compared the HTLV-1 proviral load between seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples by examining both men and women among the index partners without using subjective criteria to establish the direction of sexual transmission . (bvsalud.org)
  • The HTLV-1 proviral load was compared between 19 and 37 seroconcordant and serodiscondant couples , respectively, and the concordant couples showed higher proviral loads (P = 0.03). (bvsalud.org)
  • 2012), while efficient antigen presentation and cytolytic activity of HTLV-1-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes have been associated with HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) control. (fiocruz.br)
  • Correlation of proviral load (PVL) in HTLV-1 patients with presence or absence of KCS was also assessed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oral health profile in patients infected with HTLV-1: clinical findings, proviral load, and molecular analysis from HTLV-1 in saliva. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, the co‐infected with TSP/HAM‐like group showed higher HTLV‐1 proviral load (505 ± 380 vs. 97 ± 149 copies/104 PBMC, P = 0.012) than asymptomatic co‐infected subjects, respectively. (unicamp.br)
  • The incidence of myelopathy among HIV‐1/HTLV‐1 co‐infected subjects is probably higher than among patients infected only with HTLV‐1, and related to a higher HTLV‐1 proviral load. (unicamp.br)
  • Retroviruses, such as HTLV-1 and human immunodeficiency virus differ from other RNA viruses in that they synthesize messenger RNA (mRNA) and replicate their genome by means of DNA components which they use to produce a double-stranded DNA called proviral DNA or provirus. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were the first retroviruses to be identified in humans 1 , 2 . (scielo.br)
  • STLVs) have been identified in African and Asian non-human primates, and such primates appear to have been the original sources of the human retroviruses. (inchem.org)
  • However, retroviruses function differently, as their RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell's genome (when it becomes a provirus ), and then undergoes the usual transcription and translational processes to express the genes carried by the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using 11 peptides corresponding to HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 immunodominant B epitopes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, one epitope corresponding to the Gag p19 carboxyl terminus was identified in 75% of HGIP sera, while it was recognized by only 41% of confirmed HTLV-1-positive sera. (asm.org)
  • HTLV-1 /2 screening among blood donors commonly utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), followed by a confirmatory method such as Western blot (WB) if the EIA is positive. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sera of the blood donors were assayed for HTLV 1 and 2 using micro- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ijbti.com)
  • HTLV-1 is endemic in the Caribbean area, Japan, and some areas of Africa. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • HTLV-1 infection is endemic in many parts of world, including southwestern Japan, several Caribbean islands, South America, and locations in the Middle East and Australo-Melanesia 6 , 7 . (scielo.br)
  • HTLV-1 prevalence may be high outside areas where HTLV-1 previously was known to be endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • This reference panel will best function as a tool for test assessment only if it consists of specimens representing the diversity of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, especially those subtypes known to present challenges to detection using serological tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterogeneous geographic distribution of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses I and II (HTLV-I/II): serological screening prevalence rates in blood donors from large urban areas in Brazil. (157.86.246)
  • Israel is an immigration state, providing a unique opportunity to examine the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection according to donors' countries of origin. (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of virus transmission modes, we developed an algorithm for identifying the ethnic origin of both HTLV-1-positive and HTLV-1-negative blood donors ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Detailed classification of geographic origin of blood donors (both HTLV-1 positive and HTLV-1 negative) is given in the Technical Appendix. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a lack of information about HTLV-1 prevalence among blood donors from Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. (magiran.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among blood donors in Babol County, the most populated county in Mazandaran province with screening and confirmatory assays. (magiran.com)
  • The present investigation contributes with new epidemiologic data reporting low prevalence rate for HTLV-1 among blood donors in Babol county of the Mazandaran province. (magiran.com)
  • The main objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and description the geographic distribution of HTLV-1 among voluntary blood donors in Iran. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overall seropositivity among first time, regular and lapsed donors was, 0.29% (290/100000), 0.001% (1/100000) and 0.02% (20/100000) respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the HTLV-1 seropositive blood donors (175 per 100,000) were from northeastern regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Seroprevalence of HTLV-1 among Iranian blood donors in the regions of our study still is considerable, but there is an obvious declining prevalence over the course of present study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In donors originating from East- the donor or 1 parent was born outside Israel. (cdc.gov)
  • From January 9, 1995, through December 31, 2003, a Israel is an immigration state, providing a unique op- total of 1,256,669 blood donors were screened for HTLV-1 portunity to examine the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection infection in Israel. (cdc.gov)
  • Of these, 73 HTLV-1 carriers were iden- according to donors' countries of origin. (cdc.gov)
  • Donors from Middle Eastern and East- maternal and paternal countries of birth once for each do- ern European countries were at highest risk for HTLV-1 nor, regardless of the number of blood units donated. (cdc.gov)
  • Two qualitative real-time PCR assays were developed to detect HTLV-1 and 2, and a total of 318 samples were tested (152 blood donors , 108 asymptomatic carriers, 26 HAM/TSP patients and 30 seronegative individuals). (bvsalud.org)
  • Screening transplant donors for HTLV-1 and -2. (157.86.246)
  • To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of human T cell Lymphotrophic viruses 1 and 2 among blood donors in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. (ijbti.com)
  • Although 4% of the blood donors had different forms of exposure to risk factors, none was positive for HTLV-1 or HTLV-2. (ijbti.com)
  • Human T cell lymphotrophic virus had zero seroprevalence among tested blood donors in Jos. (ijbti.com)
  • HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, we further characterized the role of p30 II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30 II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, we investigated the possible association between selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inflammasome receptor genes NLRP3 and NLRP1 and susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection in HTLV-1-infected patients and controls from northeastern Brazil. (fiocruz.br)
  • The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome , transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new copies of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses may contain their own genes that disrupt the regulation of the cell. (cancerquest.org)
  • Additionally, ORF I expression is required for HTLV-1 infection in quiescent primary lymphocytes ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The influence on the immune response in the expression of disease will be determined in a therapeutic trial with two groups of patients: 1) patients with neurogenic bladder associated with HTLV-1, 2) patients with HAM/TSP. (checkorphan.org)
  • The low degree of inflammation and virus expression suggests that demyelination may have been caused by an antibody- and complement-mediated process and by an alteration of the spinal cord microenvironment with activation of microglial cells and astrocytes. (oup.com)
  • therefore, our results suggest that higher NLRP3 expression may augment first-line defences, leading to the effective protection against HTLV-1 infection. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2012). Significant expression of IL-1ß has been reported to be induced by HTLV-1 transactivator protein in macrophages, microglial cells and astrocytes (Banerjee et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Further analysis of HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes in HAM/TSP patients showed different expression patterns of activation markers, intracellular TNF-α and γ-interferon depending on the severity of the disease. (pnas.org)
  • HTLV-II down-regulates HIV-1 replication in IL-2-stimulated primary PBMC of coinfected individuals through expression of MIP-1alpha. (157.86.246)
  • In contrast, staining of spinal cord sections of HAM/TSP patients showed that ALCAM expression is not altered on the BBB endothelium in the context of HTLV-1 infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • We performed G-banding/spectral karyotyping, extensive gene expression analysis, TP53 sequencing in the 11 patient-derived HTLV-1 + (MJ and Hut102) vs. HTLV-1 - (Myla, Mac2a, PB2B, HH, H9, Hut78, SZ4, Sez4 and SeAx) CTCL cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate, using for the first time to our knowledge in Ecuador immunological and molecular biology methodologies, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in asymptomatic individuals from a potentially high-risk population of Afro-Ecuadorians in the Province of Esmeraldas. (dovepress.com)
  • Two hundred and twenty-seven plasma samples from asymptomatic individuals were analyzed for the detection of the HTLV-1/2 virus with three methods: a commercial ELISA, an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assay, and a nested-PCR. (dovepress.com)
  • Peripheral blood samples were collected from 116 patients (29 symptomatic patients with HAM/TSP and 87 asymptomatic) with a positive diagnosis of HTLV-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: A total of 38 HIV‐1/HTLV‐1 co‐infected subjects were identified in this cohort: Twenty‐six had already been diagnosed with AIDS and 12 remained asymptomatic. (unicamp.br)
  • However, we could not isolate any HTLV-1 virus or detect the presence of p19 Gag protein in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from individuals with strong HGIP reactivity. (asm.org)
  • Using cocultures of purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an HTLV-1 producing cell line, we measured viral transcription by using Northern (RNA) blot analysis, protein production by using a p24 antigen capture assay and flow cytometric analysis for viral envelope, and proviral integration by using DNA slot blot analysis. (asm.org)
  • HTLV-1 protein production was 5- to 25-fold greater in CD4+ cocultures and mRNA levels were 5-fold greater in these cultures than in the CD8+ cocultures. (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of calreticulin, a calcium buffer protein, blocked p12 I -mediated NFAT activation independently of its ability to bind p12 I . Chemical inhibition studies using inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor and calcium release-activated calcium channels suggest that inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor in the ER membrane and calcium release-activated calcium channels in the plasma membrane contribute to p12 I -mediated NFAT activation. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, our results are the first to demonstrate the role of p12 I in elevating cytoplasmic calcium, an antecedent to T-cell activation, and further support the important role of this accessory protein in the early events of HTLV-1 infection. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have provided important new data that indicate a role for the highly conserved pX ORF I-encoded protein p12 I in the early stages of HTLV-1 infection. (asm.org)
  • The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. (pasteur.fr)
  • We have reported that the nuclear localizing protein p30 II of HTLV-1 functions as a transcription factor, differentially modulates CREB-responsive promoters, and is critical for maintenance of proviral loads in rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, our results demonstrate that CBP/p300 is a cellular protein target for HTLV-1 p30 II and mediates its transcriptional effects in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The HTLV-1 pX open reading frame I encoding protein, p12 I , is critical for the virus to establish persistent infection in vivo and for infection in quiescent primary lymphocytes in vitro, p12 I localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cis-Golgi apparatus, increases intracellular calcium and activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-mediated transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • These results are the first to indicate that HTLV-1, an etiologic agent associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, uses a conserved accessory protein to induce T-cell activation, an antecedent to efficient viral infection. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been previously demonstrated that circulating CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in patients with HAM/TSP react against HTLV-1 protein products ( 10 ), and an immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope (HTLV-1 Tax11-19) has been well characterized ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with in vivo transactivating activity, Tax 1 NF-κB mutant M22, but not cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein mutant M47, transactivated the template containing the tandem 21-bp repeat. (elsevier.com)
  • TATA-binding protein did not functionally substitute for TFIID in the transactivation assay by Tax 1 but was sufficient for basal transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • PKC was coimmunoprecipitated with anti-Tax 1 sera from Tax 1 -expressing MT4 extracts and Jurkat extracts in the presence of exogenous Tax 1 protein. (northwestern.edu)
  • In addition, the glutathione-S-transferase-Tax 1 protein bound specifically to the alpha, delta, and eta PKC isoenzymes synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. (northwestern.edu)
  • CXCR4- mediated neuronal apoptosis was confirmed in pure populations of rat cerebellar granule neurons and was blocked by HA1004, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that progeny HIV-1 virions can influence neuronal signal transduction and apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, it has been shown that selective ablation of ORF I mRNA dramatically decreases the viral infectivity of ACH, an infectious molecular clone of HTLV-1, in a rabbit model of infection ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • HTLV-I infection on TCC was confirmed by analysis of the viral mRNA,nucleotide sequence, virus-associated proteins and virus particles. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Finally, passage of sera through a P. falciparum -infected erythrocyte-coupled column was shown to specifically abrogate HGIP reactivity but not the HTLV-1 pattern, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity between HTLV-1 Gag proteins and malaria-derived antigens. (asm.org)
  • Nonetheless, for the vast majority of the indeterminate samples originating from tropical areas, it is hypothesized that this indeterminate reactivity was either the result of sequence homologies between Gag epitopes of HTLV-1 and other proteins or caused by an HTLV-1-related virus or rare cases of HTLV-1 transient infection ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Together they comprise PTLVs (primate T-lymphotropic viruses) A study has shown that STLV-1 Tax and SBZ proteins have similar functions to their counterparts of HTLV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 HTLV-1 has also shown to be associated with several inflammatory diseases, such as alveolitis, polymyositis, arthritis, uveitis, and Sjorgen's syndrome. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. (scielo.br)
  • Virus transmission is an important key factor for understanding the pathomechanism(s) of virus-related neurological diseases. (ovid.com)
  • In this study the investigators are going to evaluate the efficacy pentoxifyline in HTLV-1 patients with neurological diseases: HAM/TSP or neurogenic bladder. (checkorphan.org)
  • Because of re- analysis was conducted by using 2 analysis of contingency ports of HTLV-1-associated diseases in Mashhadi Jews, tables. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the initial dissemination of HIV-1, before sexual transmission predominated, was facilitated by the administration, via reusable syringes and needles, of parenteral drugs against tropical diseases. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • These and other interventions against tropical diseases could have iatrogenically transmitted SIV(cpz), jump-starting the HIV-1 epidemic. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • During these 9 years, 296 HTLV‐1‐infected individuals were identified from a total of 538 patients who were referred to our clinic at the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emílio Ribas," in São Paulo, Brazil. (unicamp.br)
  • The Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases provides a much needed practical and visual overview of the current distribution and determinants of major infectious diseases of humans. (wiley.com)
  • Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases is an essential tool for infectious disease specialists, medical microbiologists, virologists, travel medicine specialists, and public health professionals. (wiley.com)
  • The Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases is accompanied by a FREE enhanced Wiley Desktop Edition - an interactive digital version of the book with downloadable images and text, highlighting and note-taking facilities, book-marking, cross-referencing, in-text searching, and linking to references and glossary terms. (wiley.com)
  • It is with no little amount of amaze- ment, that the more we learn about fundamental biological questions and mechanisms of diseases, the more obvious it becomes that viruses perme- ate all facets of our lives. (springer.com)
  • While on one hand viruses are known to cause acute and chronic, mild and fatal, focal and generalized diseases, on the other hand, they are used as tools for gaining an understanding of the structure and function of higher organisms, and as vehicles for carrying protective or curative therapies. (springer.com)
  • Let us hope, that with the increasing awareness by our society of the role played by viruses, not only as causative agents of diseases, but also as models for better understanding basic biological principles, more efforts and resources are placed into their study. (springer.com)
  • We present a case of recurrent rupture of the urinary bladder in a patient with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy which has not previously been reported in the literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, the HTLV-1-specific cytolytic response was shown to be modulated by IL-1 in mice because this cytokine enhanced the expansion and tissue localisation of antigen-driven CD8 + T cell (Ben-Sasson et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • One major limitation in these studies has been the inability to identify HTLV-1-specific CD8 + T cells directly from biological samples not only to quantitate the actual number of antigen-specific T cells in vivo but also to further characterize the antigen-specific population of T lymphocytes without in vitro amplification. (pnas.org)
  • The total variation on the amino acid composition was 9 and 17% for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II Env epitopes, respectively. (krisp.org.za)
  • The findings of this review suggested that there are approximately 5-10 million HTLV-1 carriers worldwide 7 . (scielo.br)
  • The association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptors NLRP1 and NLRP3 and HTLV-1 infection was evaluated in a northeastern Brazilian population (84 HTLV-1 carriers and 155 healthy controls). (fiocruz.br)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were evaluated with 352 specimens whose infection status was determined by PCR assay for the presence or absence of HTLV-1/2 proviral sequences. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, all specimens derived from individuals infected with different viral subtypes of HTLV-1 (Cosmopolitan, Japanese, and Melanesian) and HTLV-2 (IIa0, a3, a4, IIb1, b4, and b5) reacted with GD21-I in the HTLV WB 2.4 assay. (asm.org)
  • Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are tropic for CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted by sexual contact, IV drug use, blood products, transplacentally, and through breast milk. (labcorp.com)
  • The early events necessary for HTLV-1 to establish infection in lymphocytes, its primary target cells, remain unresolved. (asm.org)
  • However, the details of virus-cell interactions that allow establishment of the viral infection in lymphocytes are unclear. (asm.org)
  • The initial stage of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection involves cell-cell transmission of HTLV-1 from infected to uninfected T-lymphocytes, followed by the clonal expansion of infected cells, with almost undetectable levels of circulating virions (Pique & Jones 2012). (fiocruz.br)
  • Five of six HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis patients carried a significant number (up to 13.87%) of CD8 + lymphocytes specific for the HTLV-1 Tax11-19 peptide in their peripheral blood, which were not found in healthy controls. (pnas.org)
  • HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific CTL precursor frequency was estimated by limiting dilution analysis in the range of 1:75 to 1:320 CD8 + lymphocytes ( 12 ) in peripheral blood. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, this evidence has supported the view that virus-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes may play a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of HAM/TSP. (pnas.org)
  • In all cell types tested, including BHK-21, mouse NIH 3T3, and human diploid fibroblast WI-38, Tax causes an uncoupling of DNA synthesis from cell division, resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells and cells with decondensed, highly convoluted and lobulated nuclei that are reminiscent of the large lymphocytes with cleaved or cerebriform nuclei seen in HTLV-1-positive individuals. (utmb.edu)
  • This disease develops upon infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system, mostly the thoracic spinal cord. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the crossing of the BBB by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. (pasteur.fr)
  • We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell lines and in primary infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (pasteur.fr)
  • ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a monolayer of human BBB endothelial cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • In addition, genomic sequencing has confirmed the transmission of HTLV-1 from infected spouses to uninfected spouses by revealing identical sequences in seropositive individuals and those spouses who seroconverted 24 . (scielo.br)
  • 2 All HTLV-1 subtypes described so far have most probably originated from separate interspecies transmissions from simians to humans. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Genome sequence analyses have subdivided HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 into seven and four subtypes, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • They have subtypes 1 through 4 as compared to HTLV 1 through 4, and each subtype has its own serovars. (wikipedia.org)
  • En el caso de las muestras reactivas, se extrajo la sangre de las madres de los recién nacidos para realizar pruebas de detección de estos virus. (scielosp.org)
  • Brites C, Sampaio J, Oliveira A. HIV/human T-cell lymphotropic virus coinfection revisited: impact on AIDS progression. (157.86.246)
  • Inhibition of cyclic AMP, activation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, and apoptosis were induced by diverse HIV-1 strains, principally in neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Among 2,185 patients more than 50 years of age, the rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with HTLV-1 infection compared with patients without HTLV-1 infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • In addition, the anthelmintic effect was significantly lower in patients with HTLV-1 infection compared with patients without HTLV-1 infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The preliminary data show that pentoxifylline has ability to decrease production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in patients with HTLV-1 infection and patients with HAM/TSP. (checkorphan.org)
  • Like HIV, HTLV-1 predominately infects CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTLV-1 has worldwide distribution and infects approximately 5 to 10 million people in the world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seventy-five percent of HGIP sera reacted positively on MT2 HTLV-1-infected cells by immunofluorescence assay. (asm.org)
  • So, it is expressed as HTLV 1/2 assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a reconstituted in vitro transcription assay, Tax 1 transactivation was dependent upon basal transcription factors TFIIB, TFIIF, Pol II, TFIID, and TFIIA. (elsevier.com)
  • Serially diluted samples ( n = 33) from HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-infected patients were also analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the new assay. (asm.org)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that purified human ERα bound only G variant of a 32-bp genomic sequence containing rs12722489. (nih.gov)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that endogenous human ERα interacted with rs12722489 genomic region in vivo and DNA pull-down assay confirmed differential allelic binding of amplified 189-bp genomic fragments containing rs12722489 with endogenous human ERα. (nih.gov)
  • In a luciferase reporter assay, a kilobase-long genomic segment containing G but not A allele of rs12722489 demonstrated enhancer properties in MT-2 cell line, an HTLV-1 transformed human cell line with a regulatory T cell phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • P = .046) predicted HTLV-1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • Dried blood spots were used for HCV and HTLV-1 serologic testing and nucleic acid detection. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II by blood transfusion. (labcorp.com)
  • Despite the low prevalence rate, the practice of screening of donated bloods in blood transfusion centers of Mazandaran province should be considered to decrease the risk of virus transmission in this region. (magiran.com)
  • Transmission of the virus after birth has been implicated in one case of HTLV-III/LAV infection in a child born to a mother reported to have acquired the infection from a postpartum blood transfusion. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood transfusion, although amenable to prevention efforts, continue to be an efficient transmitter of HTLV-1 infection. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • In Europe HTLV-1 is still uncommon, although it is present in some high-risk populations, including immigrants and intravenous drug users. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral load of HTLV-1 is higher in patients with HAM/TSP than in HTLV-1 infected patients who do not have clinical signs. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • No modifications on HIV‐1 viral load was seen. (unicamp.br)
  • Differences between HTLV-1-seropositive and HTLV-1-seronegative groups were apparent in childhood presentations and adult outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • In 1996, the virus has been classified as carcinogen. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The prevalence of HTLV-1 declined significantly from 3.5% in 1996 to 2.3% in 2006. (lu.se)
  • Once integrated, HTLV-1 continues to exist only as a provirus which can spread from cell to cell through a viral synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • 164129: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1. (labcorp.com)
  • 163246: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1. (labcorp.com)
  • The molecular mechanism that determines the CD4+ T-cell tropism of HTLV-1 has not been determined. (asm.org)
  • These data suggest that unique or activated transcription factors, particularly Tax-responsive factors in CD4+ T cells, recognize regulatory sequences within the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat, and this mediates the observed enhanced viral transcription and ultimately the cell tropism and leukemogenic potential of the virus. (asm.org)
  • In the past, cell-free transmission was believed to be a major route of virus spread for almost all viruses. (ovid.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II), the only known human oncornavirinae , have distinct genetic and structural features. (inchem.org)
  • Start Forskningsoutput Decline in human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 prevalence in u. (lu.se)
  • In 2006, a cross-sectional survey of 384 randomly selected houses within a community-based follow-up study was conducted to assess the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) prevalence in Bissau. (lu.se)
  • The early virus-cell interactions that determine a productive infection remain unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows increased Treg cell numbers localized adjacent to the parasites in the duodenum SS/HTLV-1 patients. (utmb.edu)
  • Laboratory tests were as hemoglobin= 9 mg/dL, white blood cell= 18000/mm3 (net: 78% L: 16%), platelet count =138000/mm3, creatinine level = 1. (archcid.com)
  • Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) strains (ADA, JR-FL, Bal, MS- CSF, and DJV) produced the least neural damage, while 89.6, a dual-tropic HIV-1 strain, elicited intermediate neural cell damage. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of CTCL cell lines reveals important differences between mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome vs. HTLV-1 + leukemic cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses can disrupt cell behavior in several different ways. (cancerquest.org)
  • Through their mutagenic activity or their effects on cell behavior, viruses play a significant role in the development of particular cancers in many different animals, including humans. (cancerquest.org)
  • Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a carrier of HTLV-I virus with evidence of selective immunosuppression. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here, we present a case of an HTLV-1 carrier who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) simultaneously. (scirp.org)
  • 1 The efficacy of corticosteroid for organizing pneumonia (OP) in an HTLV-1 carrier has not been definitively established. (journalpulmonology.org)
  • We here e report a case of OP in an HTLV-1 carrier that showed good response to corticosteroid treatment. (journalpulmonology.org)
  • During screening for infection, he was diagnosed as an HTLV-1 carrier. (journalpulmonology.org)
  • We observed a gradual decline in overall HTLV-1 prevalence during the course of the study, the prevalence rate decreased from 0.13% (130/100000) in 2009 to 0.07% (70/100000) in 2013. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Known HTLV-1 modes of transmission include vertical transmission (predominantly through breastfeeding), transverse transmission (sexual intercourse), transfusion of infected cellular blood products, and sharing of needles and syringes ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most important routes of HTLV-1 transmission is via transfusion of contaminated blood components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From an epidemiological standpoint, there are 3 major routes for HTLV-1 transmission: mother-to-child transmission through breast feeding, sexual transmission, and parenteral transmission through transfusion of contaminated blood ( 4 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Transmission rate of HTLV-1 followed by transfusion of contaminated cellular blood components is estimated to be between 27% and 63% ( 5 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)