HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA-DR Serological Subtypes: HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.HLA-DP beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.HLA-B52 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*52 allele family.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.HLA-DP Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.HLA-B18 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*18 allele family.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.HLA-B51 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.HLA-DP alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.HLA-DQ alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 18.104.22.168.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.HLA-DR beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR light chains.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLLeukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by bilateral granulomatous UVEITIS with IRITIS and secondary GLAUCOMA, premature ALOPECIA, symmetrical VITILIGO, poliosis circumscripta (a strand of depigmented hair), HEARING DISORDERS, and meningeal signs (neck stiffness and headache). Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals a pattern consistent with MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p748; Surv Ophthalmol 1995 Jan;39(4):265-292)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.HLA-DR alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR heavy chains.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Bahrain: An independent state, an archipelago in the western Persian Gulf, northwest of Qatar. It comprises low-lying islands of Bahrain (the largest), Muharraq, Sitra, and several islets. It has extensive oil fields. The name comes from the Arabic al-bahrayn, "the two seas", with reference to its lying in the middle of a bay with its "two seas" east and west of it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p107 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)HLA-A11 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.Blood DonorsMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Graft vs Leukemia Effect: Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or ... DR6-DQ1 can refer to either DR13-DQ6 or less frequently DR14-DQ5, but DR6-DQ3 or DR6-DQ7 generally refers to DR13-DQ7. Even ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ...
1992). "Human leukocyte antigen serologic and DNA typing of Behçet's disease and its primary association with B51". Invest. ... DQA1*0102 is associated with both DR5 and DR6. DQA1*0102:DQB1*0502 has a bimodal distribution. It is found in the Philippines ... 1994). "Human leukocyte antigen class II polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility of IDDM in Egyptian children". Diabetes Care ... Kroner BL, Goedert JJ, Blattner WA, Wilson SE, Carrington MN, Mann DL (1995). "Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype ...
... hla-dr6 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.410.400.440.475 --- hla-dr7 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450 --- hla antigens MeSH D23.050 ... minor histocompatibility antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.600.400 --- h-y antigen MeSH D23.050.301.562 --- leukocyte l1 antigen ... antigens, human platelet MeSH D23.050.705.230 --- blood group antigens MeSH D23.050.705.230.031 --- abo blood-group system MeSH ... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.465 --- hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.470 --- hla-dr6 ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex. These proteins are encoded by a cluster of genes known as the HLA locus. The HLA locus occupies a ~ 3Mbp stretch that is located on the short arm of chromosome 6, specifically on 6p21.1-21.3. The MHC proteins are classified into three main categories, namely class I, II, and III. There are over 140 genes within the HLA locus and they are often called HLA genes. HLA-A, B, and C are the classical class I genes and HLA-E, F and G are the nonclassical class I genes. The ...
... histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-G gene. HLA-G belongs to the HLA nonclassical class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. HLA-G is expressed on fetal derived placental cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exon 6 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Exon 7 and 8 are not translated due to a stop codon present in exon 6. ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E (HLA-E) also known as MHC class I antigen E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-E gene. The human HLA-E is a non-classical MHC class I molecule that is characterized by a limited polymorphism and a lower cell surface expression than its classical paralogues. The functional homolog in mice is called Qa-1b, officially known as H2-T23. Like other MHC class I molecules, HLA-E is a heterodimer consisting of an α heavy chain and a light chain (β-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and anchored in the membrane. The HLA-E gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the signal peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the α1 and α2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the α3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane domain, and ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. The HLA gene complex resides on a 3 Mbp stretch within chromosome 6p21. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, which means that they have many different alleles, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system. The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. Different classes have different functions:. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the cell. For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. The HLA gene complex resides on a 3 Mbp stretch within chromosome 6p21. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, which means that they have many different alleles, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system. The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. Different classes have different functions: HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the cell. For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. HLA-DOA forms a heterodimer with HLA-DOB. The heterodimer, HLA-DO, is found in lysosomes in B cells and regulates HLA-DM-mediated peptide loading on MHC class II molecules. In comparison with classical HLA class II molecules, this gene exhibits very little sequence variation, especially at the protein level. ENSG00000230141, ENSG00000232962, ENSG00000235744, ENSG00000231558, ENSG00000206292, ENSG00000232957 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000204252, ENSG00000230141, ENSG00000232962, ENSG00000235744, ENSG00000231558, ENSG00000206292, ENSG00000232957 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024334 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... is a type of transfusion reaction that is associated with fever but not directly with hemolysis. It is most commonly caused by antibodies directed against donor leukocytes and HLA antigens. This is in contrast to transfusion-associated acute lung injury, in which the donor plasma has antibodies directed against the recipient HLA antigens, mediating the characteristic lung damage. Alternatively, FNHTR can be mediated by pre-formed cytokines in the donor plasma as a consequence of white blood cell breakdown.. It is abbreviated "FNHTR".. Acetaminophen has been used in treatment, and leukoreduction of future transfusions is sometimes performed.. ...
... is double serotype that specifically recognizes cells from individuals who carry a multigene HLA DR, DQ haplotype. Certain HLA DR and DQ genes have known involvement in autoimmune diseases. DR3-DQ2, a multigene haplotype, stands out in prominence because it is a factor in several prominent diseases, namely coeliac disease and juvenile diabetes. In coeliac disease, the DR3-DQ2 haplotype is associated with highest risk for disease in first degree relatives, highest risk is conferred by DQA1*0501:DQB1*0201 homozygotes and semihomozygotes of DQ2, and represents the overwhelming majority of risk. HLA DR3-DQ2 encodes DQ2.5cis isoform of HLA-DQ, this isoform is described frequently as 'the DQ2 isoform', but in actuality there are two major DQ2 isoform. The DQ2.5 isoform, however, is many times more frequently associated with autoimmune disease, and as a result ...
... is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or longer, constitutes a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR). HLA (human leukocyte antigens) were originally defined as cell surface antigens that mediate graft-versus-host disease. Identification of these antigens has led to greater success and longevity in organ transplant. Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), ...
... (B37) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*37 gene products. (For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Ennis PD, Zemmour J, Salter RD, Parham P (1990). "Rapid cloning of HLA-A,B cDNA by using the polymerase chain reaction: frequency and nature of errors produced in amplification". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (7): 2833-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.7.2833. PMC 53785 . PMID 2320591. Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. External link ...
... (B78) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*78 gene products. B78 is more common in West and North Africa, but is also scattered at low frequencies in parts of Asia. (For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. External link in ,title= (help ...
瀰漫性泛細支氣管炎是一種特發病（英语：Idiopathy），即是說它的生理、環境及病原體成因仍是未知的。然而，已知有幾個因素有可能與致病機制（英语：Pathogenesis）有關。 主要組織相容性複合體（MHC）是存在於大部份脊椎動物的一個基因家族，與免疫系統相關。其中人類的位於6號染色體上。當中一部份為人類白細胞抗原（HLA），負責控制抗原呈現系統，是人類對付如細菌和病毒等病原體的後天免疫系統的一部份。當人類細胞受到病原體感染時，它們能在它們的表面上呈現部份病原體蛋白質；這就是"抗原呈現"。受感染的細胞因此成為細胞毒性T細胞的攻擊對象，它們會把受感染的細胞殺死，並將它們從體內移除。 瀰漫性泛細支氣管炎感病性的遺傳預先傾向性（英语：Genetic ...
Whippleho choroba sa považuje za zriedkavú, skutočné hladiny incidencie však neboli skúmané. Postihnutí sú hlavne belosi (zo 696 prípadov bolo 55% z Európy a 38% zo Severnej Ameriky), muži (8x častejšie ako ženy, sú však aj epidemiologické štúdie s častejším postihnutím žien), vo veku okolo 5O rokov. U jedincov z Ázie, čiernej pleti, hispáncov a indiánov je ochorenie zriedkavé. Bolo popísaných niekoľko prípadov v jednej rodine (bratia, otec a dcéra), prenos medzi ľuďmi alebo epidémie však nie sú dokumentované. Pacienti sú častejšie z vidieka a povolaním farmári. V patogenéze sa predpokladá podiel genetickej komponenty, presvedčivé dôkazy však neexistujú; tri- až štyrikrát častejšie ako v normálnej populácii sa vyskytuje pozitivita HLA B27. Zdroj nákazy ani prenos infekcie neboli odhalené; prítomnosť T.W. bola zistená v stolici ľudí a na hnojených rastlinách. Predpokladá sa, že vstupnou bránou infekcie sú ústa. Doteraz ...
Human leucocyte antigen HLA-DR6 antigen Current Synonym true false 2618659017 Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR6 antigen Current ... Human leucocyte antigen DR6 Current Synonym true false 1215830012 HLA - Human leucocyte antigen DR6 Current Synonym true false ... Human leukocyte antigen DR6 Current Synonym true false 1217331016 HLA - Human leukocyte antigen DR6 Current Synonym true false ... Human leukocyte antigen DR6 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Human leukocyte antigen DR6 (substance). ...
Impact of human leukocyte antigen matching in liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2003;75:132-137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Strong association with a particular HLA-DR6 (DRB1*1301) haplotype. Hum Immunol. 1994;41:146-150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Qiu DK, Ma X. Relationship between human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 and autoimmune hepatitis type I in Chinese patients. J ... Susceptibility to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors ...
We genotyped for HLA-DRB1 locus 1228 patients with AIDs-213 with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), 166 with Psoriasis or ... Human leukocyte antigens and systemic lupus erythematosus: a protective role for the HLA-DR6 alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03. ... Human Leukocyte Antigen as a Key Factor in Preventing Dementia and Associated Apolipoprotein E4 Risk. James LM, Georgopoulos AP ... and HLA-DRB1(∗)04 (OR = 2.81) with RA, HLA-DRB1(∗)07 with Ps + PsA (OR = 1.79), HLA-DRB1(∗)01 (OR = 2.28) and HLA-DRB1(∗)08 (OR ...
Human leukocyte antigens and systemic lupus erythematosus: A protective role for the HLA-DR6 alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03. ... Human leukocyte antigen and systemic sclerosis in Japanese: The sign of the four independent protective alleles, DRB1*13:02, ... Association of human leukocyte antigen with interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis: A protective role for shared ... Association of human leukocyte antigen alleles with chronic lung diseases in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2016: doi: ...
Tissue Antigens. 2007 Feb;69(2):161-9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (DR3) and HLA-DRB1*1301-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0603 ... Tissue Antigens. 2007 Feb;69(2):161-9.. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 ... To control for associations because of linkage disequilibrium (LD), 142 HLA-DR3 homozygous and 187 DR6-positive controls were ...
77 AIH patients and 485 healthy controls were genotyped for the SNPs rs2187668 (HLA-DRB*03:01), rs660895 (HLA-DRB*04:01), ... We report significant independent association of HLA-DRB1*03:01 with overall susceptibility to type 1 AIH, as well as FAS with ... rs3749971 (HLA-A1-B8-DR3), rs231775 (CLTLA4), rs1800629 (TNF), and rs1800682 (FAS) using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping ... Genetic predisposition in type 1 AIH has been linked especially to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotype HLA-A1- ...
"Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 haplotypes," Tissue Antigens, vol. 69, no. 2, pp ... P. Wang, H. Su, J. Underhill et al., "Autoantibody and human leukocyte antigen profiles in children with autoimmune liver ... M. H. K. Leidenius, S. A. Koskimies, I. H. Kellokumpu, and K. A. V. Hockerstedt, "HLA antigens in ulcerative colitis and ... O. Olerup, R. Olsson, R. Hultcrantz, and U. Broomé, "HLA-DR and HLA-DQ are not markers for rapid disease progression in primary ...
Pemphigus vulgaris is reported to be associated with human leukocyte antigen DR4 and/or DR6 whereas few data are available on ... HLA class II nucleotide sequences. Tissue Antigens 1993; 40:229-243. Moraes JR, Moraes ME, Fernandez-Viña M. HLA antigens and ... based on the documented findings that down-regulated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is 1) frequently ... and HLA-DQB1*06 (DQ6). DQ1 is a serotype, rare among serotypes for human class II antigens, in that the antibodies to DQ1 react ...
The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or ... DR6-DQ1 can refer to either DR13-DQ6 or less frequently DR14-DQ5, but DR6-DQ3 or DR6-DQ7 generally refers to DR13-DQ7. Even ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ...
Some human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, particularly HLA-DR7 and HLA-DR4, appear to be associated with ... HLA-DR6, HLA-DR51, HLA-DR52, and HLA-DQ). Associations have also been described with polymorphisms at the tumor necrosis factor ... Because most cases do not have a positive throat swab culture or rapid antigen test, serologic evidence is usually needed. The ... also recognizes human tissues. In this model, cross-reactive antibodies bind to endothelial cells on the heart valve, leading ...
Human leukocyte antigen alleles. Some authors have reported an association between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and ... Two Japanese groups have identified HLA antigens including DR6, DQ4, A33 and A26 as being more common among patients with MACLD ... certain human leukocyte antigen alleles, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations, and polymorphisms of ... principally the class I antigens A10 and B8 and the class II antigen DR2 (DRB1*1501) 97. HLA genotyping of HIV-positive ...
The genetic risk factors are known to include genes in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6, which carry ... Another early finding included an association with a HLA- DP2 variant which when combined with HLA-DR3, DR5 (DR11), or DR6 ( ... consisting of selected HLA-DRB1*01/*04 alleles, is minimally important in JIA; HLA-DRB1*04 (and HLA-DRB1*07) are in fact ... HLA Class I. Allele frequencies and odds ratios for significant associations for HLA-A, -B and - C in patient and controls for ...
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between human leukocyte antigens class II (HLA) and antinuclear antibodies was investigated in ... The HLA-DR6 allele is associated with the absence of antinuclear antibodies and HLA-DR3 with the presence of anti-Ro/La ... Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/analysis , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ... OBJETIVO Se investigó la relación entre los antígenos de leucocito humano (human leukocyte antigens o HLAs). Clase II y los ...
1992). "Human leukocyte antigen serologic and DNA typing of Behçets disease and its primary association with B51". Invest. ... DQA1*0102 is associated with both DR5 and DR6. DQA1*0102:DQB1*0502 has a bimodal distribution. It is found in the Philippines ... 1994). "Human leukocyte antigen class II polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility of IDDM in Egyptian children". Diabetes Care ... Kroner BL, Goedert JJ, Blattner WA, Wilson SE, Carrington MN, Mann DL (1995). "Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype ...
... human leukocyte antigens), the antigens in our blood that fight off microbes. Contrarily to ABO blood types people do not have ... just one HLA type, but many (about 8 per person). There are 3 major types of class I HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) and 3 major ... Few people however have heard of HLA types ( ... DR6 and DR11 are protective against Type 1 diabetes. The risk ... There are 3 major types of class I HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) and 3 major types of class II HLA (HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR). ...
The presence or absence of a given human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule may determine the efficient presentation of an ... HLA DR6 and liver injury secondary to chlorpromazine and nitrofurantoin, and HLA B8; and clometacine-induced hepatitis (123). ... Two human NAT functional genes (NAT1 and NAT2) and one pseudogene (NATP) have been cloned (117). NAT2 is polymorphic in humans ... Associations have been reported between HLA A11 and hepatotoxicity due to halothane, tricyclic antidepressants and diclofenac; ...
Human leukocyte antigen HLA-BR16 is associated with reduced risk for cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic ... HLA-A1 (P = 0.037), HLA-A3 (P = 0.035), HLA-B15 (P = 0.021), HLA-B16 (P = 0.003), HLA-DR6 (P = 0.002), and HLA-Cw7 (P = 0.003) ... On multivariate analysis, HLA-A3, HLA-B16, and HLA-Cw7 significantly affected the risk for CMV infection occurrence (P = 0.025 ... including different human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) of donor/recipient pairs. We aimed to investigate the relation of broad ...
Printed on acid-free paper in U.S.A. Human leukocyte antigen ... 2009 HLA Background The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) is ... Allele Antigen Restriction endonuclease DRB1 DR1 AvaII, PstI DR2 FokI, Cfr13I, HphI DR3, DR5, DR6, DR8 AvaII, FokI, KpnI, HaeII ... AG MHC HLA APC Ii EPR TAP ABC CLIP TCR Antigen Major Histocompartibility Complex Human Leukocyte Antigen Antigen Presenting ... CI of each HLA-DP was not significant. In this study, we investigated the s of HLA class II antigens HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP ...
It is what helps our body identify foreign antigens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) and determine what type of white blood cells and ... Depending on our HLA type we are more or less resistant to certain diseases and infections. HLA also influences our risk of ... The HLA gene regulates our acquired immune system. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_leukocyte_antigen) regulates our ... Likewise HLA-DR5 was split in HLA-DR11 and HLA-DR12, while HLA-DR6 was divided in HLA-DR13 and HLA-DR14.. Depending on reading ...
Association with human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) has been previously reported, particularly with DR6.Patients and methods: 75 ... HLA prevalence in Iraqi patients with ischemic heart disease Authors: Eman Sh. AL-Obeidy --- Basil N. AL-Dileamy Journal: ... with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and HLA antigens.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Microlymphocytotoxicity assay has been applied for ... Biochemical test and 2mls of blood reserved for HLA study.. Results: It was found that HLA-DR1 (8%) (P 0.001) has significant ...
... the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-Cw6.16-19 The difficulty in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral ... It was observed an increase in HLA-B51 antigen expression in control subjects and increased prevalence of HLA-DR5 and -DR6 in ... human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha -238 and -308 as ...
... human leukocyte antigen) HLA-A, HLA-B si HLA-C, in timp ce moleculele MHC de clasa II includ HLA-DR, HLA-DQ si HLA-DP. Aceste ... 965 HLA-A, 1543 HLA-B, 626 HLA-C, 9 HLA-E, 21 HLA-F, 46 HLA-G, 855 HLA-DRB, 35 HLA-DQA1, 107 DQB1, 28 HLA-DPA1, 138 HLA-DPB3. ... Genele HLA sunt localizate in 6 sub-regiuni care se succed in urmatoarea ordine: HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP, ... Alotipurile au fost desemnate prin numere, cum ar fi HLA-A2, HLA-B27 si HLA-Cw6, iar numerele antigenelor HLA-A si HLA-B nu se ...
41] examined a large number of human × Chinese hamster hybrid cells using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing antisera. The ... DR6. DR5,6. Table 2.. Authentication of a human × human hybridoma cell line using HLA typing (data from ). ... human × human) cell hybrids [44, 45]. The results of HLA typing of a human × human hybridoma cell line  are displayed in ... Immunostaining for HLA antigens may be used for detecting hybrids of parental human cells with differing HLA types, therefore ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA)): HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. HLA-A*01, HLA-A*02, and HLA-B*07 are examples of different MHC class ... DR6 Asian (North) American 25.10% DR7 Asian (North) American 13.40% DR8 Asian (North) American 12.70% DR9 Asian (North) ... The MHC-molecules of the human are also designated as human leukocyte-antigens (HLA).  The term "T-cell response" means ... human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II being complexed with said HLA-restricted antigen.  It is a ...
Allelic polym orphism is a hallmark of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The extreme polymorphism of A B B C DR DQ DP ... The currently accepted W orld A10 B14 B55(22) Cw7 DR6 DQ7(3) H ealth O rganization serologically defined A11 B15 B56(22) Cw8 ... The standard technique used to FIGURE 8-8 detect human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ anti- Genetic principles ... Antigens listed in parentheses are the broad antigens, antigens followed by broad antigens in parentheses are the antigen ...
AllelesAlleleSusceptibilityGenesHaplotypeHaplotypesAntibodiesPolymorphismsDRB1MoleculesGeneticGeneMoleculeLocusDR11LociSubtypeGenotypeDR13LinkageImmunodeficiency virusStrongly associatedPeptideMacrophagesVariantsPsoriasisGenotypesRheumatoidRs660895GenomeSNPsGeneticsMurineLiverPolymorphismImmune responseDR15ConclusionPolymorphicSignificantly lowerFrequencyProteinComplementFoundAssociationsCellsSecondaryCell surfaceSubtypes1983FrequenciesVirusesMajor histoco
- HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in Japanese type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: The predisposing role of the DR4/DR8 heterozygous genotype. (tsukuba.ac.jp)
- Seven microsatellite markers (MIB, D6S265, D6S2222, D6S464, D6S2223, D6S2225 and D6S2239) were analysed together with HLA class II alleles in 219 Norwegian patients with PSC and 282 random controls. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic predisposition in type 1 AIH has been linked especially to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotype HLA-A1-B8, and the alleles HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DRB1*04:01 in North America and Europe (Doherty et al. (springeropen.com)
- Much of the variation at HLA DRB1 occurs at peptide contact positions in the binding groove, as a result many of the alleles alter the way the DR binds peptide ligands and changes the repertoire each receptor can bind. (wikipedia.org)
- Specific HLA epitopes, potential interactions of alleles at specific loci and between loci, (accounting for linkage disequilibrium and haplotypic associations), and an assessment of the current ILAR classification were considered. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Extensive and well-documented associations with multiple HLA alleles in JIA have been described ( 2 - 4 ) for at least 25 years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Several reports based on serologic HLA typing have pointed out the positive association between patients with recurrent fetal miscarriage who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies and specific HLA alleles (13, 14). (healthdocbox.com)
- A molecular genetic approach for determining HLA class II genes, however, has not yet been taken to analyze the association between the patients and specific HLA alleles. (healthdocbox.com)
- morphism (RFLP) recently has become available for use in typing HLA class II genes at the nucleotide sequence level, thus enabling us to determine accurately two alleles of HLA class II genes in individuals (15 17). (healthdocbox.com)
- You can compare the distribution of HLA-DR alleles by country (http://www.eupedia.com/genetics/HLA-DR_allele_frequencies_by_country.shtml) to get a better idea of where each type is more common. (eupedia.com)
- In this work, we tried to understand whether combined genotypes of CCR5-▵32, CCR2-64I, SDF1-3′A and HLA alleles can predict the LT-NP status. (bloodjournal.org)
- A DNA-based HLA typing method was used to determine the frequencies of alleles of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5 in patients and healthy controls. (edu.jm)
- HLA-C alleles confer risk for anti-citrullinated peptide antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis independent of HLA-DRB1 alleles. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
- At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. (healthmatics.info)
- Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. (healthmatics.info)
- Gulucota and DeLisi ( 5 ) found that three to six class I HLA alleles, depending on the ethnic group, would cover ∼90% of the population. (jimmunol.org)
- When stratifying for DR6, an association with the D6S265*122 allele was still observed (OR = 3.7, P(c)= 0.0004). (cdc.gov)
- In the presence of the D6S265*122 allele, the risk to develop PSC conferred by DR6 was increased four times compared with the risk conferred by DR6 alone. (cdc.gov)
- 7. A marker DNA sequence from the HLA DQ-beta allele associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, wherein said sequence can be used to detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence. (google.com.au)
- CONCLUSION: The HLA-DR6 allele is associated with the absence of antinuclear antibodies and HLA-DR3 with the presence of anti-Ro/La antibodies in Jamaican patients with SLE. (edu.jm)
- Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family. (healthmatics.info)
- Susceptibility to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors. (springer.com)
- Allelic basis for HLA-encoded susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Recently, the extended HLA class I region has been found to harbour genes that modulate or confer susceptibility independently of the HLA class II genes in several immune-mediated diseases. (cdc.gov)
- The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of genes in the extended HLA class I region on susceptibility to PSC. (cdc.gov)
- In conclusion, our study shows that a gene in LD with D6S265 contributes to susceptibility to develop PSC in individuals carrying DR6. (cdc.gov)
- We report significant independent association of HLA-DRB1*03:01 with overall susceptibility to type 1 AIH, as well as FAS with a more aggressive disease phenotype. (springeropen.com)
- Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies two non-HLA susceptibility loci," Nature Genetics , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 17-19, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
- Articles on known and potential human factors capable of producing susceptibility to NTM lung disease (NTMLD) were identified by a systematic search of the medical literature, and are reviewed in the present study. (ersjournals.com)
- 6 year group limited to the HLA-DRB1*08 haplotype, a marked distinction from the additional susceptibility haplotypes, HLA-DRB1*1103/1104, found in the oligoarticular cohort and the younger polyarticular group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) systems are useful in examining the immunogenetic basis of some diseases because these systems control both the immune response to natural antigens and the susceptibility or resistance to several diseases, especially autoimmune diseases (12). (healthdocbox.com)
- 1. A marker DR-beta-I DNA sequence from the HLA class II beta genes associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with DR4-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
- 5. Marker DQ-beta DNA sequences from the HLA class II beta genes associated with DRw6-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
- 1998 ). Polymorphisms in genes outside the HLA locus have also been associated with type 1 AIH. (springeropen.com)
- HLA-DR is encoded by several loci and several 'genes' of different function at each locus. (wikipedia.org)
- Two human NAT functional genes (NAT1 and NAT2) and one pseudogene (NATP) have been cloned (117). (alpfmedical.info)
- The chemokine receptor and chemokine genes along with the HLA genotype can serve as predictors of HIV-1 outcome for classification of HIV-1-infected subjects as LT-NPs or progressors. (bloodjournal.org)
- 3 The first candidates were the major histocompatibility complex genes (MHC-HLA in humans). (bloodjournal.org)
- The 1998 Nomenclature Committee recognized more HLA genes all of which are in the class I and Ib regions: HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, -J, -K and -L 59 . (dorak.info)
- The massive sequencing project of a human MHC haplotype has just been completed and the map positions of all of these genes are known 51 . (dorak.info)
- Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. (biomedcentral.com)
- Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. (biomedcentral.com)
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 haplotypes. (cdc.gov)
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (DR3) and HLA-DRB1*1301-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0603 (DR6) haplotypes. (cdc.gov)
- HLA-DQ1 is a serotype that covers a broad range of HLA-DQ haplotypes. (wikipedia.org)
- The primary function of HLA-DR is to present peptide antigens, potentially foreign in origin, to the immune system for the purpose of eliciting or suppressing T-(helper)-cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, when adult RA is stratified by the presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies, HLA-DRB1*13 is protective for anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive RA and is a risk factor for anti-citrullinated protein antibody-negative RA ( 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It is also possible that HLA antigen systems are associated with recurrent fetal miscarriage in patients who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. (healthdocbox.com)
- It is what helps our body identify foreign antigens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) and determine what type of white blood cells and antibodies should be produced. (eupedia.com)
- OBJECTIVE: The relationship between human leukocyte antigens class II (HLA) and antinuclear antibodies was investigated in Jamaican patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). (edu.jm)
- However, these results and those of previous studies of Jamaican patients suggest that the HLA-DR3 association with the development of SLE reported in other populations might in fact reflect the association of HLA-DR3 with anti-Ro/La antibodies. (edu.jm)
- Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV). (healthmatics.info)
- OMIM 152700) is characterised by the production of antibodies to nuclear antigens. (jove.com)
- For example, type 1 AIH is associated with HLA-DRB1*04:05 in Japan and Argentina (Seki et al. (springeropen.com)
- 1999 ), with HLA-DRB1*13:01 in Brazil and Venezuela (Fainboim et al. (springeropen.com)
- 2007 ) and with HLA-DRB1*04:04 in Mexico (Vazquez-Garcia et al. (springeropen.com)
- The HLA-DRB1 locus is ubiquitous and encodes a very large number of functionally variable gene products (HLA-DR1 to HLA-DR17). (wikipedia.org)
- The HLA-DRB3 locus encodes the HLA-DR52 specificity, is moderately variable and is variably associated with certain HLA-DRB1 types. (wikipedia.org)
- The HLA-DRB4 locus encodes the HLA-DR53 specificity, has some variation, and is associated with certain HLA-DRB1 types. (wikipedia.org)
- There is a high level of allelic diversity at HLA DRB1, it is second only to HLA-B locus in number of allelic variants. (wikipedia.org)
- This means HLA-DRB1 is rapidly evolving, much more rapidly than almost all other protein encoding loci. (wikipedia.org)
- An HLA DRB1-DQB1 effect was shown to be exclusively due to DRB1 and showed similarity between oligoarticular patients and a younger subgroup of polyarticular patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It has been long realized that HLA associations in children are largely distinct from those in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with HLA-DRB1*08, *11 and *13 reported in children with inflammatory arthritis ( 5 - 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- HLA-DRB1*04 (and HLA-DRB1*07) are in fact protective depending on clinical subtype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Multiple Sclerosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_Sclerosis) : HLA-DRB1*1501 plays a role in the disease. (eupedia.com)
- N.B. : HLA-DR11 is the short spelling for HLA-DRB1*11, just like HLA-C6 is short for HLA-Cw*06. (eupedia.com)
- CP = 0.005) but no other HLA-DRB1 SLE associations were found. (edu.jm)
- Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages . (studylib.net)
- HLA-DR molecules are upregulated in response to signalling. (wikipedia.org)
- These findings suggest that HLA class II molecules are important in presenting the drug-metabolite to the T-cell receptor of CD4+ helper T-cells with the subsequent stimulation of B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells and development of the immune reaction. (alpfmedical.info)
- In the present study we applied a combined bioinformatics approach, based on analysis of both protein sequence and structure, to identify similarities in the peptide binding sites of 2225 human class II MHC molecules, and thus define supertypes and supertype fingerprints. (jimmunol.org)
- A principal feature of MHC molecules is their allelic polymorphism: the July 2004 ImMunoGeneTics/HLA database release lists 1114 class I and 707 class II molecules ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Moreover, any poly-epitope vaccine targeting the whole population would, on the same basis, need to bind a range of HLA molecules. (jimmunol.org)
- Prediction of the binding ability of antigen peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is important in vaccine development. (neueve.com)
- The following is a non exhaustive list of human clusters of differentiation (or CD ) molecules. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- CR3 is a human cell surface receptor, found on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages, which is capable of recognizing and binding to many molecules found on the surfaces of invading bacteria. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. (scielo.br)
- In common with other autoimmune diseases, both have associations and linkage with human keukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
- In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. (studylib.net)
- and autoantibodies The major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (HLA-II), also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene 169 www.najms.org North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2009 September, Volume 1. (studylib.net)
- The HLA gene (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_leukocyte_antigen) regulates our acquired immune system (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_immune_system). (eupedia.com)
- Alaturi de genele clasice, in regiunea MHC I mai sunt incluse gene cu un polimorfism redus desemnate ca HLA-E, HLA-F si HLA-G 2;8 . (synevo.ro)
- HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain (365 aa, ~41 kDa) is encoded by the human HLA-A gene. (healthmatics.info)
- CD1a (Cluster of Differentiation 1a), or T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1a, is a human proteinencoded by the CD1A gene. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e is a protein in humans encoded by the CD1E gene. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- The DR α-chain is encoded by the HLA-DRA locus. (wikipedia.org)
- The HLA-DRB5 locus encodes the HLA-DR51 specificity, which is typically invariable, and is linked to the HLA-DR2 types. (wikipedia.org)
- The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most extensively studied regions in the human genome because of the association of variants at this locus with autoimmune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. (plos.org)
- Another early finding included an association with a HLA- DP2 variant which when combined with HLA-DR3, DR5 (DR11), or DR6 (DR13) gave an enhanced level of risk, but not when combined with HLA-DR8. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Diabetes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes) : The HLA types DR2, DR6 and DR11 are protective against Type 1 diabetes. (eupedia.com)
- There is a suspected link with HLA-Cw4, DR7, DR11 and DQA1, among others. (eupedia.com)
- HLA-DR11 peaks in West Asia, Greece and Italy, so I used green like for Y-haplogroup J2. (eupedia.com)
- Likewise HLA-DR5 was split in HLA-DR11 and HLA-DR12, while HLA-DR6 was divided in HLA-DR13 and HLA-DR14. (eupedia.com)
- Four digit comprehensive HLA typing enabled great precision and a large cohort allowed for consideration of both age of onset and subtype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- There are 3 major types of class I HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) and 3 major types of class II HLA (HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR). Each type comprises hundreds of subtype (e.g. (eupedia.com)
- There are subtypes for each HLA-DR type, although most of them have only one common subtype in Europe. (eupedia.com)
- To be more accurate it is subtype 1 of HLA-DR1, but it is the only subtype found in Europe. (eupedia.com)
- A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. (healthmatics.info)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LT-NP) represent less than 5% of HIV-1-infected patients. (bloodjournal.org)
- 12-14 ) That virus was eventually named human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. (ucsf.edu)
- Infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (healthmatics.info)
- Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. (healthmatics.info)
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashimoto%27s_disease) : strongly associated with HLA-DR5. (eupedia.com)
- Narcolepsy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narcolepsy) : strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602. (eupedia.com)
- HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. (healthmatics.info)
- HLA DM to DQ have little diversity, so the main determinant of extracellular immunity between individuals is above all HLA-DR. HLA-DR is subdivided in HLA-DRA (3 variants) and HLA-DRB (439 variants), but all useful variations are found within HLA-DRB, which has 23 types usually in European/Caucasian people. (eupedia.com)
- Selection for these variants occurred as a result of protection from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). (jove.com)
- Through studies of their impact on human biology and clinical phenotype, the contributions of these variants to the pathogenesis, progression, and/or treatment outcome of many diseases that involve immunoglobulin have become evident. (jove.com)
- Recent progress in procedures for measuring both human and murine oxLDL has provided growing evidence of the importance of circulating oxLDL. (termsreign.ga)
- Katoh S, Matsumoto N, Kawakita K, Tominaga A, Kincade PW, Matsukura S: A role for CD44 in an antigen‑induced murine model of pulmonary eosinophilia. (sysmex-fcm.jp)
- p-ANCAs in autoimmune liver disorders recognise human β -tubulin isotype 5 and cross-react with microbial protein FtsZ," Gut , vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 808-816, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- The presence of anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) was formerly used to define AIH-3, but this is now included in AIH-1. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- An A to G base-exchange polymorphism in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 ( CLTLA4 ) is associated with increased incidence of AIH in white North American and northern European patients (Agarwal et al. (springeropen.com)
- Main Outcome Measure(s): Human leukocyte antigen class II was determined using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. (healthdocbox.com)
- HLA types found in tropical countries tend to differ a lot from those in temperate parts of the world, because the viruses found there are different. (eupedia.com)
- The highest diversity of subtypes in found within HLA-DR4, although non-Mediterranean Europeans usually belong to HLA-DRB*0401. (eupedia.com)
- Further investigations are needed to determine whether HLA-DRB antinuclear antibody associations define clinical subsets of SLE in Jamaican patients. (edu.jm)
- Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- These cells then bind to antigens on the surface of B-cells stimulating B-cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
- Some HLA types are known to attack the body's own cells, causing what is known as autoimmune diseases (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_Disease), in other words diseases caused by one's immune system attacking one's own body. (eupedia.com)
- 11 - 13 Its etiology is unknown, but it is known that there is a defect in the normal cycle of epidermal development, with a disorder in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes associated with inflammatory and vascular changes, with a leukocyte infiltrate composed of activated T-lymphocytes, neutrophils, dendrocytes and mast cells. (scielo.br)
- Shortly afterward, Jean Dausset recognized the human MHC, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, so named because Dausset originally demonstrated MHC antigens on the surface of white blood cells . (plos.org)
- In both cases, human hematopoietic cells were readily detected in BM and thymus, and at low levels in spleen and peripheral blood. (termsreign.ga)
- 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells. (ac.ir)
- The rat monoclonal antibody IM7 recognizes CD44 antigen, an 80-95 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein (hyaladherin family) present on the most of cells and tissues (leukocytes, endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, etc. (sysmex-fcm.jp)
- To quantitate risk and study heterogeneity at high resolution for HLA in the most common JIA subtypes, IgM RF negative polyarticular and oligoarticular. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Inherited HLA factors in JIA show similarities overall as well as differences between subtypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- HLA-B27), further subdivided in hundreds of sub-subtypes (e.g. (eupedia.com)
- When the Europeans arrived in the Americas, bringing with them new viruses on the continent, the biggest part of the Native American population of North America was wiped out as they didn't have the right antigens to fight off even the common cold. (eupedia.com)
- Class I HLA (A, B and C) deal with intracellular immunity, i.e. mostly viruses and some bacteria (e.g. (eupedia.com)
- T cell activation is a synergistic process of T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-anchored antigen and co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory signaling in the presence of cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
- The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a critical component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen processing and presentation pathway. (neueve.com)