Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.DucksHemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)GeeseSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.PyransVirus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Mice, Inbred BALB CVirology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.TracheitisThailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.VietnamGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.DelawareSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Hemadsorption: A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Recombination between segments that encode for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have ... The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue virus. ... Viruses in general have much faster rate of mutation of their genomes than human or bacterial cells. In general viruses with ...
... are found in human influenza viruses. Viral neuraminidase (NA) is another protein found on the surface of influenza. Influenza ... "Structural and functional bases for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and human influenza A viruses". Nat. Struct. Mol. ... A highly pathogenic avian flu virus of H5N1 type has been found to infect humans at a low rate. It has been reported that ... Since hemagglutinin is the major surface protein of the influenza A virus and is essential to the entry process, it is the ...
1.A.39 Type C influenza virus CM2 channel family 1.A.40 Human immunodeficiency virus type I Vpu channel family 1.A.41 Avian ... Family 1.A.57 The Human SARS Caronavirus Viroporin (SARS-VP) 1.A.58 The Type B Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 (BM2-C) Family ... Family 1.G.11 Poxvirus Cell Entry Protein Complex (PEP-C) Family 1.G.12 The Avian Leukosis Virus gp95 Fusion Protein (ALV-gp95 ... Family 1.A.97 The Human Papillomavirus type 16 E5 Viroporin (HPV-E5) Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein ( ...
... human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors while human influenza ... Amino acid changes in three lineages (bird, pig, human) of the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein segment HA1. Here is the ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. As of ... One genetic factor in distinguishing between human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that "avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 ...
... avian, and swine viruses. One increasingly worrying situation is the possible antigenic shift between avian influenza and human ... When two different strains of influenza infect the same cell simultaneously, their protein capsids and lipid envelopes are ... humans, whales, horses, and seals. Influenza B viruses circulate widely principally among humans, though it has recently been ... Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem) can infect pigs or other ...
The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were ... "Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ... Accumulated antibodies to the neuraminidase or internal proteins may have resulted in much fewer casualties than most pandemics ... and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. H1N1 may have been transmitted directly from birds to humans ( ...
... and to a virus of the H5N1 class of avian influenza that jumped from chickens to a human in Vietnam in 2004 (Viet04/H5). In ... the predominant protein on the surface of the influenza virus. Based upon the conservation of the amino acid sequence on this ... Immune Molecule That Attacks Wide Range Of Flu Viruses Discovered[2] Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus ... CR6261 is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a broad range of the influenza virus including the 1918 "Spanish flu" (SC1918/H1 ...
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... "Influenza virus polymerase basic protein 1 interacts with influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 at multiple sites". J ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ...
The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were ... which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... "CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ...
Human influenza is an acute respiratory infection primarily caused by viruses influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A viruses ... Influenza viruses circulate in other species as well, most notably as swine influenza and avian influenza. Through reassortment ... The ladder-like phylogeny of influenza virus A/H3N2's hemagglutinin protein bears the hallmarks of strong directional selection ... Although most research on the phylodynamics of influenza has focused on seasonal influenza A/H3N2 in humans, influenza viruses ...
"Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017. "Human infection with avian ... Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and ... H7N9 is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). Avian influenza A H7 ... "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus - Avian Influenza (Flu)". "The Outbreak of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) in China: ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, ... viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus ... biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses Influenza Research Database Database of influenza sequences and ...
Recent human infections with avian influenza virus revealed that H9N2 is the gene donor for H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that are ... "H9N2 influenza virus in China: a cause of concern". Protein Cell. 6 (1): 18-25. doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0111-7. PMC 4286136 . ... February 2002). "Lack of evidence for human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses in Hong Kong, China 1999 ... In China, which is regarded as an epicenter of avian influenza viruses, the H9N2 virus has been detected in multiple avian ...
... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ... N1 stands for the first of several known types of the protein neuraminidase. Other examples include: A/duck/Hong Kong/308/78( ... December 2007). "Lack of evidence of avian-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers, Kano ... In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. HA: ( ... "avian influenza viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the ... that the 1918 pandemic virus is more closely related to the avian influenza A virus than are other human influenza viruses." ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ...
For example, the influenza epidemic of 1918, as well as the recent cases of human fatality due to H5N1 (avian flu), both ... However, infection with human herpes simplex virus type-1, a member of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, did not provide ... GJB2 is a gene encoding for connexin a protein found in the cochlea. So far, scientists have found over 90 variants in this ... Over the course of time humans have been exposed to organisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is possible that the human ...
... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with ... the major form in the human respiratory tract). In avian virus the HA protein preferentially binds to alpha 2,3 sialic acid, ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish Flu' in 1918 ...
Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first reported to have infected humans in 2013 in China. Most ... position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at ... "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus - Avian Influenza (Flu)". "USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Avian Influenza ... Avian influenza HA viruses bind alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza HA viruses bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid ...
... monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and Interferon-gamma were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected ... Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a ... a surrogate model for human influenza infection. In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused ... H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its ...
This general trend in stability: avian, swine, human, roughly follows the temperatures at which the influenza virus reproduces ... Segment 7 encodes the M1 protein and the smaller M2 proton channel protein, which is produced by RNA splicing. M2 protein is ... This observation is a local instance of a global trend in influenza A coding sequences, where avian, swine, and human strains ... NEP proteins. These structures form a family of structured RNAs shared between influenza A and influenza B The 3' splice site ...
A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ... These are the proteins that determine the subtype of influenza virus (A/H1N1, for example). The HA and NA are important in the ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ... Of the three genera of influenza viruses that cause human flu, two also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common ...
... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ... Of particular concern is elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a protein associated with tissue destruction at sites ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include ...
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... This colorized transmission electron micrograph shows H1N1 influenza virus particles. Surface proteins on the virus particles ... Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, ... Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only ...
The baculovirus life cycle involves two distinct forms of virus. Occlusion derived virus (ODV) is present in a protein matrix ( ... the most widely used vaccine for prevention of H5N1 avian influenza in chickens was produced in a baculovirus expression vector ... These recombinant proteins have been used in research and as vaccines in both human and veterinary medical treatments (for ... This protein forms structures called peplomers on one end of the budded virus particle but is not found on ODV (although ...
Segment, protein, and strain data Animal surveillance data Human clinical data Experimentally determined and predicted immune ... an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza research and surveillance. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. (2012) 6(6): 404- ... Computed sequence conservation score Clade classification for highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 HA sequences 3D protein ... allows users to find peptide sequences in target proteins Identify Point Mutations: identifies influenza proteins having ...
... -known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. ...
... causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H ...
Another technique is use of cell cultures to grow vaccine strains; such as genetically engineering baculovirus to express a gene that encodes an influenza coat protein such as hemagglutinin or neuraminidase. "A recent NIAID-supported Phase II clinical trial of a vaccine produced by Protein Sciences Corporation using this strategy showed that it is well tolerated and immunogenic; the company is[when?] conducting further clinical evaluation of this product. Other new pathways for producing influenza vaccines include DNA-based approaches and the development of broadly protective vaccines based on influenza virus proteins that are shared by multiple strains."[5]. AVI Bio Pharma Inc. has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino oligomers from the results of their labs and four independent research ...
Le subtypos del virus Influenza A plus communmente trovate como le causa de infectiones de SIV es H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 e H3N2, [2] [3] ben que le H2N3 ha essite recentemente trovate, que etiam produce iste typo de pathologia.[4] In le mundo, il ha 3 subtypos de virus de influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, y H1N2), cognoscite per infectar porcos. In le Statos Unite, le subtypo classic H1N1 esseva quasi exclusivemente prevalente inter le populationes porcin ante 1998. Comocunque, ab augusto 1998 le subtypos H3N2 esseva etiam isolate. Il es trovate que le major parte del virus H3N2 ha material recombinate, con lineages de genes de virus que attacca esseres human (HA, NA, and PB1), porcos (NS, NP, and M) e aves (PB2 and PA). ...
H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). H2N3 viruses can infect birds and mammals. According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. Researchers investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human ...
The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. This pandemic of 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.[6][7][8] The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate.[9] In the United States, about 33,800 people died.[10]. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. However, other ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic. For other names see the Nomenclature section below. The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, had some degree of immunity. Children showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the new strain, adults aged 18 to 64 had 6-9%, and older adults 33%. Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, ...
The Influenza pandemic of 1918 was a heavy pandemic of influenza. It lasted from January 1918 to December 1920.[1] About 500 million[1] people were infected across the world. The pandemic spread to remote Pacific Islands and the Arctic. It killed 50 million[2] to 100 million people[3]-3 to 5 percent of the world's population at the time.[3] This means it was one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[1][4][5][6]. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States;[7][8] but papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). This situation created the false impression of Spain being especially hard-hit.[9] It also resulted in the nickname Spanish flu.[10]. In most cases, influenza outbreaks kill young people, or the elderly, or ...
Virus dapat bereplikasi hanya pada sel hidup.[42] Infeksi dan replikasi influenza merupakan proses bertahap: pertama, virus harus berikatan dengan sel dan memasuki sel, kemudian memindahkan genomnya pada suatu tempat dimana virus tersebut dapat memproduksi duplikat dari protein virus dan RNA, kemudian menyusun komponen-komponen tersebut menjadi partikel virus baru, dan terakhir, keluar dari sel inang.[36]. Virus influenza berikatan melalui hemagglutinin dengan gula asam sialat pada permukaan sel epitel, biasanya pada hidung, tenggorok, dan paru-paru mamalia, dan usus unggas (tahap 1 pada gambar infeksi).[43] Setelah hemagglutinin dipecah oleh protease, sel akan memasukkan virus melalui proses endositosis.[44]. Setelah berada di dalam sel, kondisi asam dalam endosom akan menyebabkan dua kejadian terjadi: pertama, bagian dari protein hemagglutinin akan menyatukan envelope virus dengan membran vakuola, kemudian kanal ion M2 akan memungkinkan ...
The influenza vaccine is recommended by the World Health Organization and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for high-risk groups, such as children, the elderly, health care workers, and people who have chronic illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or are immuno-compromised among others.[104][105] In healthy adults it is modestly effective in decreasing the amount of influenza-like symptoms in a population.[106] In healthy children over the age of 2, the vaccine reduces the chances of getting influenza by around two-thirds, while it has not been well studied in children under 2.[107] In those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease vaccination reduces exacerbations,[108] it is not clear if it reduces asthma exacerbations.[109] Evidence supports a lower rate of influenza-like illness in many groups who are immunocompromised such as those ...
Friderici was born in Eichstaedt (today Querfurt) to a poor family and had been a choirboy in his younger years. He was trained by Valentin Haussmann and Frederick Weissensee. In 1612 he enrolled at the University of Rostock. Two years later he was appointed as a cantor for Oldenburg by Count Anton Günther and later moved in 1618 to the same position at the St. Mary's Church in Rostock. After he had finished his training, he was appointed conductor of all churches in Rostock. There he worked until he died there in 1638 from the plague. ...
... (Neu5Ac ili NANA) je predominantna sijalinska kiselina u ćelijama sisara. Ovaj negativno naelektrisani ostatak je prisutan u kompleksnim glikanima na mucinima i glikoproteinima prisutnim na ćelijskim membranama. Neu5Ac ostaci su takođe prisutni u glikolipidima, poput gangliozida, ključnoj komponenti neuronskih membrana prisutnih u mozgu. Pored učešća u sprečavanju infekcija (sluz vezana za sluzokožne membrane - usta, nosa, GI, respiratornog trakta), Neu5Ac deluje kao receptor za influenza virus. On omobućava vezivanje za sluzne ćelije putem hemaglutinina (rani stupanj zadobijanja infekcije influenza virusom). ...
Kaman kuol, aalso nuo as fresh kuol ar simpli az kuol, a vairal infekshos diziiz a di opa resprichri chrak we praimerili afek di nuoz.[1] Di chruot, sainos, ah vais bax kiah aalso afek.[2] Sain ah simtom kiah bigin les dah tuu die afta expuoja.[2] Deh ingkluud kaafin, suo chuot, ronin nuoz, sniizin, ediek, ah fiiva.[3][4] Piipl yuujali rikova ina sebm tu ten die.[3] Som simtam kiah laas op tu chrii wiik.[5] Demde wid adaels elt prablem maita hokiejanali divelop nyuumuonia.[3] Wel uoba 200 vairos schrien implikiet ina di kaaz a di kaman kuol; di rainovairosdem a di muos kaman.[6] Deh pred chuu di ier juurin kluos kantak wid infektid piipl ah indirekli chuu kantak wid abjek ina di invairament fala bai chansfor tu di mout ar nuoz.[3] Rix fakta ingkluud wen pitni gaa diekier, smadi naa sliip gud, ah saikalajikal schres.[2] Simtam muosli juu tu di badi uona imyuun rispans tu di infekshan reda dah tu tishu dischrokshan bai di vairos dehself.[7] Piipl wid influenza noftaim shuo ...
Also, avian H1N1 virus and human 1918 virus containing PB2 from avian virus could not form plaques at the lower temperature. ... Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air. Neal Van Hoeven, ... Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air ... Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air ...
... from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus ... The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates ... Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics Substances * Amino Acids * Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus * Hemagglutinins, ... Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates Virology. 1994 Nov 15;205(1):17-23. doi: ...
Evolutionarily Conserved Protein Sequences of Influenza A Viruses, Avian and Human, as Vaccine Targets ... Evolutionarily Conserved Protein Sequences of Influenza A Viruses, Avian and Human, as Vaccine Targets ... Evolutionarily Conserved Protein Sequences of Influenza A Viruses, Avian and Human, as Vaccine Targets ... Harmonised Zika virus research protocols published * Birth attendant training course may be global model for safer birth care ...
The emergence of pandemic influenza viruses. Protein Cell 1, 9-13 (2010).. ... Emergence of European avian influenza virus-like H1N1 swine influenza A viruses in China. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47, 2643-2646 ( ... Similar to pdm/09 virus, G4 viruses bind to human-type receptors, produce much higher progeny virus in human airway epithelial ... Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J. Virol. 63, 4603-4608 ( ...
Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to ... suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. ... Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of ... We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at ... The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. ...
Influenza virus, like RSV, is an important human respiratory pathogen. Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause significant ... signaling protein regulation of respiratory syncytial virus infection and evaluating avian influenza infection of human ... cells infected with RSV or with a recombinant RSV mutant virus. The results show that RSV G protein modulates SOCS expression ... RSV nonstructural proteins are expressed early during infection and are known to contribute to type I IFN antagonism. Type I ...
... as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for ... pandemic H1N1 viruses and seasonal H3N2 viruses. The Mexico swine viruses are antigenically distinct from US swine lineages. ... Protection against these viruses is unlikely to be afforded by US virus vaccines and would require development of new vaccines ... reassortant H3N2 viruses with genome segments derived from 2 different viruses that were independently introduced from humans ...
2007) NS1 proteins of avian influenza A viruses can act as antagonists of the human alpha/beta interferon response. J. Virol. ... that interactions of the NS1 proteins of avian IAV and of influenza B virus with Crk adaptor proteins inhibit influenza virus- ... 2016) Preliminary proteomic analysis of A549 cells infected with avian influenza virus H7N9 and influenza A virus H1N1. PLoS ... human cytomegalovirus. HCV. hepatitis C virus. HIV. human immunodeficiency virus. L/H. light/heavy ratio. IFN. Interferon. JNK ...
Since 1997, two avian influenza viruses have been transmitted directly from birds to humans. H5N1 influenza virus caused 18 ... Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet. 1998;351:472-477. [PubMed] ... an avian H9N2 influenza virus infected two children in Hong Kong. These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 ( ... Characterization of influenza viruses of avian origin in the mouse model. Mice are not a natural host for influenza viruses; ...
Rabbit polyclonal Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen ... In 1999, influenza viruses from quail infected two humans in Hong Kong, suggesting the potential for avian influenza viruses to ... Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody. See all Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I primary antibodies. ... This virus possesses similar genes encoding internal proteins as in the human H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses. ...
... viruses, bacteriology, microbiology and virology by microbes.info ... New structure for human flu virus protein Influenza A virus is ... "We picked an H5N1 avian FluPolA because we wanted to compare avian and human influenza A virus polymerases-and we also studied ... H5N6 avian influenza case reported in Beijing The China National Health Commission reported a human case of avian influenza A( ... KUALA LUMPUR: As avian influenza (AI) poses a real concern if the virus spreads from an infected bird to human, the Health ...
Targeting viral proteins by antibody has a limited success due to the antigen drift and shift. Here we present a novel antibody ... Influenza A virus infection is a great threat to avian species and humans. ... Influenza A virus infection is a great threat to avian species and humans. Targeting viral proteins by antibody has a limited ... To target nucleocapsid protein (NP)-encoding viral genomic RNA (NP-vRNA) of H9N2 influenza virus, the library was screened ...
Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens curre...,Viruses,for,a,healthy,pregnancy,medicine,medical news ... Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira...Retrovirus infections represent the most intimate host ... Influenza: Insights into cell specificity of human vs. avian viruses. 5. Common human viruses threaten endangered great apes. 6 ... McMaster test detects the most prevalent respiratory viruses. 7. Penn study finds pro-death proteins required to regulate ...
Cross-reactive memory T cell responses targeted to the internal proteins of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in healthy ... The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ...
The epidemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in humans in mainland China: A two-stage risk analysis Xuzheng Shan, ... Application of BisANS fluorescent dye for developing a novel protein assay Zsolt Datki, Zita Olah, [ ... ], Janos Kalman ... Lithium ameliorates tubule-interstitial injury through activation of the mTORC2/protein kinase B pathway Douglas E. Teixeira, ...
... which has recently emerged in humans, attaches moderately or abundantly to the epithelium of both the upper and lower ... A new study has found that a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus, ... Low-protein high-carb diet shows promise for healthy brain aging. Nov 20, 2018 3 ... Evidence of host adaptation of avian-origin influenza A virus. May 15, 2013 The connection between human avian-origin influenza ...
A human seasonal H1N1 virus, a wild-type avian H5 HA virus, and a mutant H5 HA virus were compared for their ability to bind to ... Characterization of the receptor-binding properties of an H5 HA mutant virus possessing four mutations in its HA protein. a, ... anti-human virus antiserum to detect human influenza virus binding or anti-H5 HA antibodies to detect binding by wild-type and ... Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among ...
Genomic signatures of human versus avian influenza A viruses. The sudden cessation of this critical supply at the time of birth ... The amino-terminal one-third of the influenza virus PA protein is responsible for the induction of proteolysis.. ... The identified proteins are divided into the several groups as follows: proteins related to protein folding, proteolysis, and ... the splitting of protein molecules by the HYDROLYSIS of their PEPTIDE BONDS.. proteolysis. the splitting of proteins by ...
We developed an ELISA based on nonstructural protein 1 of the virus to ... ... Avian Influenza Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Clades Dispatch H5N1 Human Influenza Poultry Subclinical Vietnam Viruses ... Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number ... We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza ...
Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of animals and cause influenza... Studies of influenza A led to the design of Relenza ... and Tamiflu two ...,H5N1,threat,puts,human,flu,back,in,spotlight,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently deva... Until recently many immunologists were relatively ... proteins, which are used to name the viruses, such as H5N1. The virus uses the HA protein to attach itself to a cell it is ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of influenza. ... Influenza Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open ... Influenza A viruses are important infectious agents for humans, avian species, and many mammalian species, including swine. In ... The HA proteins had 98.4% identity within the δ2 sub-cluster viruses and 96.8% between the δ1 and δ2 sub-cluster viruses. Three ... S. G. M. Van Poucke, J. M. Nicholls, H. J. Nauwynck, and K. Van Reeth, "Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses ...
Sporadic, yet frequent human infections with avian H5N1 influenza A viruses continue to pose a potential pandemic threat. Poor ... three recombinant proteins were further characterized: T24H-his, GST-T24H and GST-Ts8B2. The proteins on WB, ELISA and MBA were ... felines that are not commonly considered intermediate hosts for avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are ... similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a ...
Research describing two mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza that spread between mammals is likely to be published in its ... It is a subtype of the influenza A virus--the most virulent of the influenza viruses to affect humans. These viruses are ... Kawaoka and his team, whose work has been accepted by Nature, created a chimeric virus with the hemagglutinin protein from H5N1 ... The Risks and Benefits of Mutant Flu StudiesResearch describing two mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza that spread between ...
Similar to Figure 3, the PA proteins of 7 virus strains that infected humans are grouped together in a clade in Figure 4, which ... Finally, we construct a 3D graphical representation of protein sequence based on the graph and (. and 5) as follows: where is ... and 21 PB2 protein sequences to construct the phylogenetic tree for H7N9 avian influenza virus. These proteins come from 30 ... R. Gao, B. Cao, Y. Hu et al., "Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus," The New England Journal of ...
  • The current evidence suggests that the 1918 influenza pandemic was caused by viruses with 2 receptor-binding variants: A/South Carolina/1/1918 (SC18) and A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, like A/London/1/1918, possess the human α2,6 SA receptor preference, whereas natural variants A/New York/1/1918 and A/London/1/1919 possess a mixed α2,6/α2,3 SA specificity ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus. (nih.gov)
  • The results show that the receptor specificity of both H2 and H3 isolates evaluated for sialic acid linkage specificity and inhibition of hemagglutination by horse serum correlates with the species of origin, as postulated earlier for H3 strains based on a limited survey of five human, three avian, and one equine strain. (nih.gov)
  • Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of several human H2 receptor variants and analysis of known sequences of H2 and H3 isolates revealed that receptor specificity varies in association with an amino acid change at residues 228 in addition to the change at residue 226 previously documented to affect receptor specificity of H3 but not H1 isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Residues 226 and 228 are leucine and serine in human isolates, which preferentially bind sialic acid alpha 2,6-galactose beta 1,4-N-acetyl glucosamine (SA alpha 2,6Gal), and glutamine and glycine in avian and equine isolates, which exhibit specificity for sialic acid alpha-2,3-galactose beta-1,3-N-acetyl galactosamine (SA alpha 2,3Gal). (nih.gov)
  • The results demonstrate that the correlation of receptor specificity and species of origin is maintained across both H2 and H3 influenza virus serotypes and provide compelling evidence that influenza virus hosts exert selective pressure to maintain the receptor specificity characteristics of strains isolated from that species. (nih.gov)
  • Hu, W. (2010) Quantifying the effects of mutations on receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses. (scirp.org)
  • A/Vietnam/1203/04 and A/Vietnam/JP36-2/05 viruses, which possess "avian-like" α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) receptor specificity, caused neurological symptoms and death in ferrets inoculated with 10 3 50% tissue culture infectious doses. (asm.org)
  • Acquisition of Human-Type Receptor Binding Specificity by New H5N1 Influenza Virus Sublineages during Their Emergence in Birds in Egypt. (ebscohost.com)
  • The extreme specificity of this antibody allows for unambiguous identification and quantitative analysis of the tagged protein. (abcam.com)
  • Our findings emphasize the need to prepare for potential pandemics caused by influenza viruses possessing H5 HA, and will help individuals conducting surveillance in regions with circulating H5N1 viruses to recognize key residues that predict the pandemic potential of isolates, which will inform the development, production and distribution of effective countermeasures. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this work was to study the pathogenesis and transmission of -cluster H1 influenza viruses in swine, comparing three isolates from different phylogenetic subclusters, geographic locations, and years of isolation. (hindawi.com)
  • The objective of the work described here was to study the pathogenesis and transmission of δ -cluster H1 influenza A viruses of swine in an experimental pig model, comparing three isolates from different locations of the USA (Texas, Minnesota, and Illinois), different collection times (2008, 2007, and 2005, resp. (hindawi.com)
  • Specification of receptor-binding phenotypes of influenza virus isolates from different hosts using synthetic sialylglycopolymers: non-egg-adapted human H1 and H3 influenza A and influenza B viruses share a common high binding affinity for 6′-sialyl(N-acetyllactosamine). (springer.com)
  • Rogers, G.N. and D'Souza, B.L. (1989) Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates. (scirp.org)
  • Recognition of human receptors can serve as molecular markers for the pandemic potential of the isolates. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Because of their similarities with the H5N1 virus, these H6N1 and H9N2 viruses may have the potential for interspecies transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrate that these H6N1 and H9N2 viruses are pathogenic in mice but that their pathogenicities are less than that of A/HK/156/97 (H5N1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After three passages (P 3 ) in mouse lungs, the pathogenicity of the viruses increased, with both A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1) (P 3 ) and A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) (P 3 ) viruses being found in the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To target nucleocapsid protein (NP)-encoding viral genomic RNA (NP-vRNA) of H9N2 influenza virus, the library was screened against a 18-nucleotide single stranded nucleic acid substrate, dubbed asNP(18), the sequence of which is unique to the NP-vRNA. (nih.gov)
  • H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular, avian influenza A virus subtypes H5N1, H9N2, and H7N7 have been transmitted directly to humans in the past decade, exhibiting the zoonotic potential of influenza viruses ( 4 , 11 , 19 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • On episode #377 of the science show This Week in Virology , the TWiVniks review the past week's findings on Zika virus and microcephaly, and reveal a chicken protein that provides insight on the restriction of transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans. (virology.ws)
  • In view of the high fatality of the disease, a combination of contact, droplet, and airborne precautions are recommended as long as resources allow despite the fact that the relative importance of these three modes in nosocomial transmission of avian influenza is still unknown. (hkmj.org)
  • Several RSV proteins have been shown to contribute to immune evasion by modification of cytokine responses, particularly the type I interferon (IFN) response. (uga.edu)
  • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report they have discovered a type of immune antibody that can rapidly evolve to neutralize a wide array of influenza virus strains - including those the body hasn't yet encountered. (news-medical.net)
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Running Title: Influenza A virus: Evasion and immune responses The purpose of this paper was to analyze and get a better understanding of how Influenza A virus (IAV), better known as the common flu, bypasses the highly sophisticated immune system. (majortests.com)
  • How influenza escapes the immune system and the effects of immune system responses will be discussed throughout this paper. (majortests.com)
  • The interaction of influenza with the innate immune defense system mechanism occurs in two phases. (majortests.com)
  • Influenza is able to hijack the innate immune system and develop the ability to evade the IFN defense mechanism. (majortests.com)
  • Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan , bacterium or virus alters the proteins or carbohydrates on its surface and thus avoids a host immune response . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of its mainly intracellular niche, parasitized host cells which display parasite proteins must be modified to prevent destruction by the host immune defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, one would hope the immune system would clear the virus. (scitizen.com)
  • Measles virus, a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, predominantly infects immune cells using signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as a cellular receptor. (ebscohost.com)
  • The experimental vaccine is made from non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) that stimulate an immune response, but that cannot replicate or cause disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As a result, the immune system of a person who got a flu shot might not recognize and attack the influenza virus they become infected with. (eurekalert.org)
  • We understand the virus's structure, how it enters the cells of the human body and how it evades detection by the host's immune system, but knowing these things is not enough to stop another pandemic. (carleton.ca)
  • To further characterize the immune responses induced after an influenza vaccination performed either via the ID or the IM routes in two clearly distinct populations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • M. Koopmans et al, Profiling of humoral immune responses to influenza viruses by using protein microarray. (wur.nl)
  • After the 1918-1919 pandemic, immunologists learned that the immune system responds to influenza A viruses in two basic ways. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Triton X-100 treatment proved to be the easiest-to-use influenza virus inactivation protocol for application in combination with phenotypic NA inhibitor susceptibility assays, while formalin treatment preserved B-cell and T-cell epitope antigenicity, allowing the detection of both humoral and cellular immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Several virological and immunological assays are used for the characterization of a virus and the immune response induced. (asm.org)
  • Influenza virus exhibits a significant challenge to the human immune system because of antigenic variability in field strains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Abs that can mediate other functions, such as killing influenza-infected cells and activating innate immune responses (termed "Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC]-mediating Abs"), may assist in protective immunity to influenza. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nonstructural protein 1, nonstructural protein 2, and PB1 frame 2 are only found within infected cells and are responsible for overcoming host immune mechanisms ( 9 ) ( Fig. 1A ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The focus of the Foung Laboratory is to define immune correlates of protection against hepatitis C virus and other viral pathogens. (stanford.edu)
  • Ellebedy discovered the antibody - an immune protein that recognizes and attaches to a foreign molecule - in blood taken from a patient hospitalized with flu at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis in the winter of 2017. (wustl.edu)
  • It is amazing what the human immune system is capable of if presented with the right antigens. (wustl.edu)
  • The innate immune system recognizes invaded virus through multiple mechanisms. (genome.jp)
  • HA interacts with cell surface proteins containing oligosaccharides with terminal sialyl residues. (abcam.com)
  • The fourth step is to fuse the viral membrane with the host membrane that forms the endosome, which is mediated by the HA glycoprotein embedded in the virus surface. (springer.com)
  • HPIV3 with a single amino acid mutation in the HN glycoprotein with better than wildtype growth in cell culture had a disadvantage in an ex vivo or in vivo system, revealing a gap in our understanding of the biology of these viruses in their natural host . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Conformational Flexibility in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. (stanford.edu)