Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).BooksThirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Culdoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the female pelvic viscera by means of an endoscope introduced into the pelvic cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Astronomical Processes: The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.United StatesEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyAfrica, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.

*Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship

... genetic relatedness and the prediction of behavior", "places genetic determinism in the correct perspective" and serves as "a ... suggested that perhaps the expression of social behaviors in humans might quite simply be based on cues of context and ... He argues that while genetic relatedness may play a role in the evolution of social behavior, it does not determine the forms ... biological theory of social behavior is not deterministic in respect of genetic relatedness vis-a-vis the formation of social ...

*Evolutionary developmental psychology

Evolutionary approaches to human behavior were, and to some extent continue to be, considered a form of genetic determinism and ... Behaviors that benefit other members of one's social group, particularly those which appear costly to the prosocial or " ... to understand the development of human behavior and cognition. It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental ... in response to increasing social complexity and sophisticated social learning. While many species exhibit social learning to ...

*Social determinism

Consider certain human behaviors, such as committing murder, or writing poetry. A social determinist would look only at social ... Determinism Environmental determinism Genetic determinism Linguistic determinism Nature versus nurture https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih ... The infants are born with an inherited social skill. Social pre-wiring deals with the study of fetal social behavior and social ... Social determinism is the theory that social interactions and constructs alone determine individual behavior (as opposed to ...

*A Troublesome Inheritance

To his credit, he refutes certain racist notions associated with the idea of genetic determinism, and he speaks against social ... Wade proposes that regional differences in evolution of social behavior explain many differences among human societies. ... I see naivete in Wade's quickness to assume a genetic association for any change in social behavior. Bambury, Brent (8 May 2014 ... Human Biology 2014; 86 (3). Human Biology reviews "A Troublesome Inheritance". Wayne State University Press News, 27 April 2015 ...

*Separate spheres

... dissident anthropologists and other social scientists began to challenge the biological determination of human behavior, ... the notion that women and men are naturally suitable for different social roles due to their biological and genetic makeup. The ... The separation between female and male spheres was heavily influenced by biological determinism, ... In ancient Greek social life, there were no such rigidly enforced divisions since women and men occupied a range of public, ...

*Biological determinism

... or genetic determinism is the belief that human behaviour is controlled by an individual's genes or some ... Behavioral epigenetics Behavioral genetics Dual inheritance theory Genetic fallacy Nature-culture divide Social determinism de ... belief in biological determinism has been matched by a blank slate denial of any possible influence of genes on human behavior ... those who use biology to explain every possible human trait of presupposing the truth of biological or genetic determinism. ...

*Not in Our Genes

... "a critique of sociobiology and genetic determinism which is, for the most part, much more subtle and valuable than the Marxism ... ISBN 0-671-88724-6. Smith, Roger (1997). The Norton History of the Human Sciences. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1006. ... Hamer commented that it taught him that the genetics of behavior is an emotionally and politically charged topic, especially ... "unfairly lump sociobiology with racist eugenics and misguided Social Darwinism." The biologist Dean Hamer, writing in The ...

*Neuroscience of free will

doi:10.1007/s12152-009-9047-7. Holton, Richard (2009). "Response to 'Free Will as Advanced Action Control for Human Social Life ... Instead, the conscious self is somehow alerted to a given behavior that the rest of the brain and body are already planning and ... They asked their subjects to read one of two passages: one suggesting that behaviour boils down to environmental or genetic ... Vohs, KD; Schooler, JW (January 2008). "The value of believing in free will: encouraging a belief in determinism increases ...

*Richard Lewontin

He and others criticize this approach when applied to humans, as he sees it as genetic determinism. In his writing, Lewontin ... In 1975, when E. O. Wilson's book Sociobiology proposed evolutionary explanations for human social behaviors, a number of ... Peters, Ted (2003). Playing God? genetic determinism and human freedom (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. pp. 29-31. ISBN 978-0- ... Lewontin opposes genetic determinism. Lewontin was born in New York City to parents descended from late 19th-century Eastern ...

*Hard determinism

Determinists even admit that with corresponding knowledge, changes in the genetic depository and consequently behavior are ... Chrysippus refuted the "idle argument" invented to discredit determinism as if human efforts were futile in a preordained world ... Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin' (2009), Volume 35, no.2, p.260-268. James - The Dilemma of Determinism Naturalism. ... Hard determinism (or metaphysical determinism) is a view on free will which holds that determinism is true, and that it is ...

*Determinism

... sometimes called genetic determinism, is the idea that each of human behaviors, beliefs, and desires are fixed by human genetic ... John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner developed this nurture-focused determinism. Cultural determinism or social determinism is the ... Although some of the above forms of determinism concern human behaviors and cognition, others frame themselves as an answer to ... "Determinism" is, in essence, the position which holds that all behavior is caused by prior behavior. "Predeterminism" is the ...

*Stephen Jay Gould

... including human behavior) based on a sociobiological framework that suggested that many social behaviors have a strong ... biological determinism." Gould stated that the human brain allows for a wide range of behaviors. Its flexibility "permits us to ... and argued that adaptive behaviors are frequently assumed to be genetic for no other reason than their supposed universality, ... Gould claimed that both theories developed from an unfounded belief in biological determinism, the view that "social and ...

*Reciprocal determinism

... of study attempting to make sense of both genetic and environmental contributions to individual variations in human behavior. ... through external social stimulus events. The basis of reciprocal determinism should transform individual behavior by allowing ... Reciprocal determinism is the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura which states that a person's behavior both ... Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. NIMH. Accessed August 24, 2007. Study: Abuse And ...

*The Mismeasure of Man

... by the belief that the human behavior of a race of people is best explained by genetic heredity. He cites the Burt Affair, ... but opposed biological determinism, which posits that genes determine a definitive, unalterable social destiny for each man and ... "the social and economic differences between human groups-primarily races, classes, and sexes-arise from inherited, inborn ... not every difference would be genetic in origin because of the randomness of molecular and genetic development. Therefore, ...

*Criticism of evolutionary psychology

Workman and Reader also deny the accusation of genetic determinism, asserting that genes usually do not cause behaviors ... ISBN 0-471-26403-2. Degler, C. N. (1991). In search of human nature: The decline and revival of Darwinism in American social ... Lickliter and Honeycutt have stated that the assumption of genetic determinism is most evident in the theory that learning and ... Caporael, Linnda R.; Brewer, Marilynn B. (1991). "The Quest for Human Nature: Social and Scientific Issues in Evolutionary ...

*The Language Instinct

Webster believes that such speculations strengthen supporters of extreme genetic determinism. Geoffrey Sampson: The 'Language ... standard social science model' of human nature is effective. Webster accepts Pinker's argument that, for ideological motives, ... He compares language to other species' specialized adaptations such as spiders' web-weaving or beavers' dam-building behavior, ... These signs suggest that rather than being a human invention, language is an innate human ability. Pinker also distinguishes ...

*Philosophy of biology

The possibility of genetic modification of human stem cells, for example, has led to an ongoing controversy on how certain ... Reducing an ecosystem to its parts in this case would be less effective at explaining overall behavior (in this case, the ... The largest of the latter is the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB); ... This latter, positivist approach, exemplified by Joseph Henry Woodger, emphasised a strict determinism (as opposed to high ...

*Before the Dawn (book)

Positions on genetic determinism often correlate with social politics, and few of us are neutral or even changeable on the ... and that our own social behavior and cognition have roots in the deep human past." Peter Dizikes of The New York Times also ... Wade writes that along with the ongoing social evolution that occurred after humans left Africa, the human physical form also ... citing the genetic and social similarities between humans and chimpanzees. He attributes the divergence of the two species from ...

*Nature versus nurture

2004). Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development. ... genetics Behavioral epigenetics Dual inheritance theory Nature-culture divide Niche picking Social determinism Social ... "The genetic basis of entrepreneurship: Effects of gender and personality". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes ... Developmental genetic analysis examines the effects of genes over the course of a human lifespan. Early studies of intelligence ...

*Cultural determinism

It contrasts with genetic determinism, the theory that biologically inherited traits and the environmental influences that ... Blank slate Determinism Standard social science model Romantic nationalism Paleoconservatism Racialism (Racial categorization) ... It is an idea which has recurred in many cultures over human history, from ancient civilizations through the present. There are ... individuals such as commentator Patrick Buchanan and economist Robert Barro argue that cultural norms determine the behavior of ...

*Hereditarianism

Hereditarians believe in the power of genetics to explain human character traits and solve human social and political problems ... However, in some cases genetic determinism is true; for example, Matt Ridley describes Huntington's disease as "pure fatalism, ... And this especially because human behavior is uniquely plastic compared to that of other animals. The commonly cited ... Theories opposed to hereditarianism include behaviorism, social determinism and environmental determinism.[citation needed] ...

*Sociobiology

Individual genetic advantage fails to explain certain social behaviors as a result of gene-centred selection. E.O. Wilson ... Sociobiologists believe that human behavior, as well as nonhuman animal behavior, can be partly explained as the outcome of ... Biological determinism was a right wing philosophy underlying the social Darwinian and eugenics movements of the early 20th ... Altruism between social insects and littermates has been explained in such a way. Altruistic behavior, behavior that increases ...

*Biological determinism of human gender roles

They decide to look at numbers and statistics instead of simple social experiments which can be easily misinterpreted. When ... LeVay cautioned against people interpreting his article to say that he found that homosexuality is genetic, emphasizing that he ... less likely to be the sole gay nucleus of the brain than part of a chain of nuclei engaged in men and women's sexual behavior ... Biological determinism of human gender roles is the view that human sexuality is controlled by an individual's genes or some ...

*The Blank Slate

... in which Pinker makes a case against tabula rasa models in the social sciences, arguing that human behavior is substantially ... Evolutionary and genetic inequality arguments do not necessarily support right-wing policies. Pinker writes that if everyone ... " "the fear of determinism" "the fear of nihilism" Pinker claims these fears are non sequiturs, and that the blank slate view ... Pinker also gives several examples of harm done by the belief in a blank slate of human nature: Totalitarian social engineering ...

*Biology and political science

... voting behavior, and warfare. Debates persist inside the field and out, regarding genetic and biological determinism. Important ... subject this article describes expressly sets out to separate the essential logic of the association of biology to human social ... War and Human Nature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press; Gat, Azar. 2006. War in Human Civilization. New York: Oxford ... In this case the 'truth' which all knowledge must conform to, is that the individual person is the human animal, the end in ...
This article analyses neuronal determinism (neurodeterminism) and mentions that at first sight it appears to be a type of qualified determinism. Neurodeterminism is better conceived as determinism tout court when it is applied to human beings. It differs importantly from genetic determinism, together the two views that are often regarded as similar in form if not in content. Moreover, the article examines the question of genetic determinism, because it is a paradigm of qualified determinism. It then explains the meaning of determinism tout court, its relation with the notions of
Coynes main assertion really is that all critics of the selfish gene are sensationalizing evidence against genetic determinism and (I think its sometimes called) panselectionism as evidence against the selfish gene, which is natural selection solely for personal gain. His only evidence against this is a bald assertion that Dawkins denied this. Since people can be diplomatic in presenting their views, I think the only effective rebuttal would be to rehearse the well-known ways that the selfish gene metaphor is entirely independent of genetic determinism. Perhaps the problem is that theyre not so well-known? Maybe, maybe not. But epistasis, methylation, gene expression, genetic assimilation, epigenesis, the whole rogues gallery of failed assassins who aimed at the selfish gene, are all evidence against genetic determinism. (Neutral and nearly-neutral evolution are irrelevant apparently.) In ...
Theological determinism is a form of determinism which states that all events that happen are pre-ordained, or predestined to happen, by a monotheistic deity, or that they are destined to occur given its omniscience. Two forms of theological determinism exist, here referenced as strong and weak theological determinism.[21] The first one, strong theological determinism, is based on the concept of a creator deity dictating all events in history: "everything that happens has been predestined to happen by an omniscient, omnipotent divinity".[22] The second form, weak theological determinism, is based on the concept of divine foreknowledge - "because Gods omniscience is perfect, what God knows about the future will inevitably happen, which means, consequently, that the future is already fixed".[23] There exist slight variations on the above categorisation. Some claim that theological determinism ...
Written By Johanna Ahola-Launonen. University of Helsinki. In bioethical discussion, it is often debated whether or not some studies espouse genetic determinism. A recent study by Tuomas Aivelo and Anna Uitto[1] give important insight to the matter. They studied main genetics education textbooks used in Finnish upper secondary school curricula and compared the results to other similar studies from e.g. Swedish and English textbooks. The authors found that gene models used in the textbooks are based on old "Mendelian law"-based gene models not compatible with current knowledge on gene-gene-environment-interaction. The authors also identified several types of genetic determinism, that is, weak determinism and strong determinism, which both were present in the textbooks. The somewhat intuitive remark is that genetic education has to have a strong trickle-down effect on how ...
Figure 4 Comparison of recombination (rec.) rates in Soay and Lacaune populations. Left: scatterplot of posterior means of rec. rates (on a log scale). The green line is the line y = x and the red line is a lowess smoothed line (f = 0.05). Right: Scatterplot of the ratio of posterior variance (Soay/Lacaune) as a function of the average of the posterior mean rec. rates in the two populations (on a log scale). The green line corresponds to equal variances and the red line is a lowess smoothed line (f = 0.05). Points in gray on both panels correspond to intervals with average rec. rate , 1.5 cM/Mb. ...
Despite its potential utility for predicting cows milk yield responses to once-daily milking (ODM), the genetic basis of cow milk trait responses to ODM has been scarcely if ever described in the literature, especially for short ODM periods. This study set out to (1) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield and composition during a 3-wk ODM period, (2) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield responses (i.e., milk yield loss upon switching cows to ODM and milk yield recovery upon switching them back to twice-daily milking; TDM), and (3) seek predictors of milk yield responses to ODM, in particular using the first day of ODM ...
Two men buried in the same grave in the predynastic burial ground of Adaima (Upper Egypt, around 3400 B.C. evince thoracic anomalies. One man had a bifid rib and the other a sternal perforation. Amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA suggested they were maternally related. In the light of these findings, we therefore sought the genetic determinism of these characteristics; they may be minor developmental anomalies arising from a similar genetic determinism with epigenic control of development. This hypothesis raises a number of implications for anthropobiological study.
Hard Determinism is subject to cause and effect. Hard Determinists argue that we live in a mechanistic universe, supported by Newtonian physics. Newton argues that everything is governed by the laws of nature which can be determined by social, biological or political matters; therefore hard determinism negates free will. Within this framework, Hard Determinists argue that the laws of cause and effect also apply to human behaviour. For example, in the field of Psychology Watson argued that out behaviour is determined by pre-controlled factors. Our behaviour and actions are involuntary reflexes to a prior condition. If this is to be so, then Hard Determinism does indeed negate freedom of will. Key thinkers such as Skinner and Loche have both contributed to the hard determinism argument. Skinners psychological findings show that our behaviour is modified by positive and negative factors. These actions in ...
Scepticism about technological determinism emerged alongside increased pessimism about techno-science in the mid-20th century, in particular around the use of nuclear energy in the production of nuclear weapons, Nazi human experimentation during World War II, and the problems of economic development in the third world. As a direct consequence, desire for greater control of the course of development of technology gave rise to disenchantment with the model of technological determinism in academia.. Modern theorists of technology and society no longer consider technological determinism to be a very accurate view of the way in which we interact with technology, even though determinist assumptions and language fairly saturate the writings of many boosters of technology, the business pages of many popular magazines, and much reporting on technology[citation needed]. Instead, research in science and technology studies, social ...
As a scientist and a believer in human progress, I have been concerned about how well the established process of teshuvah (repentance) has worked. Yom Kippur after Yom Kippur - in fact, since the 11th century - we have recited the same confessional prayer, "Al Chet." If we were any good at repentance, shouldnt the list have changed in 1,000 years? Even if we dont want to change the ancient formula, shouldnt we be able to feel that we had eliminated or reduced at least a few on the list? Yet the list of sins remains the same, as does the ritual for expunging them. Why havent we improved?. Perhaps we are genetically stuck. The newspapers and scientific journals are full of genetic determinism. Human geneticists, aided by the massive investment in the human genome project, have identified hundreds of genes in which specific alterations cause conditions that range from mental retardation to ...
Peoc' h, R., 1984: Contribution to the study of the determinism of fanning for ventilation, and with scent gland exposed, in honeybees
Theres lots more to say about this basic argument, and there are lots of ways in which people have tried to get around the conclusion. But none of them work.. Tamler: I notice that the argument makes no mention of the theory of determinism. But historically the debate over freedom and responsibility has revolved around the truth of determinism, and the question of whether free will and moral responsibility are compatible with it.. Galen: Yes, many people think that determinism-the view that the history of the universe is fixed, the view that everything that happens is strictly necessitated by what has already gone before, in such a way that nothing can ever happen otherwise than it does-is the real threat to free will, to ultimate moral responsibility. But the basic argument against ultimate moral responsibility works whether determinism is true or false. Its a completely a priori argument, as philosophers like to say. That means that you ...
E advantages and disadvantages of cloning. Has helped over eleven million people protect themselves from scams? Scambusters is committed to helping you avoid getting. Me people think that cloning is great. Oning technology has received great attention in recent. Has helped over eleven million people protect themselves from scams. E to my naturally. Scambusters is committed to helping you avoid getting. Sed on human ethic cloning takes away the ethical issues that are crucial to human. Uman Cloning Human cloning is the process of transplanting nuclear DNA from an adult. R argumentative essays. Essay Presentation on Human Cloning. human stem cell research and experimentation: all sides to the debateEssay on cloning and genetic engineering. essay on ishant sharma height Human cloning Summary. Since November 1994, Scambusters? Ture of Human Cloning in America! En against cloning ...
The language used by geneticists to describe the genes is permeated with biblical imagery. Geneticists call the genome the Bible, the Book of Man and the Holy Grail. They convey an image of this molecular structure as more than a powerful biological entity: it is also a mystical force that defines the natural and moral order. And they project an idea of genetic essentialism, suggesting that by deciphering and decoding the molecular text they will be able to reconstruct the essence of human beings, unlock the key to human nature. As geneticist Walter Gilbert put it, understanding our genetic composition is the ultimate answer to the commandment know thyself. Gilbert introduces his lectures on gene sequencing by pulling compact disk from his pocket and announcing to his audience, This is you. Former director of the Human Genome Project and Nobel Prize winner James Watson has ...
Social skill and language are known to relate, not least in the example of those with specific language impairment (SLI). However, most of the research examining this trend has been conducted on young primary school age children and the nature of the relationships is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about which young people in general have social difficulties and whether language, social cognition, and social skills are directly associated at this age. In this study, a large cohort made up of young people with a history of SLI (N = 134) and a typically developing (TD) group (N = 124) of the same age were followed up in their final year of compulsory schooling (aged 16). Language, social cognition, social skills, and functional social outcomes (friendships and levels of social activity) were assessed using tasks and questionnaires. Modest associations were found between ...
How can we design systems that encourage better cybersecurity behaviors? Despite important improvements to the usability of cybersecurity systems, much security advice goes ignored and many security systems remain underutilized. I argue that this disconnect can partially be explained by the fact that theres a largely unconsidered cost to engaging in good security behaviors: costs of social face. For example, by using two-factor authentication, one might be perceived as "paranoid." By encrypting ones phone, one might be perceived as having something to hide. More generally, by caring too strongly about cybersecurity, one may give off the impression of being shady. In this talk, I present evidence in support of the following claim: Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity ...
Bob Prechters new science of socionomics explains that stock market fluctuations mirror trends in peoples collective mood. In simple terms, when the market is buoyant, it indicates positive social mood; the opposite when a bear market takes over.. The fascinating part is that because the stock market and social mood trend closely together, a forecaster can apply Elliott wave analysis to both - and predict both.. Generally, widespread brutalities and wars do not follow the first phase of a bear market. Extreme violence, when it does occur, often follows the worst part of the markets downturn - like the end of the Great Depression, a negative social mood period that ultimately ushered in World War II.. But even during the first phase, a negative social mood grows. So, if a forecaster determines correctly where in the wave structure social mood resides, he can make educated forecasts about what will follow in society - given ...
contemporary metaphysics, self-control cybernetics, ego death, Eleusinian mysteries, fatalism, mental models, visionary states, mystic altered state, psychedelic drugs, acid rock mysticism, religious experience, transpersonal psychology, predestination, schizophrenia, spacetime, altered states, block universe, cognitive science, determinism, ecstasy, enlightenment, entheogens, free will, Ken Wilber, kundalini, LSD, mental constructs, metaprogramming, morality, will, Zen
Human cloning is the term used by scientists to describe the process of creating new life by making duplicates of biological material. The cloning technique used to clone Dolly the sheep is called "somatic cell nuclear transplantation". This is the same technique for cloning a human being. The process involves removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a somatic cell. [A somatic cell is any cell of the human body, except sperm or ovum cells (called germ cells). Thus, your skin cell is a somatic cell and contains in its nucleus the 46 chromosomes that you received from your mother (23 chromosomes) and your father (23 chromosomes) that make you unique.] The unfertilized egg with the now transplanted nucleus is stimulated by an electrical stimulus to make it start to divide and grow and if it does begin to grow, it is a live human being.. As Frankensteinian and unnatural as this is, a new ...
The most devastating scientific myth in both the abortion and in the human cloning debates concerns the question, When does a human being begin to exist. Proponents of both abortion and of human cloning want you to think that a human being does not begin immediately at fertilization or at cloning.
Davidsons Challenge to the Non-Causalist", (with Guido Löhrer), American Philosophical Quarterly (2016): 85-96.. "Epistemic Issues in the Free Will Debate: Can We Know When We Are Free?", Philosophical Studies (2013): 363-380.. "Action Explanation and the Free Will Debate: How Incompatibilist Arguments Go Wrong." Philosophical Issues (2012): 351-368.. "Taking Procrustes Axe to Professor Fishers Response," Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Volume 17 (2011): 1009-10, co-authored with Donald Stanley.. "A Flawed Conception of Determinism in the Consequence Argument," Analysis, Volume 71 (2010): 30-38. Prepublication copy here.. "The Problem of Evil: Skeptical Theism Leads to Moral Paralysis," International Journal for Philosophy of Religion. 67:2 (2010). "Evidence and Simplicity: Why We Should Reject Homeopathy," Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Volume 16 (2010): 276-281.Prepublication copy here.. "Applying the Simplicity Principle to Homeopathy: What Remains?" Focus on ...
A couple of posts ago, I wrote about the relevance of choice in morality. I argued that morality requires determinism because it is ultimately about using social forces such as praise and condemnation to promote some desires and inhibit others.. I applied this to smoking and obesity to outline criteria where, in a determined world, people can be held morally responsible for these actions and obligated to pay their own costs.. These points are also relevant to the issue of homosexuality. In this issue, we frequently encounter the claim that homosexuality ought not to be condemned because it is not a choice, "Do not blame me, I did not choose to be gay.". Recently, when people are confronted with the opinion that homosexuality is a choice, will make the retort, "When did you choose to become straight?". Clever, right?. Actually, no.. It is a clearly flawed response that suggests that the speaker is clutching at straws in a desperate attempt to defend a strongly desired ...
Sociobiology: sociobiology investigates the biological basis for behavior in humans and animals. The term was coined by E. O. Wilson (E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology The New Synthesis, 1975). The sociobiological approach was criticized in the following years for the fact that it defined differences in gender and origin as too strong and decisive. It thus laid the foundation for determinism. See also explanation, behavior, freedom of will, evolution, Darwinism. ...
Introduction: Sexualizing anthropologys fields (Jennifer Robertson). Part 1: Anthropologys Sexual Fields.. 1. "Anthropology rediscovers sexuality: A theoretical comment." (Carole Vance).. 2. "Biological determinism and homosexuality." (Bonnie Spanier).. 3. "Feminisms, queer theories, and the archaeological study of past sexualities." (Barbara Voss).. 4. "No." (Don Kulick).. 5. "Resources for lesbian ethnographic research in the lavender archives." (Alisa Klinger).. Part 2: Problems and Propositions.. 6. "Erotic anthropology: ritualized homosexuality in Melanesia and beyond." (Deborah Elliston).. 7. "Gender, genetics, and generation: reformulating biology in lesbian kinship." (Corinne Hayden).. 8. "Transsexualism: reflections on the persistence of gender and the mutability of sex." (Judith Shapiro).. 9. "Problems encountered in writing the history of sexuality: Sources, theory and interpretation." (Estelle B. Freedman and John DEmilio).. Part 3: Ethics, Erotics and Exercises ...
How should neuroscience, psychology and behavioral genetics impact legal responsibility practices?Recent findings from these fields are sometimes claimed to threaten the moral foundations of legal responsibility practices by revealing that determinism, or something like it, is true.
In a review of Guns, Germs, and Steel that ultimately commended the book, historian Tom Tomlinson wrote, "Given the magnitude of the task he has set himself, it is inevitable that Professor Diamond uses very broad brush-strokes to fill in his argument."[13]. Another historian, professor J. R. McNeill, was on the whole complimentary, but thought Diamond oversold geography as an explanation for history and underemphasized cultural autonomy.[3][14]. In his last book published in 2000, the anthropologist and geographer James Morris Blaut criticized Guns, Germs, and Steel, among other reasons, for reviving the theory of environmental determinism, and described Diamond as an example of a modern Eurocentric historian.[15] Blaut criticizes Diamonds loose use of the terms "Eurasia" and "innovative", which he believes misleads the reader into presuming that Western Europe is responsible for technological inventions that arose in the Middle East and Asia.[16]. Harvard International Relations (IR) ...
Theres that amusing scene in the cartoon comedy Kung Fu Panda where Kung Fu Master Shifu attempts to calm his spirit in the local temple by haltingly reciting the mantra "inner peace"… while obviously distraught, distracted, and annoyed by area sounds.. I. Diagnosing Spiritual Anxiety. Perhaps most of us are a little like that. We know we should have inner peace, but we are irritated, tense, and anxious. Our spirits are more like a storm and less like a gentle breeze.. What is going on inside us? At some level, many identify the human spirit with mere emotions which have merely chemical causes and effects. I am anxious because of my hormones and the complex interactions between my brain and body.. Of course such chemical and physical chains of events have been observed with their corresponding emotions. The question then becomes whether more is going on.. Can my self-awareness, my will, moral responsibility, creativity and emotions be wholly explained by chemical ...
Viewpoint: No, the presence of the extra Y chromosome in XYY males does not in and of itself produce aggressive behavior in those affected; dealing with aspects of the condition during adolescence is a more likely explanation for any later social difficulties experienced by XYY males. The debate about the XYY karyotype can be seen as part of the old debate about nature and nurture. The belief that nature, or biological determinism and inheritance, is more important than environment and education was the basis of the field that Francis Galton (1822-1911) called eugenics. According to Galton, talent, character, intellect, disposition, and other aspects of natural ability, as well as physical features, such as height and eye color, are governed by heredity. Similarly, a tendency to vice, alcoholism, feeble-mindedness, and criminality are inherited. Although eugenics became a disreputable concept in the first half of the twentieth century ...
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the hi-tech gift economy by richard barbrook. The Legacy of the New Left. "... when ... [Ben Slivka] suggested that Microsoft consider giving away its browser, à la Netscape, Gates exploded and called him a communist ..." [1] The Net is haunted by the disappointed hopes of the Sixties. Because this new technology symbolises another period of rapid change, many contemporary commentators look back to the stalled revolution of thirty years ago to explain what is happening now. Most famously, the editors of Wired continually pay homage to the New Left values of individual freedom and cultural dissent in their coverage of the Net. However, in their Californian ideology, these ideals of their youth are now going to be realised through technological determinism and free markets. The politics of ecstasy have been replaced by the economics of greed [2]. Ironically, the New Left emerged in response to the sell-out of an earlier generation. By the end of the Fifties, the heroes of the anti-fascist ...
Article: Abortion, Euthanasia, Stem Cell Research, Same Sex Marriage, Human Cloning - Yesterday I received a letter from a visitor to my website, voteutah.us, asking the following: I see that you are running for Senate. I would like to know your stand on the following issues: 1. Abortion 2. Euthanasia 3. Embryonic Stem Cell Research 4. Same sex marriage 5. Human Cloning. This article gives my views.
Outstanding student research projects were featured Nov. 28 during the inaugural Medical Student Research Day. The Health Science Centers Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Support Grant and the medical deans office helped to make Medical Student Research Day possible. Dr. Sunil Ahuja, the distinguished speaker for Research Day, discussed his studies of the "Host genetic determinants of HIV-1 infection." Worldwide, 22 million people have died after exposure to strains of the human immunodeficiency virus and progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The disease progression is not the same in each person. Dr. Ahujas research addresses the question "Are all individuals equally susceptible to HIV/AIDS?" with the hypothesis that HIV-1 pathogenesis is a function of differences in expression of genes critical to the host response to HIV-1. "One combat zone in the HIV battlefield," he said, "is the individuals genetic makeup that either succumbs to ...
In summary, human cloning is a prominent social issue in the world. Even though it is not yet scientifically possible, there is a great deal to be said about it in the way of ethics. Though polls indicate that the general public is against the idea of cloning, there are a variety of opinions on the topic that each has support. It is thought by some that the legalization of cloning could greatly benefit the world as it could be the best way to produce the next generation of human beings. However, many see ethical dilemmas in this outlook and think that cloning should be forbidden entirely. It could spark the dehumanization of our race by turning human lives into something of a commodity and it could also cause a lot of social distress. Finally, the third proposition is that there should be a middle ground. There is a lot of benefit in therapeutic cloning without anywhere near as much of the ethical cost. By ...
For the first time ever, scientists have successfully used somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) via the process of therapeutic cloning to generate normal human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Recall that there are two kinds of human cloning: therapeutic (which is […]. ...
SUMMARY. To all: This week two bills regarding human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning are likely to receive committee and floor action. The purpose of this email is to outline the basic provisions and explain the differences between the two. Its important to also put any legislation regarding biomedical research in the context of the passage of Issue 1. The Ohio Constitution now includes language outlining proper public purposes for state funding to include "without limitation" research and development and commercialization of products. If the General Assembly approves changes to state law, which conflict with the Ohio Constitution it will open the door to litigation. The courts will be compelled to rule in favor of the constitutional provisions. Having said this, there still needs to be public input on these historic bills. Both bills are expected to receive committee action tomorrow, Tuesday 11/15/05 Neither version has current language available on the ...
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Even though creationism was not a major issue, evolutionary biology was nonetheless badly split by controversies. The disagreements concerned the causation of evolutionary change and the validity of various theories of evolution. I was a beneficiary of the furor, a bystander during the numerous clashes between supporters of the opposing theories favored during the first decades of the 20th century.. There are a multitude of reasons why so many controversies about evolution emerged during that period. For instance, the philosophy of science at that time was totally dominated by physics and by typology (essentialism). This philosophy was appropriate for the physical sciences but entirely unsuitable as a foundation for theories dealing with biological populations (see below). Perhaps more important was the fact that the paradigm of Darwinian evolution was not a single theory, as Darwin always insisted, but was actually composed of five quite independent theories.* Two of these were readily accepted ...
Cancer is widely accepted as one of the major health issues. Diet composition and exposure to environmental genotoxic and carcinogenic agents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the causative factors for various types of cancers, including breast cancer. Low penetrance genes including glutathione S transferases (GST) in association with environmental factors can contribute greatly in the development of breast cancer. We were interested to investigate the association of the polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTO2 with the risk of breast cancer in the Pakistani population. One hundred women visiting the Department of Radiology and Oncology, Nishter Hospital, Multan with pathologically confirmed breast cancer, and 100 healthy volunteers from central Pakistan were enrolled in the present study. The strength of the association of various factors with breast cancer was measured by calculating odd ratios (ORs) which were determined by logistic regression. All P values cited ...
The Bush Administration is unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings for any reason. President Bush has been consistent and decisive on this issue: "I strongly oppose human cloning. We recoil at the idea of growing human beings for spare body parts, or creating life for our convenience." Bush has promised to sign legislation to ban all human cloning.. Kerry voted against invoking cloture and strongly opposed the Human Cloning Prohibition Act, a bill that would have prohibited the creation of cloned human embryos. He is also a supporter of "therapeutic cloning." Kerry has maintained that "while I oppose cloning for the purposes of creating a human being, I do support therapeutic cloning that has the potential to help cure many diseases.". Eager to find some guidance on these important moral issues, I visited all the official Orthodox Church websites across the various ...
SYNOPSES OF COURSES. MBM 1101: Anatomy I. General Introduction to Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) and Developmental Anatomy (Embryology). Lower Limb and Upper Limb anatomy gross, Musculoskeletal Histology and Embryology. MBM 1102: Biochemistry I - Catabolism and Genetics. Biomolecules: Water as solvent, introduction to macromolecular chemistry , structure and function. Enzyme activity and kinetics. Cell Biology and Metabolic Energy: Introduction to major cell structures and processes. The cell membrane, Energy concepts, glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and ATP.. Food and Digestion: Macronutrients and micronutrients. Digestive enzymes and absorption processes in the GIT. Lipid uptake and transport. Diarrhea.. Nutrient Metabolism: The Embden -Meyerhof pathway to citric acid cycle. Anaerobic metabolism, the Cori cycle. Fatty acid oxidation and the ketone bodies. Amino acids and the citric acid cycle. The urea cycle.. Human Genetics: Introduction ...
In this time of rapid genetic knowledge development, students genetic understanding is still problematic in secondary education. The current emphasis in genetics education on Mendelian segregation and single-gene inheritance models lacks the richness of todays scientific understanding and may lead to a poor understanding of genetics and a deterministic view ... read more on genetics. Many factors in this problem have been identified, but it is likely that also student understanding of the genetic concepts hereditary traits and phenotype is problematic and much narrower than in biological science. Textbooks are an important factor contributing to students understanding. In this study, the two major Dutch secondary school biology textbooks were analysed and use of the terms hereditary traits and phenotype was classified according to six categories in which the concepts were expected to differ from scientific ...
Coordinator: Dr Brian Chung (Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine). This module is designed to provide the knowledge for understanding normal development in pregnancy and childhood. Students will learn about: embryonic and fetal development, the stages of pregnancy, common pregnancy-related problems; normal childhood development, methods of developmental assessment; services available to individuals with special needs; and common abnormalities affecting the various body systems. It also provides an approach to establishing a differential diagnosis incorporating principles of embryological development, dysmorphology, teratology, inborn errors of metabolism, laboratory findings and traditional and non-traditional genetic concepts. Whenever possible, disorders will be studied from the molecular defect to phenotype to burden. Clinical attachments in this module will allow students to put these concepts and approaches into practice.. ...
Contemporary patterns of species decline frequently stem from multiple, synergistic pressures, which much like the genetic concept of lethal equivalents, must be interpreted in sum rather than as independent deleterious entities. For example, the recent, range-wide decline of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is likely a result of numerous, minor, human-mediated stressors including habitat fragmentation and disruption of metapopulation dynamics, reduced hard mast availability associated with the functional extirpation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and recent shifts in forest composition, and expansion of a human-adapted species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the parasites it carries (Baylisascaris procyonis). To evaluate the assertion that range-wide woodrat declines have been caused by a concatenate of stressors, we used principal component (PC) analysis to identify latent relationships among a suite of biological and ecological factors ...
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The Guangzhou Twin Registry is a population-based registry of twins residing in Guangzhou City. The initial registry database included 9,700 pairs of young twins recruited from the Official Household Registry of Guangzhou City. The registry is design
In the discussion on values Levin once again appeals to the environment to explain the strong individual dominance drive among Africans (p. 140) and a supposedly cooperative and democratic European temperament. Levin writes, Recall the hypothesis that conditions in northern Eurasia strongly favored cooperation (p. 168). In fact Levins analysis is totally erroneous: it is African society that has been criticized, as being incompatible with the individualism required of market economies. It is in Africa and other areas of the African world rather than in Europe that the idea of the extended family, with its concomitant principles of cooperation and altruistic obligation, is held to be widespread. But I do not make an essentialist argument here. Human social relations are determined maximally by the principle of sociological contingency: individualism and anomie are rampant in large urban areas while cooperation and altruism are more common in the rural areas of whatever ...
Necrotising fasciitis in AIDS. Leg of a 15 year old AIDS patient showing extensive tissue loss due to necrotising fasciitis, a bacterial infection of connective tissue. This spread from initial osteomyelitis (bone infection). AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a contagious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It causes impairment of the immune system, which causes otherwise harmless infections to become serious and life-threatening. This patient had to have extensive wound debridement (removal of dead tissue). He is from Africa. In the third world, lack of access to drugs and information makes AIDS a major public health problem. - Stock Image M112/0326
Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a fulminant and life-threatening soft tissue infection, which leads to vascular thrombosis and cutaneous ischemia. We present our experience with extensive necrotising fasciitis in a 4-day-old neonate and stress the importance of early diagnosis, modern dressings including negative pressure therapy, prompt surgical debridement and intensive care to improve the survival and cosmetic outcome of children with NF ...
The college loves this condition, and it crops up rather regularly. Necrotising fasciitis in the human leg is explored in Question 24 from the first paper of 2011 (a diabetic leg) and Question 1 from the first paper of 2001 (a non-diabetic leg). Post-laparotomy necrotising fasciitis of the abdominal wall is seen in Question 25.1 from the first paper of 2009 and Question 3.2 from the first paper of 2014. Fourniers Gangrene is visited in Question 14.1 from the second paper of 2010.
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Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security fromhistoric and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established amodernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship.Drawing on two case studies fromwidely different historical and cultural contexts - the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople - this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social-ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term ...
In psychiatry, few question the legitimacy of asking whether a given psychiatric disorder is real; similarly, in psychology, scholars debate the reality of such theoretical entities as general intelligence, superegos, and personality traits. And yet in both disciplines, little thought is given to what is meant by the rather abstract philosophical concept of "real." Indeed, certain psychiatric disorders have passed from real to imaginary (as in the case of multiple personality disorder) and from imaginary to real (as in the case of post-traumatic stress disorder). In this book, Peter Zachar considers such terms as "real" and "reality" -- invoked in psychiatry but often obscure and remote from their instances -- as abstract philosophical concepts. He then examines the implications of his approach for psychiatric classification and psychopathology. Proposing what he calls a scientifically inspired pragmatism, Zachar considers such topics as the essentialist bias, ...
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At one of the oddest press conferences ever, Brigitte Bosselier, a "bishop" in the Raelian UFO cult announced on December 27 that their cloning company, Clonaid, has succeeded in cloning a 7-pound baby girl named Eve.. Citing privacy concerns, Bosselier offered no proof to back up her claim. However, Clonaid says that it has agreed to let an independent panel chosen by science journalist Michael Guillen determine whether Eve is in fact a clone of her mother. If its on the up and up, the world should know in little more than a week whether the first human clone has been born.. What would a clone be? Well, he or she would be a complete human being who happens to share the same set of genes with another person. Today, we call such people identical twins. To my knowledge no one has argued that twins are immoral. Of course, cloned twins would not be the same age. But it is hard to see why this age difference might present an ethical problem- or give clones a different moral ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it." -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita "Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears." --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. "...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the ...
Human cloning belongs to the eugenics project and is thus subject to all the ethical and juridical observations that have amply condemned it." -- Reflections on Cloning, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita "Proponents of therapeutic cloning have set up reproductive cloning as the greater of two evils and then insisted that the public must choose one. This leaves the public with therapeutic cloning as the lesser evil. In fact, we can decide to reject them both as evils, but I see reproductive cloning as the lesser of the two presented evils. Instead of promoting deaths, it promotes life; although, of course, the nature of cloned lives raise many deep concerns and fears." --James Sherley Ph.D., professor of biological engineering at MIT.. "...methods that fail to respect the dignity and value of the person must always be avoided. I am thinking in particular of attempts at human cloning with a view to obtaining organs for transplants: these techniques, insofar as they involve the ...
GATTACA is just one of the examples from literature and popular culture that entice us to slow down and think about some of the most serious ethical questions facing us today. Hollywood has given us The Sixth Day on human cloning, The Island on involuntary organ donors, John Q on organ transplantation, and Minority Report on neuroethics, to name just a few. These are joined in literature by works such as C.S. Lewis That Hideous Strength and, of course, Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. Sometimes there is an eerie immediacy to the sci-fi futuristic scenarios depicted in these works. Scripts have had to be altered when real-day science threatened to overtake the in-the-future premise of the plot. Meanwhile, the moral conversation, the bioethical reflection, has struggled to keep up. Law and policy lag even farther behind, often feebly attempting to regulate only after a catastrophe or dispute.
Scientists respond as maverick cloning scientist Dr Panos Zavos announces successful experiments to create cloned embryos using DNA from dead people. Dr Simon Fishel, Managing Director, CARE Fertility Group, said:. "Now is the time to use the full weight of the international community for a worldwide ban on reproductive cloning. This would remove the false hope given by mavericks to patients. Any purported research should be published through reputable scientific journals and then be repeated by reputable scientists before any credence may be given. To use human DNA in a cows egg will only create confusion rather than understanding of reproductive technology. At worst this is misleading and exploitative to the patients funding the research. The respectable way forward would be to have a peer reviewed research grant funded by a scientific body.". Professor John Harris, Sir David Alliance Professor of Bioethics, University of Manchester, said:. "If experimental procedures of this sort are to ...
The IOMS convened a seminar in 1983 on "Reproduction in Islam", in which two papers were presented dealing with the possibility of human cloning as a Tesult of successful cloning in plants, frogs and small marine animals. The Semi"1 nar made the following recommendation:. "To exercise prudence in giving a Shariah- based opinion on human cloning (as achieved in animals) and to call for further medical and Islamic investigation of these issues. It would be possible to apply genetic engineering of micro-organisms using the recombinant DNA technology to produce medicinal substances in abundant supply .". Since 1993, when an identical twin was produced by splitting a fertilised egg, and later when cloning of Dolly the sheep was announced in February 1997, cloning has returned into the forefront of medical debate with much intensity and urgency. Then followed an announcement on the successful cloning of two monkeys at the University of Oregon in the United States ...
The short answer is yes. But the real question is what they support doing with cloned human embryos. They apparently support creating cloned human embryos, using the cloning technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create the cloned embryos. This is the cloning technique that was used to create Dolly the cloned sheep. In that case, the cloned sheep embryo was gestated to birth. Some term this use of cloned embryos as reproductive cloning. When the cloned embryos are disaggregated to pluck out their stem cells, some term this use of cloned embryos as therapeutic cloning (even though it ...
Gov. Mark Dayton has vetoed legislation that would have prevented the cloning of human embryos in Minnesota, and the funding of such experiments. Both pro-life
In the previous message, I talked about the negative and positive aspects of assisted reproductive medicine today. In this message, I would like to discuss the wide-ranging impact that in vitro fertilization, the main method of assisted reproductive medicine, is having on regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine generally refers to using cells and genes to artificially create tissues and organs and then transplanting them to regenerate physiological functions in patients. Many people suffer from the loss or failure of tissues or organs as a result of a congenital disorder, illness or accident. While treatment also aims to enhance the innate self-organizing ability of the body to repair systems and organs to normal structure and function, in most cases, it must rely on transplants from donors. With transplants from donors, however, there is the problem of rejection and also a limit to the number of available organs and tissues. Regenerative medicine is one answer to this problem. ...
Because of the massive scientific and legal deficiencies addressed in detail below, the accumulative body of U.S. legislation, regulations, and related documents on human embryo and fetal research, human embryonic stem cell research (especially when stem cells are derived from cloned human embryos), human cloning, and other human genetic engineering activities over the last 30 years represents total chaos. These documents are contradictory and unenforceable due to vagueness, banning or regulating no human cloning or other human genetic engineering activities. Yet they continue to form the ever-expanding foundation for legal and regulatory stare decisis to be applied in the future to the next round of bills, regulations and related documents dealing with these critical issues.
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Dr Vicki Squire (Warwick) - Crossing the Mediterranean Sea by Boat: Human Dignity and Biophysical Violence. People on the move are often viewed with fear and suspicion on the part of host communities. Despite a broad range of political and social responses to the so-called European refugee crisis, a security-orientated concern with foreigners has come to dominate public and political debate. Meanwhile, efforts to construct different ways of engaging the issue appear to have failed. For instance, a humanitarian approach has been co-opted by the security agenda and is reproached from various angles as either too soft and idealistic, or as victimising people on the move in precarious conditions. Such developments raise the question as to how alternative imaginaries - grounded in respect for the dignity of all lives, including those people who are rendered precarious through movement - can be effectively forged and put into practice. This talk reflects on this ...
http://www.iflscience.com/sites/www.iflscience.com/files/styles/ifls_large/public/blog/%5Bnid%5D/shutterstock_245174794.jpg?itok=C6UAK1EQ http://www.scienceofwonder.org/what-causes-necrotising-fasciitis-the-flesh-eating-bug/ Port Melbourne VFL player Sam OSullivan is reportedly recovering in hospital after being infected with the flesh-eating disease necrotising myositis. This disease is one of a group of serious infections affecting soft tissue, usually called necrotising fasciitis or sometimes gas gangrene. |img src=http://i0.wp.com/62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rac
Posted on 06/13/2007 11:59:38 AM PDT by LUMary. Eugenic Darwinism by: Wendy Cook, June 04, 2007 Charles Darwin is partly to blame for eugenics, according to Discovery Institute senior fellow John West. Merriam-Webster s defines eugenics as a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed. Darwin said that because of our sense of compassion we couldn t simply follow the dictates of reason and get rid of the unfit, but he certainly provided the logical basis for why we should do so and later the eugenicists quoted this passage and they weren t quoting it out of context, because in The Descent of Man Darwin really did argue that our progress as humans is dependent on a struggle for survival and that we were really impeding human progress by trying to undercut that struggle for survival, Dr. West explained to an audience at the Family Research Council recently. With savages, the weak in body or ...
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Necrotising fasciitis, a life-threatening infection, predominantly develops in the abdomen or limbs. A caesarean section incision can provide a route for the bacteria to enter the body........
Iain Hollingshead: It was reported this week that the number of elderly patients infected with the Clostridium difficile superbug rose by 17.2% last year, while levels of MRSA infections dipped by 2% across the population. There was no mention, however, of necrotising fasciitis - the disease that briefly became a tabloid phenomenon in May 1994.
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The document also declares that "human rights should be protected by the rule of law," and that it is essential "to promote the development of friendly relations between nations." Also of note, and perhaps most importantly - the UDHR proclaims that this is all rooted in the "dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women." For those well-acquainted with CST, some of the similarities and dissimilarities are strikingly clear. First of all, both the UDHR and CST see the root of social justice and human rights to be found in the dignity of the human person. However, CST provides the reason for this human dignity: it comes from the fact that we are created equal in the image and likeness of the Creator. The UDHR, however, does not find such a source, and does not specify the source or originator of this human dignity - it simply states that the dignity and worth of ...
Two Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine bioethicists are calling on organized medicine to end its refusal to provide clinical guidance regarding the care of patients actively seeking assistance in dying.
By Wesley J. Smith, J.D., Special Consultant to the CBC Stem cell bioethicists apparently have claimed that IPSCs - skin or other cells reprogrammed to be stem cells& -
Human Genome Project The worldwide effort, originally named the Human Genome Initiative but later known as the Human Genome Project or HGP, began in 1987 and was celebrated as complete in 2001. When begun, HGP was dubbed big science comparable to placing human beings on the moon.
April 30, 2004 1:58PM EST. LEGISLATIVE UPDATE - WEEK ENDING APRIL 30, 2004 CONGRESS IN SESSION THE PRESIDENCY BIOETHICS - CLONING The Presidents Council on Bioethics has released a chilling report on the biotech industry. The industry has fused sheep and goat embryos and a sheep-goat has been born. The technology now exists for two human female eggs to be fused to produce a child without the need of sperm. The biotech industry is basically out of control. Implantation and fertilization has reached the point that parents can control not only the sex of their child, but the hair color as well. Cloning is now a real possibility. Liberal Canada has passed a law against human cloning, but in the United States the cloning bill introduced by Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS) cannot get sufficient votes to pass in the Senate. Liberal Senators want to tag on language that would allow experimentation on unborn babies. The Democrats are promoting a "clone and kill" bill that would allow ...
Sequencing the human genome depended on many technological improvements in the production and analysis of sequence data. Key innovations were developed both within and outside the Human Genome Project. Laboratory innovations included four-colour fluorescence-based sequence detection, improved fluorescent dyes, dye-labelled terminators, polymerases specifically designed for sequencing, cycle sequencing and capillary gel electrophoresis. These studies contributed to substantial improvements in the automation, quality and throughput of collecting raw DNA sequence. Human Genome Project, Nature ...
Bioethical--and especially biotechnological--developments are both so urgent and have come so quickly upon us that there has been little time for Christian bioethicists to reflect upon or develop a coherent methodological approach.
By Jeremy Bransten Two Western doctors recently announced plans to clone a human being. They say their team has unlimited funding as well as up to 700 couples willing to be part of the experiment, and they cite recent success in cloning cattle and other mammals. How close are we to this vision of biologically duplicating humans and what are the ethical ramifications? RFE/RL correspondent Jeremy Bransten examines the science and the debate behind cloning. Prague, 15 March 2001 (RFE/RL) -- As soon as they announced their cloning plans in Rome last week, Italian fertility specialist Sverino Antinori and his U.S. colleague Panayiotis Zavos came under heavy fire. The criticisms came both from religious organizations and from their colleagues in the medical profession. The Vatican labeled the idea of human cloning grotesque, while ethicists and geneticists said the risks involved made any such procedure unacceptable. So far, the two would-be ...
Interesting post Erick. I think Adleman read the bill. I guess the whole controversy depends on the interpretation of the definition of "human cloning." Both bills prohibit it and both bills provide for the same criminal punishment for engaging in cloning.. However, Adlemans bill defines cloning as "the asexual genetic replication of a human being by transferring a preimplantation embryo that has been created by somatic cell nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis, or by other asexual means into a uterus or uterine-like environment with the purpose of creating a human fetus or a human child." Shafers bill defines cloning as "human asexual reproduction accomplished by introducing nuclear material from one or more human somatic cells into a fertilized or unfertilized oocyte whose nuclear material has been removed or inactivated so as to produce a living organism at any stage of development that is ...
An important consultation, by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), will close next Friday (7 December) on the genetic manipulation of embryos with mitochondrial defects. Researchers want to create human embryos in the laboratory that have genes from one man and two women. Alternatively they want to make a new embryos by combining two IVF embryos. This would extend the scope for destructive exploitation of human embryos, and in particular for more genetic experimentation on embryos, including human cloning. These processes reinforce the attitude that human embryos are things to be used, not early human beings. Embryos will increasingly be treated as mere commodities, ripe for commercial exploitation, and denied their proper status and respect as members of the human family. Please respond urgently to the consultation. We have produced a ...
eldavojohn writes Today in a speech the pope denounced human cloning, embryonic stem cell research and artificial insemination, citing them as a violation of human dignity. That said, the pope did appreciate and encourage research on stem cells from non-embryonic cells in the human body. The p...
NIH Announces Awards for BRAIN Initiative Neuroethics Research; Grants aim to address neuroethical issues associated with human brain research. As scientists develop powerful neurotechnologies to monitor and regulate brain activity, ethical questions arise about how these new tools should be incorporated into medical research and clinical practice.. Press Release: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2017/nih-announces-awards-for-brain-initiative-neuroethics-research.shtml. ...
Flint, United States of America. Interdisciplinary academic conference devoted to exploring how issues such as cognition and/or neuroethics inform, affect or influence science fiction narratives. Submissions from the humanities, social and medical sciences welcome.. Enquiries: [email protected] ...
The rapidly evolving field of neuroethics is concerned with the ethical questions that new technologies will pose about autonomy, privacy, the definition of normal, and individuality. Virtual Mentor is a monthly bioethics journal published by the American Medical Association.
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America rejects science without values attached -- we still havemorals and morality prevailed today," she said in a statement.. Family Research Council President Ken Connor said of the vote: "Thisis a major victory for the sanctity of human life. The bipartisan votein the House ... has sent Frankenstein packing.". The president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, whichopposed the bans effect on research, said if the legislation becomeslaw, the progress of new medical treatments will be reversed. In astatement, Carl B. Feldbaum called on the Senate to consider the medicalbenefits and "to separate the technologys therapeutic use from its usefor human reproductive cloning, a concept the biotechnology industryfinds to be repugnant and unsafe.". President Bush, who has yet to make a decision about federal fundingof stem-cell research, issued a statement commending the House action.. "The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and ...
Walkers rejection of the morality of ANT and OAR centers on the cloning and therefore the use of IVF in the transfer of a nucleus with full genetic strucure (46 chromosomes) into an enucleated egg. The "twist" in ANT is "the intentional alteration of the nucleus before transfer, to construct a biological entity that, by design and from its very beginning, lacks the attributes and capacities of the huiman embyo" (William B. Hurlbut, Altered Nuclear Transfer as a Morally Acceptable Means for the Procurement of Human Embyonic Stem Cells, paper presented to the Presidents Council on Bioethics, 3 December 2004, 1). Walkers point is that ANT "is technically and morally indistinguishable from human cloning. ANT is the creation and destructin of a human organism after all, and so is no more morally acceptable a method for procuring human embryonic stem cells than the more obviously feticidal ones currently in use" [Adrian J. Walker ...
In 2067, human cloning is a part of everyday life. But it is a bizarre form of cloning: not actually the direct copying of a humans, but rather the construction of custom-made reproductions of humans using animal DNA. The CIA uses these so-called "chimeras" for various undercover operations, and one of their technicians, Simon Boyle, has a sideline making illegal copies: chimeras based on famous criminals, for rent. His Billy the Kid, a creation unable to comprehend or sometimes even recognize the sorts of things that didnt exist before the 1880s and endowed with powerful sex pheromones, is quite popular for a night of historically convincing passion with rich women, particularly the part where Boyle (as sheriff Pat Garrett) guns him down. As the story progresses, Billy the Kid starts remembering things from his previous lives. One of Boyles clients sets Billy loose into the mean streets of the 21st century, where he struggles to seize control of the myths ...
In this Confessional Standard we reject and condemn all infidelity, heresy, apostasy, and immorality ancient & modern. For example, we reject & condemn the following: all abortion and other genocide, artificial fertilization & human cloning, deprivation of nutrition & hydration to hasten death, euthanasia, suicide, and all other murder; fornication, adultery, homosexuality & all other sodomy, pornography, illicit contraception, willfully childless marriage, illicit divorce, intemperance, popular culture, & all other carnal immorality; Womens Ordination & all Feminism, Anti-Christianism, Anti-Semitism, Racism, unjustified violence or cruelty to any of Gods creation or creatures, false tolerance, all Humanism & false philosophy; the Papal Antichrist & all Romanism, Byzantinism, Arminianism & all Synergism, Calvinism & Crypto- Calvinism, Puritanism & all Pietism, Millennialism, all Anabaptist errors & Pentecostalism, False Ecumenism, Latitudinarianism & all Syncretism, ...
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The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance. ...
The Human Genome Project- Miriam Bartlett Word count- 1853 .The Human Genome Project began in October, 1990 and was a long-term multi-billion dollar project which helped international scientists determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make ...

Geometry.Net - Biology Books: SociobiologyGeometry.Net - Biology Books: Sociobiology

Genetic determinist this is not. Wilson speculates that genes promoting flexibility in social behavior are strongly selected on ... Defenders of the Truth touches on grand themes such as the unity of knowledge, human nature, and free will and determinism, and ... This book is, to my mind, the most important single book on social behavior in animals and humans, edging out Darwins The ... In this text, Wilsons work on the biological basis of social behavior in all species from amoeba colonies to human societies ...
more infohttp://www.geometry.net/biology_bk/sociobiology.html

Determinism - Wordsmith.orgDeterminism - Wordsmith.org

Biological determinism, sometimes called Genetic determinism, is the idea that each of our behaviors, beliefs, and desires are ... This Nurture-focused determinism was developed by John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.. Cultural determinism or social determinism ... Although some of the above forms of determinism concern human behaviors and cognition, others frame themselves as an answer to ... Determinism should not be confused with self-determination of human actions by reasons, motives, and desires. Determinism ...
more infohttps://wordsmith.org/board/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=209323

Sandwalk: The selfish gene is not a good metaphor to describe evolutionSandwalk: The "selfish gene" is not a good metaphor to describe evolution

My own view is that conclusions about the evolution of human behavior should be based on research at least as rigorous as that ... Coynes main assertion really is that all critics of the selfish gene are sensationalizing evidence against genetic determinism ... I mean philosophers, social scientists, and so on. While in fact very few people understand it, actually as it stands, even as ... He called his answers "just-so stories." When evolutionists try to explain form and behavior, they also tell just-so stories- ...
more infohttp://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2014/03/the-selfish-gene-is-not-good-metaphor.html

Vaulting Ambition | The MIT PressVaulting Ambition | The MIT Press

While it may be possible to develop a genuine science of human behavior based on evolutionary biology, genetics, cognition, and ... the degree to which sociobiology assumes genetic determinism, or the falsifiability of the general theory. Sociobiology has ... the theories to human beings-where even more exacting standards of evidence are called for because of the potential social ... And it takes up issues of human altruism, freedom, and ethics as well.Kitcher weighs the evidence for sociobiology, for human ...
more infohttps://mitpress.mit.edu/books/vaulting-ambition

Similar - Books on Google PlaySimilar - Books on Google Play

John Alcock reviews the controversy that has surrounded evolutionary studies of human social behavior following the 1975 ... Alcock challenges the notion that sociobiology depends on genetic determinism while showing the shortcoming of competing ... Human Growth Hormone: Research and Clinical Practice Human Growth Hormone Book 19 Roy G. Smith Book 19 January 28, 2000 3 ... have had so much success in explaining the puzzling and fascinating social behavior of nonhuman animals and humans alike. ...
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Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship - WikipediaSocial Bonding and Nurture Kinship - Wikipedia

... genetic relatedness and the prediction of behavior", "places genetic determinism in the correct perspective" and serves as "a ... suggested that perhaps the expression of social behaviors in humans might quite simply be based on cues of context and ... He argues that while genetic relatedness may play a role in the evolution of social behavior, it does not determine the forms ... biological theory of social behavior is not deterministic in respect of genetic relatedness vis-a-vis the formation of social ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Bonding_and_Nurture_Kinship

Evolutionary developmental psychology - WikipediaEvolutionary developmental psychology - Wikipedia

Evolutionary approaches to human behavior were, and to some extent continue to be, considered a form of genetic determinism and ... Behaviors that benefit other members of ones social group, particularly those which appear costly to the prosocial or " ... to understand the development of human behavior and cognition. It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental ... in response to increasing social complexity and sophisticated social learning. While many species exhibit social learning to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_developmental_psychology

Zygon: Journal of Religion and ScienceZygon: Journal of Religion and Science

... is relatively remote from the genetic basis of human social behavior. However, moving between biological and social levels of ... antidiscipline • biological evolution • cultural evolution • economic theory • genetic determinism • learning theory • ... Social science is therefore a form of practical reason based on objective claims. But while social-scientific understanding ... I do not argue that the social sciences analyze religion from the believer s point of view. I argue instead that a social- ...
more infohttp://zygonjournal.org/issue1990_3.html

Is There a Human Blueprint? | Boston ReviewIs There a Human Blueprint? | Boston Review

Is There a Human Blueprint? from Boston Review. Two new books from intellectual giants Robert Plomin and Nicholas Christakis ... This is no less worrying than the way that genetic determinism undermines social or structural explanations for inequalities. ... In combination, work from the natural and social sciences should have fostered a golden age for the study of human behavior. ... Dialogue between the natural and social sciences should have fostered a golden age for the study of human behavior. ...
more infohttps://www.bostonreview.net/science-nature/c-brandon-ogbunu-c-malik-boykin-christakis-plomin-blueprint

Philosophy of Biology, A Contemporary Introduction by Alex Rosenberg | 9780415315920 | BooktopiaPhilosophy of Biology, A Contemporary Introduction by Alex Rosenberg | 9780415315920 | Booktopia

Biology, human behavior, social science, and moral philosophy. p. 187. Overview. p. 187. ... the controversies about genocentrism and genetic determinism, and the debate about major transitions central to contemporary ... Genocentrism and genetic information. p. 173. Teleosemantics: philosophy of biology meets the philosophy of psychology. p. 179 ... What is human nature? Which of our traits is essential to us?Biology is the branch of science most immediately relevant to many ...
more infohttps://www.booktopia.com.au/philosophy-of-biology-alex-rosenberg/prod9780415315920.html

Similar - Books on Google PlaySimilar - Books on Google Play

John Alcock reviews the controversy that has surrounded evolutionary studies of human social behavior following the 1975 ... Alcock challenges the notion that sociobiology depends on genetic determinism while showing the shortcoming of competing ... have had so much success in explaining the puzzling and fascinating social behavior of nonhuman animals and humans alike. ... In so doing, he shows that sociobiology provides the most satisfactory scientific analysis of social behavior available today. ...
more infohttps://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_17EE2EB9_5A19FB95_603A5725

PPT - The Universe, Mind and Intelligence without God? PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2224231PPT - The Universe, Mind and Intelligence without God? PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2224231

Neural determinism is the effect of genetic predisposition and individual experiences, family, social interactions,education. ... have better working memory than humans, show complex social behavior, altruism and sense of justice. ... Neural determinism. Our possibilities are limited by genetic and neural determinism. „Comes to my mind" = neural activity ... The Theorist -. first of all, try to forget that you have ever heard of intelligence as a single property of the human mind, or ...
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Chapter 14. Heritable Behavior and AbilitiesChapter 14. Heritable Behavior and Abilities

Social bonding. Human social bonding is unique among humans but is suggested in the animal world in other ways. Dogs are pack ... This is an indication of just how ingrained mood expression is in our genetic make-up. With all moods (or behavior associated ... This is "biological determinism". People who are blessed with strong abilities in some areas have brains which enable these ... If a humans brain is normal and healthy, they are obligated to be social in a human way. We are "obligatory social creatures ...
more infohttps://www.seanet.com/~realistic/chpt14.html

Screening for Mental Illness: The Merger of Eugenics and the Drug Industry - Alliance for Human Research ProtectionScreening for Mental Illness: The Merger of Eugenics and the Drug Industry - Alliance for Human Research Protection

EXPERIMENTS IN SOCIAL ENGINEERING. Eugenics and psychiatry have a common cause - improving human behavior. Both have an ... The eugenic ideology of genetic determinism was deeply embedded in American popular culture during the 1920s and 1930s - just ... So-called "positive eugenics" (Social Darwinism) sought to improve the human race by encouraging the fittest to reproduce and ... Paul, D. B. (1994). Eugenics anxieties, social realities, and political choices. Are genes us: The social consequences of the ...
more infohttps://ahrp.org/article-17/

warofpositionistwarofpositionist

that there is a genetic component to human social behavior; that this component, so critical to human survival, is subject to ... every-day conversations are subtly steeped in genetic determinism. Expressions such as so-and-so won the genetic lottery or ... Humans? Little genetic variation. Any two (non-twin) humans share 99.9% of their respective 3 x [10^6] DNA base pairs. ... evolutionary differences in social behavior underlie the differences in social institutions prevalent among the major human ...
more infohttps://warofpositionist.wordpress.com/

Topics | West HunterTopics | West Hunter

The title makes it sound like a refutation of genetic determinism, but its not really that. Loosely, the idea is that humans, ... more than any other animal, rely on social learning (aka cultural inheritance) to acquire many behaviors. Dawkins memes, ... Main thesis is gene-culture evolution made us human. In pithy form: human see, human do is what made us what we are. We learn ... Genetic modification of kids probably wont look so much like eugenics. I expect it will be taken up first by the most ...
more infohttps://westhunt.wordpress.com/2017/03/24/topics/?replytocom=89919

Promoting Human Wellness by Margaret Schneider Jamner, Daniel Stokols - Paperback - University of California PressPromoting Human Wellness by Margaret Schneider Jamner, Daniel Stokols - Paperback - University of California Press

Valuing Future Health in Social Policy and Human Health Behavior, by Theodore G. Ganiats and William J. Sieber ... 5. Genetic Determinism as a Failing Paradigm in Biology and Medicine: Implications for Health and Wellness, by Richard C. ... NEW DIRECTIONS IN HUMAN WELLNESS PROMOTION. 1. The Social Ecological Paradigm of Wellness Promotion, by Daniel Stokols. 2. The ... The articles discuss such timely issues as genetic determinism as a paradigm in wellness promotion, adolescent health promotion ...
more infohttps://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520226098

Frontiers | From Wide Cognition to Mechanisms: A Silent Revolution | PsychologyFrontiers | From Wide Cognition to Mechanisms: A Silent Revolution | Psychology

In particular, the entities and operations responsible for the cultural and social constraints on human behavior are not fully ... Consequently, this leads to the abandonment of radical genetic, neuronal, cultural determinism, or environmentalism and ... For example, Dennett (1971, 1987) argues that a non-human animal, a human infant, and even a typical human adult operates with ... apparently non-functional behaviors. Only humans engage in constant and pervasive pedagogy. Only humans set up elaborate ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02393/full

Genetic Determinism and Race BibliographyGenetic Determinism and Race Bibliography

Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monograms. 122(1): 21-53.. Rushton, J. P. 1997. Race, evolution, and behavior: a life ... Non-genetic factors exert a strong influence on human behavior and their influence must not be overlooked. ... Genetic variation is continuous and discrete genetic distinctions between races do not exist. More genetic variation is seen ... The authors discuss the implications of the use of race as a proxy in genetic studies. The patterns and distribution of human ...
more infohttp://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/ViewPage.aspx?pageId=75

BiotechnologyBiotechnology

... à-vis genetic determinism, and the concepts of health and disease. Do genes influence human behavior? If so, does genetic ... Genetic tests reveal information about individuals and their families. Thus, test results can affect the dynamics within social ... They argue that the goal of creating a nearly identical genetic copy of a human being is consistent with the term "human ... Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") that aims to generate ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Biotechnology.html

Genetics and Human Behavior: II. Philosophical and Ethical Issues | Encyclopedia.comGenetics and Human Behavior: II. Philosophical and Ethical Issues | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on Genetics and Human Behavior: II. Philosophical and Ethical Issues: Encyclopedia of Bioethics ... However, this picture of genetic determinism seems to have an extremely limited range of application. No human behavior of even ... "Genetics of Human Personality: Social and Ethical Implications." In Molecular Genetics and Human Personality, ed. Jonathan ... Genetic Counseling, Practice of; Genetic Engineering, Human; Genetics and Environment in Human Health; Genetics and Human Self- ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/genetics-and-human-behavior-ii-philosophical-and-ethical-issues

Biotechnology - wikidocBiotechnology - wikidoc

... à-vis genetic determinism, and the concepts of health and disease. Do genes influence human behavior? If so, does genetic ... Genetic tests reveal information about individuals and their families. Thus, test results can affect the dynamics within social ... They argue that the goal of creating a nearly identical genetic copy of a human being is consistent with the term "human ... Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") that aims to generate ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Biotech

Set in Stone or Ray of Hope: Parents Beliefs About Cause and Prognosis After Genomic Testing of Children Diagnosed with..."Set in Stone" or "Ray of Hope": Parents' Beliefs About Cause and Prognosis After Genomic Testing of Children Diagnosed with...

2004). Autism as a paradigmatic complex genetic disorder. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 5, 379-405.CrossRef ... Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 307-322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Dar-Nimrod, I., & Heine, S. J. (2011). Genetic essentialism: On the deceptive determinism of DNA. Psychological Bulletin, 137, ... 2007). A place for genetic uncertainty: Parents valuing an unknown in the meaning of disease. Social science & medicine (1982) ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-017-3067-7

PA-17-325: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) of Genomics Research Project  Grant Program (R01)PA-17-325: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) of Genomics Research Project Grant Program (R01)

... and Social Implications (ELSI) of Genomics Research Project Grant Program (R01) PA-17-325. NHGRI ... Genomics and Conceptions of Human Identity and Origins * The Effect of Genetic Determinism on Attitudes, Behaviors and Policy ... Clinical, behavioral, and social datasets have large amounts of individual level data. When combined with biomarker and genetic ... Protections for Human Subjects. For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=phg&id=12928

Heredity | Encyclopedia.comHeredity | Encyclopedia.com

HEREDITY CONCEPT Heredity is the transmission of genetic characteristics from ancestor to descendant through the genes. As a ... SEE ALSO Darwin, Charles; Determinism, Biological; Determinism, Genetic; Disease; Evolutionary Psychology; Genomics; IQ ... There also appears to be universal, inherited behavior patterns in humans. Common behaviors across diverse cultures include the ... Many social and cultural factors intervene as humans develop, and the child of an alcoholic, who may be genetically vulnerable ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/heredity
  • Inclusion or exclusion of a particular racial or social group in genomic research carries both significant risks and significant benefits. (councilforresponsiblegenetics.org)
  • August 03, 2017 - Notice of Replacement of Funding Opportunity Announcements for NHGRI's Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Research PA-17-323, PA-17-324 and PA-17-325.See Notice NOT-HG-17-012 . (cdc.gov)
  • As knowledge of relationships between genetic variation and human diseases and traits proliferates, the distinctions between basic and clinical genomic research blur, and new findings are altering the practice of medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to solicit research applications that identify, analyze, and address the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of these genetic and genomic advances for individuals, families, communities and society more broadly. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct-to-consumer marketing of targeted genetic scans for particular disease mutations and for ancestry-informative markers has been available for several years, and a growing number of companies now offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) personalized genomic services based on more comprehensive genomic analyses. (genome.gov)
  • Perhaps the most recent and influential invocation of genetic racial determinism is Nicholas Wade's book, A Troublesome Inheritance . (wordpress.com)
  • Attention to the social and cultural factors influencing racial and ethnic categories thus becomes essential in genomics research, where it has previously been largely ignored. (councilforresponsiblegenetics.org)
  • The articles discuss such timely issues as genetic determinism as a paradigm in wellness promotion, adolescent health promotion and teen pregnancy prevention strategies, racial differences in cancer epidemiology, the California smokers' helpline, strategies for reducing youth violence, HIV/AIDS prevention, domestic violence education and prevention srategies, and the future of women's health research. (ucpress.edu)
  • German naturalist who developed one of the earliest, non-scientific human racial classification systems, which included geographically defined "Caucasian," "Mongolian," "Ethiopian," "American," and "Malay" races. (understandingrace.org)
  • Thanks to this, we have been able to correlate genetic signatures with a growing list of physical (e.g., height, skin color), physiological (e.g., risk for type-2 diabetes, hypertension), and behavioral (e.g., risk for depression, autism) traits. (bostonreview.net)
  • For thousands of years, people have had a general understanding of genetic inheritance - that certain traits can be, and sometimes are, passed along from one generation to the next - but this knowledge was primarily anecdotal and derived from casual observation rather than from scientific study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The dominant paradigm in contemporary social science is scientism, the attempt to apply the methods of natural science to the study of society. (zygonjournal.org)
  • The characterization of signatures of recent positive selection in genes that are of adaptive significance in humans can have great medical relevance, by helping to identify functionally significant variants that play a role in health and disease. (genome.gov)
  • This one-day workshop examined how studies supported by the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Program at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) that explore how genetic knowledge interacts with concepts of identity, human nature, responsibility and justice, can most effectively contribute to broader discourse on these issues and to the development of sound health, social and research policies and practices. (genome.gov)
  • The ways in which genetic knowledge interacts with individual concepts of personal identity or social justice reflects the background beliefs that the person brings to the encounter. (genome.gov)
  • He concludes that in the field of nonhuman animal studies, rigorous and methodologically sound work about the social lives of insects, birds, and mammals has been done. (mit.edu)
  • Whilst rigorous evolutionary biologists have long understood the distinction between these levels of analysis (see Tinbergen's four questions), past attempts to apply inclusive fitness theory to humans have often overlooked the distinction between evolution and expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the supergenes notion (sometimes called the Green-beard effect) - that organisms may evolve genes that are able to identify identical copies in others and preferentially direct social behaviours towards them - was theoretically clarified and withdrawn by Hamilton in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotechnology is often used to refer to genetic engineering technology of the 21st century, however the term encompasses a wider range and history of procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, going back to the initial modifications of native plants into improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization . (bionity.com)
  • So the term can be defined as, "The application of indigenous and/or scientific knowledge to the management of (parts of) microorganisms, or of cells and tissues of higher organisms, so that these supply goods and services of use to human beings. (wikidoc.org)
  • Genes , the units of heredity in living organisms, are encoded in an organism's genetic material ( DNA ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Like all cellular organisms humans run on electricity. (bibliovault.org)
  • Genetic modification technologies are moving faster than the ethical frameworks required to discuss them, and rather than wait for a consensus to emerge about best practices, at least one rogue scientist has already produced gene-edited babies . (bostonreview.net)
  • Scholars in religious studies, or religionists, often mischaracterize the social-scientific study of religion. (zygonjournal.org)
  • Laurie Zoloth, professor of ethics and director of the program in Jewish studies at San Francisco State University, moderated the meeting, which brought together 30 philosophers, theologians, historians, social scientists, legal scholars, policy developers, consumer advocates and genetic researchers to discuss these issues. (genome.gov)
  • Actually, DNA, a molecule that contains genetic codes for inheritance, had been discovered just four years after Mendel presented his theory of factors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • From this perspective, human development follows alternative life-history strategies in response to environmental variability, rather than following one species-typical pattern of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • for economics, by examining economically irrational behavior and by comparing economic activity in humans and other species. (zygonjournal.org)
  • Those who study animals know that there are many behaviors which are not learned and are characteristic of each species including humans. (seanet.com)
  • the modern form of the human species, which evolved in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago. (understandingrace.org)
  • Today we publish over 30 titles in the arts and humanities, social sciences, and science and technology. (mit.edu)
  • Developmental psychology, as with the social sciences in general, has long been resistant to evolutionary theories of development (with some notable exceptions, such as John Bowlby's work on attachment theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • I do not argue that the social sciences analyze religion from the believer s point of view. (zygonjournal.org)
  • I single out seven mischaracterizations of the social sciences typically held by religionists. (zygonjournal.org)
  • Dialogue between the natural and social sciences should have fostered a golden age for the study of human behavior. (bostonreview.net)
  • In combination, work from the natural and social sciences should have fostered a golden age for the study of human behavior. (bostonreview.net)
  • But in applying the theories to human beings-where even more exacting standards of evidence are called for because of the potential social disaster inherent in adopting a working hypothesis as a basis for public policy - many of the same scientists become wildly speculative, building grand conclusions from what Kitcher shows to be shoddy analysis and flimsy argument. (mit.edu)
  • Darwin's cousin Sir Francis Galton took the next logical step and suggested that deliberate reproductive control could be applied to human beings as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We are, unavoidably, social beings, and our lives in community require that we protect ourselves against unwarranted force, unjustified deception, and all the other ways in which harm can be done to our basic interests. (springer.com)
  • The emergence of these DTC genetic testing services raises many issues: Are such services a generally positive advance that empowers the public, or are they premature? (genome.gov)
  • Holland begins by tracing transitions in the history of anthropological theories of social behavior and kinship, noting the varying importance with which 'blood ties' have been understood to be a necessary element of human kinship and social relations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is life a purely physical process?Does the theory of natural selection conflict with theism, and if so, how can we rationally choose between them?What is human nature? (booktopia.com.au)
  • The dominant goal is to improve the lifetime welfare of future possible children who otherwise would be faced with genetic deficiencies that would compromise the length and quality of their lives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This research was supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health. (springer.com)
  • The ethical issues and considerations surrounding the Human Genome Diversity Project are cited as an example of how complications can arise in this type of research. (councilforresponsiblegenetics.org)
  • The second type of research - substantive analysis - is represented in the genomics community by research looking at how genes function (also called "functional genomics") and in the ELSI community by normative analyses to better understand the interplay between genetic information and the ethical issues and values of individuals, groups and societies. (genome.gov)
  • But while social-scientific understanding starts with interpretation, its possibilities by no means end there. (zygonjournal.org)
  • Two nerve centers in the hypothalamus of the cat, a small body of nerves in the center of the brains of humans too, are damaged by inserting a needle into them with freezing liquid nitrogen. (seanet.com)
  • Insects and other arthropods show complex behaviors that are products of versatile brains which, in a sense, think. (bibliovault.org)
  • HENRICH: In my latest project I'm really looking at the kind of spread of the Western church into Europe and how it transformed the social structure in ways that I think led to individualism, it led to a different kind of cultural psychology that would eventually pave the way for secular institutions and economic growth. (wordpress.com)
  • Much of the controversy within the field involves conceptual and methodological issues such as the question: Do twin studies yield the most scientifically reliable conclusions about the degree to which genes shape behavior? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Research is needed to address these and other issues related to DTC marketing of genetic tests. (genome.gov)
  • This book] helps broaden the field of inquiry and legitimates the social and political perspectives in health care research and planning. (ucpress.edu)
  • The involvement of genetic risk factors in SB is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes [e.g., tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin receptors and transporters, or brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs)] are linked to SBs, but these findings are not consistently supported by the results obtained. (frontiersin.org)
  • Support for the implication of genetic risk factors in suicidal behavior (SB) is provided by studies of families ( 5 ), twins ( 6 - 8 ), and adoption cases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Usually, it has framed intelligent behavior in terms of the processing of internal representations of individual minds and explained it in terms of functional analyses of mental capacities. (frontiersin.org)