Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 184.108.40.206.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein PrecursorsNatriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 220.127.116.11.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 18.104.22.168.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mice, Inbred BALB CCarboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Nerve Tissue ProteinsT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.PhotochemistrySignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 22.214.171.124.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
This includes innovative therapeutic and diagnostic products; novel drug delivery systems; protein/peptide therapeutics; ... monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments; cytokines and cytokine receptors; recombinant DNA and gene regulation technology ... and therapeutic application of biotechnology-based pharmaceuticals and diagnostic products for the treatment of human disease. ...
Dwulet FE, Putnam FW (Feb 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of a 50,000-dalton fragment of human ceruloplasmin". Proceedings ... I. Amino acid sequence of the cyanogen bromide peptides". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (7): 2878-85. PMID 6987229. ... Kingston IB, Kingston BL, Putnam FW (Apr 1980). "Primary structure of a histidine-rich proteolytic fragment of human ... Lutsenko S, Gupta A, Burkhead JL, Zuzel V (Aug 2008). "Cellular multitasking: the dual role of human Cu-ATPases in cofactor ...
β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ... "NH2-Terminal amino acid sequence and peptide mapping of purified human β-lipotropin: Comparison with previously proposed ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 AFL Statement of Charges against James Hird and Essendon Football ...
... related fragments and analogs by human and rat plasma in vitro". Regulatory Peptides. 4 (3): 127-139. doi:10.1016/0167-0115(82) ... Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone ... Since it is a peptide, CCK-4 must be administered by injection, and is rapidly broken down once inside the body so has only a ... CCK-4 reliably causes severe anxiety symptoms when administered to humans in a dose of as little as 50μg, and is commonly used ...
The UBA2 cDNA fragment 2683 bp long and encodes a peptide of 640 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence is more analogous ... UBA2 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. UBA2 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. Molecular and Cellular ... Gong L, Li B, Millas S, Yeh ET (April 1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human AOS1 and UBA2, components of the ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
... s are opioid peptides (protein fragments) derived from the digestion of milk protein casein. Digestive enzymes can ... Peptides. 19 (2): 325-331. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(97)00307-0. Kayser, H; Meisel, H (1996). "Stimulation of human peripheral ... Although they have not yet been proven to be formed in the human digestive system, there are associations between serum levels ... into peptides that have some biological activity in cells and in laboratory animals though conclusive causal effects on humans ...
Martoglio B, Graf R, Dobberstein B (1997). "Signal peptide fragments of preprolactin and HIV-1 p-gp160 interact with calmodulin ... Human CALM2 genome location and CALM2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Zhang M, Yuan T (1998). "Molecular ... Calmodulin 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALM2 gene. Mutations in CALM2 are associated to cardiac arrhythmias ... Berchtold MW, Egli R, Rhyner JA, Hameister H, Strehler EE (May 1993). "Localization of the human bona fide calmodulin genes ...
The fragment of 34 amino acids at peptide N-terminal is essential for proper protein folding and subsequent complex assembly. ... An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The human gene ... Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-6 is 22 kDa in size and composed of 205 amino acids. The calculated theoretical ...
... (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene. Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G- ... the proprotein of 55 amino acids may generate several active fragments: a 36 amino acid peptide corresponding to the sequence ... However the presence and/or the concentrations of those peptides in human plasma has been questioned. Recently, 46 different ... and human plasma. Apelin is a peptide that was identified in 1998 by Professor M. Fujino's team. Apelin gene encodes a pre- ...
Those small peptides were all the evidence the T-cells needed to decide that a cell was diseased. 5. Differences between Us ... Forbes notes that Davis does not mention that most of the genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees are to do with the ... Alan Townsend found that killer T-cells destroyed cells that carried an HLA protein and small fragments of viral protein. ... The Compatibility Gene is a 2014 book about the discovery of the mechanism of compatibility in the human immune system by ...
Fragment 1•2 is released as an activation peptide, and prethrombin 2 is cleaved at Arg320, yielding active thrombin. The two ... Kalafatis M, Rand MD, Mann KG (December 1994). "The mechanism of inactivation of human factor V and human factor Va by ... Krishnaswamy S, Church WR, Nesheim ME, Mann KG (March 1987). "Activation of human prothrombin by human prothrombinase. ... The activation peptide is released when Factor X is activated to Factor Xa, but the heavy and light chains remain covalently ...
A peptide fragment of ChgA located in the Vasostatin-1, namely ChgA29-42 has been identified as the antigenic epitope ... "Isolation and primary structure of a novel chromogranin A-derived peptide, WE-14, from a human midgut carcinoid tumour". FEBS ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... a chromogranin A-derived bioactive peptide, is present in human pancreatic insulin (beta) cells". Proceedings of the National ...
Two different scFv fragments can be connected together, via a hinge region, to the constant domain of the heavy chain or the ... A typical human B cell will have 50,000 to 100,000 antibodies bound to its surface. Upon antigen binding, they cluster in large ... They are usually artificial peptides or proteins with a molar mass of about 3 to 20 kDa. Nucleic acids and small molecules are ... The Fv fragment was prepared and characterized by David Givol. While most of these early studies focused on IgM and IgG, other ...
In humans, lactoferricin corresponds to lactoferrin fragment 1-47 but consists of two subunits, namely fragments 1-11 and 12-47 ... and sequences from within this fragment are also antimicrobial. The MilkAMP database contains a total of 111 peptides (natural ... Lactoferricin is an amphipathic, cationic peptide with anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. It can be generated by the ... The complete sequence of lactoferricin corresponds to lactoferrin fragment 17-41 (FKCRRWQWRM KKLGAPSITCVRRAF; LFB0084) ...
2004). "Generation of the beta-amyloid peptide and the amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment gamma are potentiated by ... APBB3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. APBB3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBB3 gene. The ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
They successfully identified a new Neanderthal fossil fragment, Vindija *28. Most of the fossil fragments that were ... Modern humans share more alleles with Vindija 33.19 and Mezmaiskaya 1 from Mezmaiskaya cave than with the Altai Neanderthal. ... In 2017, researchers applied collagen peptide mass fingerprinting, Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS), to sort through ... Since this is earlier than the arrival of the first modern humans to the region, the Vindija Neanderthals most likely did not ...
... is a peptide fragment derived from prothymosin alpha, a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMA gene. It was ... "Human PubMed Reference:". Manrow RE, Leone A, Krug MS, Eschenfeldt WH, Berger SL (Jul 1992). "The human prothymosin alpha gene ... It has been found to enhance cell-mediated immunity in humans as well as experimental animals. As of 2009[update] Thymosin α1 ... Unlike β thymosins, to which it is genetically and chemically unrelated, thymosin α1 is produced as a 28-amino acid fragment, ...
The gene MIPEP encodes one metalloprotease that hydrolyzes peptide fragment of eight amino acids in lengths to process ... a. The human gene MIPEP has 21 Exons and locates at chromosome band13q12. Evidences showed that the human gene MIPEP is highly ... It contains a mitonchondria targeting peptide (Amino acid 1-35 of the peptide sequence). The mature protein has a theoretical ... "Uniprot: Q99797 - MIPEP_HUMAN". Hendrick JP, Hodges PE, Rosenberg LE (Jun 1989). "Survey of amino-terminal proteolytic cleavage ...
... and Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells. The tumstatin fragment is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP ... Tumstatin is a 28 kDa fragment cleaved from collagen type IV There are two subsegments of the peptide that are active; T3 ... "Human tumstatin and human endostatin exhibit distinct antiangiogenic activities mediated by αVß3 and α5ß1 integrins". Proc. ... Wang Shu-jing; Liu Xing-han; Ji Yu-bin; Chen Ning (6-8 July 2007). "The Effect of Tumstatin Anti-tumor Peptide on Proliferation ...
On the cell surface, these proteins are bound to protein fragments (peptides) that have been exported from within the cell. MHC ... In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the major genes in MHC class I. MHC class I genes provide ... If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by destroying the ... HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. Genes in ...
This protein is an aminopeptidase, which is an enzyme that cleaves other proteins into smaller fragments called peptides. ARTS1 ... Human ERAP1 genome location and ERAP1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R ... If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by triggering the ... Second, ERAP1 trims peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum so that they can be loaded onto major histocompatibility complex ...
Baumgrass R, Williamson MK, Price PA (1997). "Identification of peptide fragments generated by digestion of bovine and human ... Estrada, S; Nycander M; Hill N J; Craven C J; Waltho J P; Björk I (May 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A ... Cathepsin L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine ... 1996). "Structure of human procathepsin L reveals the molecular basis of inhibition by the prosegment". EMBO J. 15 (20): 5492- ...
Baumgrass R, Williamson MK, Price PA (1997). "Identification of peptide fragments generated by digestion of bovine and human ... Chernaia VI, Reva AD (1990). "[Cathepsin H activity in the human brain and human brain neoplasms]". Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 61 (5): ... Cathepsin H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSH gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine ... Pol E, Björk I (2001). "Role of the single cysteine residue, Cys 3, of human and bovine cystatin B (stefin B) in the inhibition ...
... characterization of a C-terminal fragment of pregnancy zone protein corresponding to the receptor-binding peptide from human ... 1996). "Activated human plasma carboxypeptidase B is retained in the blood by binding to alpha2-macroglobulin and pregnancy ... 2004). "The human plasma proteome: a nonredundant list developed by combination of four separate sources". Mol. Cell. ... Comparison with human alpha 2-macroglobulin". J. Biol. Chem. 260 (29): 15723-35. PMID 2415522. Sottrup-Jensen L, Birkedal- ...
34 peptide of human parathyroid hormone". Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie. 355 (4): 415-21. doi:10.1515/ ... "Structure-activity relation of NH2-terminal human parathyroid hormone fragments". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (8 ... Mayer H, Breyel E, Bostock C, Schmidtke J (1983). "Assignment of the human parathyroid hormone gene to chromosome 11". Human ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Physiology: 5/5ch6/s5ch6_11 - Essentials of Human Physiology Bieglmayer C ...
... suggesting that transit peptides are actually collections of domains with different functions. Transit peptides tend to be ... leaving an 86 kilodalton fragment called Toc86. In the middle is its GTP binding domain, which is very similar to the ... but not human mtDNA). ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length ... Not all chloroplast proteins include a N-terminal cleavable transit peptide though. Some include the transit sequence ...
Synthesis of protected peptides corresponding to fragment A13-16 of human insulin. ... Ester Methyl Ester Human Insulin Pentafluorophenyl Analytical Determina Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone ...
1LTJ: Crystal Structure Of Recombinant Human Fibrinogen Fragment D With The Peptide Ligands Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-Amide And Gly-His- ...
We prepared acyl analogues of the peptide fragment of human lactoferrin, which originally had weak antibacterial activity. It … ... Cationic antibacterial peptides are potentially therapeutic in the treatment of sepsis, because of their amalgamated ... We prepared acyl analogues of the peptide fragment of human lactoferrin, which originally had weak antibacterial activity. It ... Enhancement of antibacterial and lipopolysaccharide binding activities of a human lactoferrin peptide fragment by the addition ...
One of these peptides, a fragment of nine residues of human IL 1 beta (VQGEESNDK, fragment 163-171), showed high T cell ... Thus we propose that this peptide may represent one of the portions of hu IL 1 beta responsible for its immunostimulatory ... On the other hand, the 163-171 peptide was devoid of prostaglandin-inducing capacity in vitro and pyrogenic activity in vivo, ... Short peptide fragments of human and murine interleukin 1 (IL 1) were synthesized on the basis of their predicted exposure on ...
Solution structures of human parathyroid hormone fragments hPTH(1-34) and hPTH(1-39) and bovine parathyroid hormone fragment ... Classification: PEPTIDE HORMONE * Deposited: 1998-09-30 Released: 2000-01-14 *Deposition author(s): Marx, U.C., Roesch, P., ... THE SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF HUMAN PARATHYROID HORMONE FRAGMENT 1-34 IN 20% TRIFLUORETHANOL, NMR, 10 STRUCTURES. *DOI: 10.2210/ ...
L-PEPTIDE LINKING. C3 H8 N O6 P. SER. ... Fragment based drug design on human PKA. Koester, H., Craan, T. ... human cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with a small fragment. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3OOG/pdb ... L-PEPTIDE LINKING. C4 H10 N O6 P. THR. ...
Peptide Fragments / immunology* * Protein Interaction Mapping * Recombinant Proteins / genetics * Recombinant Proteins / ... Prediction of antibody response using recombinant human protein fragments as antigen Protein Sci. 2009 Nov;18(11):2346-55. doi ... based on 12,634 affinity-purified antibodies generated in a standardized manner against human recombinant protein fragments. ... propensity scale might be useful for prediction of antibody response generated by immunization of recombinant protein fragments ...
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The anti-tumor properties of two tumstatin peptide fragments in human gastric carcinoma * Xiao-ming JIN and Xing-han LIU ... Rights & permissionsfor article The anti-tumor properties of two tumstatin peptide fragments in human gastric carcinoma . Opens ... Downregulation of stathmin 1 in human gallbladder carcinoma inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo *Jiwen Wang ... Rights & permissionsfor article Modulation of alternative splicing induced by paclitaxel in human lung cancer . Opens in a new ...
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... and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in humans. ... Researchers at National Jewish Health have identified the precise protein fragment that can trigger diabetes in mice. The ... If the peptide does stimulate T cells associated with diabetes in humans, the discovery would suggest potential diagnostic and ... Kappler and Eisenbarth plan to see if T cells associated with diabetes in humans also bind the same insulin peptide in the same ...
Synthetic (1-34 Parathyroid hormone : human-type and bovine-type peptide fragments World Health Organization. Biologicals ... The report opens with a review of the remarkable progress achieved in chemical peptide synthesis and in the use of recombinant ... Guidelines for the use of existing synthetic peptides are also provided. ... with prospects for the development of improved diagnostic tests for the detection and monitoring of infection with the human ...
Recombinant MMP-7 and human serum (HS) were also tested as control. hPrP61-90, from the octapeptide-repeat region, was cleaved ... We synthesized 21 prion fragment peptides. Each purified peptide was individually incubated with recombinant MT1-MMP or MT3-MMP ... The C-terminal peptides had higher resistance than the central region. The data obtained from this study suggest that MT-MMPs ... Prions are the cause of neurodegenerative disease in humans and other mammals. The structural conversion of the prion protein ( ...
Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum ... Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum ... Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p protein sortilin at senile plaques (SPs) in aged and AD human ... Levels of a major sortilin fragment ~15 kDa, predicted to derive from the C-terminal region, were dramatically elevated in AD ...
... α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Fragment 4-13 for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Peptide content, ≥70% storage temp. −20°C Gene Information human ... POMC(5443) ... Peptides and Proteins, Peptides for Cell Biology, Pituitary Hormones ... Hormones, Immunomodulators, Ion Channel Modulating Peptides, Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH), Melanocyte Stimulating ...
544 human growth hormone releaser online Wholesalers provide popular human growth hormone releaser from China. ... High quality HGH Fragment 176-191. Fat Loss Peptide Tesamorelin 2mg with High Purity. ... SBJ Effective Peptides White Powder Tesamorelin(2mg/vial) To Reduce HIV-infected. ... Grow Hormon Releasing Peptide Ghrp-2 10mg for Mass Musle 158861-67-7. ...
... specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami e... ... We recently reported that a cationic peptide, T22 ([Tyr(5,12), Lys(7)]-polyphemusin II), ... Peptide Fragments. *Peptide Fragments: metabolism. *Peptides. *Peptides: metabolism. *Peptides: pharmacology. *Receptors, CXCR4 ... We recently reported that a cationic peptide, T22 ([Tyr(5,12), Lys(7)]-polyphemusin II), specifically inhibits human ...
C-terminally truncated fragments of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (h-α-CGRP) were tested for their ability to ... N2 - C-terminally truncated fragments of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (h-α-CGRP) were tested for their ability to ... AB - C-terminally truncated fragments of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (h-α-CGRP) were tested for their ability to ... Synthesis and biological activity of C-terminally truncated fragments of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide. / Smith, D. D ...
Among the identified peptides were mucins, fibrinogen and collagen fragments. Further studies are planned to assess the pattern ... 193 peptides differing at statistically significant levels between cases and controls were selected and combined to a multi- ... Naturally Occurring Human Urinary Peptides for Use in Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 9, ... Besides collagens, several peptide fragments originated from α- and γ-subunits of Na/K-ATPase. Single peptides from stablin-2, ...
This fleecy amyloid obviously corresponds to N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta1-42, probably representing the P3-peptide ... Fleecy amyloid deposits in the internal layers of the human entorhinal cortex are comprised of N-terminal truncated fragments ... Another cleavage product of APP is the P3-peptide, which consists of the amino acids 17-42 of the Abeta-peptide. In order to ... These N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta are capable of creating fine fibrillar "amyloid." ...
Humans Molecular Sequence Data Peptide Fragments - chemistry T-Lymphocytes - immunology - virology rev Gene Products, Human ... Humans Molecular Sequence Data Molecular Weight Netherlands Peptide Fragments - chemistry - metabolism Precipitin Tests Protein ... Humans Male Metribolone - pharmacology Models, Molecular Molecular Weight Peptide Fragments - chemistry Prostate-Specific ... Humans Islets of Langerhans - drug effects - pathology Mice Models, Biological Molecular Sequence Data Peptide Fragments - ...
This includes innovative therapeutic and diagnostic products; novel drug delivery systems; protein/peptide therapeutics; ... monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments; cytokines and cytokine receptors; recombinant DNA and gene regulation technology ... and therapeutic application of biotechnology-based pharmaceuticals and diagnostic products for the treatment of human disease. ...
ProteinsPurityCalcitonin Gene-ReNatriuretic peptideProteolyticMoleculeMetabolismUrinary peptide biomarkersRecombinant humanSynthetic peptidesBodybuildingAntimicrobial peptidesSynonymsMelanotan IIAmino-acid peptideInhibitory PeptideNucleic acidInhibitsGrowthEpitopePhosphorylationBioactiveCollagenAssayBiomarkersSequenceDegradationIncubated with recombinantImmunizationProtein fragmentGeneSpecificallyTherapeuticsIntracellularFetalProteaseInhibitorPharmacologyAppearanceImmuneAntibacterialConjugateCytotoxicityWholesalersSignificantlyResidueSerum
- Peptides are the components that make up proteins and acetic acid is a clear, organic acid, which you had identified as the bitter flavor in vinegar. (fatlosssteroids.com)
- is the trade name for Acetyl Hexapeptide-3, a synthetic anti-aging cosmetic peptide derived from natural proteins. (fatlosssteroids.com)
- These proteins attach to protein fragments (peptides) outside the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
- MHC class II proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
- Extracellular domain-IgG fusion proteins for three human natriuretic peptide receptors. (uniprot.org)
- Parasporal inclusion proteins from a total of 1744 Bacillus thuringiensis strains, consisting of 1700 Japanese isolates and 44 reference type strains of existing H serovars, were screened for cytocidal activity against human leukaemia T cells and haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes. (wiley.com)
- We demonstrate the identification of 5000 proteins in standard 90-min gradients of tryptic digests of mammalian cell lysate, an increase of over 40% for detected peptides and over 20% for detected proteins. (mcponline.org)
- A major hurdle, however, is the complexity of the systems under scrutiny, as it has been shown that human cell lines, for instance, express at least 10,000 genes that are detectable as proteins ( 3 ⇓ - 5 ). (mcponline.org)
- If we further consider all the peptides produced in bottom-up proteomics experiments, this hurdle is compounded, as ideally many hundreds of thousands of analytes should be characterized in order for the proteins giving rise to them to be fully reconstructed ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
- In this paper we have used a clustering algorithm based on backbone φ,ψ torsion angles to find conformationally similar peptide fragments of different lengths from the FSSP library [ 23 ], which contains a large number of proteins with distinct folds. (biomedcentral.com)
- Urine presents a rich source of information related to the functioning of many internal organs ( 5 - 7 ), and the appearance of certain proteins in the blood stream may result in their appearance in the urine either in the intact form or as peptide fragments. (mcponline.org)
- The protein and peptide composition of the urine is determined by the function of the glomerular filtration apparatus, proximal tubular absorption of ultrafiltered proteins, and the capacity of the brush border and lysosomal proteolytic machinery to degrade filtered proteins ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
- Molecules currently under study include receptors of the immune system involved in autoimmune disorders (T cell receptors, co-receptors, MHC, cytokines), proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and molecular mimicry (CMV and Toxoplasma surface antigens), proteins of nervous system (peptide hormone receptors, neural guidance proteins), and membrane proteins (chemokine receptors). (stanford.edu)
- Ray et al (1998) Binding of amyloid b-protein to intracellular brain proteins in rat and human. (tocris.com)
- We selected 20 peptides mimicking linear epitopes on GRA1, GRA2, GRA4, and MIC3 antigenic T. gondii proteins in silico using the software ABCpred. (asm.org)
- HGH Fragment 176 191 Product Name: Frag 176 191 HGH Fragment 176 191 Synonyms: GH Fragment 176 - 191 , AOD-9604 HGH Fragment 176 191 CAS : 221231-10-3 HGH Fragment 176 191 Purity. (lightneasy.org)
- 3 High Purity 2 mg/vial Peptides HGH Fragment 176 - 191 /AOD-9604 for Muscle Building Description Fragment ( HGH Frag 176 - 191 ) is a peptide hormone of the (GH) class. (lightneasy.org)
- HGH Fragment 176 191 Fat Burning HGH Anabolic Steroids AOD 9604 CAS 221231-10-3 Product name HgH Frag 176 - 191 Synonyms AOD-9604, Fragment 177- 191 Sequence YLRIV QCRSV EGSCGF MF C78H123N23O23S2 MW 1815.08152 CAS 221231-10-3 Purity 98. (chinabagsnet.com)
- Purity 2 mg/vial Peptides HGH Fragment 176 - 191 CAS 221231-10-3 Growth Hormone Powder Abstract Human Growth Hormone Fragment 176 - 191 ( HGH 176 - 191 ) is a protein peptide made from amino acids 176 - 191 . (chinabagsnet.com)
- HGH Fragment 176-191, AOD-9604 CAS: 221231-10-3 Purity: 98% min Molecular formula: C78H123N23O23S2 MW: 1815. (fazendomedia.com)
- High Purity Peptides 2mg / Vial Gh Fragment 176-191 Powder for Fat Loss Fragment 176-191 Specification: Product Name Fragment 176-191 Fragment 176-191 Alias Frag 176-191 Specification 2mg/vial Apperance white. (fazendomedia.com)
- 99%+ Purity Buy Peptide Melanotan II Mt2 Mtii 2mg Vial with Secure Ship Human Growth Polypeptides Powder Melanotan II / Melanotan 2 / Mt2 CAS121062-08-6 Superior Purity Peptide Melanotan -2 Mt-II Mt-2 5mg 10mg Frozen Dry. (hfcletter.com)
- Peptides Purity ≥99% by. (phrmg.org)
- C-terminally truncated fragments of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (h-α-CGRP) were tested for their ability to stimulate amylase secretion from pancreatic acinar cells and relax precontracted mesenteric arteries. (elsevier.com)
- Receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) forms a complex with calcitonin receptor-like receptor to generate the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide. (bireme.br)
- Usefulness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels to predict exercise capacity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (biomedsearch.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) as a marker of exercise performance in HC. (biomedsearch.com)
- Comparison of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels in single ventricle patients with systemic ve. (biomedsearch.com)
- A method of diagnosing cardiac transplant rejection within a patient comprising, obtaining a sample of a biological fluid from the patient, and determining the level of a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or a fragment thereof, within the sample of body fluid. (google.com.au)
- 1. A method of diagnosing cardiac transplant rejection episode within a patient comprising, obtaining a sample of a biological fluid from said patient, and determining the level of a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or a fragment thereof, within said sample of body fluid, wherein an increase in said level of BNP or fragment thereof is an indication of a rejection episode. (google.com.au)
- and determining the level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) fragment BNP 77-108 within said sample of body fluid, wherein a level of said BNP 77-108 of about or greater than 300 pg/ml within said biological fluid is an indication of a rejection episode. (google.com.au)
- Selective activation of the B natriuretic peptide receptor by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). (uniprot.org)
- Along with cTn, the natriuretic peptides B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) have an important role in determining prognosis and guiding management. (nih.gov)
- The physiopathological processing of APP involves various proteolytic activities leading to a complex set of A β fragments. (hindawi.com)
- Full-length A β 1-40 and A β 1-42 peptides are generated by sequential proteolytic processing involving β and γ -secretases on APP [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Kringle 5 is a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, consisting of 80 amino acids ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Endostatin, a 20-kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, induces endothelial cell apoptosis, and can both inhibit and reverse tumor growth in mice ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Since the PTH molecule undergoes extensive proteolytic modifications, human serum contains both the intact molecule and several fragments. (cdc.gov)
- Proteolysis of PTPμ generates a series of proteolytic fragments, including a soluble catalytic intracellular domain fragment that translocates to the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
- Short peptide fragments of human and murine interleukin 1 (IL 1) were synthesized on the basis of their predicted exposure on the surface of the molecule in an attempt to identify the minimal structure responsible for the immunostimulatory activity of IL 1. (semanticscholar.org)
- The development of type I diabetes in mice is associated with one form of MHCII, the molecule that holds and presents peptides to the immune system. (nationaljewish.org)
- The MHCII molecule, which has a binding pocket only 9 amino acids long, can bind to and present that insulin fragment in at least four different ways, known as registers. (nationaljewish.org)
- Contrary to conventional wisdom, the research team found that the peptide presented in the register that binds most weakly to the MHCII molecule stimulated four different T cells associated with diabetes. (nationaljewish.org)
- All three have been peptides that are weakly bound to the MHCII molecule. (nationaljewish.org)
- Development of the type I diabetes in humans is also associated with a particular form of the MHCII molecule, which has a binding pattern similar to the one in mice. (nationaljewish.org)
- The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. (mdpi.com)
- The peptide sequence of the transforming site on AFP has been identified and found to be composed of a 34-AA portion of the HAFP molecule, which serves as a growth inhibitory segment ( Figure 1 ) [ 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Bodybuilding Human Growth Hormone Peptide Anti - Aging Hgh Frag 176 - 191 For Musle Gaining 1. (lightneasy.org)
- Anabolic HGH 2mg/vial Natural Human Growth Peptide Hormones For Bodybuilding Email: [email protected] Skype: tonyself2000 Why is it so hard to find a reputable growth hormone source? (bushorchimp.com)
- Bodybuilding Freeze-Dried Powder FST Peptide Hormones FST344 / Follistatin 344 Quick details: Name: Follistatin 344 Synonyms: FST, FS, Activin-binding protein. (phrmg.org)
- 191aa for bodybuilding research peptides vendor in china Skype:390f03a59cc5620 Whatsapp:+ 17045275602 Email:[email protected] Competive advantages 1.Rich experience We specialize in this filed for many years,our steriods and hormones. (chinacsw.com)
- Among the potential candidates, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have garnered much attention as an antimicrobial. (diva-portal.org)
- Here we report that epithelial cytokeratins have innate defense properties because they constitutively produce cytoprotective antimicrobial peptides. (jci.org)
- Structural analysis revealed that these keratin-derived antimicrobial peptides (KDAMPs) exhibited coil structures with low α-helical content. (jci.org)
- Specification: Product Name: HGH Fragment 176 - 191 Unit size: 5 mg/vial CAS NO.: 66004-57-7 Synonyms: HGH FRAG 176 - 191 , frag 176 Sequence: H-Tyr-Leu-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Cys-Arg-Ser-Val-Glu-Gly-Ser. (components-electronic.com)
- HGH Polypeptide Steroids Hormone Peptide Fragment 176 - 191 2mg for Muscle Building Basic Info Name: HGH Synonyms :HGH FRAG 176 - 191 , fragment 176 CAS:221231-10-3 Molecular :Formula C78H125N23O23S2 Molecular Weight :1817.1 Sequence :H-Tyr-Leu-Arg-Ile. (components-electronic.com)
- Here, we report a triple fusion protein, namely CTT peptide-endostatin mimic-kringle 5 (AARP), consisting of MMP-2/9-selective inhibitory peptide (CTT peptide) and well-known endogenous antiangiogenic agents (endostatin mimic and kringle 5), which can simultaneously target matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and endothelial cells, blocking their actions. (aacrjournals.org)
- Peptide nucleic acid and 2′ -O- MeRNA oligomers inhibit telomerase, leading to progressive telomere shortening and causing immortal human breast epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis with increasing frequency until no cells remain. (pnas.org)
- A nucleic acid probe, based on the amino acid sequence of the rat peptide was used to screen a human liver cDNA fetal library. (google.ca)
- We recently reported that a cationic peptide, T22 ([Tyr(5,12), Lys(7)]-polyphemusin II), specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami et al. (mendeley.com)
- Inhibited by human cytomegalovirus US6 glycoprotein, which binds to the lumenal side of the TAP complex and inhibits peptide translocation by specifically blocking ATP-binding to TAP1 and prevents the conformational rearrangement of TAP induced by peptide binding. (uniprot.org)
- Hgh Fragment ( 176 - 191 ) Growth Hormone peptide fragment 176 - 191 , also known as HGH Frag 176 - 191 , is a modified form of amino acids 176 - 191 of the GH polypeptide. (lightneasy.org)
- hgH fragment 176-191 is an analog of the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) which signals the effects of growth hormone. (powder-steroid.com)
- All studies have pointed to the fact that the fragment is an effective treatment for obesity and fat loss, and much safer than its Human Growth Hormone counterpart. (powder-steroid.com)
- The HGH in HGH Fragment 176 - 191 stands for Human Growth. (chinabagsnet.com)
- The correlation between telomerase activity and human tumors has led to the hypothesis that tumor growth requires reactivation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors represent a class of chemotherapeutic agents. (pnas.org)
- Product Name:Growth Hormone peptide fragment Appearance. (components-electronic.com)
- HGH Fragment ( HGH Frag 176-191) is a peptide hormone of the Growth Hormone (GH) class. (fazendomedia.com)
- The HGH Fragment is a modified form of amino acids 176-191 at the C-terminal region of the human growth hormone ( HGH . (fazendomedia.com)
- Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). (mdpi.com)
- Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. (mdpi.com)
- HGH Fragment 176-191Description: Frag 176-191 is the end of the 191-amino acid H Growth Hormone molecular chain. (phrmg.org)
- In 1977, David Schlesinger of the Harvard University Chemistry Department confirmed that the growth modulating peptide isolated by Pickart was a glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine peptide. (wikipedia.org)
- The antitumor activity of AARP was shown in a concentration-dependent manner when injected i.p. into immunodeficient mice bearing multidrug-resistant human epidermoid carcinomas (KB), and AARP is superior to clinical grade endostatin in inhibiting KB xenograft growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- Angiostatin (kringles 1-4), an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor of 38 kDa internal fragment of plasminogen (contains kringles 1-5), which was originally identified from mice bearing a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) because of its ability to inhibit the growth of established metastases ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae releases peptidoglycan fragments during growth, and these molecules induce an inflammatory response in the human host. (asm.org)
- We conclude that PBP3 and PBP4 overlap in function for cross-link cleavage and that these endopeptidases act in the normal release of peptidoglycan fragments during growth. (asm.org)
- Bioactive peptides based on diversity libraries, supramolecular chemistry and rational design: A new class of peptide drugs. (semanticscholar.org)
- Several proteases that are capable of releasing bioactive fragments from their substrates have been identified in various CNS tissues [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This fusion peptide framework may thus provide a straightforward design for immobilizing bioactive sequences on hydroxyapatite for biomaterials, tissue engineering, and vaccine applications. (labome.org)
- Among the identified peptides were mucins, fibrinogen and collagen fragments. (nature.com)
- No degradation of human fibrinogen, bovine serum albumin, of calf skin collagen by the purified protease was noted under the same experimental conditions. (bloodjournal.org)
- They also found out that the GHK sequence is present in collagen and suggested that the GHK peptide is released after tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunization of apoE −/− mice with the corresponding human apoB peptides was found to result in reduced plaque formation and a stable plaque phenotype, as indicated by increased collagen content. (ahajournals.org)
- The step of determining the concentration of BNP involves an assay comprising at least one antibody exhibiting affinity for the BNP or a fragment thereof, and the biological fluid comprises plasma, urine or cerebrospinal fluid. (google.com.au)
- 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of determining the level of BNP involves an assay utilizing at least one antibody exhibiting affinity for said BNP or a fragment thereof. (google.com.au)
- 16. The method of claim 2 wherein said assay utilizing at least one antibody exhibiting affinity for said BNP or a fragment thereof is selected from the group consisting of RIA, ELISA, fluoroimmunoassay, immunofluorometric assay, and immunoradiometric assay. (google.com.au)
- A peptide microarray assay was established to prove the diagnostic performance of the selected peptides with human serum samples. (asm.org)
- Human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) is tumor-associated fetal protein, termed an oncofetal protein, consisting of 609 amino acids (AAs) including a 19 amino acid (AA) signal sequence [ 1 - 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The size, amino acid composition, and amino terminal sequence of the reduced fragments confirmed that the peptide bond 842Tyr-843Met had been cleaved, ie, the same bond that has been proposed to be cleaved in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
- Fragments derived from structure-based sequence signatures offer an attractive way to annotate protein function because of their applicability to both sequences and structures with unknown function. (biomedcentral.com)
- The clusters show that protein fragments extremely divergent in sequence can adopt similar conformations. (biomedcentral.com)
- 9. The antigenic conjugate as claimed in claim 5, wherein the amino acid sequence of the coupled-fragment is SEQ ID NO. 5, SEQ ID NO. 6, SEQ ID NO. 7 or a combination thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Conversely, transfection of cells with the gene encoding the human telomerase reverse transcriptase component (hTERT) and subsequent expression of active telomerase have been shown to extend the life spans of normal human fibroblasts and epithelial cells ( 25 - 27 ). (pnas.org)
- The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (medlineplus.gov)
- Recent studies revealed its ability to modulate expression of a large number of human genes, generally reversing gene expression to a healthier state. (wikipedia.org)
- Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin) is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CP gene. (wikipedia.org)
- By labeling each fragment in the cluster with the level-specific Gene Ontology 'molecular function' term of its protein, we are able to compute statistics for molecular function-propensity and p -value of individual fragments in the cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conjugal transfer in Lactococcus lactis of a 68-kilobase-pair chromosomal fragment containing the structural gene for the peptide bacteriocin nisin. (asm.org)
- The location of the transferred nisin structural gene spaN in the transconjugant HID500 was not stable, and cultures of strain HID500 were a mixture of different genotypes in which spaN was located at different positions in the chromosome on different SmaI fragments. (asm.org)
- These findings confirm the essential role of bHLH factors in B-cell development and demonstrate the feasibility of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer as a tool to genetically modify human B-cell development. (bloodjournal.org)
- the hgH fragment released fat specifically from obese fat cells but not from lean ones, reduced new fat accumulation in all fat cells, enhanced the burning of fat. (powder-steroid.com)
- Specifically, HGH Frag 176-191 is as its name implies a fragment of. (fazendomedia.com)
- Specifically, we focused our attention on the heterogeneity of the CSF A β world discussing (1) basic research studies and what has been translated to clinical practice, (2) monomers and other soluble circulating A β assemblies, and (3) communication modes for A β peptides and their microenvironment targets. (hindawi.com)
- This wedge peptide inhibitor specifically blocks PTPμ function in migration assays ( 19 , 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Frederic Checler, Claire Sunyach, Raphaelle Pardossi-Piquard, Jean Sevalle, Bruno Vincent, Toshitaka Kawarai, Nadege Girardot, Peter St George-Hyslop and Cristine Alves da Costa, " The γ /η-Secretase-Derived APP Intracellular Domain Fragments Regulate p53", Current Alzheimer Research (2007) 4: 423. (eurekaselect.com)
- PTPμ is expressed as a 200-kDa protein that is proteolytically cleaved in the fourth FNIII repeat, resulting in a 100-kDa extracellular fragment (E-subunit) that remains associated with the 100-kDa transmembrane and intracellular portion (P-subunit) through a noncovalent interaction ( 11 , 21 , 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- A noninflammatory interleukin-1beta fragment stimulates fetal lung fluid absorption in guinea pigs. (semanticscholar.org)
- Human CD34 + CD38 − fetal liver cells, cultured overnight in a combination of stem cell factor and interleukin-7 (IL-7), could be transduced with 30% efficiency. (bloodjournal.org)
- Native lymphocyte APP (LAPP) prepared from normal or AD-derived lymphoblastoid cells was degraded by the protease, generating a 16 kDa Abeta-bearing C-terminal fragment of APP. (arctichealth.org)
- N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the fragment indicated that the protease cleaves LAPP at the Abeta-N-terminus. (arctichealth.org)
- Native hippocampal APP prepared from normal brain, however, did not generate the 16 kDa peptide by the protease treatment. (arctichealth.org)
- We purified (approximately 10,000-fold) from human plasma a vWF-degrading protease, using chelating Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration. (bloodjournal.org)
- However, the direct use of this 37-amino acid long α-helical peptide is hampered by protease susceptibility, in particular for antimicrobial applications. (diva-portal.org)
- Inhibited by human adenovirus E3-19K glycoprotein, which binds the TAP complex and acts as a tapasin inhibitor, preventing MHC class I/TAP association. (uniprot.org)
- Tissue factor (TF), its inhibitor (TFPI), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F(1+2)), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its soluble receptor (suPAR), plasmin/antiplasmin (PAP) complexes, KYN, kynurenic (KYNA) and quinolinic (QA) acids levels were significantly higher, whereas TRP was significantly lower in the PD patients than in the controls. (biomedsearch.com)
- The juxtamembrane portion contains a helix-loop-helix wedge-shaped motif ( 14 ) that was targeted in the design of a peptide inhibitor of PTPμ function. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our findings contradict conventional wisdom, which suggests that insulin peptides that are well presented to the immune system trigger diabetes,' said John Kappler , PhD, Professor of Immunology at National Jewish Health. (nationaljewish.org)
- We believe, however, that the peptide we identified triggers diabetes precisely because it is so poorly presented to the immune system. (nationaljewish.org)
- If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it triggers a response to attack the invading viruses or bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- This complex displays foreign peptides to the immune system to trigger the body's immune response. (medlineplus.gov)
- If the cells recognize the peptides as foreign, the body mounts an immune response. (nih.gov)
- LL-37 is such a multitask human defense peptide that mediates various host immune responses and also exerts antimicrobial activity. (diva-portal.org)
- Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
- 3. A conjugate of claim 1, wherein the targeting protein is an antibody or antibody fragment. (google.com)
- 6. The antigenic conjugate as claimed in claim 5, said conjugate comprising synthetic peptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 7. The antigenic conjugate as claimed in claim 5, wherein the receptor is human CD152. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Experiments investigating proteolysis revealed that all monomeric peptides are degraded similarly by IDE and plasmin, but that the Flemish peptide was degraded significantly more slowly by NEP than wild type Abeta or any of the other mutant peptides. (arctichealth.org)
- Mutations in either dacB , encoding PBP3, or pbpG , encoding PBP4, did not significantly reduce the release of peptidoglycan monomers or free peptides. (asm.org)
- In accord with the loss of tripeptide peptidoglycan fragments, the level of human NOD1 activation by the dacB pbpG mutants was significantly lower than that by the wild type. (asm.org)
- Recombinant MMP-7 and human serum (HS) were also tested as control. (mdpi.com)
- In contrast to incubation with normal human serum, NTHi 3655 showed a reduced survival in vitronectin-depleted human serum, thus demonstrating that vitronectin mediates a protective role at the bacterial surface. (jimmunol.org)
- Seropositive human serum samples ( n = 184) were collected from patients presenting with acute toxoplasmosis ( n = 21), latent T. gondii infection ( n = 53), and inactive ocular toxoplasmosis ( n = 10) and from seropositive forest workers ( n = 100). (asm.org)