Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.DeoxycytidineXenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Tripterygium: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that is a source of triterpenoids and diterpene epoxides such as triptolide.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Mucin-4: A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.QuinazolinesFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.B7 Antigens: A family of cell-surface proteins found on ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. B7 antigens are ligands for specific cell surface receptor subtypes found on T-CELLS. They play an immunomodulatory role by stimulating or inhibiting the T-CELL activation process.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Plicamycin: A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.United StatesCyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.X-Ray Therapy: Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
... pancreatic and skin cancers. Colorectal cancer stem cell self-renewal was reduced by BMI1 inhibition. The colon cancer stem ... "Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human proto-oncogene BMI-1". Hum. Mol. Genet. 2 (10): 1597-603. doi: ... "The Bmi-1 oncogene induces telomerase activity and immortalizes human mammary epithelial cells". Cancer Res. 62 (16): 4736-45. ... "Hedgehog signaling and Bmi-1 regulate self-renewal of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells". Cancer Res. 66 (12): 6063 ...
Although NmU exerts no effect on cancer cell proliferation, it induces c-Met, a proto-oncogene that encodes the mesenchymal- ... though NmU and its receptor NMUR2 have been shown to be over-expressed in human pancreatic cancers compared to normal cells. ... "Neuromedin U is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and increases invasiveness via the hepatocyte growth factor c-Met pathway". ... For example, in humans it is a 25 amino acid peptide (U-25) in rats it is 23-aas long (U-23) and it has been found to be as low ...
... and cancer spread to other organs (metastasis). MET is deregulated in many types of human malignancies, including cancers of ... end of the MCF2 oncogene to human chromosome 15q15----q23". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 60 (2): 114-6. doi:10.1159/000133316. PMID ... "Hypoxia promotes invasive growth by transcriptional activation of the met protooncogene". Cancer Cell. 3 (4): 347-61. doi: ... inhibits orthotopic pancreatic tumor growth and improves survival". Cancer Res. 68 (11): 4360-8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07- ...
... pancreatic, gastric, and uterine cancers. In the experimental transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells, the MYC ... The Myc Protein NCBI Human Myc protein Myc cancer gene myc Proto-Oncogene Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine ... "Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression by BRCA1 in human ovarian cancer cells". Biochemical and ... Myc is a very strong proto-oncogene and it is very often found to be upregulated in many types of cancers. Myc overexpression ...
"Fibroblast growth factor 5 proto-oncogene is expressed in normal human fibroblasts and induced by serum growth factors". ... A model of pancreatic cancer development". Pancreatology. 1 (4): 363-8. doi:10.1159/000055835. PMID 12120215. Vieira AR (2006 ... When TGF-α binds to EGFR it can initiate multiple cell proliferation events. Cell proliferation events that involve TGF-α bound ... This gene has been associated with many types of cancers, and it may also be involved in some cases of cleft lip/palate. TGF-α ...
... behaves as an oncogene in cell systems and is an established protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of ... Skp2 overexpression has been seen in: lymphomas, prostate cancer, melanoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and ... Cancer. 8 (6): 438-49. doi:10.1038/nrc2396. PMC 2711846 . PMID 18500245. Yu, Z.-K.; Gervais, J. L. M.; Zhang, H. (1998). "Human ... Skp2 is a potential target for pten-deficient cancers. SKP2 has been shown to interact with: CCNA2, CDK2, CDKN1A CDKN1B CKS1B, ...
EGF-dependent transformation by a human EGF receptor proto-oncogene. Science 238: 1408-1410, 1987 Hwang, J., FitzGerald, D.J.P ... rearranged and over-expressed in many cancer cells including squamous cell carcinomas, and with Doug Lowy showed that over- ... because it is expressed on many cancers: mesothelioma, ovarian, lung, pancreatic stomach cancers and cholangiocarcinoma, yet ... of the EGF receptor in the presence of EGF is sufficient to transform normal 3T3 cells and therefore is a proto-oncogene. ...
... prostate cancer, glioblastoma multiform, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, pancreatic cancer, chronic melogenic ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (p59-FYN, Slk, Syn, MGC45350, Gene ID 2534) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... "Regulation of Src Family Kinases in Human Cancers". Journal of Signal Transduction. 2011: 1-14. doi:10.1155/2011/865819. ISSN ... By definition as a proto-oncogene, Fyn codes for proteins that help regulate cell growth. Changes in its DNA sequence transform ...
Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1
... breast and pancreatic cancers as well as in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In human T-cells, ... The proto-oncogene MYC is also found to induce HSP90AA1 gene expression and binds proximally to the TSS as verified by ChIP-SEQ ... RNA levels measured in cell lines collected from cancer patients as well as normal tissue can be found at The Human Protein ... Currently bladder cancer is found to have the largest number of alterations followed by pancreatic cancer. This may not come as ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor
"Ectopic expression of VAV1 reveals an unexpected role in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis". Cancer Cell. 7 (1): 39-49. doi: ... Raf is a proto-oncogene because mutations in this protein have been found in many cancers. The Rho GTPase Vav1, which can be ... "Crystal structure of the Dbl and pleckstrin homology domains from the human Son of sevenless protein". Cell. 95 (2): 259-68. ... GEFs are potential target for cancer therapy due to their role in many signaling pathways, particularly cell proliferation. For ...
Tsuchida N, Murugan AK, Grieco M (2016). "Kirsten Ras oncogene : significance of its discovery in human cancer research". ... Somatic KRAS mutations are found at high rates in leukemias, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. The impact ... KRAS ( K-ras or Ki-ras) is proto-oncogene corresponding to the oncogene first identified in Kirsten rat sarcoma virus and the ... If the test result indicates that the KRAS mutations are absent in the colorectal cancer cells, then the patient may be ...
... in colorectal cancer, retinoblastoma (Rb). and von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), as well as a number of proto-oncogenes ... "26S proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis and limits growth of human pancreatic cancer". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 82 ... and early clinical studies have been started to examine bortezomib's effectiveness in treating other B-cell-related cancers, ... "Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells". Cell Reports. 14 (12): 2962-74. doi: ...
... inducing favorable outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancers. A common, widespread cancer, non-small cell lung ... This growth factor receptor is called c-kit and is produced by a proto-oncogene (c-kit). Mutation of c-kit causes the ... and can be used to treat lung and pancreatic cancer where there is often over-expression of this cell-surface receptor tyrosine ... non-regulated growth stimulus to the cancer cells. In humans, there are 32 cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (EC 22.214.171.124). ...
But simultaneous over-expression of Bcl-2 and the proto-oncogene myc may produce aggressive B-cell malignancies including ... 2008). "Therapeutic efficacy of ABT-737, a selective inhibitor of BCL-2, in small cell lung cancer". Cancer Research. 68 (7): ... Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins ... Additionally, in pancreatic beta-cells, BCL-2 and BCL-Xl are known to be involved in controlling metabolic activity and insulin ...
... hypoxia-induced chemoresistance through posttranscriptional regulation of the proto-oncogene PIM1 in pancreatic cancer cells". ... "Mitoxantrone Targets Human Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 11 (USP11) and Is a Potent Inhibitor of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival ... Her research is focused on the preclinical development of treatments for cancers, including prostate, ovarian, cervical and ... Implications for the DNA damage response in pancreatic cancer cells". Cancer Res. 74: 1128-40. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13- ...
Melanoma/Colorectal Cancer), CA-125 (Ovarian Cancer), CA19.9 (Pancreatic Cancer), CEA (Colorectal Cancer), EGFR (Non-small-cell ... a marker indicating a breast cancer will likely respond to trastuzumab treatment; a mutation in exon 11 of the proto-oncogene c ... Mishra, Alok; Verma, Mukesh (2010). "Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time?". Cancers. 2 (1): 190-208. doi:10.3390 ... Bartels CL, Tsongalis GJ (April 2009). "MicroRNAs: novel biomarkers for human cancer". Clinical Chemistry. 55 (4): 623-31. doi: ...
Another validated target of miR-203 is c-jun (AP-1), a potent proto-oncogene commonly deregulated in a wide range of cancers, ... miR-203 mediated downregulation of DKK1 appears to make lung cancer cells easier to kill, suggesting that cancer cells ... 210 and 222 in pancreatic tumors is associated with poorer survival". Int J Cancer. 126 (1): 73-80. doi:10.1002/ijc.24687. PMID ... In humans, this region is conserved and located intergenically in 14q32. Sonkoly et al. found that miR-203 displays a highly ...
"Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary human gastric ... Laine J, Künstle G, Obata T, Sha M, Noguchi M (Aug 2000). "The protooncogene TCL1 is an Akt kinase coactivator". Mol. Cell. 6 ( ... Dickson LM, Rhodes CJ (2004). "Pancreatic beta-cell growth and survival in the onset of type 2 diabetes: a role for protein ... "Heregulin induces phosphorylation of BRCA1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT in breast cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Lewis C. Cantley
"Cantley team uncovers vulnerability that can be exploited to kill lung cancer cells , Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center". ... Franke TF, Kaplan DR, Cantley LC, Toker A (January 1997). "Direct regulation of the Akt proto-oncogene product by ... April 2004). "High frequency of mutations of the PIK3CA gene in human cancers". Science. 304 (5670): 554. doi:10.1126/science. ... with potential implications for pancreatic and other cancers as well. Lewis C. Cantley has been involved in numerous companies ...
... gene is now known as a human proto-oncogene. Abnormal upregulation of FOXM1 is involved in the oncogenesis of basal cell ... the most common human cancer worldwide. FOXM1 upregulation was subsequently found in the majority of solid human cancers ... of Forkhead Box M1 transcription factor leads to the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer cells". ... "FoxM1B is overexpressed in human glioblastomas and critically regulates the tumorigenicity of glioma cells". Cancer Res. 66 (7 ...
December 2014). "Targeting transcriptional addictions in small cell lung cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor". Cancer Cell. ... March 2010). "A map of open chromatin in human pancreatic islets". Nature Genetics. 42 (3): 255-9. doi:10.1038/ng.530. PMC ... "Activation of proto-oncogenes by disruption of chromosome neighborhoods". Science. 351 (6280): 1454-8. doi:10.1126/science. ... "Identification of focally amplified lineage-specific super-enhancers in human epithelial cancers". Nature Genetics. 48 (2): 176 ...
... ovarian cancers, gastric cancers, head and neck cancers, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancers, and blood cancers. ... Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate the cell growth and differentiation. Proto-oncogenes are often involved ... dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes.[ ... Breast cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, non-small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. transduce signals for ...
The 3 Ras genes in humans (HRas, KRas, and NRas) are the most common oncogenes in human cancer; mutations that permanently ... cell adhesion, apoptosis, and cell migration. Ras and Ras-related proteins are often deregulated in cancers, leading to ... Ras point mutations are the single most common abnormality of human proto-oncogenes. Ras inhibitor trans-farnesylthiosalicylic ... activate Ras are found in 20% to 25% of all human tumors and up to 90% in certain types of cancer (e.g., pancreatic cancer). ...
Leukotriene B4 receptor 2
Compared to CAOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV-3 and CAOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells over express BLT4 receptors, LTB4 ... develop point mutations to become oncogenes that drive the growth and spread of some 20% of all human cancers. The highest ... pancreatic cancer and stimulates tumour cell proliferation". British Journal of Cancer. 99 (7): 1064-73. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc. ... proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, and (by inducing the proteolytic cleavage and release of a ligand for the Epidermal ...
... is a good biomarker for cancer detection because most human cancers cells express high levels of it. Telomerase ... activation of the Ras or myc proto-oncogenes, and aberration of the PP2A protein phosphatase. That is to say, ... due to loss of pancreatic insulin-producing cells. Mutations in TERT have been implicated in predisposing patients to aplastic ... A good example of immortal cancer cells is HeLa cells, which have been used in laboratories as a model cell line since 1951. ...
... activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells". ... than genetic mutations in a cell's transformation to cancer. In cancers, loss of expression of genes occurs about 10 times more ... Human neoplasias, including thyroid, prostatic, cervical, colorectal, pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma, show a strong increase ... In fact, cancer cell genomes have 20-50% less methylation at individual CpG dinucleotides across the genome. In cancer cells " ...
... it could induce cancers in cell line cultures. Proto-oncogenes promote cell growth in a variety of ways. Many can produce ... Bos JL (September 1989). "ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review". Cancer Research. 49 (17): 4682-9. PMID 2547513. Chang EH, ... can develop melanomas and pancreatic cancer, known as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Other inherited tumor suppressor gene syndromes ... termed Cancer Stem Cell. Cancer stem cells may arise from transformation of adult stem cells or differentiated cells within a ...
... non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer ... "Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells". Nature. 313 (5999): 241-3. ... "Down-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27Kip1 abrogates antiestrogen-mediated cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells". ... and Cdk inhibitors in human cancer". Advances in Cancer Research. Advances in Cancer Research. 68: 67-108. doi:10.1016/s0065- ...
NCBI Human Myc protein. *Myc cancer gene. *myc Proto-Oncogene Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... and uterine cancers.. In the experimental transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells, the MYC gene can ... the amplification of Myc occurs in several cancer types, including breast, colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, ... "Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression by BRCA1 in human ovarian cancer cells". Biochemical and ...
Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor
"Human c-fms proto-oncogene: comparative analysis with an abnormal allele". Mol. Cell. Biol. 5 (2): 422-6. PMC 366728 . PMID ... or With Nivolumab in Advanced Cancer or Cancer That Has Spread Novel Combination Shows Promising Responses in Pancreatic Cancer ... Because CSF1R is overexpressed in many cancers and on tumor-associated macrophages, CSF1R inhibitors have been studied for many ... "Nucleotide sequence and structural organization of the human FMS proto-oncogene". Oncogene Res. 4 (1): 9-17. PMID 2524025. ...
... activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells". ... Pancreatic cancer. Over-expression. 66%. Immunohistochemistry. . Head and neck squamous cancers. Over-expression. 75%. ... "Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... "Identification of differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer cells using cDNA microarray". Cancer Res. 62 (10): 2890-6 ...
... in colorectal cancer, retinoblastoma (Rb). and von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), as well as a number of proto-oncogenes ... "26S proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis and limits growth of human pancreatic cancer". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 82 ... and early clinical studies have been started to examine bortezomib's effectiveness in treating other B-cell-related cancers,[ ... "Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells". Cell Reports. 14 (12): 2962-74. doi: ...
Health effects of tobacco
... and several cancers (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, bladder cancer, and pancreatic cancer). It also ... proto-oncogene activation and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in ... Maneckjee R, Minna JD (October 1994). "Opioids induce while nicotine suppresses apoptosis in human lung cancer cells". Cell ... and cancer, particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancer. Overall life expectancy is ...
Cell cycle controlEdit. Many transcription factors, especially some that are proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressors, help ... The STAT family is relevant to breast cancer.. multiple Multiple cancers The HOX family are involved in a variety of ... Three groups of transcription factors are known to be important in human cancer: (1) the NF-kappaB and AP-1 families, (2) the ... "Pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 21 ...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Mulligan LM, Kwok JB, Healey CS, Elsdon ... Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... MEN I (3 Ps) - Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreatic. MEN IIa (2Ps, 1M) - Pheochromocytoma, Parathyroid, Medullary Thyroid Ca. MEN ... A main transcript of 2.8 kb has been described in a large variety of human tissues (pancreas, thymus, adrenal glands, thyroid, ...
... regulate the migratory phenotype associated with breast cancer initiation. PELP1 is a proto-oncogene that provides cancer cells ... "Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma protect human mammary epithelial cells from Tam-induced cell death". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0121206 ... ligase-like family member 4 polyglutamylase in PELP1 polyglutamylation and chromatin remodeling in pancreatic cancer cells". ... "The social network of PELP1 and its implications in breast and prostate cancers". Endocrine-Related Cancer. 21 (4): T79-86. doi ...
However, in other in vivo models, and in many human cancer cell lines, NEDD4 does appear responsible for the degradation of ... Decreased levels of NEDD4 have also been associated with some cancers, including neuroblastoma and pancreatic cancer where the ... "NEDD4-1 is a proto-oncogenic ubiquitin ligase for PTEN". Cell. 128 (1): 129-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.039. PMC 1828909 . ... Oncogene. 34: 1105-15. doi:10.1038/onc.2014.56. PMID 24662824. Lin Q, Wang J, Childress C, Sudol M, Carey DJ, Yang W (2010). " ...
Suppression of p53 in human breast cancer cells is shown to lead to increased CXCR5 chemokine receptor gene expression and ... "The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation". Cell. 57 (7): 1083-1093. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90045-7. ... A 2011 study found that the TP53 proline mutation did have a profound effect on pancreatic cancer risk among males. A study of ... Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Harris CC (July 1991). "p53 mutations in human cancers". Science. 253 (5015): 49-53. ...
Protein kinase B
The activation of Akt is also one of the most frequent alterations observed in human cancer and tumor cells. Tumor cells that ... Cell. 24 (8): 1208-21. doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-06-0450. PMC 3623641 . PMID 23427269. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt at the US ... pancreatic (Akt2) and breast (Akt2) cancer. The role of Akt3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in ... Because of the Akt functions above, Akt inhibitors may treat cancers such as neuroblastoma. Some Akt inhibitors have undergone ...
Incidence, mechanism and prognostic value of activated AKT in pancreas cancer
The mechanism(s) of AKT activation are unknown, though overexpression of HER-2/neu has been implicated in breast cancer. ... the serine/threonine kinase AKT mediates an antiapoptotic signal implicated in chemoresistance of various cancers. ... Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology * Prognosis * Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism* * Proto-Oncogene Proteins / ... HER-2/neu expression and AKT activation were examined in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines by Western blotting. The in vitro ...
Protein Kinase Cι Is Required for Pancreatic Cancer Cell Transformed Growth and Tumorigenesis | Cancer Research
Atypical protein kinase Cι is an oncogene in human non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2005;65:8905-11. ... Gene expression in primary pancreatic cancers and in pancreatic cancer cell lines was normalized to 18S and GAPDH, respectively ... underscoring the critical need for new molecular targets for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. The KRAS proto-oncogene is mutated ... PKCι is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer. To investigate the role of PKCι in pancreatic cancer, we first evaluated ...
BMI1 - Wikipedia
... pancreatic and skin cancers. Colorectal cancer stem cell self-renewal was reduced by BMI1 inhibition. The colon cancer stem ... "Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human proto-oncogene BMI-1". Hum. Mol. Genet. 2 (10): 1597-603. doi: ... "The Bmi-1 oncogene induces telomerase activity and immortalizes human mammary epithelial cells". Cancer Res. 62 (16): 4736-45. ... "Hedgehog signaling and Bmi-1 regulate self-renewal of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells". Cancer Res. 66 (12): 6063 ...
Upregulation of ECT2 is associated with transcriptional program of cancer stem cells and predicts poor clinical outcome in...
Epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) is a proto-oncogene gene encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho ... Increased ECT2 expression has been detected in several types of human tumor, including glioma and liver, pancreatic and lung ... GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 68:394-424. 2018. ... Shackleton M, Quintana E, Fearon ER and Morrison SJ: Heterogeneity in cancer: Cancer stem cells versus clonal evolution. Cell. ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer
It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies ... Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. ... tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment ... The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all ...
Molecular marker may help identify pancreatic cancer, and possibly predict survival time | EurekAlert! Science News
... and pancreatic cancer and may be able to distinguish long and short term survival time for patients with pancreatic cancer, ... In humans, aberrant expression of miRNAs contributes to carcinogenesis by promoting the expression of proto-oncogenes (a normal ... RNA was harvested from resected pancreatic cancers and benign adjacent pancreatic tissue as well as from chronic pancreatitis ... gene that has the potential to become an oncogene [a gene that can cause a cell to become malignant]) or by inhibiting the ...
Neuromedin U - Wikipedia
Although NmU exerts no effect on cancer cell proliferation, it induces c-Met, a proto-oncogene that encodes the mesenchymal- ... though NmU and its receptor NMUR2 have been shown to be over-expressed in human pancreatic cancers compared to normal cells. ... "Neuromedin U is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and increases invasiveness via the hepatocyte growth factor c-Met pathway". ... For example, in humans it is a 25 amino acid peptide (U-25) in rats it is 23-aas long (U-23) and it has been found to be as low ...
The Silencing of MicroRNA 148a Production by DNA Hypermethylation Is an Early Event in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis | Clinical...
... activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells. ... MicroRNA signatures in human cancers. Nat Rev Cancer 2006;6:857-866. ... Transcription of SST2 somatostatin receptor gene in human pancreatic cancer cells is altered by single nucleotide promoter ... Preinvasive and invasive ductal pancreatic cancer and its early detection in the mouse. Cancer Cell 2003;4:437-450. ...
Fbxw7 regulates lipid metabolism and cell fate decisions in the mouse liver
Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Nature. 2001;413(6853): ... Given its ability to promote degradation of cyclin E, c-Myc, c-Jun, and Notch, all of which are products of proto-oncogenes, ... Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(14):2369-2373. [PubMed]. 23. Kemp Z, et al. CDC4 mutations occur in a subset of colorectal cancers but ... BRAF and FBXW7 (CDC4, FBW7, AGO, SEL10) mutations in distinct subsets of pancreatic cancer: potential therapeutic targets. Am J ...
The Emerging Roles of Forkhead Box (FOX) Proteins in Osteosarcoma
Anti-oncogenes. FOXF1. FOXF1 is implicated in a variety of cancers with controversial roles. In human prostate cancer cells, ... FOXM1 is a proto-oncogene, and its upregulation has been observed in many human cancers, including lung , liver , ... inhibits tumor aggressiveness and predicts outcome in human pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2013;73(17):5416-25 ... Oncogene. 2012;31(14):1845-58 60. Halasi M, Gartel AL. Suppression of FOXM1 sensitizes human cancer cells to cell death induced ...
Immunotherapies: Exploiting the Immune System for Cancer Treatment
Three unique immunotherapies have gained traction in recent decades: adoptive T cell transfer, checkpoint inhibitors, and ... which these 3 immunotherapies function as well as any major immunotherapeutic drugs developed for treating a variety of cancers ... not until recent decades have biological therapeutics been developed and refined enough to safely and effectively combat cancer ... Cancer is a condition that has plagued humanity for thousands of years, with the first depictions dating back to ancient ...
Pim-3 Regulates Stemness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells via Activating STAT3 Signaling Pathway
... a proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer and phosphorylates ... Its role in maintaining stem cell-like phenotypes has also been reported in various human cancers, including PC [45-49]. ... Distinct populations of cancer stem cells determine tumor growth and metastatic activity in human pancreatic cancer. Cell stem ... According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, there exists a fraction of cancer cells, that is, cancer stem cells, responsible ...
Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable...
... little is known about their influence on human renal cancer. To clarify the role of LATs in human clear cell renal cell ... These findings suggest that LAT1 mRNA is related to the invasive and progressive potential of clear cell RCC. ... carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the expression of mRNAs for LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, LAT4, and 4F2hc in clear cell RCC tissues. The ... chain reaction in matched sets of tumor and non-tumor tissues obtained at operation from 82 Japanese patients with clear cell ...
Cancer associated fibroblasts: An essential role in the tumor microenvironment (Review)
... a polycomb homolog repressor of proto oncogenes (20).. Tumors induce fibroblast activation. When cancer cells metastasize to ... In human primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma, smoothened homolog was identified to be overexpressed in CAFs compared with the ... MiR-26b is down-regulated in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts from ER-positive breast cancers leading to enhanced cell ... CCL2 mediates cross-talk between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts that regulates breast cancer stem cells. Cancer Res. 72: ...
Network analysis based on TCGA reveals hub genes in colon cancer
... miR-615 was abnormally downregulated in pancreatic cancer cells, which suppressed pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, ... such as the proto-oncogene JUNB, and by interfering with the insulin signalling pathway . The functions of miR-1295 are ... The overexpression of ET-2 and ET-3 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells . ... and advanced TNM stages of colon cancers as well as poor overall survival rate in patients with colon cancer . As a ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Knock-Out of KrasG12D Mutated Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines
... genetic alteration of the proto-oncogene Kras has occurred, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of cancerous cells. Targeting ... Therefore, three cell lines with a heterozygous Kras mutation (the human cell lines SUIT-2 and Panc-1 and the cell line TB32047 ... Kras has proven to be difficult and the battle against pancreatic cancer is ongoing. A promising approach to combat cancer was ... Western blots showed a specific knock-out in the KrasG12D protein, but wildtype Kras was expressed by all of the cells. Signal ...
Pim kinase isoforms: devils defending cancer cells from therapeutic and immune attacks | SpringerLink
Pim kinases primarily deal with three broad categories of functions such as tumorigenesis, protecting cells from... ... Pim kinases are being implicated in oncogenic process in various human cancers. ... Proto-oncogene, Pim-3 with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in human colon cancer cells and can ... MicroRNA-33a-mediated downregulation of Pim-3 kinase expression renders human pancreatic cancer cells sensitivity to ...
Neutralizing monoclonal antibody against Dickkopf2 impairs lung cancer progression via activating NK cells | Cell Death...
We found significant upregulation of Dkk2 expression in APC-mutated lung cancers. Administration of DKK2 antibody inhibited ... This study aimed to investigate the potential of applying anti-DKK2 antibody to non-small cell lung cancer with APC mutations. ... However, it remains undetermined whether such approaches are also applicable to non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring ... mutations frequently co-occur in non-small cell lung cancer. Inactivating APC mutations in colorectal carcinoma has been well ...
H-Ras Antibody (PA5-88424)
This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody (4.51 mg/mL). ... Each mammalian cell contains three Ras proto-oncogene coding for closely related Ras proteins: H-, K-, N-Ras. Oncogenic ... of all human cancers. Constitutive activation of Ras due to mutations or overexpression stimulates proliferation and inhibition ... K-Ras mutations are common in pancreatic, colorectal and nonsmall-cell lung carcinomas; H-Ras mutations are common in bladder, ...
The Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
... demonstrated that a high level of HIF-1 in the HCC microenvironment leads to enhanced proliferation and survival of HCC cells. ... which are involved in multiple aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer progression, including proliferation, metabolism, ... "Hypoxia enhances the expression of autocrine motility factor and the motility of human pancreatic cancer cells," British ... "Hypoxia promotes invasive growth by transcriptional activation of the met protooncogene," Cancer Cell, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 347- ...
Fibroblast-secreted hepatocyte growth factor mediates epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in...
We have identified a number of breast cancer cell lines that are sensitive to EGFR TKIs. This sensitivity is in conflict with ... In several tissue monoculture models of human breast cancer, Met, although expressed, is not phosphorylated, suggesting a ... Breast cancers do not respond to EGFR TKIs, even though EGFR is overexpressed. This intrinsic resistance to EGFR TKIs in breast ... Here we demonstrate that treatment of breast cancer cells sensitive to EGFR TKIs with recombinant HGF confers a resistance to ...
Transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice identifies human breast cancer susceptibility genes and signatures for...
... including colorectal cancers (22), intestinal cancers (19, 23), hepatocellular cancers (24, 25), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (26 ... Gain-of-function mutations in proto-oncogenes could lead to the activation of oncogenic pathways. As such, mapping the SB ... Similarly, silencing FLNB in multiple human cancer cells increases the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 and tumor cell invasion ( ... 2013) Loss of Par3 promotes breast cancer metastasis by compromising cell-cell cohesion. Nat Cell Biol 15(2):189-200. ...
MTA1 promotes the invasion and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by downregulating miR-125b | Journal of...
Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown reduced while miR-125b inhibitor enhanced cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Notably, miR- ... The effects of MTA1 depletion on the expression of miR-125b and cell migration and invasion were examined by real-time PCR, ... MTA1 and miR-125b have antagonistic effects on the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. The newly identified MTA1-miR-125b ... Stable MTA1 knockdown NSCLC cell lines 95D and SPC-A-1 were established by transfection with MTA1 shRNA. ...
Retinoid Signaling in Cancer and Its Promise for Therapy | OMICS International
Deregulated signal transduction is a major facet of cancer development and progression. Herein, we review the current paradigm ... Retinoic acid induces down-regulation of several growth factors and proto-oncogenes in a human embryonal cancer cell line. ... and it is aberrantly expressed in numerous cancers [51-54]. Inhibition of MUC4 reduces pancreatic cell growth in vitro as well ... 2008) MUC4 mucin interacts with and stabilizes the HER2 oncoprotein in human pancreatic cancer cells. Cancer Res 68: 2065-2070. ...
Acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) (D5E4) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate), UniProt ID P68431 #15562 to Lipin 1 (D2W9G) Rabbit mAb, UniProt...
Decreased or loss of AP-2α expression has been observed in many different types of human cancers including breast cancer (3,4 ... Additional studies indicate that CIP2A inhibits PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of the proto-oncogene Myc at Ser64, which ... Background: CD44 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction through its ... pancreatic, breast, and myeloid cancers (reviewed in 3). This evidence suggests that CIP2A interacts with many proteins that ...
Src activity is modulated by oxaliplatin and correlates with outcomes after hepatectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer | BMC...
Samples from 170 hepatic resections from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from two cohorts were examined by IHC for ... We retrospectively evaluated the activation of Src and FAK in hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer and correlated these ... However, activation of Src and its substrate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with ... idea that combining Src inhibition with platinum chemotherapy warrants further investigation in metastatic colorectal cancer. ...
c-Met (Active) recombinant protein | GeneTex
MET is overexpressed and activated in a variety of human cancers including pancreatic, colon, gastric, cervical and ovarian ... Cancer Cell Biology Neuroscience Metabolism Epigenetics Immunology Signal Transduction Infectious Disease Disease Related Stem ... MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane growth factor receptor which is a heterodimer of two disulphide linked ... Not for any clinical, therapeutic, or diagnostic use in humans or animals. Not for animal or human consumption. ...
Science Talk | Cancer Biology Program | Stanford Medicine
Mutant Kras in acinar progenitor cells drives clonal expansion in early pancreatic cancer ... Pizza and a proto-oncogene: Evidence for novel binding activity of beta-catenin. ... Defining and validating a unique bio-molecular signature for leukemia stem cells in human acute myeloid leukemia ... telomere maintenance and cellular immortality in TERT promoter-mutant cancers ...
Tumor antigens for cancer immunotherapy: therapeutic potential of xenogeneic DNA vaccines | Journal of Translational Medicine |...
Typical examples include proto-oncogenes that are involved in normal cell division and differentiation. A single point mutation ... of cancers and the gene product has been shown to induce both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in colorectal and pancreatic ... immunogenicity of human melanoma cells when presented by dendritic cells. Cancer Res. 2000, 60: 6441-6447.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... CD4+ T-cell immunity to mutated ras protein in pancreatic and colon cancer patients. Cancer Res. 1995, 55: 2984-2987.PubMed ...
Safety and Efficacy Study of the Trifunctional Antibody Ertumaxomab to Treat Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer
... and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. ... Fine-needle Aspiration Cytology to Identify a Rare Mimicker of Breast Cancer: Plasma Cell Mastitis. ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms with a Ki-67 labeling index greater than 20% were reclassified in 2017 by the World Health ... Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.. Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms ...
DuctalAdenocarcinomaApoptosisTherapeuticKRASGenePoor prognosisViral oncogene homologEpidermal Growth FNeoplasmsDifferentiationReceptorUpregulationPDACGastricMetastaticCarcinogenesisHepatocyte growthTargeted therapyTumorigenesisPathogenesisTreatment of pancreatic cancerProgression of pancreatic cancerInhibitionMalignantMolecularVitroOvarian cancerColonClinicalGrowth of pancreaticMurineSignaling pathwayVarious cancersChemosensitivity to gemcitabineEpithelial cellsInvasionProstate cancerTyrosineMechanismsKinase
- Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common form of pancreatic cancer, is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies, underscoring the critical need for new molecular targets for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Antisense inhibition of oncogenic K-ras expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines blocks cellular transformation, showing a continued requirement for oncogenic K-ras-mediated signaling to maintain the transformed phenotype ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Study specimens were obtained at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center from patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (n = 65) or chronic pancreatitis (n = 42) (January 2000-December 2005). (eurekalert.org)
- Background: The poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is accounted for by the absence of early diagnostic markers and effective treatments. (aaccjnls.org)
- Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) 1 is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in Western countries ( 1 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- In 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases, genetic alteration of the proto-oncogene Kras has occurred, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of cancerous cells. (mdpi.com)
- Immunohistochemistry was carried out to localise Runx3 in normal pancreatic tissues, and in primary and metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). (bmj.com)
- Genetic deletion of Ptpn11 profoundly inhibited tumor development in mutant KRAS -driven murine models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. (nature.com)
- Synergy was observed when both SHP2 and MEK were targeted, resulting in sustained tumor growth control in murine and human patient-derived organoids and xenograft models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. (nature.com)
- Thus, it is vital to study the biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma because it may contribute to better diagnostics and development of new, more efficient therapeutic methods . (termedia.pl)
- Sato N, Parker AR, Fukushima N, Miyagi Y, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Eshleman JR, Goggins M. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 as a common mechanism associated with growth and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. (jhu.edu)
- Expression of novel markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in pancreatic nonductal neoplasms: additional evidence of different genetic pathways. (jhu.edu)
- Walter K, Eshleman J, Goggins M. Xenografting and harvesting human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinomas for DNA analysis. (jhu.edu)
- Differentially Expressed Genes in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Identified Through Serial Analysis of Gene Expression. (jhu.edu)
- Identification of Novel Highly Expressed Genes in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas through a Bioinformatics Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags. (jhu.edu)
- To evaluate the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT 2 ) expression in the host's body on the growth of pancreatic carcinoma, we have investigated the growth of mouse pancreatic ductal carcinoma grafts in syngeneic wild type and AT 2 receptor-deficient (AT 2 -KO) mice. (beds.ac.uk)
- Our results show that the growth of subcutaneously transplanted syngeneic xenografts of PAN02 cells, mouse pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells derived from the C57/BL6 strain, was significantly faster in AT 2 -KO mice compared to control wild type mice. (beds.ac.uk)
- Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes approximately 90% of all primary malignant tumors arising from the pancreatic gland. (beds.ac.uk)
- Mark Bloomston, M.D., of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, and colleagues conducted a series of experiments to identify the pattern of miRNA expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma to attempt to differentiate pancreatic cancer from benign pancreatic tissue and any differences in survival associated with certain miRNA expression. (eurekalert.org)
- The present report contributes to the growing understanding of the role of miRNAs in oncogenesis and describes the global expression patterns of miRNAs in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (eurekalert.org)
- Interestingly, APC mutations in lung cancer co-occurred with KRAS mutations in NSCLC, including adenocarcinoma and SCCs 26 . (nature.com)
- ECT2 upregulation significantly enhances the activity of RhoGPase, prevents cell apoptosis and induces cancer cell metastasis ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. (mdpi.com)
- In mammals, there are four FOXO genes, FOXO1 , 3 , 4 , and 6 , which play important roles as tumor suppressors in a variety of cancers through diverse mechanisms, such as initiating apoptosis, prompting cell cycle arrest, and regulating the expression of genes that facilitate DNA repair [ 24 - 26 ]. (jcancer.org)
- Here in this review, we discuss the regulation of Pim kinases and their expression, and how these kinases defend cancer cells from therapeutic and immune attacks with special emphasis on how Pim kinases maintain their own expression during apoptosis and cellular transformation, defend mitochondria during apoptosis, defend cancer cells from immune attack, defend cancer cells from therapeutic attack, choose localization, self-regulation, activation of oncogenic transcription, metabolic regulation and so on. (springer.com)
- Xie Y, Xu K, Dai B et al (2006) The 44 kDa Pim-1 kinase directly interacts with tyrosine kinase Etk/BMX and protects human prostate cancer cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. (springer.com)
- Hu XF, Li J, Vandervalk S, Wang Z, Magnuson NS, Xing PX (2009) PIM-1-specific mAb suppresses human and mouse tumor growth by decreasing PIM-1 levels, reducing Akt phosphorylation, and activating apoptosis. (springer.com)
- Tumour suppressor genes are normal genes that slow cell growth and division, repair mistakes in DNA and tell cells when to die (a normal process called apoptosis or programmed cell death). (cancer.ca)
- Apoptosis is programmed cell death and involves a sequence of cellular events involving: a. fragmenting of the nucleus, b. blistering of the plasma membrane, and c. engulfing of cell fragments by macrophages and/or neighboring cells. (slideshare.net)
- The size of any cell population represents a balance between cell division and programmed cell death (apoptosis). (jimmunol.org)
- More recent studies also reveal that the tumor suppressor p53 is not required for mast cell entry into apoptosis after growth factor deprivation ( 12 , 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
- An alternative mechanism of preventing apoptosis is suggested by recent evidence showing enzymes that participate in lipid metabolism play critical roles in regulating growth and death in some cell types ( 31 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Targeting the Deubiquitinase STAMBPL1 Triggers Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells by Promoting XIAP Degradation. (bioportfolio.com)
- STAMBPL1 RNAi depletion triggered caspase-3/-7-dependent apoptosis in PC3 and DU145 cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- Treatment cells with antioxidant NAC delayed STAMBPL1 silencing-induced apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of XIAP almost completely abrogated apoptosis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Taken together, these studies show that STAMBPL1 depletion induces apoptosis by promoting XIAP lysosomal degradation, and suggest that targeting deubiquitinase STAMBPL1 might offer promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- Deoxynivalenol Modulates the Viability, ROS Production and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- Buforin IIb induces androgen-independent prostate cancer cells apoptosis though p53 pathway in vitro. (bioportfolio.com)
- Escape from apoptosis, one of the characteristic features of cancer cells, is a case that reduces the therapeutic efficacy of apoptosis-inducing molecules used in the cancer treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
- Eriocalyxin B Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Involving Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway in Prostate Cancer Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- miR-15 and miR-16 represent clear examples being located at a crossway between apoptosis and cell cycle control. (arraystar.com)
- In the context of these exciting observations in a disease characterized by a dismal prognosis, should clinical oncologists and cancer geneticists begin to apply miRNA profiling to establish stratification of risk or define therapeutic targets in patients with pancreatic cancer? (eurekalert.org)
- More recently, three distinct therapeutic modalities have revolutionized the field of immunooncology: checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive T cell transfer, and bivalent antibodies. (hindawi.com)
- According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, there exists a fraction of cancer cells, that is, cancer stem cells, responsible for tumor maintenance and therapeutic failure. (jcancer.org)
- Therefore, Pim-3 maintains stemness of pancreatic cancer cells via activating STAT3 signaling pathway and might be used as a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. (jcancer.org)
- Therefore, continuous efforts should be made to gain an insight into disease progression and therapeutic resistance, and uncover novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets to enable early detection and effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. (jcancer.org)
- Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subgroup of cells within the tumor capable of self-renewal and differentiation [ 4 ], contributes to tumor initiation, progression, therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence [ 5 ]. (jcancer.org)
- Studies investigating the role of CAFs have reported that the therapeutic targeting of cancer cells alone is insufficient for the treatment of cancer ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- These findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer and will aid in identifying potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic usage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Herein, we review the current paradigm for retinoic acid signaling, its role in cancer and potential therapeutic applications and challenges. (omicsonline.org)
- Not for any clinical, therapeutic, or diagnostic use in humans or animals. (genetex.com)
- Some authors even divided pancreatic cancer into four subtypes according to phenotypes with distinct types of energy metabolism [ 8 ], and there is increasing evidence for the therapeutic potential of targeting cancer metabolic reprogramming [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pim-1 was suggested as a therapeutic target of cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, targeting Pim-1 may provide a new therapeutic approach for the cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently, a novel potent allosteric SHP2 inhibitor was presented as a viable therapeutic option for receptor tyrosine kinase-driven cancers, but was shown to be ineffective in KRAS -mutant tumor cell lines in vitro 8 . (nature.com)
- Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet limited therapeutic modalities are available to patients with metastatic melanoma. (frontiersin.org)
- Adoptive immunotherapy, as conducted at our facility, is a personalized therapy that uses a patient's own anti-tumor immune cells to kill cancer cells and may be used to treat several types of cancer, and represents another therapeutic approach against cancer. (stem-cell-center.com)
- Constitutively activated STAT3 protein has been found to be a key regulator of pancreatic cancer and a target for molecular therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
- This review highlights recent findings on the relationship between fatty acid metabolism, cancer stemness and therapeutic resistance and prompts discussion about the potential mechanisms by which fatty acid metabolism regulates the fate of cancer cells and therapeutic resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Targeting Kras has proven to be difficult and the battle against pancreatic cancer is ongoing. (mdpi.com)
- Therefore, three cell lines with a heterozygous Kras mutation (the human cell lines SUIT-2 and Panc-1 and the cell line TB32047 from a KPC mouse model) were used. (mdpi.com)
- Western blots showed a specific knock-out in the Kras G12D protein, but wildtype Kras was expressed by all of the cells. (mdpi.com)
- Lentsch E, Li L, Pfeffer S, Ekici AB, Taher L, Pilarsky C, Grützmann R. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Knock-Out of Kras G12D Mutated Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines. (mdpi.com)
- However, though oncogenes such as KRAS and c-Myc play important roles in the process, and have been extensively studied, no substantial improvements in the prognosis of pancreatic cancer have seen. (biomedcentral.com)
- Oncogenes such as KRAS , c-Myc and so on play important roles in tumor initiation and development, and have been extensively studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data indicate the clinical utility of dual SHP2/MEK inhibition as a targeted therapy approach for KRAS -mutant cancers. (nature.com)
- Fig. 1: Loss of Ptpn11 profoundly inhibits KRAS G12D -driven pancreatic and pulmonary carcinogenesis. (nature.com)
- KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated proto-oncogenes in human cancers, including pancreatic and colorectal cancers. (colonclub.com)
- We successfully generated T cells from HLA-A11*01 transgenic mice and subsequently isolated HLA-A11*01-resticted T cell receptors (TCRs) highly reactive with the mutated KRAS variants G12V and G12D. (colonclub.com)
- The success of adoptive transfer of TCR-engineered T cells against melanoma and other cancers support clinical trials with these T-cells recognizing mutated KRAS in patients with a variety of common cancer types. (colonclub.com)
- Epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) is a proto-oncogene gene encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho GTPases ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Polycomb complex protein BMI-1 also known as polycomb group RING finger protein 4 (PCGF4) or RING finger protein 51 (RNF51) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMI1 gene (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). (wikipedia.org)
- The human BMI-1 gene localizes at chromosome 10 (10p11.23). (wikipedia.org)
- The colon cancer stem cells in mouse xenografts could be eliminated by inhibiting BMI-1 gene, providing a novel potential method to treat colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA hypermethylation is a major cause of gene inactivation in cancer. (aaccjnls.org)
- Our aims were to identify microRNAs whose gene expression is inactivated by hypermethylation in PDAC and to determine whether this hypermethylation-mediated repression is an early event during pancreatic carcinogenesis. (aaccjnls.org)
- Telerman A, Amson R, Zakut-Houri R, Givol D (1988) Identification of the human pim-1 gene product as a 33-kilodalton cytoplasmic protein with tyrosine kinase activity. (springer.com)
- The dualistic role of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in cancer is revealed in its gene transcription targets, cross-talk with other transcription factors, mediation of apoptotic pathways, and influence in the immune system. (omicsonline.org)
- While some mutated gene products (altered self) have been identified, surprisingly, the vast majority of antigens on cancers characterized to date are unaltered self antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Various members of the Ras gene family, which includes some of the first proto-oncogenes identified, are frequently mutated in many human cancers, including up to 90% of pancreatic cancers, 50% of colorectal cancers, 30% of lung cancers, and 15% to 30% of melanomas ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- It takes more than one gene mutation for a cell to become cancerous. (cancer.ca)
- TP53 is a tumour suppressor gene that controls cell growth and division. (cancer.ca)
- When the TP53 gene is mutated, it causes cells with damaged DNA to grow and divide out of control. (cancer.ca)
- Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a tumour suppressor gene that controls cell growth. (cancer.ca)
- miR-15a and miR-16-1, whose loci are deleted in more than half of cases of B-CLL and in advanced prostate cancers, physiologically control the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) through its post-transcriptional inhibition. (arraystar.com)
- In vitro co-culture studies revealed that the growth of PAN02 cells was significantly decreased when grown with AT 2 receptor gene transfected wild type and AT 2 -KO mouse-derived fibroblasts. (beds.ac.uk)
- The prediction of cancer treatment outcome based on gene polymorphisms is becoming possible for many classes of chemotherapy agents, and the most clinically significant examples of chemotherapy agents are discussed in the chapter. (intechopen.com)
- Due to its aggressiveness and unusual resistance to conventional therapies, pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal gastrointestinal malignancy with poor prognosis. (jcancer.org)
- Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the gastrointestinal malignancies with extreme poor prognosis. (jcancer.org)
- Pancreatic cancer carries a uniformly poor prognosis with low surgical resection rate and short survival time, and improvement in prognosis, even for resectable cases, is a persistent clinical challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male cancer types, androgen-independent prostate cancer possesses poor prognosis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with a very poor prognosis. (beds.ac.uk)
Viral oncogene homolog1
Epidermal Growth F5
- Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. (mdpi.com)
- Siriwardena, A.K. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer. (mdpi.com)
- Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown clinical efficacy in lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- HER2 stands for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. (cancer.ca)
- A phase III clinical trial showed gemcitabine chemotherapy combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib significantly improved overall survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (jcancer.org)
- Metastatic breast Cancer simulating well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms of visceral organs. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms with a Ki-67 labeling index greater than 20% were reclassified in 2017 by the World Health Organization into well differentiated (WD) and poorly differentiated grad. (bioportfolio.com)
- Second neoplasms in adult patients submitted to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (stem-cell-center.com)
- carcinomas are malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin, derived from any of the three layers o ex. (brainscape.com)
- Furthermore, certain populations of gastric CSCs abilities to self-renewal and undergo multipotent differentiation have been detected in gastric cancer ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Bmi-1 is also indicated as a key factor in controlling Th2 cell differentiation and development by stabilizing GATA transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
- Fbxw7 deficiency also skewed the differentiation of liver stem cells toward the cholangiocyte lineage rather than the hepatocyte lineage in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Modifications of epigenetic processes involved in cell growth and differentiation also lead to the development of a cancer. (frontiersin.org)
- What is known for certain is that recombinant NmU receptors will increase the internal calcium concentration, signaling via the MAPK/ERK pathway Its role in cancer is not yet fully understood, though NmU and its receptor NMUR2 have been shown to be over-expressed in human pancreatic cancers compared to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In lung cancer, resistance to EGFR TKIs correlates with amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase Met. (biomedcentral.com)
- Met is a proto-oncogene that encodes the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
- Retinoids are thus ideal candidates for medical therapies, as the uptake of RA (and its closely related synthetic analogues) does not require a cell surface receptor [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane growth factor receptor which is a heterodimer of two disulphide linked chains of 50 kd (alpha ) and 145 kd (beta). (genetex.com)
- Abl is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and is ubiquitously expressed in several cell types and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, tyrosine 10 (Y10) phosphorylation of LDHA is common in diverse human cancers, and phosphorylated LDHA Y10 levels directly correlate with the activities of several oncogenic tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), breakpoint cluster region/ABL proto-oncogene 1 (BCR/ABL) and fms related tyrosine kinase 3- internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) [ 24 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases. (nature.com)
- Initial experiments revealed that sPLA 2 activity and sPLA 2 receptor expression are increased, and mast cells lost their capacity to maintain membrane asymmetry upon cytokine depletion. (jimmunol.org)
- Sato N, Matsubayashi H, Fukushima N, Goggins M. The Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 is Regulated by DNA Methylation in Pancreatic Cancer. (jhu.edu)
- The role of AT 2 receptor-signaling in stromal cells on the growth of murine pancreatic carcinoma cells (PAN02) was studied using various in vitro and in vivo assays. (beds.ac.uk)
- Moreover, Ang II AT 2 receptor signaling is a negative regulator in the growth of pancreatic carcinoma cells. (beds.ac.uk)
- These findings indicate that the AT 2 receptor in stromal fibroblasts is a potentially important target for chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (beds.ac.uk)
- Diazoxide binds to the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) of the pancreatic beta cell, inhibiting insulin secretion. (medscape.com)
- In this study, we evaluated the expression of PKCι in human pancreatic cancer and the requirement for PKCι for the transformed growth and tumorigenicity of PDAC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of PKCι expression blocks PDAC cell transformed growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- We focused our study on microRNA 148a (miR-148a) and found its production to be repressed, not only in PDAC samples but also in preneoplastic pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions. (aaccjnls.org)
- Similarly to models for other cancers, a progression model has been elaborated for PDAC precursor lesions ( 2 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- Gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) in gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that ECT2 may serve as a novel marker for CSCs and may be a potential prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Villin + and Lgr5 + gastric stem cells have been detected in the antrum, while Troy + chief cells have been found in the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Additionally, Sox2 + gastric stem cells are present in both the antrum and the corpus ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Gastric cancer is the seventh most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Gastric cancer has been extensively investigated in the biomedical field due to its high morbidity and mortality rates ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- In recent years, the prevailing hypothesis that the occurrence and progression of gastric cancer is associated with CSCs has been partially proven ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- However, whether and how ECT2 contributes to gastric cancer malignancy remains elusive. (spandidos-publications.com)
- MET is overexpressed and activated in a variety of human cancers including pancreatic, colon, gastric, cervical and ovarian cancers and has been shown to be involved in tumor cell migration and invasion (2). (genetex.com)
- An altered 4A/4B ratio was also observed in gastric and lung cancer where Wnt signaling is also known to be aberrantly activated. (mcponline.org)
- The Wnt pathway also plays a significant role in other cancer types, such as lung, gastric, thyroid, and prostate cancer ( 3 ⇓ - 5 ), and it has been shown to be involved in the regulation of RNA splicing as well ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
- Phase II clinical trials demonstrated that 9 patients (7%) with metastatic melanoma and 10 patients (7%) with metastatic renal cell cancer treated with biologic therapy of HD IL-2 achieved complete regression of disease with hypotension, secondary to underlying capillary leak, being the most commonly reported toxicity [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- phase II study of ertumaxomab in metastatic breast cancer patients who became progressive after hormonal therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
- The purpose of this study is to determine if SKI-606 is effective in the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers. (frontiersin.org)
- Recent data associates T cells targeting mutated antigens with clinical immunotherapy responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, lung cancer or cholangiocarcinoma. (colonclub.com)
- Several murine models for pancreatic carcinogenesis have been established to mimic this progression of pancreatic cancer ( 3 )( 4 )( 5 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-144-3p in pancreatic cancer (PC) carcinogenesis and to explore the mechanism of its function in PC. (cognizantcommunication.com)
- Beneficial bacteria in the colon ( probiotics ) also ferment dietary fiber and generate compounds, such as butyrate , which nourish cells in the colon wall and protect against carcinogenesis. (lifeextension.com)
- Here, we tested the hypothesis that PKCι plays a requisite role in pancreatic cancer cell transformed growth and tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- We show that PKCι is required for the transformed growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and their tumorigenesis in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- Several FOX subfamilies, such as FOXA, FOXC, FOXM, FOXO and FOXP, are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression, playing roles as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the family member and cell type [ 1 , 2 , 9 ]. (jcancer.org)
- In the decades following FDA approval of HD IL-2, there have been unprecedented advancements regarding the cellular and molecular drivers of tumorigenesis and the mechanisms through which tumorigenic cells circumvent destruction by the immune system [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Pim kinases primarily deal with three broad categories of functions such as tumorigenesis, protecting cells from apoptotic signals and evading immune attacks. (springer.com)
- In addition, we also discuss how Pim kinases contribute to tumorigenesis by regulating cellular transformation and glycolysis to reinforce the importance of Pim kinases in cancer and cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
- Nawijn MC, Alendar A, Berns A (2011) For better or for worse: the role of Pim oncogenes in tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
- Pim-1 kinase is a proto-oncogene and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis and progression of a variety of malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
Treatment of pancreatic cancer1
Progression of pancreatic cancer1
- Notably, miR-125b inhibitor antagonized MTA1 siRNA induced inhibition of cell migration and invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
- In vitro studies demonstrated potent cell killing as well as inhibition of STAT3 activation in pancreatic cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- The introduction of either miR-34a or miR- 34b/c in normal human fibroblasts leads to substantial inhibition of cell growth, which might be partially due to miR-34a- dependent MYCN inhibition. (arraystar.com)
- However, it became evident that the molecular and biological abnormalities of cancer cells could not fully explain the complex changes involved in the regulation of tumor progression ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- CAFs are essential components to the tumor microenvironment and therefore represent a molecular target for the treatment of cancer ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The molecular characterization of several tumor antigens identified by both by T cells [ 4 ] and serology [ 5 ], has provided several candidates for the development of immunotherapy of various malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
- however, the key molecular alterations in ETS-negative cancers are unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
- Early molecular events in the assembly of matrix adhesions at the leading edge of migrating cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- This has motivated scientists to understand the molecular mechanisms by which FA metabolism participates in the pathophysiological processes of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- 11. The aptamer according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the cell is in vivo or in vitro. (freepatentsonline.com)
- A loss-of-function assay showed that TUG1 knockdown suppressed the viability, colony formation, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. (cognizantcommunication.com)
- Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
- 13. The aptamer according to any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the cell is a breast cancer stem cell, a prostate cancer stem cell, a pancreatic cancer stem cell, a colon cancer stem cell, a liver cancer stem cell, a lung cancer stem cell, an ovarian cancer stem cell, or a head and neck cancer stem cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
- If the cancer is detected while still localized in the colon, it is removed surgically. (lifeextension.com)
- However, the outlook for colon cancer patients rapidly diminishes if the cancer has metastasized to other organs or lymph nodes before detection. (lifeextension.com)
- Investigations have shown that several factors such as dietary habits, nutritional status, and inflammation influence the genetics involved in colon cancer development and progression, thus revealing multiple targets of interest in the prevention and management of colon cancer. (lifeextension.com)
- 3 Another landmark trial revealed that daily low-dose aspirin reduced the risk of developing colon cancer by 24% and the risk of dying from the disease by 35% . (lifeextension.com)
- The colon is the third-to-last section of the gastrointestinal tract in humans, followed by the rectum and anus. (lifeextension.com)
- It is over-expressed and highly activated in many human cancers (e.g. breast, colon and pancreatic), making it a promising target for cancer therapy. (cisbio.com)
- The let-7 family has been reported to be downregulated in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and lymphoma. (arraystar.com)
- Numerous therapeutically strategies targeting altered Wnt pathway in APC mutant colorectal cancers are under preclinical and clinical studies, including ours 29 . (nature.com)
- This sensitivity is in conflict with the observed clinical resistance to EGFR TKIs in breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Taken together, these data suggest a role for Met in clinical resistance to EGFR TKIs in breast cancer through EGFR/Met crosstalk mediated by tumor-stromal interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Indeed, further exploration of the targets of RA transcriptional activity may see improved benefits in clinical studies of cancer treatments. (omicsonline.org)
- Immunization against defined tumor antigens using a xenogeneic DNA vaccine is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials for the treatment of melanoma and prostate cancers, with proposed trials for breast cancer and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this section, we will describe the development of xenogeneic DNA vaccines from an initial laboratory concept into products used in human clinical trials. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the process, we will also highlight the results from an early clinical trial done in a new type of model with spontaneous cancer in outbred companion animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of the present study is to determine the cellular immune response in terms of the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity (DTH) skin test and evaluate the subjective clinical outcome and safety of the regimen in cancer patients receiving a DC vaccine. (stem-cell-center.com)
- However, in clinical trials using lysate or whole tumor cells as the source of antigen, no clinically relevant autoimmune responses have ever been detected. (stem-cell-center.com)
- Erlotinib offers clinical benefit to a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (jcancer.org)
- However, further studies are needed in well characterized and larger cancer populations with proper validation of pharmacogenetic markers in experimental settings before application in clinical routine diagnostics. (intechopen.com)
- It is commonly observed in clinical settings that the same doses of medication cause considerable variations in efficacy and toxicity across human populations [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
Growth of pancreatic1
- When activated, the serine/threonine kinase AKT mediates an antiapoptotic signal implicated in chemoresistance of various cancers. (nih.gov)
- thus, we have reviewed literature pertaining to specific contexts of RA signaling and its dysregulation in various cancers. (omicsonline.org)
- The five investigated diseases were (1) various cancers, (2) heart diseases, (3) obesity, (4) diabetes and (5) autism. (biomedcentral.com)
Chemosensitivity to gemcitabine2
- CD24+ESA+ pancreatic cancer cells exhibited increased tumorigenicity and decreased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine as compared to CD24-ESA- cells. (jcancer.org)
- These data suggest that VASH2 reduces the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells via JUN-dependent transactivation of RRM2. (biomedcentral.com)
- Protein kinase Cι (PKCι) is required for the oncogenic Ras-mediated transformed growth of lung cancer and intestinal epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- In fact, HGF, the ligand for Met, is not expressed in epithelial cells but is secreted by fibroblasts in the tumor stroma. (biomedcentral.com)
- In many epithelial cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) augments the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that occurs when cells are treated with transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). (biologists.org)
- Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular program in which epithelial cells lose polarity and strong cell-cell adhesions and partially dedifferentiate to become more motile and invasive ( Kalluri and Weinberg, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
- Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown reduced while miR-125b inhibitor enhanced cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- MTA1 and miR-125b have antagonistic effects on the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- CrkI and CrkII function as key signaling integrators for migration and invasion of cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- CrkI adapter protein modulates cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma. (semanticscholar.org)
- Prostate Cancer Cells by Promoting XIAP Degradation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Nutlin3a-Loaded Nanoparticles Show Enhanced Apoptotic Activity on Prostate Cancer Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study investigates the use of the patients own immune cells to treat prostate cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- A large proportion of men with prostate cancer are overdiagnosed and overtreated mainly due to PSA testing. (bioportfolio.com)
- Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in Canadian men. (bioportfolio.com)
- Recent evidences have demonstrated that let-7a acts as a tumor-suppressor in prostate cancer by downregulating E2F2 and cyclin D2. (arraystar.com)
- It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. (mdpi.com)
- Moreover, Pim-1 knockdown sensitized NSCLC cells to cisplatin and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib. (biomedcentral.com)
- Neel, B. G., Gu, H. & Pao, L. The 'Shp'ing news: SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases in cell signaling. (nature.com)
- Activation of tyrosine kinases and phosphoinositide 3′-kinase (PI3′-K) has been implicated in the induction of mast cell growth ( 19 , 20 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical mechanisms in the regulation of cell signaling networks and are essential for almost all the cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Phosphorylation, accomplished via a kinase action, and its reverse-de-phosphorylation via a phosphatase are essential switching-on and -off mechanisms in cell signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, delineating the mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity and identifying regulators of the process that can be manipulated to prevent the conversion of cancer cells to CSCs may reduce the incidence of cancer recurrence. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, a subpopulation of cells may become tolerant of the drug, enter a state of dormancy and later evolve mechanisms of resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aurora kinase functional influences span from G2 phase to cytokinesis and may be involved in key cell cycle events such as centrosome duplication, chromosome bi-orientation and segregation, cleavage furrow positioning, and ingression (3). (cellsignal.com)
- The splicing factor SRSF1 and its regulator, the kinase SRPK1 , were found to be deregulated upon Wnt inactivation in colorectal carcinoma cells. (mcponline.org)
- Pim-1 kinase may provide a potential target for diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer. (biomedcentral.com)