A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Ebola Rift Valley Fever Dengue Hantavirus Bwaka, Mpia A.; ... Varicella (chickenpox) Rubeola (measles) Rubella (German measles) Variola (smallpox) Vaccinia Herpes simplex Herpes zoster ... Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji (2011-05-06). "The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever". Viruses. 3 (5): 493-519. doi:10.3390/ ... Other diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hypertension are commonly found to have associated ocular ...
... specified conditions 043 Human immunodeficiency virus infection causing other specified 044 Other human immunodeficiency virus ... unspecified 051 Cowpox and paravaccinia 051.0 Cowpox and vaccinia not from vaccination 051.01 Cowpox 051.02 Vaccinia not from ... of central nervous system 049 Other non-arthropod-borne viral diseases of central nervous system 050 Smallpox 050.0 Variola ... human herpesvirus 6 058.12 Roseola infantum due to human herpesvirus 7 058.2 Other human herpesvirus encephalitis 058.21 Human ...
... monkeypox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.650.900 - vaccinia virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.650.930 - variola virus MeSH B04.280.650.160 ... hepatitis b virus, woodchuck MeSH B04.450.420.410 - hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.450.420.410.500 - hepatitis a virus, human MeSH ... simian immunodeficiency virus MeSH B04.820.650.805.851 - simian t-lymphotropic virus 1 MeSH B04.820.650.805.855 - simian t- ... monkeypox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.650.900 - vaccinia virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.650.930 - variola virus MeSH B04.909 ...
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that - when the infection is not treated - can cause AIDS (acquired ... Although the main weapon used was vaccinia virus, which was used as the vaccine, no one seems to know exactly where vaccinia ... 126-131 Weinstein RS (April 2011). "Should remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?". Emerging Infectious ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ...
"Postnatal human herpesvirus 8 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in mothers and infants from Zambia". The ... "Early childhood infection by human herpesvirus 8 in Zambia and the role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coinfection in a ... While no other human tumor virus possesses these same genes, other tumor viruses target the same cellular pathways illustrating ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ...
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... The Neurological Manifestations of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Syndromes. Springer Science & Business ... Vaccinia is in the same family as cowpox and variola, but is genetically distinct from both. The origin of vaccinia virus and ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ...
Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. Vaccinia and Variola: a study of their life history Churchill, ... "Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... Viruses accepted to cause human cancers include some genotypes of human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
... the terms human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are abbreviated to HIV and AIDS, respectively. ... Post-vaccination follicular eruption Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia gangrenosum, vaccinia necrosum) Pseudocowpox Recurrent ... Variola major (smallpox) Verruca plana (flat wart) Verruca plantaris (plantar wart) Verruca vulgaris (wart) Verrucae palmares ... Herpetic sycosis Herpetic whitlow HIV-associated pruritus Human monkeypox Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection Human tanapox ...
1992). "Herpes zoster and human immunodeficiency virus infection". J. Infect. Dis. 166 (5): 1153-56. doi:10.1093/infdis/166.5. ... 1988). "Herpes zoster in African patients: a clinical predictor of human immunodeficiency virus infection". J. Infect. Dis. 157 ... Varicella zoster virus is not the same as herpes simplex virus; however, they belong to the same family of viruses.[10] ... Kennedy PG (2002). "Varicella-zoster virus latency in human ganglia". Rev. Med. Virol. 12 (5): 327-34. doi:10.1002/rmv.362. ...
Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. Vaccinia and Variola: a study of their life history Churchill, ... Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... Viruses accepted to cause human cancers include some genotypes of human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, ...
A genomic study of the herpes simplex type 1 virus confirmed the human migration pattern theory known as the out-of-Africa ... During immunodeficiency, herpes simplex can cause unusual lesions in the skin. One of the most striking is the appearance of ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ...
"Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Anal Canal in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... "Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and anal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus- ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Ebola Rift Valley Fever Dengue Hantavirus Bwaka, Mpia A.; ... Varicella (chickenpox) Rubeola (measles) Rubella (German measles) Variola (smallpox) Vaccinia Herpes simplex Herpes zoster ... Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji (2011-05-06). "The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever". Viruses. 3 (5): 493-519. doi:10.3390/ ... Other diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hypertension are commonly found to have associated ocular ...
... variola) is a contagious, disfiguring and often deadly disease caused by the variola virus. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) wasnt identified before the end of routine smallpox vaccination, so its not known what ... were stopped contained live vaccinia virus - a virus similar to cowpox and closely related to variola. Before 1972, most young ... Smallpox (variola) is a contagious, disfiguring and often deadly disease caused by the variola virus. Smallpox infection was ...
... specified conditions 043 Human immunodeficiency virus infection causing other specified 044 Other human immunodeficiency virus ... unspecified 051 Cowpox and paravaccinia 051.0 Cowpox and vaccinia not from vaccination 051.01 Cowpox 051.02 Vaccinia not from ... of central nervous system 049 Other non-arthropod-borne viral diseases of central nervous system 050 Smallpox 050.0 Variola ... human herpesvirus 6 058.12 Roseola infantum due to human herpesvirus 7 058.2 Other human herpesvirus encephalitis 058.21 Human ...
Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:673-6. DOI ... and variola (smallpox) viruses than to another clade that contains other strains of cowpox virus and vaccinia and monkeypox ... Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to variola virus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79953. DOIPubMed ... generalized vaccinia virus infection, disseminated herpes zoster and herpes simplex virus infections, drug-associated eruptions ...
Two hundred years after Edward Jenner popularized the use of an orthopox virus to cross protect against variola, vaccinia ... Brown AE, Nitayaphan S. Foundations for a Phase III human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial: A ... Efficacy testing of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp160 as a therapeutic vaccine ... human immunodeficiency virus) in civilian settings, and the devices have fallen into disfavor. (252, 253) In contrast, a new ...
The data indicate that APOBEC3G is not a restriction factor for vaccinia virus replication nor is vaccinia virus able to ... It was therefore tempting to analyze whether vaccinia virus replication is affected by APOBEC3G. The replication of vaccinia ... However, Western blot analysis showed that the levels of APOBEC3G protein were not affected by vaccinia virus infection. ... nor did other members of the APOBEC3 family alter vaccinia virus replication. HIV counteracts APOBEC3G by inducing its ...
... simian-human immunodeficiency virus explanation free. What is simian-human immunodeficiency virus? Meaning of simian-human ... immunodeficiency virus medical term. What does simian-human immunodeficiency virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... smallpox virus variola virus.. street virus virus from a naturally infected animal, as opposed to a laboratory-adapted strain ...
In August 1990 an orthopox virus (OPV) had been isolated from a severe case of a generalized infection with lethal outcome in ... Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. N Engl J Med 316: 673-676PubMed ... Lethale Tierpockeninfektion bei einem Atopiker unter dem Bild einer Variola vera. Hautarzt 42: 292-297Google Scholar ... Vaccinia Virus Hyperimmune Serum Hyperimmune Seron Cowpox Virus Ectromelia Virus These keywords were added by machine and not ...
variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (such as African swine fever virus); and unclassified viruses ... including but not limited to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)); Picomaviridae (for example, polio viruses, hepatitis A virus ... for example, influenza viruses); Bunyaviridae (for example, Hantaan viruses, bunya viruses, phleboviruses, and Nairo viruses); ... for example, ebola viruses); Paramyxoviridae (for example, parainfluenza viruses, mumps virus, measles virus, respiratory ...
... hepatitis A virus, vaccinia, variola, rotavirus, human T lymphotropic virus-1, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), rabies virus ... hepatitis A virus, vaccinia, variola major, variola minor, rotavirus, human T lymphotropic virus-1, human immunodeficiency ... Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, human papilloma viruses, parainfluenza virus, measles virus, ... Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, human papilloma viruses, parainfluenza virus, measles virus, ...
The vaccinia virus is an attenuated vaccine that prevents variola infection. c. Variola virus is considered a potential ... The viruses associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome are human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). These viruses belong ... 7. A. The human immunodeficiency viruses cause AIDS. The major target of the virus is the T helper cell, which would normally ... 2. Variola virus a. Variola major caused a severe disease known as smallpox that had a fatality rate of about 30%. Variola ...
... variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (e.g. African swine fever virus); and unclassified viruses (e ... Examples of virus that have been found in humans include but are not limited to: Retroviridae (e.g. human immunodeficiency ... forest virus, Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus, ONyong-Nyong virus, Ross river virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, ... Infectious virus of both human and non-human vertebrates, include retroviruses, RNA viruses and DNA viruses. ...
... variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (such as African swine fever virus); and unclassified viruses ... Examples of infectious virus include: Retroviridae (for example, human immunodeficiency viruses, such as HIV-1 (also referred ... ebola viruses); Paramyxoviridae (for example, parainfluenza viruses, mumps virus, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus); ... polio viruses, hepatitis A virus; enteroviruses, human coxsackie viruses, rhinoviruses, echoviruses); Calciviridae (such as ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (042-044)[edit]. *042 Human immunodeficiency virus infection with specified ... 051.0 Cowpox and vaccinia not from vaccination *051.01 Cowpox. *051.02 Vaccinia not from vaccination ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... 5 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (042-044). *6 Poliomyelitis and other non-arthropod-borne viral diseases of ...
Human T-Cell Leukemia Viruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-2). 169. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. 170. Introduction to the Human ... Biology of Viruses and Viral Diseases. 132. Orthopoxviruses : Vaccinia (Smallpox Vaccine), Variola (Smallpox), Monkeypox, and ... Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 121. The Immunology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 122. ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Women. 127. Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 128. Antiretroviral ...
... human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), and others (16-21). Recombinant vaccinia viruses have been created from several strains ... variola)infection is not known, but epidemiologic studies suggest that protection against smallpox persists a minimum of 5 ... RECOMBINANT VACCINIA VIRUSES Vaccinia virus is the prototype of the genus Orthopoxvirus. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that ... Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. N Engl J Med 1987;316:673-6. ...
... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus ... and include variola virus, vaccinia virus (VACV), monkeypox virus, cowpox virus (CPXV), and the mouse-specific pathogen, ... the vaccinia virus M2L protein inhibits induction of NF-kappaB activation via an ERK2 pathway in virus-infected human embryonic ... Vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen (VACV), and ectromelia virus strain Moscow (ECTV) were propagated in BGMK cells and harvested ...
... they have a fiendish way of wreaking havoc not only on humans, as everyone… ... If viruses could talk or see, this would be their hendiatris. Although viruses are minute particles composed only of a genome ... Immunity to Viruses Hildegund C.J. Ertl INTRODUCTION Veni, vidi, vici-I came, I saw, I conquered. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has killed more than 25 million humans since 1981 and continues to spread, threatening the ...
Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 122. The Immunology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 123. ... Biology of Viruses and Viral Diseases. 134. Orthopoxviruses: Vaccinia (Smallpox Vaccine), Variola (Smallpox), Monkeypox, and ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Women. 128. Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. 129. Antiretroviral ... Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types I and II. 170. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Section I. Picornaviridae. 171. ...
Smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus but does not contain variola virus, which causes smallpox. ... VIG = vaccinia immune globulin; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, SCIDS = severe ... Smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus but does not contain variola virus, which causes smallpox. Different vaccinia ... VIG = vaccinia immune globulin; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, SCIDS = severe ...
... variola). Although the exact origins of vaccinia virus are uncertain, vaccinia may represent a hybrid of the variola and cowpox ... Vaccination with vaccinia virus has been directly responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox ( ... Disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. N Engl J Med. 1987 Mar 12. 316(11 ... Whether vaccinia virus is the product of genetic recombination, a species derived from cowpox virus or variola virus by ...
... infection of the human fetus has been reported for variola virus and vaccinia virus (12-15). Congenital vaccinia is a rare ... Atopic dermatitis combined with pregnancy could probably account for an immunodeficiency state inducing the patients ... Among orthopoxviruses, fetal infection has been reported for variola virus and vaccinia virus; our findings suggest that CPXV ... Real-time PCR to identify variola virus or other human pathogenic orthopox viruses. Clin Chem. 2007;53:606-13. DOIPubMed ...
The orthopoxviruses include smallpox (variola), monkeypox, vaccinia, cowpox, buffalopox, cantagalo, and aracatuba viruses. ... Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with ... Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Transcriptome in Abortively Infected Cultured Cells and a Human Skin Lesion. J Virol. 2016 May. 90 ... including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox, molluscum contagiosum and orf. [7] Cidofovir and a number of its derivatives ...
Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus ... Vaccinia virus immunization provides protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and stands as the ... Vaccinia virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain granzymes and perforin. About half of vaccinia virus-specific CD8+ T cells ... Vaccinia virus-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies were similar whether vaccinia virus or MVA was used for in vitro stimulation ( ...
... variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (e.g. African swine fever virus); and unclassified viruses (e ... Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and influenza virus. [0093] The unpurified source of CTLs may be ... Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and influenza virus antigens. [0008] In yet another aspect, the ... Virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and influenza virus. In yet another embodiment, the cell is a T cell, a ...
RNA virus sequences) in a pooled sample employing an INVADER detection assay. In certain embodiments, the present invention ... For example, a number of viral agents, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have RNA genomic ... or Herpes Simplex Virus (Herpesvirus) Cowpox-vaccinia virus (Poxvirus) Croup, infectious-parainfluenza viruses 1-3 ( ... Smallpox-variola virus (Poxvirus) "Slapped cheek" disease (erythema infectiosum)-Parvovirus B19 (Parvovirus) Sporotrichosis- ...
... variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (e.g., African swine fever virus); Hepatitis C virus; and ... 0075] Pathogenic viruses include, but are not limited to, Retroviridae (e.g., human immunodeficiency viruses, such as HIV-1 ( ... Louis Encephalitis virus; West Nile virus; tick-borne encephalitis virus; Hepatitis C virus; Kunjin virus; Central European ... rabies viruses); Filoviridae (e.g., ebola viruses); Paramyxoviridae (e.g., parainfluenza viruses, mumps virus, measles virus, ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is no specific agent to treat most types of viral meningitis. They usually are benign ... Variola. ● Rabies vaccine. ● Pertussis vaccine. ● Influenza vaccine. ● Vaccinia. ● Yellow fever vaccine. Bacteria ... Many of the insect borne encephalitidies (West Nile Virus) are best prevented by insecticide use - no perfect treatment exists ... there are of course exceptions with very virulent viruses). ... Herpes group of viruses. ● Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 ...
... influenza viruses including H5N1, hepatitis B & C, MRSA, C-Diff & Norovirus. Contact us today for info ... Usutu virus. • Vaccinia virus. • Variola virus. • Varicella-zoster virus. • Vesicular stomatitis virus. • West Nile virus. • ... Herpes simplex virus (HSV). • Human coronavirus 229E. • Human coronavirus OC43. • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). • Human ... Semliki Forest virus. • Seoul virus. • Sindbis virus. • Sin Nombre virus. • St. Louis encephalitis virus. • Tacaribe virus. • ...
... is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high ... Prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors of Mekelle blood bank, ... Vaccinia Virus. The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used ... Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 ...
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototype poxvirus and is frequently used as a vector for vaccine development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mannitol may provide a stabilizing effect at 0 to +10° C. or in a liquid-frozen composition, for example between -10° C. and -30° C. or between -20° C. and -23.5° C. The MVA may be used as a vaccine or for use in gene therapy, virotherapy, immunotherapy, or cancer therapy in a mammal, preferably a human. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the composition is a vaccine or is for use in gene therapy, virotherapy, immunotherapy, or cancer therapy in a mammal, preferably a human. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • These revised recommendations on vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine update the previous recommendations (MMWR 1985;34:341-2) and include current information on its use among laboratory and health-care workers occupationally exposed to vaccinia, recombinant vaccinia viruses, and other orthopoxviruses that can infect humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine is a highly effective immunizing agent that brought about the global eradication of smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1982, the only active licensed producer of vaccinia vaccine in the United States discontinued production for general use, and in 1983, distribution to the civilian population was discontinued (4). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1980, the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) recommended the use of vaccinia vaccine to protect laboratory workers from possible infection while working with nonvariola orthopoxviruses (e.g., vaccinia and monkeypox)(6). (cdc.gov)
  • CDC has provided vaccinia vaccine for these laboratory workers since 1983 (8). (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccinia vaccine currently licensed in the United States is a lyophilized preparation of infectious vaccinia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the Temple of Heaven and Copenhagen vaccinia strains are highly pathogenic in animals, whereas the NYCBOH strain, from which the Wyeth vaccine strain was derived, had relatively low pathogenicity (15). (cdc.gov)
  • Certain military recruits continue to receive vaccinia vaccine owing to the concern for bioterrorism. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, Dryvax became the first approved vaccinia virus vaccine in 1931. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccinia virus is the species now characterized as the constituent of smallpox vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The effectiveness of vaccinia virus as a vaccine paramount was in this effort. (medscape.com)
  • Smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus but does not contain variola virus, which causes smallpox. (aafp.org)
  • Different vaccinia strains have been used worldwide to produce smallpox vaccine, but all formulations manufactured in the United States contain the New York City Board of Health vaccinia strain, which has been reported to cause fewer adverse events than other strains. (aafp.org)
  • We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8 + T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) versus Dryvax immunization in which protection was assessed against subsequent Dryvax challenge. (rupress.org)
  • Vaccinia virus immunization provides protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and stands as the classic example of a successful vaccine. (rupress.org)
  • The protocol was designed to test whether preimmunization with MVA results in protection from subsequent challenge with the vaccine strain Dryvax, a surrogate for variola infection ( 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • [ 11 ] The current vaccine, Dryvax, was prepared in the late 1970s as lyophilized virus derived from calf lymph. (medscape.com)
  • Fresh stocks of vaccinia vaccine prepared using tissue culture methods are now available. (medscape.com)
  • Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus Mice", Virol. (lens.org)
  • Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis", Virol. (lens.org)
  • Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVaxTM) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA 14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates", Vaccine (1999), 17:1869-1882. (lens.org)
  • Additionally, there is an emerging poxvirus infection, cantagalo, in Brazil, which has apparently evolved from the locally used smallpox vaccine strain (vaccinia virus [VV]) ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study, we generated a SARS vaccine candidate by using the live-attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vector. (asm.org)
  • ACAM2000, Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, is a live vaccinia virus derived from plaque purification cloning from Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta, PA, calf lymph vaccine, New York City Board of Health Strain) and grown in African Green Monkey kidney (Vero) cells and tested to be free of adventitious agents. (rxlist.com)
  • The vaccinia virus vaccine ( smallpox vaccine ) is generally safe and effective, but some people do experience side effects and adverse reactions . (cdc.gov)
  • FDA approved for adverse reaction to smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine? (cdc.gov)
  • Available through IND protocol for adverse reaction to smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine? (cdc.gov)
  • However, a new outbreak due to type 1 poliovirus in western Uttar Pradesh, following importation of the virus from Bihar state in mid-2008, has highlighted the fragility of progress because of the suboptimal efficacy of oral poliovirus vaccine in this area. (who.int)
  • Vaccinia is a live virus vaccine that was last routinely used in the United States in 1972. (netce.com)
  • The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, and eczema vaccinatum. (aafp.org)
  • Family physicians must learn to screen potential vaccinees for contraindications (e.g., immunodeficiency, immunosuppression, certain skin and eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse reactions. (aafp.org)
  • Smallpox vaccine contains live vaccinia virus, a milder cousin of the variola (smallpox) virus. (aafp.org)
  • 268. Kodihalli S., Haynes J.R., Robinson H.L., Webster R.G. Cross-protection among lethal H5N2 influenza viruses induced by DNA vaccine to the hemagglutinin. (x-pdf.ru)
  • The current poxvirus vaccine (Vaccinia virus, VACV), while highly effective, is unsafe and its use is contraindicated for an estimated 25% of the population due to its virulence. (uncg.edu)
  • The A35 deletion mutant virus was also an effective vaccine, as it protected mice as well as WR from a lethal challenge. (uncg.edu)
  • We also made a recombinant A35 deletion mutant virus in the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient vaccine strain, which has been shown to be safe when used in immunocompromised individuals. (uncg.edu)
  • Since poxviruses are now being used widely as a platform for a number of vaccines for various diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, our work with A35 is broadly applicable to vaccine development. (uncg.edu)
  • APVs are also major players in viral vaccine vector development for diseases in human and veterinary medicine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abortive infection in mammalian cells (no production of progeny viruses) and their ability to accommodate multiple gene inserts are some of the characteristics that make APVs promising vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge relating to APVs, including classification, morphogenesis, host-virus interactions, diagnostics and disease, and also highlights the use of APVs as recombinant vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge of APVs as avian pathogens, including classification, morphogenesis, host-virus interactions, diagnosis, as well as issues relevant to their use as recombinant vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the currently used live VV vaccine is associated with a relatively high incidence of severe adverse events, particularly in individuals with eczema and immunodeficiency [6 9]. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Here Dr. Horowitz should be especially congratulated for presenting wellresearched little known facts that, though highly disturbing, are an important piece of history that may also bear heavily on the emergence of new viruses, and 3) vaccine production. (rapeutation.com)
  • Identification of genome-derived vaccine candidates conserved between human and mouse-adapted strains of H. pylori," Human Vaccines , vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 219-223, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhaling a single virus particle may be enough to cause infection. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma was suspected initially, but on hospital day 5, a skin biopsy showed large intracellular eosinophilic inclusion bodies pathognomonic for infection with cowpox virus (family Poxviridae , genus Orthopoxviru s). (cdc.gov)
  • To confirm the diagnosis of cowpox virus infection, we conducted biopsies of 3 skin lesions on hospital day 7. (cdc.gov)
  • Evolutionary relationships of cowpox virus isolated from a 35-year-old man with HIV infection treated in the intensive care unit at the University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany (KT182068_HumEss12, asterisk), other human isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • However, Western blot analysis showed that the levels of APOBEC3G protein were not affected by vaccinia virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In August 1990 an orthopox virus (OPV) had been isolated from a severe case of a generalized infection with lethal outcome in an immunosup-pressed 18-year-old man. (springer.com)
  • Baxby D (1988) Human poxvirus infection after the eradication of smallpox. (springer.com)
  • The level of antibody that protects against smallpox (variola)infection is not known, but epidemiologic studies suggest that protection against smallpox persists a minimum of 5 years after revaccination (12). (cdc.gov)
  • Also, the level of antibody required for protection against vaccinia infection is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 Other viruses such as pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been isolated since the late 1990s repeatedly from humans, who commonly died as sequela of the infection. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Importantly, mice infected with ectromelia virus lacking EVM005 had a robust immune response, leading to viral clearance during infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Inoculation with vaccina virus produces a localized skin infection. (medscape.com)
  • our findings suggest that CPXV poses the same threats for infection complications as vaccinia virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Among orthopoxviruses, infection of the human fetus has been reported for variola virus and vaccinia virus ( 12 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a fatal case of CPXV infection in a human fetus. (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus infection of a 22-year-old pregnant woman with atopic dermatitis, France, July 13, 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • On July 18, the diagnosis of an orthopoxvirus-positive, smallpox virus-negative infection was confirmed by PCR at the hospital, and the National Reference Center-Expert Laboratory for Orthopoxvirus (Brétigny-sur-Orge, France) was contacted. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, monkeypox infection in macaques may not completely recapitulate variola infection in humans and may serve as an inadequate model for protective immunity against smallpox. (rupress.org)
  • Although virus-specific CD8 + T cells are often measured by a limited number of parameters, such as IFN-γ and/or IL-2 secretion, the functional profile of T cells is certainly more diverse, and the combination of functions that confer protection from infection are uncertain. (rupress.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees", Pro. (lens.org)
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Primary varicella zoster virus will continue to occur in young unvaccinated adults without a history of childhood infection. (jcadonline.com)
  • If the new virus retained the ability to infect animals, however, then its eradication would be unlikely due to the natural animal reservoir of infection. (asm.org)
  • These cases were subsequently traced back to an animal origin, which provided further evidence that SARS is likely a result of zoonotic infection in humans ( 15 , 16 , 27 , 36 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Worst of all, the accidental infection of two laboratory workers recently caused a small outbreak in China, suggesting the need for more stringent virus containment ( 14 , 25 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Diseases or conditions that cause immunodeficiency or immunosuppression, including human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, solid organ or stem-cell transplant, generalized malignancy, leukemia, lymphoma, agammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune diseases. (aafp.org)
  • EM was instrumental in elucidating the viral agent of the first outbreak of Ebola virus in Zaire in 1976 ( 8 , 45 , 71 ) and in identifying the Ebola Reston infection of a monkey colony in Reston, VA, in 1989 as being caused by a filovirus ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Gay and bi-sexual men are more susceptible to infection (through still unknown routes of sexual transmission) whereas the virus is transmitted through non-sexual routes in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several discoveries have been made on the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by viruses of several families to complete their infection cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • In a mouse model of infection with vaccinia virus (VV), the most studied member of the poxvirus family, we identified that the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88) pathway was critical for the activation of NK cells and the control of VV infection in vivo. (healthdocbox.com)
  • During infection, vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, targets all major processes of the central dogma of genetics, as well as pre-transcription and post-translation steps to hinder host cell protein production. (mdpi.com)
  • The herpes virus causes infection. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn is generally a serious disease with a high mortality rate. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Cidofovir, a medication for human being cytomegalovirus infection, can Miriplatin hydrate supplier be an off-label medication to take care of poxvirus illness (Robbins et al. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • INTRODUCTION TO MEASLES VIRUS ⇒ MEASLES VIRUS is the causative agent of disease Measles, a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory system. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • citation needed] Other diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hypertension are commonly found to have associated ocular symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varicella (chickenpox) Rubeola (measles) Rubella (German measles) Variola (smallpox) Vaccinia Herpes simplex Herpes zoster Mumps Infectious mononucleosis Influenza Cytomegalic inclusion disease Pharyngoconjunctival fever (adenovirus 3) Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (adenovirus 8) Human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Ebola Rift Valley Fever Dengue Hantavirus Bwaka, Mpia A. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 2. (cdc.gov)
  • Brincidofovir (an investigational drug) may have fewer adverse events than cidofovir (which is FDA-approved for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • The most infamous member of the family Poxviridae is Variola virus , the causative agent of smallpox, which caused millions of deaths before its eradication from the natural environment. (asm.org)
  • Introduction Vaccinia virus (VV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, including smallpox (variola) virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and mousepox (ectromelia) virus. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The replication of vaccinia virus, a prototype poxvirus, was not, however, inhibited in APOBEC3G-expressing cells, nor did other members of the APOBEC3 family alter vaccinia virus replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Egberink HF, Willemse A, Horzinek MC (1986) Isolation and identification of a poxvirus from a domestic cat and a human contact case. (springer.com)
  • Today, there still remain multiple poxvirus threats to humans, including the use of smallpox as a bioterrorism weapon in a now largely unvaccinated population. (asm.org)
  • Monkey poxvirus is of particular concern because it causes high human mortality and can spread from human to human ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Another member of the poxvirus family, molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), occurs commonly in humans (39% of a population over 50 years old tested seropositive [ 32 ]) but causes significant disease only in immunocompromised individuals and rarely in children. (asm.org)
  • In this study we use a multipronged approach to understand the diversity of CTL responses to vaccinia virus, a prototypic poxvirus with a genome ∼20-fold larger than that of the model RNA viruses typically studied in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent concerns that variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, could potentially be reintroduced into nature as a bioterrorism weapon, as well as recent outbreaks of zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infections, have led to renewed interest in poxvirus vaccination ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 7. The polyprotein of claim 1 wherein the immunologically cross-reactive poxvirus is vaccinia virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The most infamous poxvirus is Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, which caused over 500 million deaths in the twentieth century before it was declared eradicated in 1980 by the World Health Organization. (uncg.edu)
  • Genome sequence of a human tumorigenic poxvirus: prediction of specific host response-evasion genes. (nih.gov)
  • Molluscum contagiosum is caused by a virus that is a member of the poxvirus family. (naturopathix.com)
  • Since the eradication of smallpox, the only poxvirus that naturally infects humans is molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). (naturopathix.com)
  • The man had severe respiratory distress syndrome with septic shock, and he was infected with hepatitis B and C viruses and Epstein-Barr virus. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activate the NF-κB signalling pathway [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors of Mekelle blood bank, Northern Ethiopia: A three year retrospective study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, it has been shown that human responses to infections with different viruses (Flu, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV)) tend to be multispecific (directed against multiple proteins derived from a given pathogen) and broad (directed against multiple determinants within a given protein) ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). (blogspot.com)
  • Arora P, Basu A, Schmidt ML, Clark GJ, Donninger H, Nichols DB, Calvisi DF, Kaushik-Basu N. Nonstructural protein 5B promotes degradation of the NORE1A tumor suppressor to facilitate hepatitis C virus replication. (signagen.com)
  • in noticing an anomalous reaction while testing normal blood for hepatitis B virus, excised a precipitation band from a gel and, using EM, demonstrated that it contained a very small virus (parvovirus B19) ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Role of humoral immunity against hepatitis B virus core antigen in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccines are traditionally based on immunogens delivered as inactivated (Influenza) or attenuated live (smallpox) pathogens , recombinant proteins (Hepatitis B) or virus-like particles (Human Papillomavirus). (omicsonline.org)
  • Because studies of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines have been advanced to the stage of clinical trials, health-care workers (e.g., physicians and nurses) may now be exposed to vaccinia and recombinant vaccinia viruses and should be considered for vaccinia vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Recombinant yellow fever viruses are affective therapeutic vaccines for treatment of murine experimental solid tumors and pulmonary metastases", Journal of Viroloqy (2000), 74(19):9197-9205. (lens.org)
  • These findings have implications for the design of new smallpox vaccines and the understanding of immune responses to large DNA viruses in general. (jimmunol.org)
  • Up to now, there are still no reliable diagnostic tests in the early stages of the disease, no effective antiviral therapy, and no preventive vaccines for human or animal use, which remain to be the three major challenges to fight the SARS epidemic in the future. (asm.org)
  • Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. (vaccine-research-institute.fr)
  • APV-vectored vaccines are already in use in veterinary medicine [ 10 - 14 ], and it is likely that such vaccines will also be used against human diseases in the future. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, despite all the practical advantages, DNA vaccines face challenges in inducing potent antigen specific immune responses and protection in humans. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vaccination is nowadays the most efficient way of controlling infectious diseases and the search for new and improved vaccines continues as a way to ameliorate human health. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, the development of effective vaccines against other viruses (e.g. (omicsonline.org)
  • As a result, routine vaccinia vaccination was discontinued in 1971 (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination with vaccinia virus has been directly responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox (variola). (medscape.com)
  • Laboratory personnel working with vaccinia and others for whom the benefits outweigh the risks of vaccination may also receive vaccinations. (medscape.com)
  • In 1796, when Jenner made his seminal report on vaccinia, the potential benefits of vaccination became widely accepted. (medscape.com)
  • Treatments available for specific complications of smallpox vaccination include vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), cidofovir, and ophthalmic antiviral agents. (aafp.org)
  • For instance, although vaccinia virus-induced antibody responses have been shown to be necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus ( 1 ), virus-specific T cell responses generated at the time of vaccination may still contribute to effective protection. (rupress.org)
  • In this context, we studied vaccinia virus-specific T cell immune responses in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) versus Dryvax vaccination ( 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • Vaccinia vaccination confers at least short-term (up to 10 y) protection from smallpox. (medscape.com)
  • 1,2] Since the inception of varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccination, age-adjusted mortality rates where varicella was listed as the underlying cause dropped by 66 percent. (jcadonline.com)
  • Prevention of Ebola virus disease through vaccination: where we are in 2018. (vaccine-research-institute.fr)
  • Vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) is recommended as the first line of therapy for treatment of adverse reactions resulting from continued vaccinia virus replication after vaccination using ACAM2000® or APSV . (cdc.gov)
  • Clinicians who need assistance with the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected complications of vaccinia vaccination should consult with their state/local public health department . (cdc.gov)
  • VIGIV pdf icon external icon has been used safely and effectively in smallpox vaccinated individuals to treat adverse reactions that are secondary to continued vaccinia virus replication after vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • No antivirals are currently approved by the FDA for treatment of complications which might arise from vaccinia vaccination, but some may be used under expanded access investigational new drug (IND) protocols. (cdc.gov)
  • This antiviral is FDA-approved for the treatment of variola virus infections (smallpox) and could be used under an expanded access investigational new drug (IND) protocol for the treatment of adverse reactions secondary to continued vaccinia virus replication after smallpox vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Tecovirimat has been used in a small number of individuals to date for the treatment of severe adverse events resulting from vaccinia vaccination, and effectiveness data in humans is limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Neither are FDA-approved for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, but could be used under an expanded access IND protocol for the treatment of complications which might arise from vaccinia vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Human beings are particularly susceptible to smallpox in the post-smallpox immunization period because of the absence of regular vaccination, waning immunity, and lower percentage of vaccinated people in today's population. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • Vaccination has been the most efficacious way to combat infectious diseases in human history. (omicsonline.org)
  • Skin infections: Rash site and, depending on the virus, serum and urine b. (issuu.com)
  • Not only do viruses cause acute or chronic infections with potentially fatal outcome, but they also contribute to other diseases. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In acute virus infections, the fight between virus and host literally lasts until the death of one of the adversaries. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In chronic infections, a truce is eventually reached where virus and host coexist, generally at the expense of the well-being of the latter. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Variola infections have been eradicated worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the immune responses associated with Epstein-Barr virus infections, and to find out the possible immunodeficiencies that may be linked to severe. (bioportfolio.com)
  • She had a negative human immunodeficiency virus test and did not report an increase in the number of infections over the past several years. (jcadonline.com)
  • As the number of transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals has risen, morbidity due to MCV infections has also increased. (asm.org)
  • In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. (jove.com)
  • The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans captures the both the excitement and frustration of the dynamic struggle between humankind and the viruses that continue to cause immense suffering. (b-ok.org)
  • The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans is an invaluable reference for students, fellows and established professionals in the fields of microbiology, public health and infectious disease epidemiology, medicine and health policy. (b-ok.org)
  • [22] Subclinical ( asymptomatic ) infections with Variola virus were noted but were not common. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. (mdpi.com)
  • Primary and recurrent infections are highly infectious and heal completely but the virus can be detected in the cells for many years. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Previously, we utilized this assay to recognize the promising substance, NSC 373989, that inhibits Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes simplex virus (KSHV) processive DNA synthesis and blocks lytic KSHV infections (Dorjsuren et al. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • From a display screen of 2,222 substances, CACNG4 we determined both a polymerase inhibitor and a processivity inhibitor that stop vaccinia DNA synthesis and viral infections. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • The crucial role of immune surveillance in maintaining homeostasis is evident from the marked increase in the frequency and severity of cutaneous malignancies and infections when immune function is limited, for example in patients with genetic and acquired immunodeficiency disorders and in those receiving immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation2,3. (scribd.com)
  • Their ability to induce protection is primarily based on antibody-dependent mechanisms that work quite well by blocking infections caused by viruses like variola, mumps , measles or polio , and bacteria like diphtheria or tetanus. (omicsonline.org)
  • 2. Croup and bronchitis can be caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus. (issuu.com)
  • 3. Pneumonia in children can be caused by RSV, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (issuu.com)
  • This group of viruses forms a distinct clade that is closer to taterapox, camelpox, and variola (smallpox) viruses than to another clade that contains other strains of cowpox virus and vaccinia and monkeypox viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • There are many strains of vaccinia virus, which have different levels of virulence for humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • antibody titers and virus DNA loads in the lungs were detected after inoculation with two strains from Britain and Finland. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 280. Kuhn J.H., Seregin S.V., Morzunov S.P., Petrova I.D., Vyshemirskii O.I., Lvov D.K., Tyunnikov G.I., Gutorov V.V., Netesov S.V., Petrov V.S. Genetic analysis of the M RNA segment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains involved in the recent outbreaks in Russia. (x-pdf.ru)
  • Based on the mass of circumstantial and scientific evidence presented herein, the theory that 'emerging viruses' like HIV and Ebola spontaneously evolved and naturally jumped species from monkey to man must be seriously questioned. (rapeutation.com)
  • In considering the recent genesis of HIV and the Ebola viruses, Dr. Horowitz's book has explored three areas of great general and scientific interest: 1) the history of intensive research into the viral causes of cancer wherein readers can become familiar with the many, now questionable, virus transmission experiments, 2) the CIA and Department of Defense efforts to develop and defend against biological weapons of germ warfare. (rapeutation.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was therefore tempting to analyze whether vaccinia virus replication is affected by APOBEC3G. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data indicate that APOBEC3G is not a restriction factor for vaccinia virus replication nor is vaccinia virus able to degrade APOBEC3G. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once a cell becomes infected, viruses hijack its transcription and translation machinery to promote their own replication. (oncohemakey.com)
  • such errors most commonly lead to loss of viral fitness but occasionally benefit the virus in its quest for replication. (oncohemakey.com)
  • For instance, viruses that lack anti-apoptotic mechanisms may activate NF-κB to prolong the life of the infected cell in order to complete the viral replication cycle. (prolekare.cz)
  • More recently, derivatives of the Gypsy mushroom, Rozites caperata , were found by Piraino & Brandt (1999) to have significant inhibition against the replication and spread of varicella zoster (the 'shingles' and 'chickenpox' virus), influenza A, and the respiratory syncytial virus but not against HIV and other viruses. (justia.com)
  • Research by Dr. Byong Kak Kim showed that extracts of Reishi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) prevented the death of lymphocytes infected with HIV and inhibited the replication of the virus within the mother and daughter cells (Kim et al. (justia.com)
  • Results with MVA were similar to studies performed with WR: A35 was not required for virus replication and decreased VACV-specific immune responses. (uncg.edu)
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (slideshare.net)
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (slideshare.net)
  • It has a large and complex, double-stranded DNA genome, measuring about 200 Kb, that encodes most of the genes required for cytoplasmic replication of the virus [1]. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Although viruses encode various numbers of genes to perform replication, they rely on cellular translation machinery for protein synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • The classification of viruses depends on viral size and shape, chemical composition and structure of the genome, and the mode of viral replication. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • Combinational use of these host-based antiviral agents with virus-based antivirals to target different processes of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle should be evaluated in animal models and/or clinical trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • The B/Shanghai/PD114/2018 virus was able to infect alveolar epithelial cells (A549) cells, with good potential for replication. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 192-kilobase vaccinia genome offers Alvocidib a large number of potential goals that play specific jobs in vaccinia replication. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • While D4 is necessary for vaccinia DNA replication (Millns et al. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • The unique phenotype and high degree of polyfunctionality induced by vaccinia virus also extended to inserted HIV gene products of recombinant NYVAC. (rupress.org)
  • The immunogens can be made synthetically, by using recombinant DNA technology or derived from purified virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Variola virus is the causative agent of smallpox, and although eradicated in the early 70s, it still represents a serious threat as a possible agent for bioterrorism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nearly all of the determinants identified have identical counterparts encoded by modified vaccinia virus Ankara as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2009). Additionally, there's a concern that variola computer virus, the causative agent of smallpox, could be used like a natural weapon from unprotected stocks or hereditary engineering. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • This has been shown both in pathogens that are controlled by the host immune response, such as CMV and EBV ( 2 ), and pathogens that ultimately defeat it, such as HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus ( 3 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our laboratory continues to work on fundamental processes by which T lymphocytes recognize foreign pathogens including viruses such as smallpox, vaccinia, HIV, and influenza A. We have analyzed the basic function and structure of the T cell receptor (TCR) components: TCRalphabeta heterodimer, CD3epsilongamma and CD3epsilondelta heterodimers, and CD3zetazeta homodimer. (dana-farber.org)
  • Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus. (jove.com)
  • refers to other species which are known pathogens in humans. (irishstatutebook.ie)
  • EM, though it may not be able to identify a virus beyond the family level, at least points the way for more specific identification by other methods such as biochemical assays for specific pathogens. (asm.org)
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mutagenesis of the Signal Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus prM Protein: Enhancement of Signalase Cleavage In Vitro Is Lethal for Virus Production", J. Virol. (lens.org)
  • Regulation of thymocyte trafficking by Tagap, a GAP domain protein linked to human autoimmunity. (dana-farber.org)
  • NP1 Protein of the Bocaparvovirus Minute Virus of Canines Controls Access to the Viral Capsid Genes via Its Role in RNA Processing. (signagen.com)
  • KSHV is a herpesvirus , and is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a protein covering that packages its nucleic acids, called the capsid , which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument , and finally enclosed in a lipid envelope derived in part from the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) and curcumin (Cur) are natural compounds with different biological origins reported to regulate complement activation. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • VCP is known to be structurally similar to C4B binding protein (C4Bbp), but functionally to CR1, a human complement regulatory molecule known to bind C3b. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • By usurping host mRNA translation, viruses can gain a competitive advantage over available energy and translational machinery, thereby enhancing the expression of viral mRNA to protein. (mdpi.com)
  • Compact, synthetic, vaccinia virus early/late promoter for protein expression. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses are microscopic bundles of genetic material surrounded by protein coats that depend on the host cells they infect. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • As work with the virus is recommended to be performed at biosafety level 3, validated methods to effectively inactivate the virus to enable the safe study of RNA, DNA, and protein from infected cells are also needed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Today a virus is defined as a minute entity composed of an inner core of nucleic acid contained in a protein envelope. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the meaning of "virus" changed considerably from ancient Rome to the early decades of the twentieth century, traces of its original Latin usage can be found in expressions such as "the virus of racism," where it means something that poisons the mind, rather than a minute particle composed of nucleic acid and protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Significantly, since A20, D4 and E9 vaccinia protein share 98% series identity towards the matching protein of variola, they are great antiviral goals to avoid an outbreak of smallpox. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • The demonstration that a protein-coding gene is able to elicit a specific immune response in vivo was first published by Tang and Johnston [ 2 ] who showed that the direct delivery of the human growth hormone gene into the skin of mice could elicit antigen-specific antibody responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • 4. Pneumonia in adults can be caused by influenza virus, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and RSV. (issuu.com)
  • 066 Other arthropod-borne viral diseases 066.4 West Nile virus, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are associated with 20% of cancers, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human arteriosclerosis and autoimmune diseases, and they are linked to an overall reduction in life expectancy. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Find the latest diagnoses and treatments for currently recognized and newly emerging infectious diseases, such as those caused by avian and swine influenza viruses. (livromedica.pt)
  • Offers fully revised content on bacterial pathogenesis, antibiotic use and toxicity, the human microbiome and its effects on health and disease, immunological mechanisms and immunodeficiency, and probiotics and alternative approaches to treatment of infectious diseases. (elsevierhealth.com)
  • In the diagnostic setting, it is particularly valuable in the surveillance of emerging diseases and potential bioterrorism viruses. (asm.org)
  • All at once, it seems, new viruses and virus-related diseases have threatened the health of humans and many animal species. (rapeutation.com)
  • Virology is a twentieth-century science that deals with viruses and viral diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The infectious agents now known as viruses originally attracted attention because of the diseases they produce in their animal and plant hosts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Virus-specific CD8 + T cells contribute to viral control by directly killing virus-infected cells, secreting antiviral factors, and secreting factors that recruit other cells of the immune system ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • Several nucleoside and nucleotide analogues have demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against numerous poxviruses, including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox, molluscum contagiosum and orf. (medscape.com)
  • Another mushroom recognized for its antiviral activity is Fomes fomentarius , a hoof-shaped wood conk growing trees, which inhibited the tobacco mosaic virus (Aoki et al. (justia.com)
  • 1999) found antiviral activity from the methanol-soluble fractions of Reishi mushrooms ( Ganoderma lucidum ), selectively inhibiting Herpes simplex and the vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV). (justia.com)
  • Modulation of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling by Human Herpesvirus 8 Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. (signagen.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of 22 antiviral agents with known broad-spectrum antiviral activities against coronaviruses and/or other viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scF. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To determine if A35 would decrease the host adaptive immune response, mice were vaccinated with 500 plaque forming units (pfu) of either VACV (Western Reserve strain, WR) or A35 deletion mutant virus. (uncg.edu)
  • In this article, we review the strategies used by VACV to induce host shutoff in the context of strategies employed by other viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • A prior study demonstrated that many polyphenols, including resveratrol, straight bind to and could inhibit vaccinia trojan (VACV, the prototypic person in poxviruses)-encoded N1 proteins, a mobile apoptotic regulator (Cheltsov et al. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • A liquid or liquid-frozen composition comprising: a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus or variant or derivative thereof and mannitol, wherein mannitol is the sole stabilization agent of the composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Marker rescue of the host range restriction defects of modified vaccinia virus Ankara. (nih.gov)
  • This virus, termed SARS-CoV, which in its wild-type form infects civets, a cat-like carnivore, mutated and became infectious to humans and then within this host rapidly underwent further positive selection. (oncohemakey.com)
  • First evident in Guangdong province of China around November 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged as a human infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS-associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV) ( 12 , 13 , 20 , 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into this new virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective procedures that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • At the beginning of the twentieth century, the term "virus" referred to infectious agents that could not be seen under the microscope, trapped by filters, or grown in laboratory cultures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After the establishment of germ theory in the late nineteenth century, virus generally referred to unidentifiable entities with infectious properties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • CPXV and all other orthopoxviruses that can infect humans (with the exception of variola virus) have an animal reservoir and are transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although viruses are minute particles composed only of a genome surrounded by a few proteins, they have a fiendish way of wreaking havoc not only on humans, as everyone who ever had the flu knows, but also on animals, plants, and even bacteria. (oncohemakey.com)
  • A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. (signagen.com)
  • Starting from these fragments, this research team was then able to sequence the entire genome of the virus less than two years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Classification of viruses considers the genome characteristics, virion shape and macromolecular composition, and other properties, such as antigenicity and host range. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaccinia virus is the prototype of the genus Orthopoxvirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on distinct epitope configurations detected by various monoclonal antibodies the isolate could be differentiated from other OPV species and was classified as a cowpox virus (CP). (springer.com)
  • Czerny C-P, Mahnel H (1990) Structural and functional analysis of orthopox virus epitopes with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Czerny C-P, Wagner K, Gessler K, Mayr A, Kaaden O-R (1996) A monoclonal blocking-ELISA for detection of orthopox virus antibodies in feline sera. (springer.com)
  • Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 neutralizing epitope mapping. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 11. The polyprotein of claim 10 wherein the synergistic antibodies recognize A36R of variola major or A33R of vaccinia. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex subunit A28 is a target of neutralizing and protective antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies are part of the human immune system. (homestead.com)
  • In immunocompromised persons, vaccinia may disseminate and cause severe disease. (medscape.com)
  • However, the promise of this approach in humans is hampered by serious concerns over the risk of leaking live severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses. (asm.org)
  • Variola major was the severe and most common form, with a more extensive rash and higher fever, resulting in confluent smallpox, which had a high death rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variola minor was a less common presentation, causing a less severe disease, discrete smallpox, with historical death rates of one percent or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several cases of T-cell leukemia caused by gammaretroviral insertional mutagenesis in children treated for x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) by transplantation of autologous gene-modified stem cells were reported. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • 3. Sarid R, Wiezorek JS, Moore PS, Chang Y. Characterization and cell cycle regulation of the major Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent genes and their promoter. (mussenhealth.us)
  • 6. Renne R, Lagunoff M, Zhong W, Ganem D. The size and conformation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in infected cells and virions. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In turn, many viruses mount defenses against the attack from their host by encoding proteins that actively subvert innate and adaptive immune responses. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Using this panel in conjunction with CTLs from vaccinia virus-infected HLA transgenic mice, we identified 14 HLA-A*0201-, 4 HLA-A*1101-, and 3 HLA-B*0702-restricted CD8 + T cell determinants distributed over 20 distinct proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1. A polyprotein comprising external immunogens of membrane-associated proteins of variola major or immunologically cross-reactive poxviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Viruses encode proteins that lead to host shutoff by affecting many cellular gene expression processes. (mdpi.com)
  • more often, many viruses encode an arsenal of proteins targeting mRNA processing and translation. (mdpi.com)
  • They are composed of Y-shaped proteins used by our bodies to identify offending stimuli called antigens (viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, transplanted organs, etc). (homestead.com)
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pathogenic H5N1 viruses, which were, and by some still are, feared to evolve into pandemic viruses, have thus far failed to mutate to achieve sustained human-to-human transmission, while concomitantly, another influenza A virus arose from a triple reassortment between viruses that naturally infect humans, avians, and swine, and caused the 2007 influenza pandemic. (oncohemakey.com)
  • The existence of multiple poxviruses that can infect humans raises the possibility of the evolution of a new smallpox-like virus through host gene acquisitions or intervirus recombination events. (asm.org)
  • however, there are limited data on the effectiveness in the treatment of vaccinia-related complications in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • This form was marked by a fever that occurred after the usual incubation period and could be confirmed only by antibody studies or, rarely, by virus isolation . (wikipedia.org)
  • 22. The immunostimulatory regimen of claim 1 wherein the CD40 agonistic antibody or fragment is an agonistic chimeric, human, or humanized anti-CD40 antibody or an agonistic CD40 antibody fragment which is selected from a Fab, F(ab′) 2 , Fd, and a Fv. (google.com.au)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an envelope. (issuu.com)
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said target nucleic acid sequence is from a virus. (google.com)
  • Other viruses, such as the virus that causes rabies, are helical (rod shaped). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dicistronic Poliovirus as Expression Vectors for Foreign Genes", Aids Research and Human Retroviruses (1994), 10(2):S57-S60. (lens.org)
  • 3. In 1983, when B-S et al published their paper entitled, "Isolation of a T-lymphotrophic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)", and called the 1.16g/ml band "pure labelled virus", did they mislead the scientific community? (theperthgroup.com)
  • This virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma , a cancer commonly occurring in AIDS patients, [1] as well as primary effusion lymphoma , [2] HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Careful analysis of epidemiologic data by Valerie Beral, Thomas Peterman and Harold Jaffe, [5] led these investigators to propose that KS is caused by an unknown sexually transmitted virus that rarely causes tumors unless the host becomes immunosuppressed , as in AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hoped this work will, therefore, help redirect AIDS science in search of a cure, free AIDS victims from the guilt and stigma attached to the disease, as well as prevent such 'emerging viruses' from reemerging. (rapeutation.com)
  • An HLA-directed molecular and bioinformatics approach identifies new HLA-A11 HIV-1 subtype E cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in HIV-1-infected Thais," AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 703-717, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) ⇒ HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the causative agent of AIDS, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • We confirmed the presence of cowpox virus DNA in all samples by sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous reports have postulated the existence of at least 2 species of cowpox virus ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, mainly cats, which become infected when hunting small rodents. (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus (CPXV) has an animal reservoir and is typically transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is well-illustrated by our prior studies on cowpox virus (CPXV) that encodes po. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In 1798, the British physician Edward Jenner used a milkmaid's lymph containing cowpox virus to vaccinate a child. (aafp.org)
  • Triticumoside induces apoptosis via caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway and inhibits migration through downregulation of MMP2/9 in human lung cancer cells. (signagen.com)
  • Early virus classification depended heavily on morphology as shown by EM ( 2 , 4 , 60 ), and many of the intestinal viruses were discovered by EM examination of feces after negative staining ( 32 , 46 , 54 , 96 ). (asm.org)
  • VIGIV is not indicated for the treatment of isolated vaccinia keratitis or postvaccinial encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Such extreme immunodominance is frequently observed in immune responses to various mouse viruses ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In one embodiment the immunogenic compostions include viral antigens derived from vaccinia and/or variola that elicit cross-reactive immune responses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 273. Koup R.A., Safrit J.T., Cao Y., Andrews C.A., McLeod G., Borkowsky W., Farthing C., Ho D.D. Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome // J Virol. (x-pdf.ru)
  • In this communication we present a detailed characterization of the causative virus strain. (springer.com)
  • For example, using POCs, we identified 19 genes that were widely conserved in poxviruses but missing from the vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan 1998 GenBank file. (asm.org)
  • Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with cidofovir. (medscape.com)
  • A case of human orf in an immunocompromised patient treated successfully with cidofovir cream. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these reactions can be treated with vaccinia immune globulin or cidofovir. (aafp.org)
  • Outbreak of Jaundice and Hemorrhagic Fever in the Southeast of Brazil in 2001: Detection and Molecular Characterization of Yellow Fever Virus", J. Medical Virol. (lens.org)
  • Yellow Fever/Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Viruses: Construction and Biological Properties", J. Virol. (lens.org)
  • Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Transcriptome in Abortively Infected Cultured Cells and a Human Skin Lesion. (medscape.com)
  • As bacteriophages or simply phages (from Greek phagein: eat) is a group of viruses, which are specialized on bacteria and archaea as host cells. (masbadar.com)
  • Organisms smaller than bacteria have been known to exist since the late 19th century ( 11 ), but the first EM visualization of a virus came only after the electron microscope was developed. (asm.org)
  • Viruses are distinguished from free-living microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, by their small size and relatively simple structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Importantly, this new edition includes material on several recently described viruses including human metapneumovirus, West Nile virus, bocaviruses, and newer influenza viruses and adenoviruses, plus a broadened focus on papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. (asmscience.org)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Czerny C-P, Johann S, Hölzle L, Meyer H (1994) Epitope detection in the envelope of intracellular mature orthopox viruses and identification of encoding genes. (springer.com)
  • Previously, we identified a family of four ectromelia virus genes that contain N-terminal ankyrin repeats and a C-terminal F-box domain that interacts with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase. (prolekare.cz)
  • While no other human tumor virus possesses these same genes, other tumor viruses target the same cellular pathways illustrating that at a basic level, all tumor viruses appear to attack the same cellular control pathways, so-called tumor suppressor pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 68 predicted genes coding FBPs in humans, 11 in yeast, 326 in Caenorhabditis elegans , about 700 in Arabidopsis thaliana and 600 in rice ( Oriza sativa ) [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)

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