The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "El Salvador" is a country located in Central America, and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Unlawful act of taking property.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Programs in which participation is required.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.

The health impact of economic sanctions. (1/434)

Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists.  (+info)

Cloning, killing, and identity. (2/434)

One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (3/434)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Persons and their copies. (4/434)

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

Beware! Preimplantation genetic diagnosis may solve some old problems but it also raises new ones. (5/434)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PIGD) goes some way to meeting the clinical, psychological and ethical problems of antenatal testing. We should guard, however, against the assumption that PIGD is the answer to all our problems. It also presents some new problems and leaves some old problems untouched. This paper will provide an overview of how PIGD meets some of the old problems but will concentrate on two new challenges for ethics (and, indeed, law). First we look at whether we should always suppose that it is wrong for a clinician to implant a genetically abnormal zygote. The second concern is particularly important in the UK. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (1990) gives clinicians a statutory obligation to consider the interests of the future children they help to create using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques. Does this mean that because PIGD is based on IVF techniques the balance of power for determining the best interests of the future child shifts from the mother to the clinician?  (+info)

Equality and selection for existence. (6/434)

It is argued that the policy of excluding from further life some human gametes and pre-embryos as "unfit" for existence is not at odds with a defensible idea of human equality. Such an idea must be compatible with the obvious fact that the "functional" value of humans differs, that their "use" to themselves and others differs. A defensible idea of human equality is instead grounded in the fact that as this functional difference is genetically determined, it is nothing which makes humans deserve or be worthy of being better or worse off. Rather, nobody is worth a better life than anyone else. This idea of equality is, however, not applicable to gametes and pre-embryos, since they are not human beings, but something out of which human beings develop.  (+info)

What is the future for equity within health policy? (7/434)

In spite of differences in meaning, equity is generally accepted as an important social and economic policy goal. However, recent policy debates suggest that this consensus is under challenge. This paper explores the current debate between the 'New Right' and its opponents, and how different approaches affect health policy. It is strongly argued that if equity is not to remain a misunderstood concept, it is essential to clarify the arguments in its favour, as well as the steps required to protect its position within policy. The paper then goes on to justify the concern with equity, the broad goals equity seeks to achieve, and the practical translation of these goals into health policy. In the final section essentially practical issues are raised, by considering planning strategies and what research is necessary to support and develop pragmatic planning based on equity goals.  (+info)

Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999. (8/434)

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

Human rights abuses in a medical context can refer to violations of the right to health, which is a fundamental human right recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations. This includes:

* Denial of access to necessary healthcare, including sexual and reproductive health services
* Discrimination in the provision of healthcare based on race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, or other status
* Use of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment in healthcare settings
* Experimentation on human subjects without their informed consent
* Violation of confidentiality and privacy in the provision of healthcare services
* Inhumane living conditions in places of detention, such as prisons and immigration detention centers, which can lead to negative health outcomes.

Additionally, Human rights abuses can also refer to violations of other human rights that have an impact on a person's health, such as:

* Violence against women, children, LGBTQ+ individuals, minorities and other marginalized groups
* Forced displacement and migration
* Denial of the right to education, food, water and sanitation
* Inhumane working conditions
* Torture and ill-treatment
* Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances
* Violations of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.

These abuses can lead to physical and mental health problems, including chronic illnesses, disabilities, and psychological trauma. They can also exacerbate existing health conditions and make it more difficult for individuals to access necessary healthcare services.

Torture is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is recognized as a severe violation of human rights by the World Medical Association (WMA), the United Nations (UN), and other international bodies. The UN defines torture as:

"any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions."

The WMA's Declaration of Tokyo states that "physicians shall not countenance, condone or participate in the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" and defines torture as "the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on behalf of others."

Medical professionals play a critical role in identifying, documenting, and reporting torture, as well as providing care and support to survivors.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "war crimes" is a legal concept and does not fall under the category of medical definitions. War crimes are serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in armed conflicts. They include acts such as deliberate attacks on civilians or civilian infrastructure, torture, hostage-taking, and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Bioethical issues refer to the ethical dilemmas and challenges that arise in biological research, healthcare, and medical technology. These issues often involve conflicts between scientific or medical advancements and moral, social, legal, and cultural values. Examples of bioethical issues include:

1. End-of-life care: Decisions about life-sustaining treatments, such as artificial nutrition and hydration, mechanical ventilation, and do-not-resuscitate orders, can raise ethical questions about the quality of life, patient autonomy, and the role of healthcare providers.
2. Genetic testing and screening: The use of genetic information for medical decision-making, predictive testing, and reproductive choices can have significant implications for individuals, families, and society, raising concerns about privacy, discrimination, and informed consent.
3. Organ transplantation: Issues surrounding organ donation and allocation, such as fairness, scarcity, and the definition of death, can create ethical dilemmas that require careful consideration of medical, legal, and moral principles.
4. Stem cell research: The use of embryonic stem cells for research and therapy raises questions about the moral status of embryos, potential therapeutic benefits, and the role of government in regulating scientific research.
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, and gamete donation can challenge traditional notions of family, parenthood, and reproduction, leading to debates about the rights and interests of children, parents, and society.
6. Mental health treatment: The use of psychotropic medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and other interventions for mental illness can raise concerns about patient autonomy, informed consent, and the balance between therapeutic benefits and potential risks.
7. Public health emergencies: Responses to infectious disease outbreaks, bioterrorism, and other public health crises can involve difficult decisions about resource allocation, individual rights, and the role of government in protecting population health.
8. Research involving human subjects: The ethical conduct of clinical trials, observational studies, and other research that involves human participants requires careful consideration of issues such as informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and respect for participant autonomy and privacy.
9. Health care access and financing: Debates about health care reform, insurance coverage, and affordability can raise questions about the role of government in ensuring access to essential medical services, the balance between individual rights and social responsibility, and the ethical implications of rationing limited resources.
10. Global health ethics: Issues such as international cooperation, resource distribution, and cultural sensitivity can challenge traditional notions of global justice, human rights, and the responsibilities of wealthy nations to address health disparities in low- and middle-income countries.

"Social control policies" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, social control policies refer to the strategies and measures implemented by society or its institutions to regulate, manage, and shape the behavior of individuals or groups in order to maintain social order, conformity, and cohesion.

In the field of public health, social control policies may refer to interventions aimed at changing behaviors that pose risks to individual or community health, such as tobacco control policies, alcohol regulation measures, or food safety regulations. These policies are designed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease and injury, and protect vulnerable populations from harm.

It's worth noting that the concept of social control can be controversial, as it raises questions about individual autonomy, privacy, and social justice. Therefore, the development and implementation of social control policies should involve careful consideration of ethical principles and community engagement to ensure that they are fair, effective, and respectful of human rights.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

Professional misconduct, in the context of medical law, refers to any behavior or action by a healthcare professional that fails to meet the expected standards of conduct and violates professional regulations and ethical guidelines. This can include various forms of unethical or illegal behavior, such as:

1. Engaging in sexual relationships with patients or engaging in any form of sexual harassment.
2. Practicing medicine while impaired by drugs, alcohol, or mental illness.
3. Failing to maintain accurate and complete medical records.
4. Performing unnecessary medical procedures or treatments for financial gain.
5. Engaging in fraudulent activities related to medical practice, such as billing fraud.
6. Abandoning patients without providing appropriate care or notification.
7. Discriminating against patients based on race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or other protected characteristics.
8. Failing to obtain informed consent from patients before performing medical procedures.
9. Violating patient confidentiality and privacy.
10. Engaging in unprofessional behavior that harms the reputation of the medical profession.

Professional misconduct can result in disciplinary action by a state medical board or licensing authority, including fines, license suspension or revocation, and mandatory education or treatment.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

I'm not sure what you're looking for with the term "Medical definition of 'El Salvador'" as El Salvador is a country and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about El Salvador and its healthcare system.

El Salvador is a country located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, Honduras to the north, and Nicaragua to the east. It has a population of approximately 6.5 million people. The official language is Spanish.

The healthcare system in El Salvador is composed of both public and private sectors. The Ministry of Health oversees the public sector, which includes hospitals, health centers, and clinics that provide free or low-cost services to the population. However, due to limited resources and infrastructure, many people seek care in the private sector, which can be expensive and often requires out-of-pocket payments.

El Salvador faces several challenges in its healthcare system, including high rates of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, as well as noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Access to healthcare services can also be limited, particularly in rural areas. The country has made efforts to improve its healthcare system, including the implementation of health reforms aimed at increasing access to care and improving the quality of services.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any specific questions about El Salvador or its healthcare system, please let me know.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Ethical relativism is the philosophical view that ethical statements or judgments are true or false only relative to a particular culture, society, or individual. According to this perspective, there are no absolute or universal moral truths that apply to everyone, regardless of their cultural background or personal beliefs. Instead, what is considered right or wrong may vary depending on the specific context and values of the group or person in question.

Ethical relativism can be contrasted with ethical objectivism, which holds that certain moral principles are objective and binding on all rational agents, regardless of their cultural or personal perspectives. Ethical relativism is often associated with cultural relativism, the idea that different cultures should be tolerated and respected for their diverse values and practices, even if they conflict with one's own ethical beliefs.

It's important to note that ethical relativism can have both positive and negative implications. On the one hand, it can promote tolerance and respect for cultural diversity, as well as humility in making moral judgments about others. On the other hand, it can also lead to moral skepticism or nihilism, in which case no moral judgments are considered valid or meaningful.

In medical contexts, ethical relativism may be relevant when considering issues such as end-of-life care, reproductive rights, and cultural competence. For example, a physician who adheres to ethical relativism might recognize that different patients may have different values and preferences regarding their healthcare decisions, and strive to provide culturally sensitive care that respects those differences. However, they may also face challenges in balancing respect for cultural diversity with their professional obligations to promote patient autonomy, beneficence, and non-maleficence.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "theft" is not a term that has a medical definition. Theft is a legal term that refers to the unlawful taking of another's property without their consent and with the intent to deprive the owner of that property permanently. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social problems" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a broad term used in sociology and social work to refer to issues that affect large numbers of people within a society, such as poverty, discrimination, crime, and substance abuse. These issues can certainly have impacts on individuals' mental and physical health, but they are not considered medical conditions themselves. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myanmar" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a country in Southeast Asia, also known as Burma. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit in a competitive market. The main features of capitalism include private property rights, voluntary exchange, competition, and the price mechanism.

In a capitalist economy, individuals and businesses are free to produce and sell goods and services according to their own interests and abilities, and consumers are free to buy what they want as long as they have the means to pay for it. Prices are determined by supply and demand, and competition among producers helps ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and that innovation is encouraged.

Capitalism has been widely adopted around the world because of its ability to generate wealth and promote economic growth. However, it can also lead to income inequality, market failures, and other social problems if left unchecked. Therefore, many capitalist economies have regulations and safety nets in place to mitigate these risks and ensure that the benefits of capitalism are shared more broadly.

Biological science disciplines are fields of study that deal with the principles and mechanisms of living organisms and their interactions with the environment. These disciplines employ scientific, analytical, and experimental approaches to understand various biological phenomena at different levels of organization, ranging from molecules and cells to ecosystems. Some of the major biological science disciplines include:

1. Molecular Biology: This field focuses on understanding the structure, function, and interactions of molecules that are essential for life, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. It includes sub-disciplines like genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology.
2. Cellular Biology: This discipline investigates the properties, structures, and functions of individual cells, which are the basic units of life. Topics covered include cell division, signaling, metabolism, transport, and organization.
3. Physiology: Physiologists study the functioning of living organisms and their organs, tissues, and cells. They investigate how biological systems maintain homeostasis, respond to stimuli, and adapt to changing environments.
4. Genetics: This field deals with the study of genes, heredity, and variation in organisms. It includes classical genetics, molecular genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, and genetic engineering.
5. Evolutionary Biology: This discipline focuses on understanding the processes that drive the origin, diversification, and extinction of species over time. Topics include natural selection, adaptation, speciation, phylogeny, and molecular evolution.
6. Ecology: Ecologists study the interactions between organisms and their environment, including the distribution, abundance, and behavior of populations, communities, and ecosystems.
7. Biotechnology: This field applies biological principles and techniques to develop products, tools, and processes that improve human health, agriculture, and industry. It includes genetic engineering, bioprocessing, bioremediation, and synthetic biology.
8. Neuroscience: Neuroscientists investigate the structure, function, development, and disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
9. Biophysics: This discipline combines principles from physics and biology to understand living systems' properties and behaviors at various scales, from molecules to organisms.
10. Systems Biology: Systems biologists study complex biological systems as integrated networks of genes, proteins, and metabolites, using computational models and high-throughput data analysis.

Civil rights are a group of rights and protections that guarantee equal treatment to all individuals, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or other characteristics. These rights are enshrined in the laws and constitutions of various countries and include freedoms such as the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to equal protection under the law, and the right to freedom of speech, religion, and assembly.

In the United States, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment, education, and access to public accommodations. Other important civil rights laws in the U.S. include the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which protects the right to vote, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities.

Violations of civil rights can take many forms, including discrimination, harassment, intimidation, and violence. Those whose civil rights have been violated may be entitled to legal remedies, such as damages, injunctions, or orders for relief.

Right Ventricular Function refers to the ability of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart to receive and eject blood during the cardiac cycle. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for re-oxygenation.

Right ventricular function can be assessed by measuring various parameters such as:

1. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF): It is the percentage of blood that is ejected from the right ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal RVEF ranges from 45-75%.
2. Right Ventricular Systolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to contract and eject blood during systole (contraction phase). This can be assessed by measuring the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) or tissue Doppler imaging.
3. Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to relax and fill with blood during diastole (relaxation phase). This can be assessed by measuring the right ventricular inflow pattern, tricuspid valve E/A ratio, or deceleration time.
4. Right Ventricular Afterload: It refers to the pressure that the right ventricle must overcome to eject blood into the pulmonary artery. Increased afterload can impair right ventricular function.

Abnormalities in right ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Criminal law is a system of laws that governs criminal behavior and prescribes punishment for offenses. It defines conduct that is considered illegal and punishable by the state or federal government, and outlines the process for investigating, charging, and trying individuals accused of committing crimes. Criminal laws are designed to protect society from harm and maintain social order.

Crimes can be classified as either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on their severity. Misdemeanors are less serious offenses that are typically punishable by fines, community service, or short jail sentences. Felonies, on the other hand, are more serious crimes that can result in significant prison time and even the death penalty in some jurisdictions.

Examples of criminal offenses include murder, manslaughter, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, battery, sexual assault, fraud, and drug trafficking. Criminal laws vary from state to state and country to country, so it is important to consult with a qualified attorney if you are facing criminal charges.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

Coercion, in a medical context, refers to the use of threat, manipulation, or intimidation to force someone to make a specific healthcare decision that they might not have made willingly or that is against their better judgment. This can occur in various situations, such as when a patient is pressured to undergo a treatment they do not fully understand or agree with, or when a healthcare provider makes decisions on behalf of an incapacitated patient without considering their previously expressed wishes or values. Coercion undermines the principles of informed consent and autonomy and can lead to negative outcomes for patients, including decreased trust in their healthcare providers and poorer health outcomes.

Feminism is not a medical term, but rather a social and political movement that advocates for the equal rights, opportunities, and treatment of women. It is based on the belief that women should have the same social, economic, and political power as men. The feminist movement has made significant contributions to various fields, including medicine, by advocating for issues such as reproductive rights, gender equality in healthcare, and addressing sexism and discrimination in medical research and practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Namibia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Right ventricular dysfunction is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the right ventricle (one of the two pumping chambers in the heart) to fill with blood during the diastolic phase or eject blood during the systolic phase. This results in reduced cardiac output from the right ventricle, which can lead to various complications such as fluid accumulation in the body, particularly in the abdomen and lower extremities, and ultimately congestive heart failure if left untreated.

Right ventricular dysfunction can be caused by various factors, including damage to the heart muscle due to a heart attack, high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), chronic lung diseases, congenital heart defects, viral infections, and certain medications. Symptoms of right ventricular dysfunction may include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen, and a decreased tolerance for physical activity.

Diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or CT scan, and other diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiogram (ECG) or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include medications to reduce fluid buildup, improve heart function, and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle modifications such as reducing salt intake and increasing physical activity levels. In severe cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices like pacemakers or ventricular assist devices may be necessary.

Child custody is a legal term used in family law to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his/her child such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child's welfare and/or the right and duty to physically care for the child. In cases of divorce or separation, child custody arrangements can be made either through an agreement between the parents or by court order.

There are two main types of child custody: legal custody and physical custody. Legal custody refers to the parent's right to make important decisions about the child's upbringing, such as education, healthcare, and religious training. Physical custody refers to where the child will live and which parent will be responsible for the child's daily care.

Custody may be awarded to one parent exclusively (sole custody) or shared by both parents (joint custody). In some cases, grandparents or other relatives may also seek custody of a child. The primary consideration in any child custody case is the best interests of the child.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that have an impact on their health and quality of life. These factors include but are not limited to:

* Economic stability (e.g., poverty, employment, food security)
* Education access and quality
* Health care access and quality
* Neighborhood and built environment (e.g., housing, transportation, parks and recreation)
* Social and community context (e.g., discrimination, incarceration, social support)

SDOH are responsible for a significant portion of health inequities and can have a greater impact on health than genetic factors or individual behaviors. Addressing SDOH is critical to improving overall health and reducing disparities in health outcomes.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

Patient advocacy refers to the process of supporting and empowering patients to make informed decisions about their healthcare. Patient advocates may help patients communicate with healthcare providers, access necessary resources and services, understand their health conditions and treatment options, and navigate complex healthcare systems. They may also work to promote patient-centered care, raise awareness of patient rights and concerns, and advocate for policies that improve the quality and accessibility of healthcare services. Patient advocacy can be provided by healthcare professionals, family members, friends, or dedicated patient advocates.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In the medical field, ethics refers to the principles that guide doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in making decisions about patient care. These principles often include respect for autonomy (the right of patients to make their own decisions), non-maleficence (doing no harm), beneficence (acting in the best interests of the patient), and justice (fairness in the distribution of resources). Medical ethics may also involve considerations of confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life decision making.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

"Essential drugs" is a term used in the medical and public health fields to refer to a list of medications that are considered necessary to meet the most important needs of a healthcare system. The concept of essential drugs was first introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977, with the aim of promoting access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

The WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) is regularly updated and contains a core list of essential medicines that should be available at all times in adequate quantities, in the appropriate dosage forms, and at a price that the majority of the population can afford. The list includes drugs for a wide range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

The selection of essential medicines is based on several criteria, including the burden of disease in a population, the safety and efficacy of the drug, its cost-effectiveness, and its place in the overall treatment strategy for a particular condition. The goal is to ensure that healthcare systems have access to a basic set of medicines that can address the most common health needs of their populations, while also allowing for flexibility to meet the specific needs of individual countries and regions.

In summary, essential drugs are a list of medications considered necessary to meet the most important healthcare needs of a population, selected based on criteria such as disease burden, safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and treatment strategy. The concept is promoted by the World Health Organization to improve access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "prejudice" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Prejudice is a psychological or sociological concept that refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes about a person or group that are not based on reason or actual experience. It often involves stereotypes and can lead to discrimination or unfair treatment. While prejudice itself is not a medical condition, it can certainly have impacts on mental and physical health, both for those who experience it and for those who hold such biases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "security measures" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term that can be applied to various fields, including healthcare, and refers to the steps or actions taken to protect individuals, data, or systems from harm or unauthorized access. In a medical context, security measures might include things like physical security measures to protect patients and staff (such as locks on doors and surveillance cameras), as well as cybersecurity measures to protect patient data (such as encryption and firewalls).

Medically, the term "refugees" does not have a specific definition. However, in a broader social and humanitarian context, refugees are defined by the United Nations as:

"People who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence; have a well-founded fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and are unable or unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution."

Refugees often face significant health challenges due to forced displacement, violence, trauma, limited access to healthcare services, and harsh living conditions. They may experience physical and mental health issues, including infectious diseases, malnutrition, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Providing medical care and support for refugees is an important aspect of global public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

A control group, in the context of medical research or clinical trials, is a group of participants in a study who do not receive the experimental intervention or treatment that is being tested. Instead, they typically receive standard of care, a placebo, or no treatment at all. The control group serves as a comparison group to help researchers evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the new intervention or treatment being studied. By comparing the outcomes of the experimental group (those who received the new intervention) to the control group, researchers can determine whether any observed differences in outcomes are likely due to the intervention itself, rather than other factors.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), refers to the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure can cause serious physical and psychological harm, and it is widely recognized by medical organizations as a violation of human rights.

There are several types of FGM, classified into four categories by the World Health Organization:

* Type I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy)
* Type II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision)
* Type III: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, which is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris (infibulation)
* Type IV: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterizing the genital area

FGM is practiced in many parts of the world, including Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is usually carried out on young girls, often before the age of 15, and it is often motivated by cultural, religious, or social reasons. The practice is illegal in many countries, including the United States, and international organizations have called for its elimination.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

"Dissent and disputes" in a medical context generally refer to disagreements or differences of opinion among healthcare professionals, researchers, or patients regarding medical diagnoses, treatments, policies, or ethical issues. These disputes can arise from various factors such as differing clinical experiences, conflicting scientific evidence, differing values and beliefs, or lack of clear guidelines. Dissent and disputes can be resolved through open communication, evidence-based decision making, consensus building, and, when necessary, mediation or arbitration. It is essential to address dissent and disputes in a respectful and constructive manner to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients and to advance medical knowledge and practice.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Agencies" is not a medical term. It refers to organizations that operate on a global scale, often established by treaties between nations, to address issues that affect multiple countries. Examples include the United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

However, if you're asking about international agencies related to healthcare or medicine, I can provide some examples:

1. World Health Organization (WHO): A specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.
2. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS): Leads and inspires the world to achieve its shared vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination, and zero AIDS-related deaths.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): A specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
4. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): Works for children's rights, their survival, development, and protection.
5. World Trade Organization (WTO): Sets rules for trade between nations and tries to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. It can impact access to medical goods and services.
6. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): Promotes the protection of intellectual property throughout the world through cooperation among states and in collaboration with other international organizations. This can affect pharmaceutical patents and innovation.

These agencies play crucial roles in shaping health policy, providing guidelines, funding research, and coordinating responses to global health issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Law Enforcement" is a term that refers to the system or agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and safety. It is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with some related terms that are used in the medical field:

* Forensic science: The application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law.
* Forensic psychiatry: A medical subspecialty that deals with the application of clinical psychiatric knowledge to legal issues, such as determining competency to stand trial or assessing criminal responsibility.
* Forensic psychology: The application of psychological principles and methods to legal issues, such as evaluating a defendant's mental state at the time of an offense.
* Medical examiner/Coroner: A physician who investigates and determines the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected or violent death. They are often called upon by law enforcement agencies to assist in death investigations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandatory Programs" is not a medical term or concept. It is a more general term that can be used in various contexts, including computer science, law, and policy-making. In the context of medicine or healthcare, it might refer to programs or initiatives that are required by law or regulation, but there is no specific medical definition for this term. If you have a specific context in mind, I'd be happy to help further clarify if I can!

"Social change" is not a medical term, but it refers to the alterations in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural patterns, social institutions, and organizational structures within societies over time. While not a medical concept itself, social change can have significant impacts on health and healthcare. For example, shifts in societal values and norms around tobacco use or access to mental health services can influence public health outcomes and healthcare delivery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Bioethics is a branch of ethics that deals with the ethical issues and dilemmas arising from biological and medical research and practices. It involves the study of moral principles, values, and conduct in relation to medicine, healthcare, biotechnology, and life sciences. The field of bioethics addresses questions and concerns related to topics such as end-of-life care, genetic engineering, cloning, stem cell research, organ donation, patient autonomy, informed consent, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. Bioethicists aim to provide guidance and recommendations for addressing these complex issues in a way that respects individual rights, promotes social justice, and upholds ethical integrity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizations" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you are referring to "organs" in the body, here is a definition:

Organs: In human anatomy, a part of the body that performs a specialized function. Organs are composed of several types of tissues, which are groups of cells that perform a similar function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Each organ's tissue has a specific structure that allows it to carry out its function in a highly efficient manner.

If you were asking about organizations in the context of medical institutions or healthcare systems, here is a definition:

Healthcare Organization: An entity that provides healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, physician practices, and long-term care facilities. These organizations can be public, private, or nonprofit and are responsible for delivering medical care to patients, managing health information, conducting research, and promoting public health. They may also provide education and training to healthcare professionals. Healthcare organizations must comply with various regulations and accreditation standards to ensure the quality and safety of patient care.

The "commitment of the mentally ill" refers to a legal process where a person who is deemed to have a mental illness and poses a danger to themselves or others is involuntarily placed in a psychiatric hospital or treatment facility for their own safety and well-being. The specific criteria and procedures for commitment vary by jurisdiction, but generally require a formal evaluation and court order.

The purpose of commitment is to provide intensive treatment and supervision for individuals who are unable to make informed decisions about their own care due to the severity of their mental illness. This legal process is designed to balance the need to protect the individual's civil liberties with the need to ensure public safety and provide necessary medical treatment.

It's important to note that commitment is typically a last resort, after other less restrictive options have been tried or considered. The goal of commitment is to stabilize the individual's condition and help them develop the skills and resources they need to live safely and independently in the community.

Transgender is a term used to describe people whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. It's important to note that being transgender is not a mental illness; it's a part of human diversity.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, a transgender person may be diagnosed with gender dysphoria if they experience significant distress or impairment in their daily life due to this incongruence between their experienced/expressed gender and their assigned sex. However, many transgender people do not experience such distress and therefore do not have a mental disorder.

It's also crucial to respect each individual's self-identified gender and use the appropriate pronouns they prefer. Discrimination and stigma against transgender individuals can lead to serious health disparities, including higher rates of mental health issues, substance abuse, and suicide.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Police" is not a medical term. It refers to a civil force that maintains order, prevents and detects crime, and enforces laws. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Maternal welfare is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a general sense, it refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses various factors such as access to quality healthcare services, nutrition, emotional support, and a safe and healthy environment.

Maternal welfare is an essential component of maternal health, which aims to ensure that women have a positive and safe pregnancy and childbirth experience, free from complications and harm. It involves addressing issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity, prenatal care, family planning, and reproductive rights.

Promoting maternal welfare requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and families working together to ensure that women have access to the resources and support they need to maintain their health and well-being during pregnancy and beyond.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

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"Human Rights Watch". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. "New Chairs to Lead Human Rights ... Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch World Report, 2003 Archived April 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Human Rights Watch, ... Human Rights Watch "Five Activists Win Human Rights Watch Awards". Human Rights Watch. September 15, 2008. Archived from the ... House Helsinki Committee for Human Rights Human Rights First International Freedom of Expression Exchange US Human Rights ...
Some human rights museums, such as the Human Rights Museum Osaka, are multi-themed, dedicated, for example, to the struggle of ... A human rights museum is a museum that specializes in the display of artifacts and memorabilia related to human rights ... Some, such as the Canadian Museum for Human Rights operate to "enhance the public's understanding of human rights, promote ... National Center for Civil and Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Council of Museums International ...
"Human Rights City Declaration - York Human Rights City". York Human Rights City (Pending removal for human rights breaches by ... A Human Rights City is a municipality that engages with human rights. There are other definitions of human rights city ... "Human Rights Learning and Human Rights Cities. Achievements Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-11-02. "2011 World Human Rights ... "National Human Rights Cities Alliance". US Human Rights Network. 2016-02-26. Retrieved 2018-06-14. "Pittsburgh Human Rights ...
... is a literary genre that deals with human rights issues, and thus - directly or indirectly - promotes ... And thus, human rights literature manifests that unique and close links exist between literature and human rights campaigns. ... "The Power of Literature and Human Rights - 2013 - Events - Centre for the Study of Human Rights - Home". Archived ... As a moral concept, human rights literature deals directly or indirectly with human rights and leads its readers to understand ...
... 2003 (Nunavut) European Convention on Human Rights Act 2003 Human Rights Act 1993 Human Rights Act 1998 Human ... Human Rights Act may refer to: Human Rights Act 2004 (Australian Capital Territory) Charter of Human Rights and ... Bill of rights Human rights This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Human Rights Act. If an internal ... Responsibilities Act 2006 (Victoria) Canadian Human Rights Act (Federal) ...
Human Rights". Human Rights Law Review. 1: 1-10. doi:10.1093/hrlr/1.1.1. Clément, Dominique (2018). Debating Rights Inflation ... how consistently socio-economic human rights in the form of welfare rights have been denied the status of 'real' human rights ... The concept of human-rights inflation expresses the belief that people - such as human-rights activists - claim increasing ... Economic and social rights are particularly likely to be cited as examples of human rights inflation. The philosopher Zhao ...
... signed a petition urging governments to ratify international human rights treaties and defend advocates for human rights. The ... Human Rights Now! was a worldwide tour of twenty benefit concerts on behalf of Amnesty International that took place over six ... Human rights activists and former prisoners from around the world, led by Sonny Venkatrathnam from South Africa, participated ... Held not to raise funds but to increase awareness of both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on its 40th anniversary and ...
"Human Rights Service". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). 23 September 2015. "Om HRS". Human Rights Service (in Norwegian ... Human Rights Service (HRS) is a Norwegian foundation established in 2001. The organization is known for its criticism of Islam ... "Human Rights Service mister kommunal støtte". Nettavisen (in Norwegian). 23 September 2015. "Hege Storhaug: - Vi får så mye ... "Venstre og KrF lot Human Rights Service beholde millionstøtten". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-04-17. NRK ...
... (HRQ) is a quarterly academic journal founded by Richard Pierre Claude in 1982 covering human rights. ... Universal Declaration of Human Rights International human rights law "Richard Pierre Claude - Obituaries". The Washington Post ... Official website Human Rights Quarterly at Project MUSE v t e (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Articles with short ... Urban Morgan Institute for Human Rights, University of Cincinnati College of Law). According to the Journal Citation Reports, ...
"Human Rights Day , Stand up for human rights". 9 December 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021. Human Rights Day 2022 "Human Rights ... Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). "Human Rights Day 2014 #Rights 365". United Nations Human Rights. ... Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). "HUMAN RIGHTS DAY 2013". United Nations Human Rights. ... Alt URL Office of the Press Secretary (19 December 2008). "Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2008". ...
... ". Iran Human Rights. Aug 6, 2016. Retrieved Aug 6, 2016. "Reports". Iran Human Rights. Retrieved 15 June 2022 ... Iran Human Rights' work is focused on the abolition of the death penalty, supporting human rights defenders, empowering civil ... "IHR Human Rights Defenders Report 2019-2020" (PDF). Retrieved 15 June 2022. "It's Time for a Human Rights-Based ... In an article marking International Human Rights Day, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam wrote about the situation of human rights ...
For Human Rights in United Latvia Human Rights Party (Malaysia) Human Rights Party (New Zealand) Human Rights Protection Party ... Human Rights Party or similar may refer to: Unity for Human Rights Party, in Albania Human Rights Party (Australia), in New ... in Samoa Human Rights Party (United States), in Michigan This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ... Human Rights Party. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article ...
"Great Doctrine of Human Rights": Articulation and Authentication in the Nineteenth-Century U.S. Antislavery and Women's Rights ... Human Rights was an abolitionist journal founded by Lewis Tappan. The journal was first published in July 1835. The last issue ...
Human rights in Russia Moscow Helsinki Group International human rights instruments List of human rights organisations Official ... Human Rights Publishers is an international publishing group, founded in 2004 by three organizations: Human Rights Publishers, ... Human Rights Defender journal). Ivan Tolstoy. Doctor Zhivago: New Facts and Discoveries from the Nobel Archive (Prague: 2010) ...
... women's rights and promoting the freedoms outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Advancing Human Rights (AHR) ... Advancing Human Rights (AHR) was created in 2010 by Robert L. Bernstein, the founder of Human Rights Watch long-time President ... Freedom of Expression Women's rights Religious freedom Open education Internet activism Hate speech LGBT rights Human rights ... "Crowdsourcing for Human Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2016. "Cyber Dissidents". Advancing Human Rights. ...
The Human Rights Monument or Human Rights Sculpture is a monument in Turkey's capital, Ankara. The monument was made by ... The monument which depicts a woman reading the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, has been the assembly point of many ...
A 'Human Rights Code is a type of law defining minimum human rights in a political jurisdiction, and may refer to: Human Rights ... Human Rights Code (Ontario) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Human Rights Code. If an internal ...
Human Rights (2007), p. 161. Normand and Zaidi, Human Rights at the UN (2008), p. 5. Clapham, Human Rights (2007), pp. 160-161 ... Human Rights (2007), p. 27. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012), pp. 7-9. Normand and Zaidi, Human Rights at ... Elisabeth Friedman, "Women's Human Rights: The Emergence of a Movement", in Women's Rights, Human Rights, (1995) ed. Stone & ... Human Rights at the UN (2008), pp. 117-118. Normand and Zaidi, Human Rights at the UN (2008), p. 115. Normand and Zaidi, Human ...
... for a documentary film dealing with human rights Human Rights Award of Korea (from 2005), the highest human rights award of the ... Human Rights Award(s) may refer to: Human Rights Award (Sarajevo Film Festival) (from 2004), an award given at the Sarajevo ... a series of Australian human rights awards This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Human Rights Award ... Republic of Korea Human Rights Awards (Australia) (from 1987), ...
Libyan League for Human Rights Mozambican League for Human Rights Togolese League for Human Rights (LTDH) Tunisian Human Rights ... European League for Human Rights (AEDH) Finnish League for Human Rights (FLHR) German League for Human Rights League of Human ... Human Rights League or League for Human Rights may refer to: Asia Women's League for Human Rights, India Africa Algerian League ... for Human Rights Europe Austrian League for Human Rights Belarus Republican League for Human Rights Bulgarian League for Human ...
"From Citizenship to Human Rights to Human Rights Education", Making Human Rights Intelligible Towards a Sociology of Human ... Human Rights Watch Functioning as another global organization, the Human Rights Watch protects human rights by investigating ... Leeds Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education University of San Francisco Human Rights Education Program Human Rights ... The IB Human Rights syllabus that includes the assessment criteria, as well as the guide for the Human Rights Extended Essay ...
"The Human Rights Concerts". Human Rights Concerts. (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links ... The Human Rights Now! tour was a twenty concert World tour held over a six-week period in September-October 1988. The tour ... The Human Rights Concerts were developed with the intention of building on this new support for Amnesty among musicians and ... The An Embrace Of Hope concert was a de facto post-script to the Human Rights Now! tour. It took place in Chile - a country ...
The Human Rights Foundation (HRF) is a non-profit organization that focuses on promoting and protecting human rights globally, ... The Human Rights Foundation was founded in 2005 by Thor Halvorssen Mendoza, a Venezuelan film producer and human rights ... During the conference, democracy and human rights activist toell their stories and express their views about human rights in ... Human rights organizations based in the United States, International human rights organizations, Organizations established in ...
"Declaration on Human Rights Defenders". OHCHR. "Human Rights Defenders: Protecting the Right to Defend Human Rights" (PDF). ... List of human rights organisations Global justice Global Human Rights Defence Human Rights Logo International human rights ... Rights on human rights defenders (2004) The Human Rights Defenders Unit of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (2001 ... rights collective, or a man fighting for sexual and reproductive rights. Like other human rights defenders, women human rights ...
On using pop culture tools to promote human rights, Dutt has said, "After working inside the global human rights movement for ... produced in partnership with civil society and human rights groups, tell the stories of men and women whose human rights have ... International human rights organizations, Human rights organizations based in the United States, Women's organisations based in ... and immigrant rights and racial justice. Breakthrough envisions a world in which all people enjoy their human rights and live ...
"Leo Smith - Human Rights". Discogs. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Wadada Leo Smith Human Rights". Allmusic. ... Human Rights is a studio album by American jazz trumpeter Wadada Leo Smith. The album was released in 1986 via Kabell and Gramm ... Fischlin, Daniel; Heble, Ajay; Lipsitz, George (2013). The Fierce Urgency of Now: Improvisation, Rights, and the Ethics of ...
Human Rights Watch; interACT (July 2017). I Want to Be Like Nature Made Me. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-62313-502-7. ... Human Rights Watch (2017-07-25). "US: Harmful Surgery on Intersex Children". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on ... In 2017, the human rights non-governmental organizations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch published major reports ... Council of Europe; Commissioner for Human Rights (April 2015), Human rights and intersex people, Issue Paper, archived from the ...
A human rights commission, also known as a human relations commission, is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect ... The term may refer to international, national or subnational bodies set up for this purpose, such as national human rights ... National and sub-national human rights commissions have been established in a number of countries for the promotion and ... human rights, and most commissions are public bodies but with some degree of independence from the state. In other countries ...
... artist and human rights activist) Angelina Acheng Atyam (human rights activist, winner of the United Nations Human Rights Award ... human rights activist) Carolyn Gomes (human rights activist) Mikhail Gorbachev (Nobel Peace Prize laureate) Mukhtar Mai (human ... The Human Rights Logo has its origin in the international "Logo for Human Rights" initiative, which was started in 2010. Its ... "Human Rights". Official website "Video presentation of the Winning logo - A Logo for Human Rights - Fill the Gap, ...
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We believe its our responsibility to respect and uphold the human rights of our people and any other individuals we are in ... Our approach to human rights is already well integrated into our existing business practices, for example as part of our Human ... About Us PwC Centre Our History Global Mobility Programme Human Right Statement Global third party code of conduct Local ...
Human rights - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Human rights : A fundamental right. Human rights : A ... Natural Rights Constitutional Rights • Political Rights • Civil RightsRights of an accused Statutory Rights ... Right to benefit Right to economic Right to prosperity from economic development growth Right to a healthy Right to social ... What are International Human Rights - David Ford Avon CT. What are International Human Rights - David Ford Avon CTDavid Ford ...
The Norwegian Human Rights Fund "supports several local initiatives to defend the rights of children and to promote human ... "Childrens rights in Liberia". The Norwegian Human Rights Fund. Retrieved January 10, 2013. "Protecting children`s rights in ... "2010 Human Rights Report: Liberia". US Department of State. Retrieved January 10, 2013. "2010 Human Rights Report: Liberia". US ... "Liberia Human Rights". Amnesty International. Retrieved January 10, 2013. "World Report 2011: Liberia". Human Rights Watch. ...
African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights *Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of ... "What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? , Australian Human Rights Commission". Retrieved 13 ... "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Amnesty International. Retrieved 20 August 2020.. *^ a b "Human Rights: The Universal ... "Human Rights Documents". Retrieved 20 August 2020.. *^ "Statement on Human Rights" (PDF). Archived from the ...
A fundamental principle is at stake in the new UN Human Rights Council: that the human rights situation of each state be ... A new human rights treaty may be agreed later this month. A committee within the United Nations is meeting to finalise a ... Realisation of human rights is a question of political will. It is not enough just to endorse European and international norms ... The struggle for human rights is largely about preventing discrimination. That is why Protocol No 12 to the European Convention ...
Human Rights. The Conference regards the matter of human rights and dignity as of capital and universal importance. We send ... the right to be housed, freedom to work, the right to eat, the right to be educated; and to give human value and worth ... 1. we call on governments to uphold human dignity; to defend human rights, including the exercise of freedom of speech, ... 3. we pledge our support for those organisations and agencies which have taken positive stands on human rights, and those which ...
... think tanks or others can submit documents to the ODIHR Documents Distribution System for distribution during the Human ...
Human rights problems include ill-treatment by law enforcement, interference with freedom of assembly, domestic violence, ... Protecting Rights, Saving Lives. Human Right Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses ... Human Rights Watch , 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor , New York, NY 10118-3299 USA , t ... Human Rights Watch visited Nagorno-Karabakh in October and November and documented substantial damage to schools, private homes ...
... capacity of Indigenous advocates to use human rights standards as practical tools to respond effectively to the human rights ... Indigenous Human Rights at UNSW. The Diplomacy Training Program and Oxfam Australias Indigenous Australia Program areholding a ... Throughout the week at UNSW participants will develop an understanding of the human rights approach to development and its ... Sessions will focus on building practical skills for effective human rights advocacy and lobbying, as well as providing an ...
... published by the ABA Section of Indiviudal Rights and Responsibilities. Links to previous issues, subscription information. ... The home page of the Human Rights Magazine, ... Human Rights Magazine Each of our Section members receives a ... 3: Native American and Alaska Native Rights & Issues This issue of Human Rights Magazine encapsulates honoring the past, ... The Human Rights Magazine Editorial Board Chair and the staff editor invite manuscripts on pre-selected themes as well as ...
The North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004, as passed by the Senate, will provide for a human-rights envoy, writes UPI. ... Foreign Policy , Human Rights , International , Law and Legislation , North Korea , U.S. Senate. ... Senate Passes North Korea Human Rights Bill. Plus: The lead attorney drops out of Terri Schiavos defense team, Sudan blames U. ... The U.S. Senate yesterday passed a bill aimed to increase pressure on North Korea to improve its human-rights practices. ...
... Registered Charity in England & Wales no. 1096664, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization in ... Disclaimer: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre and its collaborative partners take no position on the diverse views ... French case law confirms necessity to reassess the weight given to audits in business and human rights court cases. ... French case law confirms necessity to reassess the weight given to audits in business and human rights court cases. ...
Tagged Birtukan Human Rights, Dictator Meles Zenawi, Eskinder Nega, ethio, Ethiopia, Ethiopia Democracy, Ethiopia Human Rights ... Tagged Birtukan Human Rights, Dictator Meles Zenawi, dictatorship, ethio, Ethiopia, Ethiopia Democracy, Ethiopia Human Rights, ... Birtukan Human Rights Susan Rice is now Fried Rice - a great news for her victims in Africa. Posted on December 15, 2012. , ... We ask you to intervene and stop this human catastrophe. We believe it is the right thing to do. It is the moral thing to do. ...
The University of Nottingham Human Rights Law Centre hosted an expert roundtable exploring the link between business operations ... Climate Change, Business and Human Rights. On Tuesday 21 March 2023, the Business, Trade and Human Rights unit hosted an expert ... In fulfilling their obligation to respect human rights and ensure that their operations do not lead to human rights violations ... University of NottinghamHRLCUnitsBusiness, Trade and Human RightsClimate Change, Business and Human Rights ...
He was co-recipient of the Trial Lawyers of the Year Award for human rights litigation in the US in 1995 and is co-author of ... To come to terms with these historical injustices and gross violations of human rights, the Kenyan Truth, Justice and ... so that even a deeply flawed human rights institution could make a difference. Harold Hongju Koh, Yale Law School, Former ... Commission became the first such commission to recommend that its Chair be prosecuted for gross violations of human rights. ...
Sanitation and decent work are both human rights, and one human right cannot come at the expense of another. In the push ... LONDON, Dec 10 2019 (IPS) - This years Human Rights Day advocates for everyone to stand up for their rights and those of ... Human Rights? But Not for Sanitation Workers. By Andrés Hueso Reprint , , Print , ... human rights and the environment Copyright © 2024 IPS-Inter Press Service. All rights reserved. - Terms & Conditions ...
... by making human rights a propulsive force for change. ... Türk unveils his vision to renew the commitment to human rights ... Human rights Topics. The UN Human Rights Office and the mechanisms we support work on a wide range of human rights topics. ... UN Human Rights Chief Volker Türk on Monday unveiled his vision to renew the commitment to human rights, which sets out to ... Presented during the 55th session of the Human Rights Council in Geneva, "Human Rights: A Path for Solutions" sets out eight ...
Human Rights Awards The list of finalists for the second Community and Human Rights (CAHR) Awards has been released, generating ...
... and our model of grassroots campaigning achieves remarkable results on issues from womens human rights to the death penalty. ... Amnesty International is the worlds largest human rights organization, ... Posted in Business and Human Rights, Censorship and Free Speech, Poverty and Human Rights, Prisoners and People at Risk Wheres ... bill from a human rights lens.. In that previous post, I referenced Art 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR ...
Module 7: Corruption and Human Rights*Introduction and Learning Outcomes. *Key Issues*Brief background on the human rights ... International human rights law enables the restrictions of certain human rights, which can be lawfully restricted under ... Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights of 1948. *Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950 ... Article 12 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights of 1948. *Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950 ...
in the field of human rights, humanitarian aid and development cooperation.. PhD programme linked to this Masters programme: ... Home , Postgraduate Courses , Official Masters Degrees , Official Masters Degrees offered , Masters Degree in Human Rights, ... Academic, scientific or professional interest: This masters programme offers advanced education on human rights, todays ... Doctoral Studies in Human Rights, Peace and Sustainable Development; Doctoral Studies in Legal Studies, Political Science and ...
quot;Humans are free and independent to decide for themselves" These are the final words of Ayatollah Montazeri who wrote ... Humans are free and independent to decide for themselves ... As ever, our mission to protect human rights remains. Please ... human rights activists Ms Shiva Nazar Ahari and Mr Koohyar Goodarzi and womens rights activist, Ms Mohboobeh Abassogholizadeh ... which as a grand ayatollah can be accepted as a final verdict on Islam and human rights.As a grand ayatollah, his teachings and ...
Doing Automation Right. Automation is not about going out and buying a solution that promises to solve your problems. It ... Finally, you need to build the right team. Make sure the people you rely on to implement your automation project have hands-on ... It takes basic tasks out of human hands and allows the worker to focus on strategic initiatives, development and other more ... Automation removes human error from processes and ensures accuracy every step of the way. ...
human rights. Human rights and climate change EDITORIAL: The word resilience means the capacity to recover quickly from ... Sad state of human rights EDITORIAL: The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) annual report for 2021 launched the other ... Minister for safeguarding rights of underprivileged sections of society ISLAMABAD: Federal Minister for Human Rights Riaz ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights grants every individual the right to freedom of thought (Article 18) and... ...
Human Rights Policy. Respect for human rights is a core principle for Crowley and the communities in which we operate. In our ... Respect for Human Rights. Crowley respects human rights and complies with all applicable laws. We are committed to identifying ... and preventing any adverse human rights impacts in relation to our business activities through human rights due diligence and ... Crowleys Human Rights Policy is guided by the United Nations Global Compact and the United Nations Guiding Principles on ...
... not to be concerned for human rights in China. The fact ... human rights cease being universal the moment a human rights ... Had the white rulers of South Africa accepted human rights for blacks, no problem of human rights would have arisen in the ... not to be concerned for human rights in China. "The fact is," he writes, "that the human rights concept, though enshrined in a ... Professor Fairbank may well be right when he talks of the opposition of the elite to notions of human rights: "…a selected ...
Within the LLM International Human Rights and International Criminal Law, our world-leading expertise across human rights, ... Business Law and Human Rights. Some of the more commercial and crime options are also available if students wish to complement ... Passionate about human rights and global issues and wanting to go on and develop your careers as lawyers on the international ... The LLM in International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law opens up exciting career paths in law and in many ...
... is capable of grounding universal human rights. Without this grounding, he warned, the Human Rights Project will continue to ... "The more the human rights project showed its power in places like South Africa and Eastern Europe," Glendon said, "the more ... The seeds planted 60 years ago this year by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights are bearing copious fruit ... Legionary of Christ Father Thomas Williams, author of "Who Is My Neighbor? Personalism and the Foundations of Human Rights," ...
  • In December of 2023, Dr. Therese Boje Mortensen successfully defended her dissertation NGOs as Child Rights Implementers in India at Lund University. (
  • This is one of the challenges that the Lund Human Rights Research Hub - a joint initiative between Lund University and the Raoul Wallenberg Institute - takes on, according to Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen. (
  • In December 2016, Lund University and the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law launched a new human rights hub. (
  • Provocatio is published by Human Rights Studies at Lund University. (
  • Human Rights in a Polarised World is one out of five profile areas at Lund University. (
  • Lund University got a long tradition of conducting research within the field of Human rights. (
  • Please visit the following link to see research from Lund University done before the establishment of the Profile area Human Rights, in January 2023. (
  • During this panel discussion, speakers from the Raoul Wallenberg Institute, Lund University, and the Swedish Institute for Human Rights will share examples and findings from their engagement with the UN human rights mechanisms on sustainability. (
  • This master's programme offers advanced education on human rights, today's challenges to peace and non-violence, and sustainable human development, delving into the mutual interdependence and complementarity of these three areas as privileged fields of increasingly interdisciplinary research. (
  • Learn more about the Faculty's Master's programme in International Human Rights Law. (
  • Of course, all agreed human rights norms. (
  • Alongside its core work providing a platform for Human Rights advocates, the Resource Centre runs several focused programme areas and regularly releases briefings and reports on areas of particular interest. (
  • Disclaimer: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre and its collaborative partners take no position on the diverse views presented in linked material within the database, nor can we guarantee the factual accuracy of all the articles and reports we make available. (
  • Business & Human Rights Resource Centre Registered Charity in England & Wales no. 1096664, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization in USA and registered charitable association (e.V.) in Germany (VR 38088 B). (
  • A committee within the United Nations is meeting to finalise a Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. (
  • The Conference regards the matter of human rights and dignity as of capital and universal importance. (
  • Both groups, explained Elshtain, found it easy to reinterpret the document because they chose to ignore its fundamental understanding of the dignity of the human person, Catholic social teaching's greatest contribution to the creation of the declaration. (
  • The more the human rights project showed its power in places like South Africa and Eastern Europe," Glendon said, "the more intense became the efforts to capture its prestige for various ends, not all of which were respectful of human dignity. (
  • You should consider the following questions are: Is it a human right to live with dignity? (
  • Human rights are moral principles or norms for certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected in municipal and international law. (
  • There have always been gaps between the norms of human rights on paper and how different countries implement them. (
  • But today we see that a number of the larger middle-income countries are challenging human rights norms in different ways. (
  • Sessions will focus on building practical skills for effective human rights advocacy and lobbying, as well as providing an understanding of the international human rights frameworks and standards. (
  • Explore the big challenges, opportunities, debates and frameworks for business and human rights. (
  • 1. The existence, nature and scope of corporate responsibilities regarding human rights: `soft law' instruments at international level and relevant legal frameworks at national level. (
  • Table 3-06 includes resources for travelers with disabilities to help them gather information about accommodations and human rights frameworks at their destination. (
  • The Ministry of Public Health along with Ministry of Women's Affairs, Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission and the World Health Organization observed the end of annual 16 days of activism campaign against gender based violence (GBV) on Human Rights Day, 10th December 2017. (
  • Human rights advocacy has continued into the early 21st century, centered around achieving greater economic and political freedom. (
  • PhD student Valentina works in the FORMAS-funded project Environmental Human Rights Defenders - Change Agents at the Crossroads of Climate change, Biodiversity and Cultural Conservation. (
  • She hopes her research will contribute to an understanding and visibilization of the transformative role that Environmental Human Rights Defenders can play within multiple crises, focusing not only on their experiences as victims of violence and threats, but going beyond what they resist, and delve into what it is they propose, enact and defend. (
  • In my PhD research I will explore the role of Environmental Human Rights Defenders as agents of change for cultural and biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, focusing on two case studies in the Colombian Amazon rainforest from an intersectional decolonial perspective. (
  • Intersectionality and decolonial perspectives are a key lens to understand and support the transformative role of Environmental Human Rights Defenders, to dimension their vulnerability, understand the obstacles they face and the different violences they are exposed to. (
  • Such a lens also helps contextualize and qualify the transformations Environmental Human Rights Defenders mobilize as agents of change for cultural and biodiversity conservation and to identify how to support their roles. (
  • Environmental Human Rights Defenders are at the forefront of the global fight against biodiversity loss, environmental degradation, extractivism, cultural erasure and the protection of the climate. (
  • Because of this, across the world Environmental Human Rights Defenders suffer a diverse range of violence, threats and intimidation from those who find their economic and political interests challenged by their activism. (
  • Increasingly, the UN human rights system is engaging on matters relating to sustainability, including promoting and protecting the rights of environmental defenders, and identifying rights-based approaches to climate finance, biodiversity and conservation finance, and a just transition. (
  • This includes promoting and protecting the rights of environmental defenders, identifying rights-based approaches to climate finance, biodiversity and conservation finance, and a just transition, and the work of thematic experts on human rights and environment, climate change, toxics, and the rights of Indigenous Peoples, among others. (
  • On Tuesday 21 March 2023, the Business, Trade and Human Rights unit hosted an expert roundtable event on 'Climate Change, Business and Human Rights', exploring the responsibilities of businesses in relation to climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as accountability mechanisms (and barriers to accountability) for corporate failure to take adequate climate action. (
  • The vision's outlook is informed by an extensive engagement with diverse actors throughout the year-long Human Rights 75 Initiative to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , which concluded in December 2023 at a High-Level Event hosted simultaneously in Geneva, Bangkok, Nairobi, Panama and globally online. (
  • This issue contains eleven articles by students and recent alumni from the Human Rights Studies Bachelor programme. (
  • The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke, Francis Hutcheson and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui and which featured prominently in the political discourse of the American Revolution and the French Revolution. (
  • The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition. (
  • For decades, it has been a trusted source of expert ideas, opinions, and discourse on a diverse array of topics in the human and civil rights arena. (
  • To come to terms with these historical injustices and gross violations of human rights, the Kenyan Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC) was established. (
  • From the perspective of an insider and academic expert, The Kenyan TJRC: An Outsider's View from the Inside reveals for the first time the debates and decisions made within the Commission, including how the Kenyan Commission became the first such commission to recommend that its Chair be prosecuted for gross violations of human rights. (
  • You may ask why sustainability is a human right. (
  • There is a need for integrated solutions and collective action that create synergies between human rights and environmental sustainability. (
  • Increasingly, the UN human rights system is engaging on matters relating to sustainability. (
  • Had the white rulers of South Africa accepted human rights for blacks, no problem of human rights would have arisen in the first place. (
  • Crowley's Human Rights Policy is guided by the United Nations Global Compact and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. (
  • UN Human Rights Chief Volker Türk on Monday unveiled his vision to renew the commitment to human rights, which sets out to address today's and tomorrow's challenges, including climate change, conflict, inequality and new technologies, by restoring trust on a universal human condition and making human rights a propulsive force for change. (
  • The research hub will enable human rights researchers to strengthen and rethink their work to address today's major challenges. (
  • Human rights encompass many aspects of a person's life. (
  • BEIJING: Chinese President Xi Jinping defended his country's human rights progress Wednesday in a virtual meeting. (
  • Today, Amnesty International joined more than 100 organizations, academics, startup founders and tech innovators to sign on to a Declaration of Internet Freedom , a set of five principles that-if realized-would prove monumental in the longstanding fight for online freedom and universal human rights. (
  • We are in for some very heavy arm wrestling when it comes to protecting even the most core human rights principles. (
  • Human Right Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice. (
  • It considers specifically the rights of refugees and migrants, women, children, and the elderly. (
  • Disparities in health provision and outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians have been identified by the Social Justice Commissioner, Oxfam Australia and other expert organisations as one of Australia's most pressing human rights challenges. (
  • Human rights have the power to unify us at a time when we need to come together to contend with the existential challenges we face as humanity. (
  • We educate and equip decision-makers with the tools they need to address the major human rights challenges of today and tomorrow. (
  • The Lund Human Rights Research Hub is intended as a core driver in developing new research, education, and dissemination of human rights to meet the most pressing human rights challenges of today. (
  • The research area covers questions of how to protect human rights at a time of great global challenges brought about by climate change, armed conflict, pandemics, and new technologies. (
  • These challenges which are of global reach affect rights protection in Sweden, EU and around the world. (
  • The field of Human Rights addresses challenges related to growing inequality gaps between rich and poor, refugee and migration movements, health, the climate crisis, conflicts and new technologies. (
  • It is also important that the workers access training and support to organise themselves so that they are able to claim their rights in a balance dialogue with authorities. (
  • We are committed to engaging in dialogue with stakeholders on human rights issues related to our business. (
  • We bring together policy-makers, experts and civil society to engage in solution-oriented dialogue to advance human rights. (
  • We are committed to identifying and preventing any adverse human rights impacts in relation to our business activities through human rights due diligence and preventive compliance processes. (
  • Within the LLM International Human Rights and International Criminal Law, our world-leading expertise across human rights, international criminal law, public international law, are brought together to help students hone their knowledge and passion, providing a unique specialism in the fields of human rights and the adjudication of international criminal and humanitarian law and international climate change and environmental law at the global level of application. (
  • Since 1984, our mission is to promote universal respect for human rights and humanitarian law. (
  • There is really little doubt that human rights are today under pressure at a different level and from different aspects than was previously the case", says Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Research Director and Professor at the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law and coordinator of the The Lund Human Rights Research Hub. (
  • The strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable scepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. (
  • Human rights law is a broad area of research that addresses and critically examines issues and problems arising in ongoing efforts to secure full protection of human rights in different contexts, whether it is in the workplace, healthcare, or foreign affairs, and in relation to different actors (both states and non-state actors, such as corporations). (
  • We prohibit the holding of any person in slavery or servitude, the use of all forms of forced, bonded or compulsory labor and any engagement in human trafficking in connection with Crowley's business. (
  • In his address, Türk called on States, people and all actors to embrace and trust the full power of human rights as the path to the world we want: more peaceful, equal and sustainable. (
  • Unless our cities become sustainable, we as a human species, as well as all other species on our planet, will not be able to survive (Day, 2014). (
  • What can we learn from these developments, and what are the connections between human rights and sustainable development? (
  • To build community capacity to address these issues, the Diplomacy Training Program and Oxfam Australia's Indigenous Australia Program are bringing together 32 Indigenous advocates from across Australia for an intensive training program on human rights advocacy. (
  • This program aims to develop the capacity of Indigenous advocates to use human rights standards as practical tools to respond effectively to the human rights issues they face and to build effective advocacy strategies and coalitions. (
  • LONDON, Dec 10 2019 (IPS) - This year's Human Rights Day advocates for everyone to stand up for their rights and those of others. (
  • The course advocates and applies an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human rights which is reflected in the teaching, the choice of topics and the required reading. (
  • On the one hand, the academic interest of the course lies in the specialisation that it provides students with (who often have very different backgrounds) for voluntary work, and on the other, its professional focus empowers them to work in NGOs, international organisations, national civil services, etc. in the field of human rights, humanitarian aid and development cooperation. (
  • The purpose of her PhD was to explore the role of non-governmental organisations as "duty bearers" of human rights and challenge the idea of the state as the only important actor in the process. (
  • A 2012 report by Amnesty complained that persons guilty of major human-rights violations during the civil war had still not been brought to justice, and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's call for the establishment of a criminal tribunal to prosecute such cases had still not been heeded. (
  • Our blogs are written by Amnesty International staff, volunteers and other interested individuals, to encourage debate around human rights issues. (
  • The course is based on key texts in the international legislation on human rights but aims to integrate theories of international law with theories of social and political science and area studies. (
  • Provocatio aims to be a forum for critical and constructive analysis of and debate on human rights. (
  • Since the end of the Civil War in 2003, however, there has been a great deal of activity by a number of international organizations with the objective of establishing in Liberia a solid democracy based on human rights. (
  • Furthermore, it provides an introduction to local and regional debates about human rights and human rights work, focusing especially on the considerable differences between different states and NGOs with regard to work and priorities with regard to human rights. (
  • 2/5 · knowledge about current academic debates around the construction of a polycentric `business and human rights' governance regime. (
  • Our approach to human rights is already well integrated into our existing business practices, for example as part of our Human Capital, Procurement, Ethics and Compliance and Corporate Responsibility activities. (
  • Opinion pieces, interviews and blogs from across the business and human rights movement. (
  • Our library of curated information relating to the field of business and human rights contains over 168,000 pages - increasing daily. (
  • The event was chaired by Klara Polackova Van der Ploeg, Assistant Professor in Law at the University of Nottingham and Head of the HRLC's Business, Trade and Human Rights Unit. (
  • Professor Robert McCorquodale, United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights. (
  • Exciting range of modules that examine contemporary and global issues of concern, including International Human Rights Law, International Climate Change Law and Policy, International Law of the Sea, and Business and Human Rights. (
  • Making the decision to focus her PhD thesis on India and human rights came naturally to her, as she had previous experience from both fields. (
  • Even though her doctoral thesis did not contain as much fieldwork time as she expected, the main focus on India and human rights remained throughout the process. (
  • From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century, possibly as a reaction to slavery, torture, genocide and war crimes, as a realization of inherent human vulnerability and as being a precondition for the possibility of a just society. (
  • The area is enriched by critical research that directs attention to the constraints imposed by deeper economic, social, and political structures for the full realization of rights. (
  • Human-induced climate change has become one of the most pressing issues of our time, and businesses, such as those in the fossil fuel and transportation industries, significantly contribute to it. (
  • Passionate about human rights and global issues and wanting to go on and develop your careers as lawyers on the international stage? (
  • We provide cutting edge and policy-oriented research and analysis to see and understand core human rights issues. (
  • Augustine was among the earliest to examine the legitimacy of the laws of man, and attempt to define the boundaries of what laws and rights occur naturally based on wisdom and conscience, instead of being arbitrarily imposed by mortals, and if people are obligated to obey laws that are unjust. (
  • Human rights problems include ill-treatment by law enforcement, interference with freedom of assembly, domestic violence, discrimination against people with disabilities, and violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. (
  • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is the leading United Nations entity in the field of human rights, with a unique mandate to promote and protect all human rights for all people. (
  • people around the world in an effective independent organization fighting to free prisoners of conscience, stop torture, and ensure that every person enjoys full human rights. (
  • He was considered an opponent to the existing Iranian rulers who have no respect neither for Islam nor the people with rights as humans. (
  • It is not known how many people were detained on their way to Ghom but we know for sure that from one bus in central Tehran, human rights activists Ms Shiva Nazar Ahari and Mr Koohyar Goodarzi and women's rights activist, Ms Mohboobeh Abassogholizadeh and writer Mr Ahmad Ghabel were taken away. (
  • EDITORIAL: The transgender people of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are the most threatened humans. (
  • Concern for human rights, always and invariably-whether in New York or Nanking-means taking sides against one group of people and for another. (
  • A Human rights perspective : women, vulnerability and HIV/AIDS / Adriana Gómez and Deborah Meacham, eds. (
  • The aim of the course is to enable students to critically analyse the problems and future prospects of human rights work in East and South-East Asia. (
  • Moreover, Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen argues that many countries that have traditionally defended human rights are starting to look at human rights more critically. (
  • It will encourage researchers to critically inquire into what these changes in the political landscape mean for the field of human rights studies. (
  • Extreme right-wing parties promoting hatred against migrants and minorities are represented in several national parliaments. (
  • 17th century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life, liberty, and estate (property)", and argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract. (
  • Governments need to work out a more systematic and comprehensive strategy to ensure the full realisation of human. (
  • Amid stigma, low pay, informality and hazardous working conditions, many of them lose their lives while they are at work and very often, it is the omission of governments to comply with their human rights obligations that gives room for those unacceptable situations. (
  • Sanitation and decent work are both human rights, and one human right cannot come at the expense of another. (
  • National and municipal governments need to take decisive action and put in place urgent measures to protect the human rights of sanitation workers, including laws and regulation to eliminate manual scavenging, recognise sanitation work and gradually formalise it, increasing the protection of the workers. (
  • The UN Human Rights Office and the mechanisms we support work on a wide range of human rights topics. (
  • IT automation is defined as taking a manual task that an IT professional would perform and using software to create repeatable processes and instructions to do all or part of the work, without the need for human interaction. (
  • The development of positive obligations has been one of the hallmarks of the work of the European Court of Human Rights in interpreting the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). (
  • And in our part of the world, particularly here in Sweden, we may take human rights for granted. (
  • Human Rights Law at the Faculty of Law. (
  • Human rights are increasingly seen as something that mostly protects "the others": foreigners, the unemployed, ethnic minorities, marginalised groups, etc. (
  • This is great progress in the struggle for human rights and must be protected against those who still argue for a return to the days of executions. (
  • Such overreactions may reflect a sense that good performance is particularly important in the field of human rights and that criticism is therefore more sensitive than otherwise. (
  • We deplore and condemn the evils of racism and tribalism, economic exploitation and social injustices, torture, detention without trial and the taking of human lives, as contrary to the teaching and example of our Lord in the Gospel. (
  • Across the UN human rights apparatus we can see a similar dynamic emerging, in which - in the absence of principled limits on the scope or scale of intervention of the State in society - positive obligations appear to be relentlessly expanding, and far beyond what was envisaged by the drafters of the relevant treaties. (
  • Given the extensive regulatory functions of the State and the enormous breadth of state activities, any harm could potentially be a ground for making an argument that the State failed to fulfil its positive human rights obligations by failing to prevent or mitigate harm or risk. (
  • some thinkers suggest that human rights should be a minimum requirement to avoid the worst-case abuses, while others see it as a higher standard. (
  • These might include the country where news or alleged abuses took place, the companies linked to the news, the sector where alleged victims were working, or the human right that is said to have been infringed. (
  • Many of the basic ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the events of the Holocaust, culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. (
  • In that previous post, I referenced Art 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). (
  • The fact is," he writes, "that the human rights concept, though enshrined in a self-styled universal declaration, is culture-bound. (
  • The seeds planted 60 years ago this year by the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights are bearing copious fruit through a series of conferences organized by the U.S. Embassy to the Holy See. (
  • They are regarded as requiring empathy and the rule of law and imposing an obligation on persons to respect the human rights of others, and it is generally considered that they should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on specific circumstances. (
  • We are with all due respect technologically backward, quality of life at the bottom any human achievement, a very inadequate educational and health system, an oppressive and lawless political arrangement and the epicenter of famine and starvation. (
  • it also threatens the enjoyment of a wide range of human rights, including the right to life, respect for private and family life, health, food and an adequate standard of living. (
  • In fulfilling their obligation to respect human rights and ensure that their operations do not lead to human rights violations, businesses therefore have an essential role to play in addressing climate change. (
  • Respect for human rights is a core principle for Crowley and the communities in which we operate. (
  • We respect our employees' right to form, join, or not to join a labor union without fear of reprisal, intimidation or harassment. (
  • Even self-confident governments sometimes tend to hit back when their human rights record is questioned. (
  • The report has provided 10 observations and related recommendations which could assist local, regional and national governments along with individual initiatives, in the US but also around the world, to create roadmaps and strategies toward achieving what is an individual and collective right, our ability to live with non-diminishing quality, at a time when our world has made the most exciting scientific and technological discoveries. (
  • The doctrine of human rights has been highly influential within international law and global and regional institutions. (
  • Liberia is a signatory of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (
  • The credibility of international human rights standards will ultimately depend on whether they are made into reality. (
  • This week a major international conference and sports event is being organised in Montreal for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights. (
  • There are four compulsory modules on this course: Legal Research Methods, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights Law and the dissertation. (
  • While earlier studies had delved into the topic of 'duty bearing' of human rights, this had mostly been done within the fields of international law and philosophy. (
  • The participation of different East and South-East Asian countries in the international system for the protection of human rights and in different rights instruments is analysed. (
  • In the course, the relationship between international human rights legislation and national legislation is studied. (
  • Our research environment contributes with research that brings into focus the role and limits of international, regional, and national law and courts in safeguarding human rights, including through the provision of opportunities for redress in case of human rights violations. (
  • 2) the legitimacy of concern for human rights does not depend on the universality, or otherwise, of the concept. (
  • We carry out multi-disciplinary human rights research, provide academic education, support, and advice. (
  • The profile area will consolidate and develop Lund University's standing as a unique hub for cross-disciplinary human rights research and education. (
  • They are commonly understood as inalienable, fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being" and which are "inherent in all human beings", regardless of their age, ethnic origin, location, language, religion, ethnicity, or any other status. (
  • She noted that those charges were followed, ironically, by efforts of Western special interest groups to formulate their agendas in terms of human rights. (
  • There is a sense of partial crisis, he says, where human rights are seen to perhaps obstruct other political agendas, and more populist and nationalist policies are emerging both in Europe and North America. (
  • Magna Carta is an English charter originally issued in 1215 which influenced the development of the common law and many later constitutional documents related to human rights, such as the 1689 English Bill of Rights, the 1789 United States Constitution, and the 1791 United States Bill of Rights. (