Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Bites and StingsPost-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mephitidae: The family of omnivorous New World skunks, showing typical warning coloration of patterned black and white and able to eject a malodorous secretion when the animal is startled or in danger.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms without their virulence altered. Examples include smallpox (vaccinia) and adenovirus vaccines.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Matricaria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. M. chamomilla appears similar to Anthemis but this flower disk is conical and hollow and lacks chaffy bract scales and the odor is weaker. The common name of 'manzanilla' is confused with other meanings of the word. 'Matricaria chamomilla sensu' is classified by some as Tripleurospermum perforata. Other plants with similar common names include CHAMAEMELUM; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.Infectious Disease Incubation Period: The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.PennsylvaniaVaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
  • Cause and transmission Rabies is transmitted from a rabid animal bite, there are also two other ways of receiving rabies but are very rare you can also contract rabies by non-bite exposure and contact between humans which is very rare. (prezi.com)
  • The pungent smell of the fishmeal attracts animals, which bite into the cubes, breaking open the vaccine capsules, and thus becoming innoculated. (nhregister.com)
  • The state did not publicize the second case, in which the victim apparently got the disease from a dog bite in Brazil. (nhregister.com)
  • Animals with rabies suffer deterioration of the brain and tend to behave bizarrely and often aggressively, increasing the chances that they will bite another animal or a person and transmit the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies due to the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are infected by the bite of infected animals, usually dogs. (medindia.net)
  • Initial symptoms of rabies in humans include a pricking or itchy sensation at the site of bite associated with fever, tiredness and muscle pain. (medindia.net)
  • PEP is commonly and very effectively used to prevent the outbreak of rabies after a bite by a rabid animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rabies is a viral disease of mammals which is most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. (buckscounty.org)
  • Wait to see if the animal is still alive 10 days after the bite, as an animal who is secreting rabies virus will succumb to rabies in five to seven days. (vin.com)
  • There is no cure for rabies once symptoms develop, and bite victims invariably die a slow, painful death unless post-bite treatment is promptly administered. (ivsa.org)
  • Rabies awareness campaigns adapted to the local situation are essential to motivate responsible dog ownership, including vaccination of dogs against rabies, prevent dog bites and administer first aid for bite victims including wound washing and rabies post-exposure injections. (ivsa.org)
  • A doctor who oversees Valenzuela City's Animal Bite Center has warned residents against using traditional or old-fashioned remedies as city officials noted that two people have died of rabies since the start of the year. (inquirer.net)
  • Meanwhile, the traditional practice of "tawak"-cutting the patient's skin open and sucking blood from the wound-and "tandok," where a piece of deer horn is placed over the bite to reportedly suck the rabies virus out, could lead to complications. (inquirer.net)
  • The data for the total number of animal bite cases so far this year was not immediately available but in 2013, the Valenzuela Animal Bite Center recorded 6,795 cases with more than half of the patients below 15 years old. (inquirer.net)
  • They can be given antirabies, antitetanus and antibiotic vaccines when they go to the Animal Bite Center. (inquirer.net)
  • Humans most often contract rabies through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. (lahey.org)
  • Rabies is caused by a virus that gains access to the horse through a bite wound inflicted by another rabid animal. (petplace.com)
  • In some cases, you can see a bite wound. (petplace.com)
  • Any dog, cat or ferret bite should be evaluated for rabies potential. (drhull.com)
  • Rabies is a fatal disease that animals can transfer to humans, usually through a bite or scratch. (gazettextra.com)
  • If the horse has an obvious bite wound, or had one in the two to three weeks before showing symptoms, obviously the index of suspicion for rabies should jump if that horse develops neurological signs. (equisearch.com)
  • A horse with rabies is not likely to attack and bite you, but because one of the early symptoms is difficulty with eating and drinking, a problem in the mouth might be suspected, resulting in an oral examination. (equisearch.com)
  • Rabies is transmitted by the bite of a diseased animal - most commonly a dog. (oie.int)
  • Victims of rabies usually get infected following a bite or a scratch from a rabid stray dog or cat on the street. (untvweb.com)
  • This is when cases of animal bite rise)," Domingo said. (untvweb.com)
  • We investigated potential rabies exposure, and his family confirmed that he had sustained a bat bite on his left shoulder 6 months previously but had not sought treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • Rabies immune globulin is given to persons who have been exposed (eg, by a bite, scratch, or lick) to an animal that is known or thought to have rabies. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most of this variability appears to reflect the length of time the rabies virus spends within muscle cells at the site of the bite, prior to gaining access to the nervous system. (maxshouse.com)
  • Rabid animals frequently snap at imaginary objects and may attempt to bite any animals or humans that approach them. (maxshouse.com)
  • The 31-year-old Filipino man apparently received a dog bite on March 10 and never sought out rabies prophylaxis. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • Rabies, a potentially deadly virus that attacks the nervous system, is transmitted most often through the bite of a rabid animal. (poconorecord.com)
  • Though transmission is usually through a bite wound, rabies has been known to spread through a scratch or an existing open wound. (petmd.com)
  • In humans, the rabies vaccine is only administered post-exposure (i.e., following a bite from an infected animal). (petcarerx.com)
  • Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the lack of accurate data on the global burden of neglected tropical diseases, the estimates of direct mortality due to rabies, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, are among the highest. (hindawi.com)
  • But the nocturnal creatures will bite humans if their primary food sources are unavailable. (nature.com)
  • Due to a recent history of bite by a suspected rabid dog in India, where he had received incomplete post-exposure treatment, rabies was suspected. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Any human bitten by a domestic mammal should immediately wash the wound with soap and water thoroughly, and contact the health department within 24 hours to report the bite. (times-gazette.com)
  • Anyone who endured a terrifying childhood screening of Old Yeller can testify that the ghastly symptoms of rabies, as well as its transmission via the bite of an infected animal, make rabies a particularly feared and fabled disease. (si.edu)
  • Human vaccination and post-bite treatment for rabies is expensive and complex. (si.edu)
  • In ethical terms, what's worse: using a vaccine that's derived from tissue from an abortion 40 years ago, or letting someone die of rabies after an animal bite? (chron.com)
  • Since 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Wildlife Services has coordinated a multistate oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program for wildlife in a 15-state zone extending from Maine to Alabama and in Texas. (cdc.gov)
  • Is the community supportive of oral rabies vaccination of dogs? (cdc.gov)
  • Adapted from World Health Organization 2007 recommendation on oral rabies vaccine assessment ( 51 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced on Friday that it will continue field evaluation of an oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait called ONRAB in five states. (agweb.com)
  • CDC researchers sought to refashion the "Getter" into a truly humane device: they rigged it with shells of an oral rabies vaccine, rather than cyanide. (si.edu)
  • A lumbar puncture after eight days showed an increased level of rabies antibody, and the physicians began tapering off the sedation, Dr. Willoughby and colleagues reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, on October 18, rabies was diagnosed by the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test from postmortem brain samples tested by the Houston Department of Health and Human Services. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of post-exposure rabies vaccine treatment is to induce immunity, measured as neutralizing antibody, as fast as possible. (ajtmh.org)
  • We compared the rate of production of antibody during the first two weeks, by six vaccine regimens in 118 subjects using two tissue culture vaccines, human diploid cell strain vaccine (HDCSV) and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). (ajtmh.org)
  • All subjects had antibody by day 14, at which time the highest geometric mean titer was in the group vaccinated with 0.25 ml doses of diploid cell vaccine given subcutaneously at eight sites. (ajtmh.org)
  • Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • This population study , the first of its kind, may provide clues to better understand how incremental exposure to rabies could lead to better vaccines or monoclonal antibody drugs. (nature.com)
  • Pre Exposure Vaccination: Rabies (HDCV) may be used to confer antibody protection to individuals before they are infected. (tmb.ie)
  • Smallpox, polio, and syphilis, once constant threats, are now distant memories for many, and recent antibody-based therapies continue to further the human battle against disease. (si.edu)
  • Worldwide it is estimated that there are more than 55,000 deaths due to rabies annually with most cases reported from Africa, Asia, including China and India, Latin America and the Middle East. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • For laboratory workers and others who may be repeatedly exposed to rabies virus, periodic testing for immunity is recommended, and booster doses should be given as needed. (empowher.com)
  • When an animal bites into one of the baits it will release the vaccine into their mouth and, with an adequate dose, develop immunity to rabies. (agweb.com)
  • According to results published in the Journal of Virology, the vaccine is effective in building immunity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Duluth, GA - July 28, 2014 - Merial has announced the availability of PUREVAX® Feline Rabies 3 YR - the newest addition to the only nonadjuvanted line of feline vaccines and the first nonadjuvanted feline rabies vaccine with a 3 year Duration Of Immunity (DOI) to be marketed in the world. (merial.com)
  • This vaccine utilizes recombinant canarypox-vectored technology which stimulates both humoral and cell-mediated immunity and has proven effective in the face of severe challenge. (merial.com)
  • Further, the oral vaccine failed to create an acceptable level of immunity to rabies. (si.edu)
  • In spite of the fact that most developed countries have good public health measures in place to prevent human rabies, these countries are dealing with an increasing number of human rabies cases. (asm.org)
  • Subsequent testing performed at CDC confirmed the presence of vaccinia virus DNA and rabies virus G protein DNA in papule material and serologic evidence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • The serum sample sent to the commercial laboratory on October 12 did not demonstrate evidence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO (World Health Organization) reports over 30,000 human deaths per year from rabies, however the actual number including the unreported cases is estimated to be significantly above 60,000 deaths, mostly occuring in India and China . (deepdyve.com)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that around 55,000 people die each year from rabies, and some evidence suggests that number may climb. (nature.com)
  • A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. (pnas.org)
  • Although there has never been a reported transmission of rabies from horse to human in the United States, that may be the result of vaccination of both horses, and more recently, the recommended vaccination of animal caregivers (veterinarians, technicians, etc. (petplace.com)
  • If the pet is current on its rabies vaccine, it should be re-vaccinated immediately and kept under the owner's control for observation for 45 days. (times-gazette.com)
  • More than 3 billion people live in regions of the world where rabies occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory diagnosis and surveillance for animal and human rabies are severely constrained in much of the developing world where rabies is endemic. (hindawi.com)
  • A person who is exposed and has never been vaccinated against rabies should get 4 doses of rabies vaccine--one dose right away, and additional doses on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days. (empowher.com)
  • A person who has been previously vaccinated should get 2 doses of rabies vaccine--one right away and another on the 3rd day. (empowher.com)
  • This passive protection lasts long enough to protect your body until it can produce its own antibodies against the rabies virus. (mayoclinic.org)