White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Sister Chromatid Exchange
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Immune Adherence Reaction
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Leukocyte Migration-Inhibitory Factors
Protein factor(s) released by sensitized lymphocytes (and possibly other cells) that inhibit the movement of LEUKOCYTES, especially polymorphonuclear cells, away from their site of release. Assays for these factors are used as tests for cellular immunity. Two of the common assays are the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION CAPILLARY TUBE TECHNIQUE (LMCT) and the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION AGAROSE TEST (LMAT).
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Streptodornase and Streptokinase
A mixture of the enzymes (streptokinase and streptodornase) produced by hemolytic streptococci. It is used topically on surface lesions and by instillation in closed body cavities to remove clotted blood or fibrinous or purulent accumulations. It is also used as a skin test antigen in evaluating generalized cell-mediated immunodeficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.-.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Amino Acid Sequence
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Binding Sites, Antibody
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Gene Expression Regulation
Cell Transformation, Viral
Hemolytic Plaque Technique
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Cell Line, Transformed
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Naphthol AS D Esterase
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma
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Adoptive cell transfer
In the 1960s, lymphocytes were discovered to be the mediators of allograft rejection in animals. Attempts to use T cells to ... Human T memory stem cells express a gene program that enables them to proliferate extensively and differentiate into other T ... Riley JL, June CH, Blazar BR (May 2009). "Human T regulatory cell therapy: take a billion or so and call me in the morning". ... In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. In 1988 ...
Auxiliary T-lymphocytes are a key element of HIV-1 infection. Several signs of immune dysregulation such as polyclonal B-cell ... Most human meningiomas massively expresses IL-4 receptors, indicating its role in cancer progression. They express IL-4Rα and ... The nucleotide sequence for human IL-4 was isolated four years later confirming its similarity to a mouse protein called B-cell ... Carr C, Aykent S, Kimack NM, Levine AD (February 1991). "Disulfide assignments in recombinant mouse and human interleukin 4". ...
Natural killer cell
Pross HF, Jondal M (August 1975). "Cytotoxic lymphocytes from normal donors. A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". ... "Surface markers on human b and t lymphocytes. VI. Cytotoxicity against cell lines as a functional marker for lymphocyte ... West WH, Cannon GB, Kay HD, Bonnard GD, Herberman RB (January 1977). "Natural cytotoxic reactivity of human lymphocytes against ... The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were responsible for human NK activity, made by ...
Keith W. Kelley
Growth hormone, lymphocytes and macrophages. Biochemical Pharmacology 38:705 713. Fu, Y.K., S. Arkins, G. Fuh, B.C. Cunningham ... Growth hormone has now been shown to be beneficial in aged humans. NIH funded Kelley's research on aging, growth hormone and ... Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor. The Journal of ... Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor. Journal of ...
Humans; mammals. B-lymphocytes. Glycoproteins. Budding. Nucleus. Nucleus. Saliva Rhadinovirus. Humans; mammals. B-lymphocytes. ... Human health. Gammaherpesviruses are of primary interest due to the two human viruses, EBV and KSHV and the diseases they ... T-lymphocytes. Glycoproteins. Budding. Nucleus. Nucleus. Nasal and ocular secretion Percavirus. Mammals. B-lymphocytes. ... Electron micrograph of two Human gammaherpesvirus 4 virions (viral particles) showing round capsids loosely surrounded by the ...
... on human neonatal B lymphocytes". Human Immunology. 62 (7): 679-85. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00257-9. PMID 11423173. FCGR2B+ ... in subpopulations of human T lymphocytes". Immunobiology. 192 (5): 297-320. doi:10.1016/s0171-2985(11)80172-5. PMID 7649565. ... "Interaction of a human Fc gamma RIIb1 (CD32) isoform with murine and human IgG subclasses". International Immunology. 5 (3): ... "Adenovirus-mediated human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef expression in human monocytes/macrophages and effect of Nef on ...
Pichler WJ, Lum L, Broder S (1978). "Fc-receptors on human T lymphocytes. I. Transition of Tgamma to Tmu cells". J Immunol. 121 ... in subpopulations of human T lymphocytes". Immunobiology. 192 (5): 297-320. doi:10.1016/s0171-2985(11)80172-5. PMID 7649565. ... CD16a expression is induced in the activated human naïve CD4+ T cells, which express CD25, CD69, and CD98 and ligation to ICs ... Moretta L, Webb SR, Grossi CE, Lydyard PM, Cooper MD (1977). "Functional analysis of two human T-cell subpopulations: help and ...
Fu G, Hua S, Ward T, Ding X, Yang Y, Guo Z, Yao X (Jun 2007). "D-box is required for the degradation of human Shugoshin and ... "Entrez Gene: SGOL1 shugoshin-like 1 (S. pombe)". "Peripheral blood lymphocytes data for Sgol1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Fu G, Ding X, Yuan K, Aikhionbare F, Yao J, Cai X, Jiang K, Yao X (Jul 2007). "Phosphorylation of human Sgo1 by NEK2A is ... Shugoshin-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SGOL1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the study of SGOL1 ...
Neuropathy target esterase
Bertoncin D, Russolo A, Caroldi S, Lotti M (1985). "Neuropathy target esterase in human lymphocytes". Arch. Environ. Health. 40 ... Maroni M, Bleecker ML (1986). "Neuropathy target esterase in human lymphocytes and platelets". Journal of Applied Toxicology : ... van Tienhoven M, Atkins J, Li Y, Glynn P (2002). "Human neuropathy target esterase catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane lipids". J ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
doi:10.1016/0024-3205(93)90442-6. Dyck, Lillian E. (1990). "Isoenzymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase in human lymphocytes". ... Human Heredity. 43 (2): 116-120. doi:10.1159/000154127. Dyck, Lillian E.; Durden, David A.; Boulton, Alan A. (1993). " ...
McCairns, E.; Fahey, D.; Sauer, D.; Rowe, P. B. (1983). "De novo purine synthesis in human lymphocytes. Partial co-purification ... to human chromosome 21". American Journal of Human Genetics. 39 (2): 179-185. PMC 1683921. PMID 3529945. Rowe, P. B.; McCaims, ... The human purinosome was thought to have been identified in 2008 by the observation that transiently expressed GFP fusion ... The functional consolidation of steps 2,3, and 5 of the pathway into a single enzyme in higher organisms such as humans ...
Vuadens F, Rufer N, Kress A, Corthésy P, Schneider P, Tissot JD (2004). "Identification of swiprosin 1 in human lymphocytes". ... EF-hand domain family member D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFHD2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... ENSG00000142634 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040659 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference ...
Zhou Z, Shackleton CH, Pahwa S, White PC, Speiser PW (Mar 1998). "Prominent sex steroid metabolism in human lymphocytes". ... "Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes". The Journal of ... 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene. It is one of three forms of ... In humans, the protein isozyme encoded by the SRD5A1 gene is expressed in esophagus, liver, skin and 24 other tissues. ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme
Zhou Z, Shackleton CH, Pahwa S, White PC, Speiser PW (March 1998). "Prominent sex steroid metabolism in human lymphocytes". ... Guo IC, Shih MC, Lan HC, Hsu NC, Hu MC, Chung BC (July 2007). "Transcriptional regulation of human CYP11A1 in gonads and ... Morohashi K, Sogawa K, Omura T, Fujii-Kuriyama Y (April 1987). "Gene structure of human cytochrome P-450(SCC), cholesterol ... Sparkes RS, Klisak I, Miller WL (June 1991). "Regional mapping of genes encoding human steroidogenic enzymes: P450scc to 15q23- ...
Fc receptor-like molecule
They have been characterized in a number of species, including humans and mice. They are preferentially expressed by B ... Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. pp. 155-62. doi: ... Human Immunology. 71 (12): 1203-8. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2010.08.002. PMID 20732364. Ehrhardt GR, Leu C, Zhang S, Aksu G, ... "Fine specificity of a rabbit antibody interacting with human IgG Fc receptor-like molecules". Immunology Letters. 25 (4): 303- ...
Lalor PF, Shields P, Grant A, Adams DH (February 2002). "Recruitment of lymphocytes to the human liver". Immunology and Cell ... 1 ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 function as counter-receptors for lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1 in human immunodeficiency virus ... ICAM2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... Sansom D, Borrow J, Solomon E, Trowsdale J (October 1991). "The human ICAM2 gene maps to 17q23-25". Genomics. 11 (2): 462-4. ...
Eric John Holborow
Papamichail, M.; Brown, J.C.; Holborow, E.J. (16 October 1971). "Immunoglobulins on the surface of human lymphocytes". The ... "Plasmodium falciparum products enhance human lymphocyte transformation by Epstein-Barr virus". Clin Exp Immunol. 56 (2): 371- ...
Boon T, van der Bruggen P (March 1996). "Human tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes". The Journal of Experimental ... In humans, this response is activated by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes or the binding ... B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. B ... A distinct lymphocyte-derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates, such as the lamprey and hagfish. ...
Vitamin D receptor
Yu XP, Mocharla H, Hustmyer FG, Manolagas SC (1991). "Vitamin D receptor expression in human lymphocytes. Signal requirements ... In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene located on chromosome 12q13.11. VDR is expressed in most tissues ... Sone T, Marx SJ, Liberman UA, Pike JW (1991). "A unique point mutation in the human vitamin D receptor chromosomal gene confers ... Hughes MR, Malloy PJ, Kieback DG, Kesterson RA, Pike JW, Feldman D, O'Malley BW (1989). "Point mutations in the human vitamin D ...
... +protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD79B genome location and ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Hashimoto S, Gregersen PK, Chiorazzi N (1993). "The human Ig-beta cDNA sequence, a homologue of murine B29, is identical in B ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ...
Tedder TF, Klejman G, Schlossman SF, Saito H (April 1989). "Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte ... cell-surface antigen of human B lymphocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... "Insulin regulates serine/threonine phosphorylation in activated human B lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 150 (1): 96-105. ... "The gene and cDNA for the human high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor beta chain and expression of the complete human ...
Single-cell DNA template strand sequencing
"Bromodeoxyuridine-induced sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes". Hereditas. 83 (2): 163-173. doi:10.1111/j.1601- ... Strand-seq can hence be used to readily detect polymorphic inversions in humans and primates, including Megbase-sized events ... 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 409 (6822): 860-921. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..860L. ... "Fully phased human genome assembly without parental data using single-cell strand sequencing and long reads". Nat Biotechnol. ...
"Comodulation of CXCR4 and CD26 in human lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (22): 19532-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... OMIM entries on Dyschromatosis Symmetrica Hereditaria 1 ADAR human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. ADAR human gene ... In humans, the P193A mutation in the Zα domain is causal for Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and for the more severe phenotype found ... Herbert A, Alfken J, Kim YG, Mian IS, Nishikura K, Rich A (August 1997). "A Z-DNA binding domain present in the human editing ...
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the QPCT gene. This gene encodes human pituitary ... Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Bateman RC, ... 2004). "Identification of human glutaminyl cyclase as a metalloenzyme. Potent inhibition by imidazole derivatives and ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
"Comodulation of CXCR4 and CD26 in human lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (22): 19532-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Human ADARB2 genome location and ADARB2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Valenzuela A, Blanco J, Callebaut C, ... Double-stranded RNA-specific editase B2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADARB2 gene. RNA-editing deaminase-2 ( ... Mittaz L, Antonarakis SE, Higuchi M, Scott HS (Sep 1997). "Localization of a novel human RNA-editing deaminase (hRED2 or ADARB2 ...
Lin and Hamann's group show all human cytotoxic lymphocytes, including CD56dull NK cells and CD27-CD45RA+ effector-type CD8+ T ... October 2011). "Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 90 (4): 735-40. doi ... used an in vivo metastatic model of human melanoma to show that GPR56 is downregulated in highly metastatic cells. Later, by ... GPR56 is expressed in liver, muscle, tendon, neural, and cytotoxic lymphoid cells in human as well as in hematopoietic ...
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor
"Specific expression of GPR56 by human cytotoxic lymphocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 90 (4): 735-40. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... Feb 15, 2001). International Human Genome Sequencing, Consortium. "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF). ... a probable pseudogene in humans). The human-restricted EMR2 receptor, is expressed by myeloid cells including monocytes, ... There are 33 human adhesion GPCRs that can be broken down in the 8 groups and 2 independent receptors. Group I consists of ...
Davies ME, Barrett AJ (1984). "Immunolocalization of human cystatins in neutrophils and lymphocytes". Histochemistry. 80 (4): ... Estrada, S; Nycander M; Hill N J; Craven C J; Waltho J P; Björk I (May 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A ... Hsieh WT, Barrick JL, Berrettini WH, Chan MM, Fong D (Jun 1991). "A PstI DNA polymorphism in the human stefin A gene (STF 1)". ... Cystatin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTA gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ...
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after ... Sharma S, Mehta S, Morgan J, Maizel A (March 1987). "Molecular cloning and expression of a human B-cell growth factor gene in ... Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). "Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell ... "Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa". Kumar A, Vasquez A, Maizel AL, Sharma S (1991). "Human BCGF-12kD functions ...
In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology) (v. 67). S. Karger AG ( ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
S. Loisel u. a.: Establishment of a novel human B-CLL-like xenograft model in nude mouse. In: Leukemia Research 29/2005, S. ... J. Sprent: Migration and Lifespan of Circulating B-Lymphocytes of Nude (nu/nu) Mice. In: Proc. First Intern. Workshop Nude Mice ... B. C. Giovanella u. a.: Development of invasive tumors in the nude mouse after injection of cultured human melanoma cells. In: ... L. Miers u. a.: Implantation of different malignant human cell lines in an athymic mouse does not alter success and growth ...
Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
Human-to-human transmission of EBOV through the air has not been reported to occur during EVD outbreaks, and airborne ... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... human consumption of bushmeat has been linked to animal-to-human transmission of diseases, including Ebola. ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ...
CXCL10 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Angiolillo (1995). „Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo". J. Exp. Med. 182: 155 ... Farber JM (1997). „Mig and IP-10: CXC chemokines that target lymphocytes.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 61 (3): 246-57. PMID 9060447.. ... O'Donovan (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 84: 39-42. PMID ...
ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The first physician to perform a successful human bone marrow transplant on a disease other than cancer was Robert A. Good at ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ...
ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. This also includes ...
Tüvirakud - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia
"Human cord blood stem cell-modulated regulatory T lymphocytes reverse the autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes in nonobese ... "Making human embryonic stem cells". The Economist. 22.11.2007. *↑ Gahrton G, Björkstrand B (2000). "Progress in haematopoietic ... "US Department of Health and Human Services. 2004-07-14. *↑ 19,0 19,1 P. De Coppi, G Barstch, Anthony Atala (2007). "Isolation ... 2008). "Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis". Nature 456 (7220): 344-9. PMID 18849962. ,displayauthors ...
Most Lyme human infections are caused by Ixodes nymph bites between April and September. Ticks prefer moist, shaded ... the densities of lymphocytes (infection-fighting cells) and protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically rise to ... Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. In the United States, ticks of ... "Ticks and Humans in British Columbia". Agf.gov.bc.ca. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2012. ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
Tangye SG, Bryant VL, Cuss AK, Good KL (2007). "BAFF, APRIL and human B cell disorders.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 305-17. PMID ... 1999). "BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator.". Science 285 (5425): 260-3. PMID ... Belimumab (Benlysta) je monoklonalno antitelo koje je razvila kompanija Ljudske genomske nauke (engl. Human Genome Sciences) ... Nardelli B, Moore PA, Li Y, Hilbert DM (2003). "B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS): a therapeutic trichotomy for the treatment of B ...
At 4.7 million nucleotides in length, A1::DQ2 is the second longest haplotype identified within the human genome. A1::DQ2 ... "Myasthenia gravis: studies on HL-A antigens and lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with myasthenia gravis". Clin. Exp. ... December 1993). "Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1*0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 18 (6 ... The region between and including B8 and DR3 bears a number of genes of interest in the study of human disease. Most important ...
"No evidence for the expression of the progesterone receptor on peripheral blood lymphocytes during pregnancy". Human ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22, it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... The single-copy human (hPR) gene uses separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and -B, ...
Humans are born with four types of tonsils: the pharyngeal tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils and the lingual ... Kato A et al, B-lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 131, ... which are two lymphoid organs situated at either side of the back of the human throat. The palatine tonsils and the adenoid ... "Evidence for a stepwise program of extrathymic T cell development within the human tonsil". Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
"Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ... As age advances, there is decline in both the production of new naive lymphocytes and the functional competence of memory cell ... Voehringer, D.; M. Koschella; H. Pircher (2002). "Lack of proliferative capacity of human effector and memory T cells ... doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(99)00068-6. Franceschi, C.; M. Bonafè; S. Valensin (2000). "Human immunosenescence: the prevailing of ...
Antibody - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol 6 (10): 728-40. doi: ... There are a vast number of microbe strains, and so vertebrates need millions of different antibodies. Actually, humans ... Rhoades RA, Pflanzer RG (2002). Human Physiology (4th ed.). Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-42174-8. .. ... the total human genome has only about 20,000 genes. ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
Abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production of interferon gamma by T lymphocytes is thought to cause the disease ... "Human tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired ... "Human TYK2 deficiency: Mycobacterial and viral infections without hyper-IgE syndrome". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ...
CD2, a enciclopedia libre
Schraven B, Samstag Y, Altevogt P, Meuer SC (1990). "Association of CD2 and CD45 on human T lymphocytes.". Nature 345 (6270): ... Sayre PH, Reinherz EL (1989). "Structure and function of the erythrocyte receptor CD2 on human T lymphocytes: a review.". Scand ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ...
... of the human genome in five human cell lines". Genome Research. 17 (6): 691-707. doi:10.1101/gr.5704207. PMC 1891331. PMID ... "RNA synthesis and histone acetylation during the course of gene activation in lymphocytes". Proceedings of the National ... a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in human DNA). For example, each human diploid cell (containing 23 pairs ... Youngson RM (2006). Collins Dictionary of Human Biology. Glasgow: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-722134-9. .. .mw-parser-output ...
Age-related changes in Human blood lymphocyte subpopulations. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 1994; 70:152-158. K. ... Determination of T-lymphocyte subsets on site in rural Tanzania: results in HIV-1 infected and non-infected individuals. ... Correlation of CD8 lymphocyte activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by ... The immune profile of multiple sclerosis: T-lymphocyte effects predominate over all other factors in cyclophosphamide-treated ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... T cells (T lymphocytes) - T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ...
White blood cell
Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Maton D, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD, Kulkarni DV (1997). Human Biology and Health. ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage). Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
... there is little human data as of 2017. The small amount of human data there is has shown poor results. ... Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to ...
... have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals and humans. A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species ... on chemical mediator production in peritoneal exduate cells and immunoglobulin E of rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes". ...
Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... "Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator (LTCI): Review of the immunopharmacology of a new biologic" (PDF). Intern J Appl Res Vet Med ... Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ... These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome. Most insertions ...
Both mouse and human in vivo models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers relied critically on this HER2-IL-6-STAT3 signaling ... Another example occurs in activated T cell lymphocytes, i.e., when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC ... Furthermore, in human breast cancer, interference with the de-regulated Wnt signaling pathway reduces proliferation and ... It has been shown that phosphorylation of STAT3 and RANTES expression are increased in response to tamoxifen in human breast ...
Innate immune system - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
লসিকাকোষ (Lymphocyte). *শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil) ... মানব কঙ্কাল (Human skeleton). *অস্থি (Bone). *তরুণাস্থি (Cartilege). *অস্থিসন্ধি (Joint) *তন্তুময় অস্থিসন্ধি (Fibrous joint) ...
... to a human. Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in ... or CD4+ T-lymphocyte deficiency. ... Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases ... Most human diseases originated in other animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission ... While rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause ...
Nociceptinski receptor - Vikipedija, slobodna enciklopedija
1996). „Expression of alternate forms of brain opioid 'orphan' receptor mRNA in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes ... 2003). „Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 1999). „Cloning and characterization of a rabbit ortholog of human Galpha16 and mouse G(alpha)15.". FEBS Lett. 460 (1): 53-6. ... 2002). „The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. PMID 11780052. doi: ...
Induced Division of Human Lymphocytes | The BMJ
Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels in Human B Lymphocytes | SpringerLink
Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels in Human B Lymphocytes. In: Gupta S., Paul W.E. (eds) Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and ... DeCoursey TE, Chandy KG, Gupta S, Cahalan MD: Voltage-gated K+ channels in human T lymphocytes: a role in mitogenesis? Nature ... Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Gupta S: A voltage-gated potassium channel in human T lymphocytes. J Physiol 358: 197 ( ... In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural ...
Estrogen receptor profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
Estrogen receptor profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.. Pierdominici M1, Maselli A, Colasanti T, Giammarioli AM, ... We observed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and NK cells contain intracellular ERalpha and ERbeta, being ... Up to date the presence of intracellular ER in human immune cells represents a controversial issue, while their surface ... In this study we investigated the intracellular and cell surface expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in human peripheral blood ...
The Activation, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human B Lymphocytes | SpringerLink
Efforts to evaluate normal human B cell physiology have resulted in the development of a model in which a resting B cell must ... Proliferative responses of normal human B - lymphocytes. Development of an assay system for human B cell growth factor (BCGF). ... and Differentiation of Human B Lymphocytes. In: Gupta S., Paul W.E., Fauci A.S. (eds) Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and ... Activation of human B lymphocytes. IV. Regulatory effects of corticosteroids on the triggering signal in the plaque-forming ...
Effects of alcohol and nicotine on cytotoxic functions of human lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
Effects of alcohol and nicotine on cytotoxic functions of human lymphocytes.. Nair MP1, Kronfol ZA, Schwartz SA. ... cell activities on normal lymphocytes were investigated. Lymphocytes precultured with EtOH at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6% (v ... EtOH-induced inhibition of NK activity could be reversed by incubating lymphocytes for 1 hr with interferon. The generation and ... Inhibition of cytotoxicity was also not due to direct toxicity of effector cells because lymphocytes treated with either EtOH ...
Induction of antitumor cytotoxic lymphocytes using engineered human primary blood dendritic cells | PNAS
Induction of antitumor cytotoxic lymphocytes using engineered human primary blood dendritic cells. Long Wu, Huan Zhang, Yixing ... 2006) In vitro priming of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using allogeneic dendritic cells derived from the human MUTZ-3 ... Further, the DC-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells potently suppress tumor growth and metastasis in human lung ... Induction of antitumor cytotoxic lymphocytes using engineered human primary blood dendritic cells ...
Processes | Free Full-Text | Non-Viral Transfection of Human T Lymphocytes
... of the cells from a human T-cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat cells) at viabilities close to 90%. The agent also promotes pDNA ... before either method can be used to routinely transfect primary T lymphocytes. ... The genetic modification of human T lymphocytes with established non-viral methods is inefficient. Linear polyethylenimine (l- ... Non-Viral Transfection of Human T Lymphocytes by Simon A. B. Riedl 1, Patrick Kaiser 1. , Alexander Raup 1,2, Christopher V. ...
JCI - Citations to Human lymphocytes: 5'-nucleotidase-positive and -negative subpopulations.
Identification by redox proteomics of glutathionylated proteins in oxidatively stressed human T lymphocytes | PNAS
Identification by redox proteomics of glutathionylated proteins in oxidatively stressed human T lymphocytes. Maddalena Fratelli ... As a source of human enolase, a cytosolic preparation obtained from human PBMC was prepared by lysing PBMC (107 cells/0.1 ml) ... Identification by redox proteomics of glutathionylated proteins in oxidatively stressed human T lymphocytes ... Identification by redox proteomics of glutathionylated proteins in oxidatively stressed human T lymphocytes ...
JCI - Recognition of human gastrointestinal cancer neoantigens by circulating PD-1+ lymphocytes
Single-cell TCR sequencing of CD4+4-1BB+ sorted lymphocytes derived from the blood of patient NCI-4078 ... We found that neoantigen-specific lymphocytes were preferentially enriched in the CD8+PD-1+/hi or CD4+PD-1+/hi subsets, but not ... Tumor-resident lymphocytes can mount a response against neoantigens expressed in microsatellite-stable gastrointestinal (GI) ... However, whether peripheral blood could be used as an alternative minimally invasive source to identify lymphocytes targeting ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes
To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T ... We found that thiram, ziram, maneb and carbaryl also induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the human T ... These findings indicate that carbamate pesticides can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by the ... We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. ...
Lymphocytes recognize human vascular endothelial and dermal fibroblast Ia antigens induced by recombinant immune interferon |...
Further, we present evidence that Ia present on HUVE cells and HDF cells can be functionally recognized by human T cells, ... We have previously shown that human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells in standard culture conditions do not bear Ia ... Here we report that IFN-γ also induces Ia expression on human foreskin capillary endothelial (HFCE) cells, HUVE cells ... Recently, Ia antigens have been observed by immunofluorescence microscopy on human renal and dermal capillary endothelium12-15 ...
Analysis of human lymphocyte anti... preview & related info | Mendeley
Human Immunology. Malignant cells have been reported to escape immune surveillance by modulation of human lymphocyte antigen ( ... Analysis of human lymphocyte antigen class I expression in gastric cancer by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. * ... Dutta, N., Majumder, D., Gupta, A., Mazumder, D. N. G., & Banerjee, S. (2005). Analysis of human lymphocyte antigen class I ... Malignant cells have been reported to escape immune surveillance by modulation of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class Ia ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00149104 - Correlative genotoxicity studies of airborne particles in Salmonella typhimurium...
The effects of solvent air particulates on genetic alterations were examined in human cells. Airborne particles were collected ... The authors recommend that the SCE analysis of human peripheral lymphocytes be employed in future genotoxicity studies related ... Correlative genotoxicity studies of airborne particles in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured human lymphocytes.. ... Heparinized peripheral lymphocytes from two normal human donors were cultured in the dark at 37 degrees-C for 72 hours in ...
The Human Leukocyte Antigen-presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
The Human Leukocyte Antigen-presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes. Chopie Hassan, Michel G. D. Kester, Arnoud H. de Ru, Pleun ... The Human Leukocyte Antigen-presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes. Chopie Hassan, Michel G. D. Kester, Arnoud H. de Ru, Pleun ... The Human Leukocyte Antigen-presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes. Chopie Hassan, Michel G. D. Kester, Arnoud H. de Ru, Pleun ... The Human Leukocyte Antigen-presented Ligandome of B Lymphocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Isopentenyladenosine Stimulates and Inhibits Mitosis of Human Lymphocytes Treated with Phytohemagglutinin | Science
Isopentenyladenosine Stimulates and Inhibits Mitosis of Human Lymphocytes Treated with Phytohemagglutinin. By Robert C. Gallo, ... Isopentenyladenosine Stimulates and Inhibits Mitosis of Human Lymphocytes Treated with Phytohemagglutinin. By Robert C. Gallo, ... Isopentenyladenosine Stimulates and Inhibits Mitosis of Human Lymphocytes Treated with Phytohemagglutinin Message Subject. ( ... 1Human Tumor Cell Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20014. ...
Phenotypic analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human breast cancer
... were prepared from 30 human breast ductal adenocarcinomas. To evaluate the phenotypic pattern of the isolated TIL, lymphocyte ... Phenotypic analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human breast cancer Anticancer Res. Sep-Oct 1992;12(5):1463-6. ... Suspensions of fresh tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were prepared from 30 human breast ductal adenocarcinomas. To ... Lymphocyte recovery ranged from 1.1% to 44%, independent of tumor size. TIL most often scored high for CD3+ with a varying ...
Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic plaque
It was recently shown that the human atherosclerotic plaque contains significant amounts of T lymphocytes, and also that smooth ... Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic plaque Am J Pathol. 1989 Jul;135(1):169-75. ... It was recently shown that the human atherosclerotic plaque contains significant amounts of T lymphocytes, and also that smooth ... Interferon-gamma could be detected in and around some of the lymphocytes, suggesting that paracrine secretion of this ...
Human T-lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I)-induced myeloneuropathy ...: Ingenta Connect
Human T-lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I)-induced myeloneuropathy in rats: Oligodendrocytes undergo apoptosis in the presence of ... Keywords: HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); Human T-lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I); ... To investigate the pathogenetic role of human T-lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I) in central nervous system disease, a rat model ...
Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes | Blood Journal
Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes. Keli L. Hippen, Christoph Bucher, Dawn K. ... Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes. Keli L. Hippen, Christoph Bucher, Dawn K. ... Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes. Keli L. Hippen, Christoph Bucher, Dawn K. ... Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Acid Phosphatase-Rich Granules in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Phytohemagglutinin | Science
Acid Phosphatase-Rich Granules in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Phytohemagglutinin Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Acid Phosphatase-Rich Granules in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Phytohemagglutinin. By Rochelle Hirschhorn, J. Martin Kaplan, ... Acid Phosphatase-Rich Granules in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Phytohemagglutinin. By Rochelle Hirschhorn, J. Martin Kaplan, ... Human lymphocytes, cultured in the presence of phytohemagglutinin, undergo morphologic transformation and subsequent mitosis. ...
The export of immunoglobulin D by human neoplastic B lymphocytes. | JEM
Frontiers | gd T lymphocytes in the diagnosis of human T cell receptor immunodeficiencies | Immunology
The human γδTCR (Figure 1A inset) is an octameric protein complex composed of three heterodimers (TCRγ/TCRδ, CD3γ/CD3ε, CD3δ/ ... Most (>70%) are CD4─CD8─ (double negative, DN), some (30%) are CD8+CD4─ and very few (10% of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (6 ... offer a diagnostic flowchart and some lab tricks based on published cases.γδ T cell and TCR physiopathologyγδ T lymphocytes are ... gd T lymphocytes in the diagnosis of human T cell receptor immunodeficiencies ...
PCC-rings dose effect curves in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma and neutron irradiation
Inhibition of DNA repair by deoxyadenosine in resting human lymphocytes. | The Journal of Immunology
Inhibition of DNA repair by deoxyadenosine in resting human lymphocytes.. S Seto, C J Carrera, D B Wasson and D A Carson ... Inhibition of DNA repair by deoxyadenosine in resting human lymphocytes. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... However, dAdo also causes the slow accumulation of DNA strand breaks in nondividing, mature human peripheral blood lymphocytes ... On the basis of this and other data, we suggest that quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes break and rejoin DNA at a slow and ...
RosetteSep™ Human Total Lymphocyte Enrichment Cocktail
Human Total Lymphocyte Enrichment Cocktail is designed to enrich lymphocytes from whole blood by negative selection. ... Human Total Lymphocyte,Human Total Lymphocyte kit,Total Lymphocyteenrichment cocktail,Total Lymphocyte,Lymphocyte,FCXM, ... The RosetteSep™ Human Total Lymphocyte Enrichment Cocktail is designed to enrich lymphocytes from whole blood by negative ... and TAT-BH4 prevented Escherichia coli-induced human lymphocyte apoptosis ex vivo and markedly decreased lymphocyte apoptosis ...
LAX1 - Lymphocyte transmembrane adapter 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - LAX1 gene & protein
sp,Q8IWV1,LAX1_HUMAN Lymphocyte transmembrane adapter 1 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=LAX1 PE=1 SV=1 ... Human chromosome 1. Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM ... "Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation by the adaptor protein LAX.". Zhu M., Granillo O., Wen R., Yang K., Dai X., Wang D ... Lymphocyte transmembrane adapter 1Add BLAST. 398. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
LY6L - Lymphocyte antigen 6L precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LY6L gene & protein
Lymphocyte antigen 6LCurated. Alternative name(s):. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein LImported. ,p>Manually validated ... sp,H3BQJ8,LY6L_HUMAN Lymphocyte antigen 6L OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=LY6L PE=3 SV=1 ... Human chromosome 8. Human chromosome 8: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM ... LY6L_HUMAN. ,p>This subsection of the Entry information section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable ...
In vivo effect of an immunostimulating bacterial lysate on human B lymphocytes.
The aim of the present study is to investigate in humans the mechanism by which the oral vaccine Polyvalent Mechanical ... B-Lymphocytes / drug effects*, immunology. Bacteria. Cell Extracts / pharmacology*, therapeutic use. Female. Humans. ... The aim of the present study is to investigate in humans the mechanism by which the oral vaccine Polyvalent Mechanical ... The frequency of IgM memory B cells and the expression of the activation marker CD25 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were ...
Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.
This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology*, virology*. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / ... RESULTS: EBV-negative, CD40-activated human B lymphocytes were directly infected by HIV-1. The infection significantly reduced ... Numerous fusion events indicated that HIV-1 infection of B lymphocytes could spread to T lymphocytes following HIV-1-mediated ...
VitroSubsetsAntigenCytotoxic T-lymphocyCellsAssayAntigensBlood lymphocytesFlow cytometrySubpopulationsMononuclearTumor-InfiltratingActivationInhibitionAdenylate cyclaseInfectionPhytohemagglutininInfluence T lymphocyteImmunodeficiency virusCharacterizationTransformationViralCellIntraepithelial lymphocytesInducesMitogen-stimulatedSecondary lymphoidGenotoxicityInterferonAntibodiesGenePopulationsCytometrySignificantlyNormalMechanismsResponsesConcentrationsImmunoglobulinMonoclonalPivotal roleInterleukinToxicity
- The in vitro effects of the recreational drugs, ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine, on natural killer (NK) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities on normal lymphocytes were investigated. (nih.gov)
- To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. (mdpi.com)
- In vitro assay for hapten-specific priming of human T lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
- The in vitro action of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ from six healthy donors and ten patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on natural killer (INK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was studied in an autologous system. (hindawi.com)
- In vitro activation of CD40 present on B cells mimics B cell-T interactions and allows the proliferation of normal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative B lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
- METHODS: Freshly isolated B lymphocytes were cultured in vitro through activation of CD40. (biomedsearch.com)
- With a modified microcytotoxicity assay, the effects of lymphocytes from normal volunteers and from patients with a variety of solid malignant tumors were tested in vitro against both normal and neoplastic target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- In vitro immortalization of Old World monkey T lymphocytes with herpesvirus saimiri: Its susceptibility to infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses. (currentprotocols.com)
- Isolated human lymphocytes were incubated in vitro and their viability assessed by exclusion of trypan blue. (portlandpress.com)
- This study investigated the apoptotic effects of SF extracts on normal human lymphocytes in vitro . (scielo.org.za)
- The standard method to quantify the exposed dose and to assess the health risks of radiation is the analysis of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes at the first post-irradiation mitosis at one fixed time, 48 h, after in vitro stimulation. (tu-darmstadt.de)
- To investigate whether human bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and articular chondrocytes (AC) affect the in vitro proliferation of T-lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) driven by the homeostatic IL 2, IL 7 and IL 15 cytokines binding to the common cytokine receptor γ-chain (γc ) in the absence of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering. (bmj.com)
- In vitro, glutamate interacts with T lymphocytes, affecting mitogen-induced calcium responses, whereas at high doses, it impairs T lymphocyte proliferation, a process strongly dependent on the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels. (aspetjournals.org)
- We conducted an in vitro study that clearly demonstrates that functional impact of common polymorphisms in the metabolic genes, such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), can be easily reflected in mutant induction in the gene coding for hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) in T-lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood. (omicsonline.org)
- Further, human peripheral T-lymphocytes and the in vitro HPRT gene mutation assay can be utilized to study the functional impact of common genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism and to identify risk genotypes susceptible for drug toxicity and somatic mutations. (omicsonline.org)
- aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-[gamma] and TNF-[alpha] production in vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This study aimed to verify whether non-toxic P. brasiliensis extracts inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Further characterization of the lymphocytes, accessory cells (dendritic cells, macrophage) and cytokines that participate in the MLR have been done as this assay continues to be used to define mechanisms for understanding cellular immune function in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
- 1964. Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
- Differential sensitivity of human B cell subsets to activation signals delivered by anti-u antibody and proliferative signals delivered by a monoclonal B cell growth factor. (springer.com)
- We found that neoantigen-specific lymphocytes were preferentially enriched in the CD8+PD-1+/hi or CD4+PD-1+/hi subsets, but not in the corresponding bulk or PD-1- fractions. (jci.org)
- Chapter 8 Double staining of intracellular cytokine proteins and T-lymphocyte subsets. (uva.nl)
- Two‐color flow cytometric analysis of monocyte‐depleted human blood lymphocyte subsets. (currentprotocols.com)
- Distribution of B-lymphocyte subsets in normal tissue. (springer.com)
- These molecules are essential markers for the identification and isolation of leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets. (frontiersin.org)
- Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (5E9) which defines a human cell surface surface antigen of cell activation, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
- The ihv-DCs can be genetically modified to express human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or the testis antigen MAGEA3 in generating CTA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (pnas.org)
- Among professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) hold unique abilities to prime naïve T lymphocytes in mediating antigen-specific, adaptive immune response ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on the cell surface play a crucial role in adaptive immunology, mediating the communication between T cells and antigen presenting cells. (mcponline.org)
- Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). (rupress.org)
- The genetic transfer of antigen receptors is a powerful approach to rapidly generate tumor-specific T lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Unlike the physiologic T-cell receptor, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) encompass immunoglobulin variable regions or receptor ligands as their antigen recognition moiety, thus permitting T cells to recognize tumor antigens in the absence of human leukocyte antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- We have, therefore, established animal models to assess the therapeutic efficacy of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an antigen expressed in prostate cancer cells and the neovasculature of various solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Successful immunization using dendritic cells or plasmid DNA vaccines ( 7 - 9 ) requires the presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted peptides by both the antigen-presenting cell and the tumor itself. (aacrjournals.org)
- Human CD4\(^+\) T cells process and present functional class II MHC-peptide complexes, but the endogenous peptide repertoire of these non-classical antigen presenting cells remains unknown. (harvard.edu)
- Human leukocyte differentiation antigen (HLDA) workshops have led to the characterization and formal designation of more than 400 surface molecules ( 7 , 8 ), known as CD molecules ( www.hcdm.org ). (frontiersin.org)
- This study examined the effect of dietary (200 μg/day for 8 weeks) supplementation with Se (as sodium selenite) on the ability of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to stimulation with antigen, develop into cytotoxic lymphocytes, and to destroy tumor cells. (springer.com)
- One potential target of vaccine therapy for human prostate cancer is the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (unboundmedicine.com)
- After several days, lymphocytes underwent blast transformation, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC Class I and II) differences between the two cell populations designated as Responder and Stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This study reports on a biomimetic delivery platform based on human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte membranes. (dovepress.com)
- HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response leads to a weakening of viral control and is likely to be detrimental to the patient. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Paired baseline and postdosing tumor biopsy specimens were prospectively collected from 19 patients with metastatic melanoma, including 3 patients with an objective tumor response, receiving the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab within a clinical trial with primary endpoint of quantitating CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- The anticipated mechanism of action is the stimulation of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the cancer, which requires studying such cells within tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Paired baseline and post-dosing tumor biopsies from 19 subjects, including three patients with an objective tumor response, were prospectively collected from patients with metastatic melanoma receiving the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab within a clinical trial with primary endpoint of quantitating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural killer cells express an assortment of channels (reviewed in 3). (springer.com)
- Up to date the presence of intracellular ER in human immune cells represents a controversial issue, while their surface membrane expression has scarcely been explored. (nih.gov)
- We observed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and NK cells contain intracellular ERalpha and ERbeta, being the ERalpha46 isoform the most represented ER. (nih.gov)
- We also observed that a membrane-impermeant form of E2 induced a rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a significant proliferation of T lymphocytes, and IFN-gamma production by NK cells, thus suggesting the expression of a functional mERalpha. (nih.gov)
- Expression of interleukin 2 receptors on activated human B cells. (springer.com)
- Sequential requirements for cell cycle progression of resting human B cells after activation by anti-Ig. (springer.com)
- Inhibition of cytotoxicity was also not due to direct toxicity of effector cells because lymphocytes treated with either EtOH or nicotine showed normal 51Cr release and their viability was comparable to that of untreated control cells. (nih.gov)
- Further, the DC-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells potently suppress tumor growth and metastasis in human lung cancer mouse models. (pnas.org)
- These cytotoxic lymphocytes suppress lung metastasis of A549/A2.1 lung cancer cells in NSG mice. (pnas.org)
- Both CTLs and NK cells are found to infiltrate lung as well as lymphoid tissues, mimicking the in vivo trafficking patterns of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
- Results were again significantly better than for l-PEI, although further research into the response of individual T cells to the transfection agent will be necessary, before either method can be used to routinely transfect primary T lymphocytes. (mdpi.com)
- To determine whether the decreased 5'N value in CLL represents a lower activity per cell or fewer enzyme-containing cells than in the normal, conditions were established for the histochemical measurement of 5'N in human lymphocytes. (jci.org)
- These data demonstrate the existence of circulating T cells targeting neoantigens in GI cancer patients and provide an approach to generate enriched populations of personalized neoantigen-specific lymphocytes and isolate TCRs that could be exploited therapeutically to treat cancer. (jci.org)
- We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. (mdpi.com)
- We found that thiram, ziram, maneb and carbaryl also induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the human T cells. (mdpi.com)
- These findings indicate that carbamate pesticides can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspases and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c. (mdpi.com)
- The induction of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) depends on recognition of foreign class II major histocompatibility complex antigens (human HLA-DR, DC/DS, SB and others, collectively referred to as Ia) on the target cells whereas killing by CTLs usually depends on recognition of foreign class I antigens (HLA-A,B) 4 , although some alloreactive CTLs recognize foreign Ia instead of HLA-A, B (refs 5-8). (nature.com)
- We have previously shown that human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells in standard culture conditions do not bear Ia antigens, but may be induced to do so by products of lectin- or alloantigen-activated T lymphocytes 16,17 . (nature.com)
- Here we report that IFN-γ also induces Ia expression on human foreskin capillary endothelial (HFCE) cells, HUVE cells transformed by Simian virus 40 viral DNA (SV-HUVE cells) and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in culture. (nature.com)
- Further, we present evidence that Ia present on HUVE cells and HDF cells can be functionally recognized by human T cells, resulting in a two-way interaction between T cells and mesenchymal cells that may be important in allograft rejection. (nature.com)
- The NK activity of PBL was detected by a cytotoxic test using 3 H-uridine human erythromyeloblast K562 cells. (hindawi.com)
- Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) develop as manifestations of the recognition and defense against malignant cells by the host immune system. (nih.gov)
- The effects of solvent air particulates on genetic alterations were examined in human cells. (cdc.gov)
- Although there was considerable diversity of TIL among breast tumors, our data suggest that a high expression of CD4+ T cells may imply progression of the tumor, and an increased CD4/CD8 ratio of the TIL isolated from human breast adenocarcinoma may indicate development of metastases. (nih.gov)
- In a human xenogeneic GVHD model, human IL-21-secreting cells were present in the colon of GVHD recipients and were associated with elevated serum IL-21 levels. (bloodjournal.org)
- A neutralizing anti-human IL-21 mAb given prophylactically significantly reduced GVHD-associated weight loss and mortality, resulting in a concomitant increase in Tregs and a decrease in T cells secreting IFN-γ or granzyme B. Based on these findings, anti-IL-21 mAb could be considered for GVHD prevention in the clinic. (bloodjournal.org)
- γδ T lymphocytes are a minor subset (1-10%) of human peripheral blood T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Indeed, no selective γδ T cell immunodeficiency (ID) has been reported to date, although absence of γδ T cells has been described together with other lymphocyte derangements in rare primary ID ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The percentage of γδ T cells (mean ± SEM) was defined as γδTCR + using 11F2, IMMU510, or anti-TCRδ-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) within the T lymphocyte gate (defined as CD3 + ) and ordered from left to right in decreasing values. (frontiersin.org)
- The frequency of IgM memory B cells and the expression of the activation marker CD25 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured using the flow cytometric method before the start and at days 30 and 90 of the treatment cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
- The results showed that PMBL exerts a therapeutic and preventing effect in acute and recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract and that this effect correlated with the activation and enhancement of both IgM memory B lymphocytes (CD24+/CD27+ cells) and IL2 receptor-expressing lymphocytes (CD25+ cells) involved either in humoral or cellular immunity. (biomedsearch.com)
- In HIV-1-seropositive individuals, B cells become exposed to free viral particles and to infected T lymphocytes while migrating through germinal centres. (biomedsearch.com)
- In addition, HIV-mediated fusion between infected B cells and uninfected CD4+ T lymphocytes was assessed in a coculture assay. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the first two phases of the study, lymphocytes from both normal volunteers and cancer patients were frequently toxic on both tumor cells and fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the last phase of the study, normal lymphocytes were less frequently toxic on both types of target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cancer patient lymphocytes were more frequently toxic on tumor cells but no more frequently toxic on fibroblasts than were normal lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
- The different results obtained in the last phase of the study cannot be attributed solely to the different method of lymphocyte separation, since other factors, such as better growth status of the target cells and greater facility in performing the assays, might also be responsible. (aacrjournals.org)
- Results of the last phase of the study raise the possibility that both specific and nonspecific reactions may contribute to the toxicity observed in this laboratory with cancer patient lymphocytes tested against tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene regulation was investigated in primary cultures of highly purified human peripheral blood CD28+T cells. (umich.edu)
- These cells are called Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes, or TIL and we have given this type of treatment to over 200 patients with melanoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study attempted to investigate the effects of the transplantation of lymphocytes co-cultured with human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (HCB-SCs) on the inflammatory response in transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) rats. (dovepress.com)
- Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. (asm.org)
- Acutely infected donor cells were mixed with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled lymphocytes as targets, and viral production was followed by measuring HIV Gag expression at different time points by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
- At the lymphocyte-lymphocyte junction, viral materials and adhesion molecules concentrate in donor cells, in a process involving raft microdomains, whereas on the other side, in target cells, viral receptors (CD4 and CXCR4 or CCR5) and cognate adhesion molecules accumulate in a cytoskeleton- and actin-dependent mechanism ( 24 , 25 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- Virological or "infectious" synapses are also formed between dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to HIV particles and target lymphocytes through the same principle ( 31 ). (asm.org)
- We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Human T lymphocytes (pre-T cells) and activated platelet, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
- Chapter 2 Products from mast cells influence T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production - relevant to allergic asthma? (uva.nl)
- They block human B-cell proliferation and promote apoptotic cell death selectively in antibody-secreting B cells, and to a lesser extent in activated human T cells. (rcsb.org)
- The authors carefully characterize the apoptosis of cells from the affected children as well as the activation of their lymphocytes. (aappublications.org)
- The protocol for flow cytometry analysis presented here has been specifically developed for studies of human peripheral blood cells. (currentprotocols.com)
- However, because lymphocytes generally represent a minority of peripheral cells (especially in adults), careful gating of the test samples for lymphocytes is a more critical requirement in this procedure than in other procedures using purified cells. (currentprotocols.com)
- Growth control of activated murine B-cells by the C3d-fragment of human complement. (springer.com)
- BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc) on the surface of peripheral lymphocytes has been previously reported, but little is known about its expression on lymphoid cells from secondary lymph organs. (haematologica.org)
- RESULTS: Human peripheral lymphocytes and tonsillar lymphoid cells, but not erythrocytes or granulocytes, express PrPc at their surfaces. (haematologica.org)
- Interestingly, we found significantly less PrPc on freshly isolated tonsil lymphocytes, both B and T, than on blood cells. (haematologica.org)
- Although tonsil cells bear less PrPc than circulating blood lymphocytes, they are able to express high quantities of PrPc on their surface when placed in culture. (haematologica.org)
- By testing a variety of gold nanoparticles, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and collaborators are providing first evidence of their impact upon human B lymphocytes-the immune cells responsible for antibody production. (phys.org)
- Similar studies have already been conducted for other immune cells such as macrophages, which seek out and interact with nanoparticles, but never before for the smaller, and more difficult to handle, B lymphocytes. (phys.org)
- Immunohistochemistry on a panel of human tissues revealed that the TCF-1 protein was found exclusively in thymocytes and in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
- Fresh and cultured peripheral blood cells from two patients with hemophilia A and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were examined for markers of infection with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type I. Neither patient had antibody to membrane antigens of HTLV-infected cells at the time of culture. (annals.org)
- Examination of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed other smaller virus-like particles in circulating mononuclear cells from both patients. (annals.org)
- Moreover, it will provide a full picture of the surfaceome of human immune cells and serves as a useful platform to increase our understanding of leukocyte biology, as well as to facilitate the identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets of immunological and hematological diseases. (frontiersin.org)
- Lymphocytes are primordial immune cells with variable life times. (portlandpress.com)
- Besides its known cytotoxic activities against granulocytes, monocytes, endothelial cells, and renal epithelial cells, we now demonstrate that the toxin potently kills human T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
- When attempting transformations using cryopreserved lymphocytes, begin with 5-10 x106 cells. (unclineberger.org)
- Collect the interphase of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBNCs) or also referred to as Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs). (unclineberger.org)
- At 12 h, SF caused a significant increase in apoptosis in the total lymphocyte population and CD4 + cells as evidenced by increased phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, caspase-3/7 activity, and decreased ATP content. (scielo.org.za)
- After 12 h, the SF extract initiated lymphocyte activation in both total lymphocyte and CD4 + subpopulations, indicated by a doubling of the number of cells expressing the CD69 activation marker. (scielo.org.za)
- To address these questions, lymphocytes obtained from a healthy donor were irradiated with X-rays, C-, Fe- and Fe-like particles with LETs ranging from 2-3160 keV/microm and chromosome aberrations were measured in first cycle metaphase cells at multiple 3 h collection intervals from 48 to 84 h post-irradiation. (tu-darmstadt.de)
- Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. (fluidigm.com)
- Our findings provide insights into the molecular identity and functions of human tumor-infiltrating Treg cells and define potential targets for tumor immunotherapy. (fluidigm.com)
- Lymphocytes (2.5 × 10 6 ), isolated prior to and 8 weeks following supplementation, were activated by allogeneic stimulation with 8.3 × 10 5 mitomycin C-treated Ragi cells for 5 days. (springer.com)
- The results indicated that supplementation with selenite in humans results in a significant (118%) increase in the ability of a given lymphocyte population to destroy a fixed number of tumor cells, i.e., 45.57 ± 5.96 vs. 20.87 ± 2.62% cytotoxicity at 20:1 ratio. (springer.com)
- While the cytotoxic efficiency of both lymphocyte populations remained the same, the number of lymphocytes required to destroy 2×10 5 tumor cells decreased significantly after supplementation (1.53 × 10 6 ± 1.98 × 10 5 vs. 7.10 × 10 5 ± 1.49 × 10 5 ). (springer.com)
- Human T-cell lines generated with the PSA-3A agonist had the ability to lyse human prostate carcinoma cells expressing native PSA in an MHC-restricted manner. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Both T2DM and atherosclerosis are considered to be inflammatory processes Human T-lymphocytes (T-cells) and aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) have been shown to be components of plaque formation in atherosclerosis. (intechopen.com)
- It can be inferred from the results of experiments with both normal and leukemic cells that LPF, which is a murine thymus-derived (T)-cell mitogen, is also a T-cell mitogen for human PBL. (eurekamag.com)
- The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokines--IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)--by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. (harvard.edu)
- Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis. (harvard.edu)
- The current study was aimed at determining the regulatory capacity of human B cells on DC maturation and function, and at evaluating their efficiency in autoimmune disorder. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Human B cells can regulate DC maturation and function. (bmj.com)
- Any of a group of antigens present on the surface of nucleated body cells that are coded for by the major histocompatibility complex of humans and thus allow the immune system to distinguish self and nonself. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We obtained a clear dose-related increase in the HPRT mutant frequency after treating mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes isolated from a normal blood donor with 2-NF (up to 5 fold at 400 μg/mL, 24h exposure), while no HPRT mutant induction was observed using cells from another blood donor. (omicsonline.org)
- Although the contribution of GSTM1 genotype is less clear, our finding suggests that functional polymorphisms in key metabolic genes do affect induction of gene mutations at the HPRT locus and at least the NAT2 genotype plays a critical role in determining the susceptibility of human cells to genotoxicity of 2-NF. (omicsonline.org)
- Among the pro-inflammatory cytokines produced, interleukin (IL)-2 acts as an autocrine growth factor and induces clonal proliferation of Tand B lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] and interferon (IFN)-[gamma] contribute to the activation of phagocytes, promote high expression levels of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells, and accelerate the events that culminate in tissue injury. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Cell suspensions enriched in cells at various stages of apoptosis were obtained by separation of irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes on density gradients at different post-irradiation times. (diva-portal.org)
- Total PDE, PDE3, and PDE4 activities were measured in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-PHA), normal natural killer (NK) cells, Jurkat and Kit225-K6 leukemic T-cells, T-cell lines transformed with human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I (a retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) and HTLV-II (a nonpathogenic retrovirus), normal B-cells, and B-cells transformed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (lu.se)
- HTLV-I+ T-cells differed significantly from other T-lymphocyte-derived cells in also having a higher proportion of PDE4 activities, which apparently were not related to selective induction of any one PDE4 mRNA (judged by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) or expression of the HTLV-I regulatory protein Tax. (lu.se)
- In humans, the majority of IELs are alpha beta T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- 15% of IELs are gamma delta T cells and thus represent a minor component of human IELs. (wikipedia.org)
- Put simply, it is mixing populations of T-lymphocytes (category of white blood cells) together, and measuring the reaction that occurs. (wikipedia.org)
- The assay set-up consists of purifying responder lymphocytes from peripheral blood, thymus, lymph nodes or spleen and co-culturing with stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Stimulator cell populations that also contain T-cells (Two way mixed lymphocyte reaction) will replicate in the presence of the Responder cells, therefore for a One way mixed lymphocyte reaction, stimulator cells are prevented from replicating by irradiation or treatment with mitomycin C, a DNA crosslinker to prevent cell replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Development of an assay system for human B cell growth factor (BCGF). (springer.com)
- Heparinized peripheral lymphocytes from two normal human donors were cultured in the dark at 37 degrees-C for 72 hours in culture medium for use in the performance of a sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. (cdc.gov)
- In order to perform a chromosomal aberration assay, human peripheral blood was cultured in an identical manner for 52 hours. (cdc.gov)
- As measured by a sensitive DNA unwinding assay, most DNA strand breaks were rejoined within 2 hr after exposure of lymphocytes to 500 rad. (jimmunol.org)
- The micronucleus assay in human peripheral blood lymphocytes is a sensitive indicator of radiation damage and could serve as a biological dosimeter in evaluating suspected overexposure to ionising radiation. (srce.hr)
- A new approach to study human B-lymphocyte function using an indirect plaaue assay. (springer.com)
- The HPBLs were cultured and the DNA damage was assessed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in the binucleate lymphocytes. (stopumts.nl)
- Lymphocyte mediated tumor cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 4h- 51 Cr release assay and effector: target cell ratios of 1.25-20:1. (springer.com)
- Technically, it is an ex-vivo cellular immune assay that occurs between two allogeneic lymphocyte populations (same species but genetically distinct). (wikipedia.org)
- Recently, Ia antigens have been observed by immunofluorescence microscopy on human renal and dermal capillary endothelium 12-15 . (nature.com)
- The presented B-lymphocyte ligandome is shown to be a rich source of information by the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens, virus-derived epitopes, and post-translationally modified HLA ligands, and it can be a good starting point for solving a wealth of specific immunological questions. (mcponline.org)
- The early intracellular events initiated by antigens or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) that eventuate in transformation and mitosis of human lymphocytes are unknown. (annals.org)
- Some individuals with a depressed responsiveness to PHA maintain a high reactivity to parasite antigens, suggesting that different subpopulations of lymphocytes may be involved in these measurements. (ajtmh.org)
- Estrogen receptor profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
- In this study we investigated the intracellular and cell surface expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by flow and static cytometry as well as by Western Blot. (nih.gov)
- However, dAdo also causes the slow accumulation of DNA strand breaks in nondividing, mature human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Over an 8-hr period, 10 microM dAdo gradually rendered peripheral blood lymphocytes incompetent for DNA repair. (jimmunol.org)
- On the basis of this and other data, we suggest that quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes break and rejoin DNA at a slow and balanced rate. (jimmunol.org)
- At different times of exposure, interferon (IFN) enhanced and suppressed pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). (jimmunol.org)
- 2010). 'Dose Rate Effect of Pulsed Electron Beam on Micronucleus Frequency in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , 61(1), str. (srce.hr)
- S. Acharya, G. Sanjeev, N.N. Bhat i Y. Narayana, "Dose Rate Effect of Pulsed Electron Beam on Micronucleus Frequency in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes", Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , vol.61, br. (srce.hr)
- Transformation of human cord blood lymphocytes by coinfection with UV-inactivated Epstein-Barr virus and purified EBV-DNA. (springer.com)
- In this report, we compare the surface expression of PrPc on human blood lymphocytes and tonsil lymphocytes. (haematologica.org)
- Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. (stopumts.nl)
- Blood lymphocytes were examined to determine the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE). (fluoridealert.org)
- The purified lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF) from Bordetella pertussis was found to be a potent mitogen for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal adults as well as for cord blood lymphocytes. (eurekamag.com)
- Citations to Human lymphocytes: 5'-nucleotidase-positive and -negative subpopulations. (jci.org)
- Human lymphocytes: 5'-nucleotidase-positive and -negative subpopulations. (jci.org)
- Experiments with lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by rosetting techniques employing sheep erythrocytes, mouse erythrocytes, and sheep erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement suggested the requirement of a multicellular system for LPF mitogencity.PBL from most patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia and lymphosarcoma cell leukemia were even less responsive to LPF than to phytohemagglutinin, whereas PBL from patients with lymphosarcoma usually responded to both mitogens. (eurekamag.com)
- To identify directly and to quantitate these beta-adenergic receptors in human lymphocytes, (-) [3H] alprenolol, a potent beta-adrenergic antagonist, was used to label binding sites in homogenates of human mononuclear leukocytes. (duke.edu)
- 3H] alprenolol binding to human mononuclear leukocyte preparations was almost entirely accounted for by binding to small lymphocytes, the predominant cell type in the preparations. (duke.edu)
- TILs were literally defined as "tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes", which a posteriori locate within the tumor tissues. (nih.gov)
- Suspensions of fresh tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were prepared from 30 human breast ductal adenocarcinomas. (nih.gov)
- Administration of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) generated from resected metastatic melanoma can induce objective long-term tumor responses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. (fluidigm.com)
- Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Cahalan MD, McLaughlin C, Gupta S: Voltage-gated K channels are required for T lymphocyte activation. (springer.com)
- Efforts to evaluate normal human B cell physiology have resulted in the development of a model in which a resting B cell must progress through stages of activation, proliferation, and differentiation before becoming an immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cell (1-4). (springer.com)
- B lymphocyte activation by insoluble anti-immunoglobulin: induction of immunoglobulin secretion by a T cell dependent soluble factor. (springer.com)
- Differential expression of cell activation markers following stimulation of resting human B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- Regulation of B cell activation and differentiation with factors generated by human T cell hybridomas. (springer.com)
- Identification and characterization of a B cell activation factor (BCAF) produced by a human T cell line. (springer.com)
- Lymphocytes co-cultured with HCB-SCs exhibit a neuroprotective effect after ischemic stroke by promoting Tregs differentiation and suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and neuron apoptosis, and might be a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. (dovepress.com)
- This article describes a heretofore unrecognized function of caspase-8 in lymphocyte activation. (aappublications.org)
- In addition to the defect in apoptosis, the authors describe a very significant defect in lymphocyte activation that probably accounts for the immunodeficiency phenotype. (aappublications.org)
- Caspase-8 mutations lead to a disorder characterized by expansion of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs and abnormal lymphocyte activation. (aappublications.org)
- This article is significant for introducing us to a new immunodeficiency and for the demonstration that caspase-8 is involved in lymphocyte activation. (aappublications.org)
- Caspase-8 is now known to have an undefined but integral function in lymphocyte activation and the phenotype of patients with caspase-8 deficiency reflects this, with both lymphoid expansion and immunodeficiency. (aappublications.org)
- 1. A human lymphocyte preparation, obtained by Percoll gradient centrifugation and free of contaminating monocytes and granulocytes, was used to study the kinetics of the Na + -H + exchanger through activation by nigericin-induced acidic loading. (portlandpress.com)
- Åman P., Lewin N., Nordström N., Klein G. (1986) EBV-Activation of Human B-Lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- We then exposed human B lymphocytes to our particles for 24 hours to examine the activation of the immune response. (phys.org)
- We provide evidence that PQ induces apoptosis in lymphocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion by an oxidative stress mechanism involving O(2)(radical -), H(2)O(2)/((radical)OH) generation, simultaneous activation of NF-kappaB/p53/c-Jun transcription factors, mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3 activation leading to morphological apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- It is concluded that PQ-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes by a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional factors and caspase-3 activation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The apoptosis observed may thus be the result of activation-induced lymphocyte cell death (AICD). (scielo.org.za)
- Samples were analyzed for cell density by automated imaging capture and further characterized for functional lymphocyte properties by assessing the cell activation markers HLA-DR and CD45RO, the cell proliferation marker Ki67, and the regulatory T-cell marker FOXP3. (aacrjournals.org)
- In both humans and mice IELs express higher levels of CD103, activation marker CD69, granzyme B and perforin cytolytic granules. (wikipedia.org)
- Vayuvegula B, Gollapudi S, Gupta S: Inhibition of human B cell proliferation by ion channel blockers. (springer.com)
- EtOH-induced inhibition of NK activity could be reversed by incubating lymphocytes for 1 hr with interferon. (nih.gov)
- Inhibition of DNA repair by deoxyadenosine in resting human lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Here we report β5i-selective inhibition by asparagine-ethylenediamine (AsnEDA)-based compounds and present the high-resolution cryo-EM structural analysis of the human immunoproteasome. (rcsb.org)
- Despite pump inhibition ouabain did not alter lymphocyte survival, even at 10 mM for 30 h. (portlandpress.com)
- 2. We measured supine and 10 min upright plasma noradrenaline and lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity in ten healthy elderly subjects (age 66-80 years) and seven healthy young subjects (age 27-34 years). (clinsci.org)
- 3. Isoprenaline stimulation of lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity was not significantly different between supine and upright positions or between elderly and young subjects. (clinsci.org)
- Human lymphocytes are known to posessess a catecholamine-responsive adenylate cyclase which has typical beta-adrenergic specificity. (duke.edu)
- 10% of peripheral blood T lymphocytes ( 6 ), requires clarification in several diseases including infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and primary ID. (frontiersin.org)
- Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1. (biomedsearch.com)
- Numerous fusion events indicated that HIV-1 infection of B lymphocytes could spread to T lymphocytes following HIV-1-mediated fusion of these two cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
- The plant cytokinin isopentenyladenosine, a component of yeast and mammalian transfer ribonucleic acid, is both a potent inhibitor and stimulator of DNA synthesis, transformation, and mitosis of the phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte. (sciencemag.org)
- Human lymphocytes, cultured in the presence of phytohemagglutinin, undergo morphologic transformation and subsequent mitosis. (sciencemag.org)
- Comitogenic and immunosuppressant action of p,p-DDT and its derivatives on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes]. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Influence T lymphocyte1
- It is well established by now that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, apart from their signaling role in the CNS, can also directly influence T lymphocyte functions ( Levite, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- Numerous studies have demonstrated that lymphotropic retroviruses such as human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) efficiently disseminate through cell-to-cell contacts ( 16 , 22 - 24 , 36 , 38 - 40 ). (asm.org)
- Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
- The viral infectivity factor gene vif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to affect the infectivity but not the production of virus particles. (asm.org)
- Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (4F2) which binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- The genetic modification of human T lymphocytes with established non-viral methods is inefficient. (mdpi.com)
- The effect of HIV-1 viral exposure on CD40-activated B lymphocytes was therefore examined. (biomedsearch.com)
- B-cell proliferation, HIV-1 infectivity and viral production were monitored following B-lymphocyte exposure to HIV-1. (biomedsearch.com)
- In lymphoid cell lines, as well as in primary lymphocytes, viral replication was dramatically reduced in shaken cultures. (asm.org)
- We demonstrate that human milk can inhibit the DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4 + T lymphocytes as well as viral transfer by both immature and mature DCs. (jci.org)
- The identification of a region rich in polyriboadenylic acid (poly A) in viral and eukaryotic mRNAs facilitated the isolation of lymphocyte mRNA. (annals.org)
- In this review we will emphasize some of the studies performed in our laboratory on the various stages of B cell function in humans. (springer.com)
- Implications for the role of interleukin 2 in human cell function. (springer.com)
- Here, we report the development of immortalized and constitutively activated human primary blood dendritic cell lines (ihv-DCs). (pnas.org)
- This approach should facilitate the development of cell-based immunotherapy for human lung cancer. (pnas.org)
- Knowledge of these peptides is of pivotal importance in fundamental studies of T cell action, the design of T-cell-mediated therapies such as tumor immunotherapy ( 1 ), and the treatment of hematological malignancies through a combination of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
- Human T cell receptor (TCR) immunodeficiencies (TCRID) are rare autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations affecting TCR, CD3, or CD247 chains, which share developmental, functional, and TCR expression defects ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- CONCLUSION: In view of the importance of B cell-T cell interactions in the maintenance of a functional immune system, disruption of B-lymphocyte development could have direct implications on the course of AIDS progression. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. (rupress.org)
- Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. (rupress.org)
- Thus, hIL-10 produced by infected human B lymphocytes appears to be involved in the mechanisms of EBV-induced B cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
- Colour-enhanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) of a human lymphocyte cell. (sciencephoto.com)
- The inhibitors are far more cytotoxic for myeloma and lymphoma cell lines than for hepatocarcinoma or non-activated lymphocytes. (rcsb.org)
- Defects in genes involved in the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of lymphocytes have been shown to cause disorders characterized by significant adenopathy and autoimmunity. (aappublications.org)
- The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus originally discovered in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (springer.com)
- INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the PrPc expression by lymphocytes may be modified by interactions occurring during intratissular migration or during cell-to-cell contacts. (haematologica.org)
- TCF-1 mRNA was originally found to be expressed in a T cell-specific fashion within a set of human and mouse cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
- There are about 2×10^12 lymphocytes in the human body, making the immune system comparable in cell mass to the liver or brain. (harvard.edu)
- This histopathological observational study examined a series of 14 human uveitic eyes by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the nature of B cell infiltration and determine whether features of ELS were present. (arvojournals.org)
- The results indicate that supplementation with Se in humans results in a significant increase in the number of cytotoxic lymphocytes within a cell population. (springer.com)
- The effect is determined by baseline lymphocyte proliferation, cell:cell ratio and is soluble factor(s) dependent. (bmj.com)
- vif was found to be required for replication in the CD4+ T-cell lines CEM and H9 as well as in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
- These results suggest that vif can compensate for cellular factors required for production of infectious virus particles that are present in some cell lines such as SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat but are absent in others such as CEM and H9 as well as peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
- Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. (wikipedia.org)
- Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. (rupress.org)
- Rio MJ, Velez-Pardo C. Paraquat induces apoptosis in human lymphocytes: protective and rescue effects of glucose, cannabinoids and insulin-like growth factor-1. (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Paraquat induces apoptosis in human lymphocytes: protective and rescue effects of glucose, cannabinoids and insulin-like growth factor-1. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Sutro JB, Vayuvegula BS, Gupta S and Cahalan MD. Up-regulation of voltage-sensitive K + channels in mitogen-stimulated B lymphocytes.Biophysical Journal 53: 460a (1988). (springer.com)
- Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELS) are focal aggregations of B lymphocytes with features of secondary lymphoid follicles that develop in non-lymphoid tissue. (arvojournals.org)
- Correlative genotoxicity studies of airborne particles in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured human lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
- The authors recommend that the SCE analysis of human peripheral lymphocytes be employed in future genotoxicity studies related to ambient air particulates, as well as other complex mixtures found in the environment. (cdc.gov)
- Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- To date, there are no published human studies on the genotoxicity of fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
- Interferon acts directly on human B lymphocytes to modulate immunoglobulin synthesis. (jimmunol.org)
- Responsible for the production of antibodies, B lymphocytes are a crucial part of the human immune system , and therefore an interesting target for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. (phys.org)
- Multiple groups have studied how anti-CTLA4 antibodies impact the human immune system and the mechanisms that determine tumor response or progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Fischbach M, Talal N, Cahalan MD, Gupta S: Altered K+ channel expression in abnormal T lymphocytes from mice with the 1pr gene mutation. (springer.com)
- Nucleotide polymorphisms in the NAT2 gene are highly responsible for the classical isoniazid acetylation polymorphism in humans. (omicsonline.org)
- DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis was performed by cytometry on live lymphocytes isolated from healthy donors or from the tonsils of adults or children. (haematologica.org)
- The transplantation of lymphocytes co-cultured with HCB-SCs significantly improved the neurological defects, reduced ischemic brain damage, and increased the proportion of peripheral CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs. (dovepress.com)
- Therefore, this new drug-delivery platform retained both the long circulation time and tumor site accumulation ability of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while local LDI could significantly enhance tumor localization. (dovepress.com)
- Glutamate, at concentrations within normal plasma levels, positively modulates K v 1.3 channel gating, causing currents to activate faster and at significantly more hyperpolarized potentials, hence rendering the T lymphocyte readily responsive to immune stimuli. (aspetjournals.org)
- Proliferative responses of normal human B - lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- The enzyme, 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) (E.C.-126.96.36.199) is present in lymphocytes isolated from the blood of normal subjects. (jci.org)
- To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we have assessed the effects of dAdo and other deoxynucleosides on the repair of gamma-radiation induced DNA strand breaks in resting normal lymphocyte cultures. (jimmunol.org)
- By inhibiting DNA repair, dAdo, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and related compounds may substantially potentiate the toxicity of DNA damaging agents to normal and malignant lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- The purpose of this investigation was to determine genotoxic risks of long-term exposure to various concentrations of fluoride in drinking water in humans with normal or inadequate nutrition. (fluoridealert.org)
- Triggering mechanisms of B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- T-lymphocyte-mediated responses to the cellular components of blood vessels are important in rejection of allografts 1-3 . (nature.com)
- Lymphocytes precultured with EtOH at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6% (v/v) produced significant suppression of NK and ADCC activities. (nih.gov)
- The export of immunoglobulin D by human neoplastic B lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
- We have now raised a monoclonal antibody to document expression and biochemistry of the human TCF-1 protein. (bloodjournal.org)
- Lee SC, Sabath DE, Deutsch C, Prystowsky MB: Increased voltage-gated potassium conductance during interleukin 2-stimulated proliferation of a mouse helper T lymphocyte clone. (springer.com)
- Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM), a radiomimetic agent. (sigmaaldrich.com)