Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Telomere Homeostasis: Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).TriglyceridesSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Its importance in human glucose homeostasis". Diabetes Care. 24 (2): 382-391. doi:10.2337/diacare.24.2.382. PMID 11213896. Sect ... The kidney in humans is capable of producing glucose from lactate, glycerol and glutamine. The kidney is responsible for about ... The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis by regulating the pH of the blood plasma. Gains and losses of acid and base must be ... gluconeogenesis and extracellular homeostasis of pH and blood components. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. ...
V. (2000). "Self-Regulation of Autonomic Homeostasis in Emotional Stress". Human Physiology. 26 (5): 641-642. doi:10.1007/ ... Humans have control over facial expressions both consciously and unconsciously: an intrinsic emotion program is generated as ... For instance, humans display difficulties predicting their emotional responses to future events. Therefore, they may have ... Emotional regulation is a highly significant function in human life. Every day, people are continually exposed to a wide ...
Systems theory in anthropology
... this balance is maintained through homeostasis. Human societies are complex systems, as it were, human ecosystems. Early humans ... The humans are not thinking Cartesian subject but they dwell alongside nature. This brings back the human to its original place ... More specifically, it is human beings' social activity, labor, that causes, shapes, and informs human thinking. Based on labor ... The idea is to make human beings not a supreme entity but rather to situate them as any other being in the universe. ...
"WNK Kinase Signaling in Ion Homeostasis and Human Disease". Cell Metabolism. 25 (2): 285-299. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.01.007. ... CCCs mediate ion homeostasis and modulate blood pressure by transporting ions in and out of the cell. WNK1 mutations as a ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Shekarabi M, Zhang J, Khanna AR, Ellison DH, Delpire E, Kahle KT (February ...
Its importance in human glucose homeostasis" (PDF). Diabetes Care. 24 (2): 382-91. doi:10.2337/diacare.24.2.382. PMID 11213896 ... In humans the main gluconeogenic precursors are lactate, glycerol (which is a part of the triacylglycerol molecule), alanine ... The existence of glyoxylate cycles in humans has not been established, and it is widely held that fatty acids cannot be ... Nuttall FQ, Ngo A, Gannon MC (2008). "Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is ...
1-3. Gerich JE, Meyer C, Woerle HJ, Stumvoll M (2001). "Renal gluconeogenesis: Its importance in human glucose homeostasis" ( ... Nuttall FQ, Ngo A, Gannon MC (2008). "Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is ... Katz J, Tayek JA (1998). "Gluconeogenesis and the Cori cycle in 12-, 20-, and 40-h-fasted humans". American Journal of ... Specifically, after 12, 20, and 40 hours of fasting by human volunteers, the contribution of Cori cycle lactate to ...
Glutaric aciduria type 1
Daily JW 3rd, Sachan DS (1995). "Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs". J. Nutr. 125 ... Young SN (1993). "The use of diet and dietary components in the study of factors controlling affect in humans: a review". J ... One way to acutely cause depression or bulimia or anxiety in humans, in order to assess an individual's vulnerability to those ... Collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body, requires great amounts of lysine, the most abundant amino acids in ...
"GABA promotes human β-cell proliferation and modulates glucose homeostasis". Diabetes. 63 (12): 4197-205. doi:10.2337/db14-0153 ... In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. In vertebrates, GABA acts at inhibitory ... Mendu SK, Bhandage A, Jin Z, Birnir B (2012). "Different subtypes of GABA-A receptors are expressed in human, mouse and rat T ... At least one study suggests that orally administered GABA increases the amount of human growth hormone (HGH). GABA directly ...
Fuqua JS, Rogol AD (July 2013). "Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human: implications for energy homeostasis". ... Diurnal cycles of cortisol levels are found in humans. In humans, the amount of cortisol present in the blood undergoes diurnal ... In non-human animals, cortisol is often used as an indicator of stress and can be measured in blood, saliva, urine, hair, and ... It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland. It is released in response to ...
Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
Fuqua JS, Rogol AD (July 2013). "Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human: implications for energy homeostasis". ... Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most ... Neuroimaging of the human brain has yielded similar results, where exercise leads to changes in brain structure and function. ... Humans report a wide range of neurobiological rewards following moderate and intense aerobic activity, popularly referred to as ...
291: 1040-3. He, Y (2009). "Transcriptional suppressor DEC2 is a Regulator for Human Sleep Homeostasis". Science. 325: 866. "A ... The lab's current projects include: locating human sleep genes, uncovering the molecular mechanisms of human sleep regulation ... Transcriptional suppressor DEC2 is a Regulator for Human Sleep Homeostasis. Science. 2009 325:866. Fu, YH and Marzluf, GA. cys- ... Transcriptional suppressor DEC2 is a Regulator for Human Sleep Homeostasis. Science. 2009 325:866. Kaasik K, Kivimäe S, Allen ...
Ye H, Rouault TA (Jun 2010). "Human iron-sulfur cluster assembly, cellular iron homeostasis, and disease". Biochemistry. 49 (24 ... disrupting iron homeostasis. This deviance from homeostasis causes FRDA, a neurodegenerative disease for which no effective ... Human ACO2 genome location and ACO2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Ahmed M, Forsberg J, Bergsten P (2005). " ... Aconitase 2, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACO2 gene. The secondary structure of ACO2 consists of ...
"VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein PTPIP51 to regulate calcium homeostasis". Human Molecular Genetics. 21 (6): 1299- ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Q96TC7 - RMD3_HUMAN". "Entrez Gene: Regulator of microtubule dynamics ... Barop J, Sauer H, Steger K, Wimmer M (May 2009). "Differentiation-dependent PTPIP51 expression in human skeletal muscle cell ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RMDN3 gene on chromosome 15. This protein contributes to multiple biological ...
Dietrich, JW; Midgley, JE; Larisch, R; Hoermann, R (December 2015). "Of rats and men: thyroid homeostasis in rodents and human ... Thyroid homeostasis results from a multi-loop feedback system that is found in virtually all higher vertebrates. Proper ... Very few animals (e.g. axolotls and sloths) have impaired thyroid homeostasis that exhibits a very low set-point that is ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy
"Perturbed Chloride Homeostasis and GABAergic Signaling in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". Journal of Neuroscience. 27 (37): 9866 ... This was noted in human tissue in 1974 and in animal models in 1985. In TLE, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the ... 2007). "Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". PLoS Med. 4 (5): e180. doi:10.1371/journal. ... 2003). "Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgical brain resections". Neurology. 61 (10): 1405- ...
Baron R, Kneissel M (Feb 2013). "WNT signaling in bone homeostasis and disease: from human mutations to treatments". Nature ... "Linkage of a gene causing high bone mass to human chromosome 11 (11q12-13)". American Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (6): 1326- ... Li J, Yang Y, Jiang B, Zhang X, Zou Y, Gong Y (2010). "Sp1 and KLF15 regulate basal transcription of the human LRP5 gene". BMC ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP5 gene. LRP5 is a key ...
Research has confirmed that physiological mechanisms play an important role in homeostasis; however, human food intake must ... these mechanisms exist to control and establish homeostasis within the human body. Disruptions in these ingestive regulatory ... Human metabolism evolved to store energy within the body to prevent death from starvation. Today, the environment now has an ... The environment of early humans shaped the evolution of ingestive regulatory mechanisms, starvation used to be a greater threat ...
Cold shock response
"Changes in thermal homeostasis in humans due to repeated cold water immersions". Pflugers Archiv : European journal of ... In humans, cold shock response is perhaps the most common cause of death from immersion in very cold water, such as by falling ... Nevertheless, the human organism is not suited to freezing water: the struggle to maintain blood temperature (by swimming or ...
Kerstetter, JE; O'Brien, KO; Insogna, KL (2003). "Low protein intake: The impact on calcium and bone homeostasis in humans". ... Kerstetter, JE; O'Brien, KO; Insogna, KL (2003). "Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited". The ... "Skeletal muscle homeostasis and plasticity in youth and ageing: impact of nutrition and exercise". Acta Physiol (Oxf). 216 (1 ... "Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans". Am. J. ...
Baron R, Kneissel M (February 2013). "WNT signaling in bone homeostasis and disease: from human mutations to treatments". ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP6 gene. LRP6 is a key ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Zilberberg A, Yaniv A, Gazit A (2004). "The low density lipoprotein receptor-1, LRP1, interacts with the human frizzled-1 (HFz1 ...
"Changes in thermal homeostasis in humans due to repeated cold water immersions". Pflügers Archiv. 432 (3): 368-372. doi:10.1007 ... Sugarman of Little Falls, whose river baths in midwinter have earned him a world wide celebrity and the title of "human polar ... "the human polar bear". The oldest ice swimming club in the United States is the Coney Island Polar Bear Club of Coney Island, ...
The Drosophila homologue dSdc and human SDC4 have been implicated in energy homeostasis. Syndecan1 is upregulated in multiple ... Evidence for syndecan's role in cell-cell adhesion comes from the human myeloma cell line. These myeloma cells had a deficiency ... In humans, the amino acid length of syndecan 1, 2, 3 and 4 is 310, 201, 346 and 198 respectively. Glycosaminoglycan chains, a ...
Brown adipose tissue
Additionally research has shown: Brown adipose tissue activation improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans ... It is also present and metabolically active in adult humans, but its prevalence decreases as humans age. Its primary function ... "Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans". Diabetes. 63: DB_140746. doi: ... Brown fat in humans in the scientific and popular literature refers to two cell populations defined by both anatomical location ...
Human bodies are predisposed to maintain homeostasis, especially when storing energy as fat. This trait serves as the main ... in humans. Human behavioral evolutionary mismatch explains the contradiction between plant evolution and human drug use. In the ... Another human disorder that can be explained by mismatch theory is the rise in osteoporosis in modern humans. In advanced ... Another more prevalent kind of environmental change is anthropogenic (human-caused). In recent times, humans have had a large, ...
Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1
"Proteomic data from human cell cultures refine mechanisms of chaperone-mediated protein homeostasis". Cell Stress & Chaperones ... Human HSP90AA1 is encoded on the complement strand of Chromosome 14q32.33 and spans over 59 kbp. Several pseudogenes of ... Chen B, Piel WH, Gui L, Bruford E, Monteiro A (Dec 2005). "The HSP90 family of genes in the human genome: insights into their ... Ozawa K, Murakami Y, Eki T, Soeda E, Yokoyama K (Feb 1992). "Mapping of the gene family for human heat-shock protein 90 alpha ...
"Role of FXR in regulating bile acid homeostasis and relevance for human diseases". Curr. Drug Targets Immune Endocr. Metabol. ... Obeticholic acid is the first FXR agonist to be used in human drug studies. Obeticholic acid is undergoing development in phase ... FXR-dependent processes in liver and intestine were proposed as therapeutic targets in human diseases. ... "Potent stimulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression in the human ileum by bile acids". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...
Acid dissociation constant
Carbonic acid equilibria are important for acid-base homeostasis in the human body. An amino acid is also amphoteric with the ... In living organisms, acid-base homeostasis and enzyme kinetics are dependent on the pKa values of the many acids and bases ... Buffering is an essential part of acid base physiology including acid-base homeostasis, and is key to understanding disorders ... 1979). Acid-Base and Potassium Homeostasis. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-08017-8. Scorpio, R. (2000). Fundamentals of ...
Environmental factors can play a huge role in the human body's fight for homeostasis. However, humans have found ways to adapt ... The environment can have major influences on human physiology. Environmental effects on human physiology are numerous; one of ... Extreme temperatures are not the only obstacles that humans face. High altitudes also pose serious physiological challenges on ...
... a novel human gene involved in copper homeostasis". J Biol Chem. 272 (14): 9221-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.14.9221. PMID 9083055. " ... Human ATOX1 genome location and ATOX1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Hung IH, Casareno RL, Labesse G, Mathews FS ... ATOX1 is a copper metallochaperone protein that is encoded by the ATOX1 gene in humans. In mammals, ATOX1 plays a key role in ... Boultwood J, Strickson AJ, Jabs EW, Cheng JF, Fidler C, Wainscoat JS (2000). "Physical mapping of the human ATX1 homologue ( ...
Type 2 diabetes
"Twin Research and Human Genetics. 18 (6): 762-771. doi:10.1017/thg.2015.83. ISSN 1832-4274. PMID 26678054.. ... "Clinical review: Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: a systematic ... "Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity". Nature. 535 (7612): 376-81. Bibcode:2016Natur.535.. ... "Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Lancet. 393 (10170): 434-445. doi ...
These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they ... Hirohashi S, Kanai Y (July 2003). "Cell adhesion system and human cancer morphogenesis". Cancer Sci. 94 (7): 575-81. doi: ... human prostate cancer cells). As a result, it is possible that the EMT associated with upregulated HIF-1α is controlled by ... homeostasis and growth, also make it susceptible to alterations that can lead to abnormal cell behavior and growth. Any changes ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density ... Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. ... Human APOC4 genome location and APOC4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
March 2004). "The cyclooxygenase isozyme inhibitors parecoxib and paracetamol reduce central hyperalgesia in humans". Pain. 108 ... Chronic hyperstimulation of opioid receptors results in altered homeostasis of pain signalling pathways in the body with ... Chu LF, Angst MS, Clark D (2008). "Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in humans: molecular mechanisms and clinical considerations". ... December 2004). "Chronic oral Gabapentin reduces elements of central sensitization in human experimental Hyperalgesia". ...
Comparison of human rod and cone cells, from Eric Kandel et al. in Principles of Neural Science. ... "Transcriptional Regulation of Photoreceptor Development and Homeostasis in the Mammalian Retina". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. ... a b Genova, Cathleen, Blind humans lacking rods and cones retain normal responses to nonvisual effects of light. Cell Press, ... The human retina has approximately 6 million cones and 120 million rods. Signals from the rods and cones converge on ...
North Dakota Department of Human Services. State of North Dakota.. *^ NHS Leeds West CCG Assurance Committee (2014-01-02). " ... Chiropractic's early notion of innate intelligence can be thought of as a metaphor for homeostasis. ... exerted via the human nervous system and is a primary underlying risk factor for many diseases. Straights view the medical ... subluxation is the sole cause of disease and manipulation is the cure for all diseases of the human race. A 2003 ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
Tangye SG, Bryant VL, Cuss AK, Good KL (2007). "BAFF, APRIL and human B cell disorders.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 305-17. PMID ... Woodland RT, Schmidt MR, Thompson CB (2007). "BLyS and B cell homeostasis.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): 318-26. PMID 16931037. doi ... Belimumab (Benlysta) je monoklonalno antitelo koje je razvila kompanija Ljudske genomske nauke (engl. Human Genome Sciences) ...
During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes. In humans, starting at ... which results in hippocampal neurogenesis reaching homeostasis-regulation that keeps internal conditions stable. A Brdu ... Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ...
Nerve agent - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... 1999). "Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 239 ... 1998). "Human alpha-adducin gene, blood pressure, and sodium metabolism". Hypertension. 32 (1): 138-43. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.32.1 ... Gilligan DM, Lieman J, Bennett V (1996). "Assignment of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2) to 2p13-p14 by in situ hybridization ...
Voehringer, D.; M. Koschella; H. Pircher (2002). "Lack of proliferative capacity of human effector and memory T cells ... Cambier, J. (2005). "Immunosenescence: a problem of lymphopoiesis, homeostasis, microenvironment, and signaling". Immunological ... doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(99)00068-6. Franceschi, C.; M. Bonafè; S. Valensin (2000). "Human immunosenescence: the prevailing of ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ...
Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is a presenilin protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN1 gene. Presenilin-1 is one of the four ... cellular calcium ion homeostasis. • epithelial cell proliferation. • neuron migration. • negative regulation of apoptotic ... endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • response to oxidative stress. • autophagosome assembly. • positive regulation ... smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • ...
Frequent human handling of the rat pups may cause their mother to exhibit more nurturant behavior, such as licking and grooming ... It is also known that HPA axis hormones are related to certain skin diseases and skin homeostasis. There is evidence shown that ... Atrophy of the hippocampus in humans and animals exposed to severe stress is believed to be caused by prolonged exposure to ... the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to stimulation by ACTH. ...
The archaeology of human bones. Routledge. Samuel J. Redman, 2016. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in ... Disruptions in homeostasis caused by nutritional deficiency or disease or profound inactivity/disuse/disability can lead to ... Human skeletal remains: excavation, analysis, interpretation. Taraxacum. T. White, 1991. Human osteology. Academic Press. ... Human remains can allow archaeologists to uncover patterns in the division of labor. Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, ...
Дофаминовый рецептор D1 - Википедия
temperature homeostasis. • striatum development. • Преимпульсное ингибирование. • response to cocaine. • grooming behavior. • ... 1990). "Human dopamine D1 receptor encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5". Nature. 347 (6288): 80-83. DOI:10.1038/ ... Hurd YL, Suzuki M, Sedvall GC (2001). "D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in whole hemisphere sections of the human ... "Cloning and expression of human and rat D1 dopamine receptors". Nature. 347 (6288): 76-80. DOI:10.1038/347076a0. PMID 2168520. ...
With regard to the use of Momordica charantia for diabetes, several animal studies and small-scale human studies have ... "Momordica charantia and its novel polypeptide regulate glucose homeostasis in mice via binding to insulin receptor". Journal of ... but no clinical studies in humans showing a benefit. ...
NPM1 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Human PubMed Reference:». *↑ Schneider F; et al. (2009). «NPM1 but not FLT3-ITD mutations predict early blast cell clearance ... cell volume homeostasis. • nucleocytoplasmic transport. • protein localization. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... 1995). «Construction of a human full-length cDNA bank.». Gene. 150 (2): 243-50. PMID 7821789. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90433-2 ... Hale TK, Mansfield BC (1990). «Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone representing a third allele of human protein B23.». Nucleic ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... muscle cell cellular homeostasis. • neuromuscular process controlling posture. • locomotory behavior. • neuromuscular process ... "AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 6 (3): 371-80. doi:10.1089/aid.1990.6.371. PMID 2187500.. ... Human GAA genome location and GAA gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
System nerfol - Wicipedia
Claims of human dependency. European honey bees are often described as being essential to all human food production, ... Honey bees require water to maintain osmotic homeostasis, prepare liquid brood food, and to cool the hive through evaporation. ... Periodically robbed of their honey by human "honey hunters", colonies are easily capable of stinging a human being to death if ... The ten most important crops, comprising 60% of all human food energy, all fall into this category: Plantains are ...
Sensory processing sensitivity
A human with a particularly high measure of SPS is considered to be a highly sensitive person (HSP). The terms SPS and ... physiological homeostasis, self-other processing, empathy and awareness. We suggest that this serves species survival via deep ... Klages, Wolfgang (1978). Der sensible Mensch : Psychologie, Psychopathologie, Therapie (The Sensitive Human: Psychology, ... In humans and other species, responsive and unresponsive individuals coexist and consistently display different levels of ...
Yet another type of non-ATPase regulatory particle is the Blm10 (yeast) or PA200/PSME4 (human). It opens only one α subunit in ... the proteasome maintains cardiac protein homeostasis and thus plays a significant role in cardiac ischemic injury, ... Huang X, Luan B, Wu J, Shi Y (September 2016). "An atomic structure of the human 26S proteasome". Nature Structural & Molecular ... For example, studies in mice bearing human skin grafts found a reduction in the size of lesions from psoriasis after treatment ...
... is essential for basal homeostasis; it is also extremely important in maintaining muscle homeostasis during physical ... Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to ... The second strategy is based on the idea that autophagy is a protein degradation system used to maintain homeostasis and the ... Knowledge of ATG genes provided scientists more convenient tools to dissect functions of autophagy in human health and disease ...
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor
The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators. Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is ... the most important and demanding current task is to strengthen our knowledge about EDHF action in human arteries in health and ... "Hydrogen peroxide is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in animals and humans". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 39 (5): 725- ...
Human embryonic stem cells also more readily differentiate into cortical stem cells in the presence of retinoids ... It is proposed that drugs such as proguanil act to disrupt retinoid homeostasis. ... that is intrinsic to the brush-border membrane of the small intestine has been characterized in the rat as well as in the human ... ", "Biochemical, Physiological, & Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition", M. H. Stipanuk 2nd Ed. ...
... thought to be due to human ingestion of diseased individuals, and vCJD, thought to be due to human ingestion of BSE-tainted ... cellular copper ion homeostasis. • cellular response to copper ion. • cell cycle. • metabolism. • negative regulation of ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... The human protein structure consists of a globular domain with three α-helices and a two-strand antiparallel β-sheet, an NH2- ...
Human digestive system
Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 659. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ a b c consultants Daniel Albert et al. ( ... Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 672. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ Wood, Jackie D. (2009), " ... The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary ... Main article: Human tooth. Teeth are complex structures made of materials specific to them. They are made of a bone-like ...
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... suggesting a potential role in maintaining homeostasis. This work also suggested the function of CASS4 may be cell-type ... Isoform "a" of human CASS4 is considered the predominant species, and at 786 amino acids is the longest one. Amino acid ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene. ...
Human Homeostasis | HubPages
The word homeostasis is derived from the Greek, homeo or same, and stasis or stable and means remaining stable or remaining ... Homeostasis is the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance. ... The body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay alive. Working as a fine-tuned machine, the human body has a way of ... temperature homeostasis. Humans are warm-blooded, maintaining a near-constant body temperature. Thermoregulation is an ...
Volume homeostasis and osmoregulation in human pregnancy
This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. Pregnant women ... Volume homeostasis and osmoregulation in human pregnancy Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Aug;3(2):451-72. doi: 10.1016/ ... This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. Pregnant women ...
How does the human body maintain homeostasis?
Humans can thrive in conditions ranging from the arctic to the equator, and with a variety of diets and lifestyles. Part of the ... The human body is an exquisite machine, partly because it maintains functionality in a variety of environments. ... reason for this adaptability is the bodys ability to maintain homeostasis. ... The human body is an exquisite machine, partly because it maintains functionality in a variety of environments. Humans can ...
Sebocytes are the key regulators of androgen homeostasis in human skin. - PubMed - NCBI
Sebocytes are the key regulators of androgen homeostasis in human skin.. Fritsch M1, Orfanos CE, Zouboulis CC. ... and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were investigated in three different cell populations originating from human skin, SZ95 ... are able to synthesize testosterone from adrenal precursors and to inactivate it in order to maintain androgen homeostasis, ...
Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine Homeostasis - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine Homeostasis. Official Title ICMJE Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine ... Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine Homeostasis. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has ... 20 years of leptin: role of leptin in energy homeostasis in humans. J Endocrinol. 2014 Oct;223(1):T83-96. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14- ... However, leptin administration to leptin-sufficient humans at usual body weight has little or no effect on weight unless given ...
Abnormal Brain Iron Homeostasis in Human and Animal Prion Disorders
In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease-affected human, mouse, and hamster brains exhibit a state of iron deficiency ... However, a systematic evaluation of iron homeostasis in prion disease-affected brains and the underlying mechanism of iron ... Author Summary Prion disorders are neurodegenerative conditions of humans and animals that are invariably fatal. The main agent ... Homeostasis Is the Subject Area "Homeostasis" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans. - PubMed - NCBI
Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans.. Heer M1, Egert S. ... and sodium intake seem to affect glucose homeostasis. Although their effect is less pronounced than that of the amount and ... it seems reasonable to consider how nutrient intake habits may be modified to support an improved glucose homeostasis. For ... of some nutrients to lower blood glucose concentration on a day-by-day basis might support improvement of glucose homeostasis ...
JCI - Usage information: Energy homeostasis targets chromosomal reconfiguration of the human GH1 locus
We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene, GH1. , to assess the effect of high caloric intake on expression as ... Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved ... These results indicate that energy homeostasis alters postnatal hGH synthesis through dynamic changes in the 3-dimensional ... shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also ...
Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment, Good Condition Book, Chi 9780763708085 | eBay
Homeostasis and the Environment. Title : Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment. ITEM CONDITION: GoodProduct ... Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment,... Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment,... ... Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment, Good Condition Book, Chi Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in ... Details about Human Biology: Health, Homeostasis and the Environment, Good Condition Book, Chi. ...
JCI - The β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron improves glucose homeostasis in obese humans
The β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron improves glucose homeostasis in obese humans. ... The β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron improves glucose homeostasis in obese humans. ... BACKGROUND Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Adipose tissue contains β3-adrenergic ... insulin-resistant humans. Since β cells and skeletal muscle do not express β3-ARs, these data suggest that the beiging of SC ...
Cellular Zinc Homeostasis Contributes to Neuronal Differentiation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
... Stefanie Pfaender,1 ... L. Volk, S.-L. Chiu, K. Sharma, and R. L. Huganir, "Glutamate synapses in human cognitive disorders," Annual Review of ... B.-Y. Hu and S.-C. Zhang, "Differentiation of spinal motor neurons from pluripotent human stem cells," Nature Protocols, vol. 4 ... M. Stockmann, L. Linta, K. J. Föhr et al., "Developmental and functional nature of human iPSC derived motoneurons," Stem Cell ...
Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis
In addition to reduced decay rate, the model was also able to successfully predict, in the human experiments, the spatial ... Motivated by the results from a multi-scale computational model, we tested in humans whether 25 minutes of transcranial ... experimental and modeling results suggest a mechanism by which electrical stimulation can accelerate synaptic homeostasis and ...
Low protein intake: the impact on calcium and bone homeostasis in humans
Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology: A Review
Homeostasis plays a major role in the proper functioning of the body. It is regulated by different mechanisms such as ... Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology: A Review. Sarvani Palaparthi*. Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna ... Citation: Palaparthi S (2017) Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology: A Review. J Med Physiol Ther 1:101. ... Keywords: Homeostasis; Diffusion; Osmosis; Pituitary gland; Prolactin; Blood plasma. Introduction. Homeostasis is the word ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans | Diabetes
Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans | Diabetes
To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied 7 BAT ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans ...
beta-Amyloid peptides destabilize calcium homeostasis and render human cortical neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity | Journal...
beta-Amyloid peptides destabilize calcium homeostasis and render human cortical neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity. MP ... beta-Amyloid peptides destabilize calcium homeostasis and render human cortical neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity ... beta-Amyloid peptides destabilize calcium homeostasis and render human cortical neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity ... beta-Amyloid peptides destabilize calcium homeostasis and render human cortical neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity ...
Effects on parameters of glucose homeostasis in healthy humans from ingestion of leguminous versus maize starches | SpringerLink
... leguminous seeds affect human carbohydrate metabolism lesser than do cereals. Problems, however, could arise from side effects ... Effects on parameters of glucose homeostasis in healthy humans from ingestion of leguminous versus maize starches. ... Background: Due to their lower glycaemic index, leguminous seeds affect human carbohydrate metabolism lesser than do cereals. ...
BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor...
... are bioaccumulating flame retardants found in rising concentrations in human tissue. Epidemiological and animal studies have ... BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor- ... To test this hypothesis, we investigated acute effects of BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 on [Ca2+]i in human neural progenitor cells ( ... Moors M, Rockel TD, Abel J, Cline JE, Gassmann K, Schreiber T, Schuwald J, Weinmann N, Fritsche E (2009) Human neurospheres as ...
Dysregulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Prostate Cancer through Loss of ABCA1 | Cancer Research
Dysregulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Prostate Cancer through Loss of ABCA1 Byron H. Lee, Margaret G. Taylor, Peggy ... Dysregulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Prostate Cancer through Loss of ABCA1 ... Dysregulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Prostate Cancer through Loss of ABCA1 ... Dysregulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Prostate Cancer through Loss of ABCA1 ...
Dynamic homeostasis modeling of Zn isotope ratios in the human body - Metallomics (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/C8MT00286J
Dynamic homeostasis modeling of Zn isotope ratios in the human body†. Klervia Jaouen‡. *ab, Laurent Pouilloux‡c, Vincent Balter ... Zinc dynamic homeostasis in the human body (model 0). For the sake of illustration, an example of system evolution is provided ... We successfully modeled Zn elemental and isotopic homeostasis through a robust 10-box dynamic model of the human body taking ... Zn homeostasis and its bearing on the mechanisms of Zn isotope fractionation in the human body remain poorly investigated. This ...
Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease | American Society of Nephrology
Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease. R. Todd Alexander, Joost G. Hoenderop, René J. ... Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease. R. Todd Alexander, Joost G. Hoenderop, René J. ... Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease. R. Todd Alexander, Joost G. Hoenderop and René J ... Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
TSLP and IL-7 use two different mechanisms to regulate human CD4+ T cell homeostasis | JEM
TSLP and IL-7 use two different mechanisms to regulate human CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Ning Lu, Yi-Hong Wang, Yui-Hsi Wang, ... TSLP mediates T cell homeostasis indirectly through mDCs. Our data demonstrate that human CD4+ T cells express very low levels ... In human tonsils, only a subset of mDCs was found to express TSLPR in vivo. We show that human IL-7 induces much stronger T ... The majority of human immune cell types expressed the IL-7Rα chain (Fig. 1 A). Unlike human T cells, which expressed high ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (HMDBP07584)
Laplante JM, ORourke F, Lu X, Fein A, Olsen A, Feinstein MB: Cloning of human Ca2+ homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein ... Showing Protein Calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (HMDBP07584). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database. ... ORourke FA, LaPlante JM, Feinstein MB: Antisense-mediated loss of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP; ...
Interleukin-13 Modulates Collagen Homeostasis in Human Skin and Keloid Fibroblasts | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
Interleukin-13 Modulates Collagen Homeostasis in Human Skin and Keloid Fibroblasts. Alfonso Oriente, Neal S. Fedarko, Sarah E. ... Interleukin-13 Modulates Collagen Homeostasis in Human Skin and Keloid Fibroblasts. Alfonso Oriente, Neal S. Fedarko, Sarah E. ... Interleukin-13 Modulates Collagen Homeostasis in Human Skin and Keloid Fibroblasts. Alfonso Oriente, Neal S. Fedarko, Sarah E. ... Interleukin-13 Modulates Collagen Homeostasis in Human Skin and Keloid Fibroblasts Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Homeostasis and The Human Body Worksheet for 7th - 10th Grade | Lesson Planet
This Homeostasis and The Human Body Worksheet is suitable for 7th - 10th Grade. In this homeostasis worksheet, students answer ... The average human body loses 40-100 strands of hair in one day. This is the first video in a series of 47 and introduces ... The human body is an amazing thing! Explore the body with your high school class as they investigate each system in detail. ... The first describes homeostasis, the second states that it operates at all levels and lists the biological hierarchy, the third ...
Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 28: Human Systems & Homeostasis - Videos & Lessons | Study.com
Homeostasis chapter of this Holt McDougal Biology Companion Course helps students learn the essential lessons associated with ... 3. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? ... The Human Systems & Homeostasis chapter of this Holt McDougal Biology Companion Course helps students learn the essential ... Watch fun videos that cover the human systems and homeostasis topics you need to learn or review. ...
Reductive Stress Selectively Disrupts Collagen Homeostasis and Modifies Growth Factor-independent Signaling Through the MAPK...
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ... Disrupts Collagen Homeostasis and Modifies Growth Factor-independent Signaling Through the MAPK/Akt Pathway in Human Dermal ... Disrupts Collagen Homeostasis and Modifies Growth Factor-independent Signaling Through the MAPK/Akt Pathway in Human Dermal ... Disrupts Collagen Homeostasis and Modifies Growth Factor-independent Signaling Through the MAPK/Akt Pathway in Human Dermal ...
Implication of the proprotein convertases in iron homeostasis: proprotein convertase 7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 and...
Implication of the proprotein convertases in iron homeostasis: proprotein convertase 7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 and ... Humans. Iron / metabolism*. Mice. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Receptors, Transferrin / metabolism*. Subtilisins / metabolism* ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0/CD71 antigen; 0/HAMP protein, human; 0/Hamp1 protein, mouse; 0/Hepcidins; ...
Stochastic homeostasis in human airway epithelium is achieved by neutral competition of basal cell progenitors | eLife
To date, our understanding of human airway homeostasis is limited and inferred indirectly through in vitro studies of human ... Stochastic homeostasis in human airway epithelium is achieved by neutral competition of basal cell progenitors. ... However, the relevance of these discoveries to human epithelial homeostasis and its alterations in disease is unknown. By ... Thank you for sending your work entitled "Stochastic homeostasis in human airway epithelium is achieved by neutral competition ...
Glucose homeostasis in humansIntracellularCalciumPhysiologicalMechanismsSystems and homeostasisBiologyFibroblastsHomeostaticRedox HomeostasisTissueStableOrgan systemsMetabolitesEquilibriumElectrolyteKidneyEnzymesAltersMaintenance of homeostasisPathwaysProcessesBrainOsmoregulationBody's abilityOrganismInflammationBodilyPhysiologistHormonesOrgansLiverPeptidesIntestinalRoleZincSodiumConcentrationBody temperatureIntestineMaintainingMaintain
Glucose homeostasis in humans2
- Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) may underlie PBDE-induced DNT. (springer.com)
- and (ii) identify potential targets for the modulation of calcium fluxes in activated neutrophils based on this model and to investigate the effects of intracellular probes which target key processes involved in calcium homeostasis and pro-inflammatory activity in these cells. (ajol.info)
- We show that lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRPM1 results in reduced intracellular Ca 2+ and decreased Ca 2+ uptake suggesting a role for TRPM1 in Ca 2+ homeostasis in melanocytes. (physiology.org)
- Mechanisms contributing to intracellular pH homeostasis in an immortalised human chondrocyte cell line. (ox.ac.uk)
- Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) manipulates many aspects of host cell biology to create an intracellular milieu optimally supportive of its replication and spread. (princeton.edu)
- The effect of intracellular alkalinisation on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in a human chondrocyte cell line. (ox.ac.uk)
- In this study the effect of intracellular alkalinisation on intracellular [Ca(2+)] has been examined using the human chondrocyte C-20/A4 cell line. (ox.ac.uk)
- Three pairs of parental (ρ+) and established mitochondrial DNA depleted (ρ0) cells, derived from bone, lung and muscle were used to verify the influence of the nuclear background and the lack of efficient mitochondrial respiratory chain on antioxidant defences and homeostasis of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). (edu.au)
- Taken together, these data suggest that beta-amyloid destabilizes neuronal calcium homeostasis and thereby renders neurons more vulnerable to environmental insults. (jneurosci.org)
- Modulation of calcium fluxes in activated human neutrophils can be achieved by cAMP-dependent upregulation of the activity of the endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase which resequesters cytosolic Ca2+. (ajol.info)
- Modulation of the activity of the endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase in human neutrophils represents an important target for anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies, while new insights into the role played by membrane depolarisation in regulating calcium fluxes in these cells may also facilitate development of novel anti-inflammatory agents directed against neutrophils. (ajol.info)
- A remodeling of calcium homeostasis has been identified as a characterizing feature of some cancers. (oup.com)
- An alteration in calcium homeostasis can occur via changes in the expression of proteins that transport calcium and examples of cancers where this is seen includes the prostate and breast. (oup.com)
- P2Y2 purinergic receptor modulates virus yield, calcium homeostasis, and cell motility in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells. (princeton.edu)
- Our data suggest that by perturbing subcellular calcium homeostasis presenilin mutations sensitize neurons to mitochondria-based forms of apoptosis that involve oxidative stress. (jneurosci.org)
- Homeostasis is the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance. (hubpages.com)
- However, leptin administration to leptin-sufficient humans at usual body weight has little or no effect on weight unless given in doses 10-20 times what would be considered to be in the normal physiological range. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The first part of this review presents a brief overview of sweet taste receptor activation in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract and the ensuing physiological responses related to glucose homeostasis. (sweeteners.org)
- By sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes we examined the relationships between the oral microbiome and physiological indices of NO bioavailability and possible changes in these variables following 10 days of NO3- (12mmol/d) and placebo supplementation in young (18-22yrs) and old (70-79yrs) normotensive humans (n=18). (exeter.ac.uk)
- Thus, in the biological context, the word homeostasis entails multifarious physiological mechanisms in order to sustain and stabilize the functional, normal status of an organism . (biology-online.org)
- Since being scientifically described by Norbert Wiener, the negative feedback system (NFS) has been regarded as the basic modality of physiological homeostasis ( Wiener, 1961 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The physiological implications of these advances will be discussed, together with the opportunities and challenges raised in the therapeutic modulation of human oxygen sensing systems. (ox.ac.uk)
- But even in these instances, diseases often result from an upset in regulatory mechanisms of the body that disrupt homeostasis. (hubpages.com)
- 10,11 Nevertheless, Zn homeostasis and its bearing on the mechanisms of Zn isotope fractionation in the human body remain poorly investigated. (rsc.org)
- These data suggest that IL-7 and TSLP use different mechanisms to regulate CD4 + T cell homeostasis, which underscores differences in TSLP biology between mice and humans. (rupress.org)
- Lineage tracing approaches have provided new insights into the cellular mechanisms that support tissue homeostasis in mice. (elifesciences.org)
- Our studies in mice, macaques, and humans demonstrate that amniotic fluid iron is largely unregulated but that the rapid induction of fetal hepcidin by inflammation and consequent fetal hypoferremia are conserved mechanisms that may be important in fetal host defense. (jci.org)
- Homeostasis is brought about by a natural resistance to change in the optimal conditions, and equilibrium is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
- The best known homeostatic mechanisms in humans and other mammals are regulators that keep the composition of the extracellular fluid (or the "internal environment") constant, especially with regard to the temperature , pH , osmolality , and the concentrations of sodium , potassium , glucose , carbon dioxide , and oxygen . (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, homeostasis is maintained through regulatory mechanisms, each comprised of three general components: a receptor , a control center , and an effector . (biology-online.org)
- Just like any other living things, the human body employs various homeostatic mechanisms to sustain its optimal functioning. (biology-online.org)
- In SCS-based depiction, all of the related regulatory mechanisms of a homeostasis are regarded as an entity. (frontiersin.org)
- Although it is well known that progesterone alters uterine contractility and plays an important role in maintenance of pregnancy, the biochemical mechanisms by which progesterone alters uterine contractility in human gestation are less clear. (semanticscholar.org)
- The mechanisms that the gut microbiota has on metabolic homeostasis and immune responses are currently being unraveled ( O'Hara and Shanahan, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
Systems and homeostasis2
- This text teaches students about the basics of human biology from three integrated perspectives - health, homeostasis, and the environment. (ebay.co.uk)
- It puts human biology in a modern context by showing that our health depends on well-functioning organ systems, which are in turn dependent on environment. (ebay.co.uk)
- The expression of chemokine receptors by intrinsic renal cells such as mesangial cells (MC) suggests an expanded role for chemokine-chemokine receptor biology in local immunomodulation and potentially glomerular homeostasis. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Homeostasis definition in biology is the ability or tendency of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium - a stable internal environment -- as it deals with external changes. (biology-online.org)
- Khan AcademySee all results for this questionWhat is homeostasis in biology?What is homeostasis in biology?Homeostasis is the tendency of an organism or cell to regulate its internal conditions so as to stabilize the functioning of the whole body regardless of the external changes. (herokuapp.com)
- Khan AcademySee all results for this questionFeedback test biology human systems homeostasis Flashcards and Learn test biology human systems homeostasis with free interactive flashcards. (herokuapp.com)
- Choose from 500 different sets of test biology human systems homeostasis flashcards on Quizlet. (herokuapp.com)
- Science High school biology Human body systems Body structure and homeostasis. (herokuapp.com)
- Learn homeostasis in humans MCQs , biology online test for high school exam prep for distance learning degree, free online courses. (mcqlearn.com)
- Free biology student portal for online learning homeostasis in humans quiz questions, MCQs to find questions answers based online learning tests. (mcqlearn.com)
- In this activity, students will utilize their knowledge of biology and the human body to examine this issue. (nasa.gov)
- Rat embryonic fibroblasts improve reprogramming of human keratinocytes into induced pluripotent stem cells," Stem Cells and Development , vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 965-976, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- We describe the effects of IL-13 on collagen homeostasis from normal (NF) and keloid (KF) fibroblasts and compare these effects with those of IL-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 . (aspetjournals.org)
- Essayan, David M. / Interleukin-13 modulates collagen homeostasis in human skin and keloid fibroblasts . (elsevier.com)
- Physical health depends on properly functioning homeostatic mechanism-that is, regulatory controls in the body that help maintain homeostasis. (hubpages.com)
- This study provides a benchmark to show how somatic mutations provide quantitative information on homeostatic growth in human tissues, and a platform to explore factors leading to dysregulation and disease. (elifesciences.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: In the human EEG, the decline of SWA during sleep is accompanied by changes in slow-wave parameters that were predicted by a computer model simulating a homeostatic reduction of cortical synaptic strength. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Third, sometimes it is confusing to use NFS to understand human homeostatic dynamics, which links health and disease. (frontiersin.org)
- Food intake is an essential human activity regulated by homeostatic and hedonic systems in the brain which has mostly been ignored by the cognitive neurosciences. (ox.ac.uk)
- BACKGROUND Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. (jci.org)
- These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans and support the notion that BAT may function as an anti-diabetic tissue in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are bioaccumulating flame retardants found in rising concentrations in human tissue. (springer.com)
- The susceptibility of estrogen homeostasis to systemic and tissue-specific modulation renders both beneficial and adverse effects of further variables associated with lifestyle and the environment possible. (springer.com)
- While significant advances have been made in defining the development and function of the murine immune system, a lack of access to non-diseased human tissue samples has hampered our progress in defining the phenotype and functional potential of immune cells isolated from different human tissue sites. (grantome.com)
- The focus of this proposal is to test whether human lymphoid versus non-lymphoid tissues are populated with phenotypically and functionally distinct innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and to interrogate the functional significance of ILCs in maintaining tissue homeostasis in the lung and intestine. (grantome.com)
- Interleukin (IL)-15 is a cytokine that has a broad tissue distribution and is important in maintaining homeostasis of cells and stability of tissues. (helpdocs.com)
- Collectively, our results oppose the traditional view that DCs are nondividing terminally differentiated cells maintained by circulating precursors and support the new paradigm that tissue DCs have local proliferative properties that control their homeostasis in the steady state. (rupress.org)
- Given the role of residual host tissue DCs in transplant immune reactions, these results suggest that dermal DC homeostasis may contribute to the development of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease in clinical transplantation. (rupress.org)
- The word homeostasis is derived from the Greek, homeo or "same", and stasis or "stable" and means remaining stable or remaining the same. (hubpages.com)
- Homeostasis is the word derived from the 2 Greek Words 'homeo' meaning 'similar,' and 'stasis' meaning 'stable. (omicsonline.org)
- The attractor of an SCS is the stable value of a homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
- Learn how organisms maintain homeostasis, or a stable internal environment. (herokuapp.com)
- Homeostasis is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. (reachingfordreams.com)
- Athanasiadou M, Cuadra SN, Marsh G, Bergman A, Jakobsson K (2008) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and bioaccumulative hydroxylated PBDE metabolites in young humans from Managua, Nicaragua. (springer.com)
- The commensal homeostasis of gut microbiota is favored by a balance of microbial composition, metabolites, and energy. (frontiersin.org)
- Homeostasis is a fancy word meaning "equilibrium," and it entails many interwoven variables that are amazing to consider. (ehow.co.uk)
- Homeostasis [ 1 - 4 ] refers to stability, balance, or equilibrium within a cell or the body. (omicsonline.org)
- Maintenance of homeostasis means to keep different bodily constants in a dynamic equilibrium what is important to optimal functioning of the human body. (reachingfordreams.com)
- Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a ligand activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, and is highly expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidney, in both humans and rodents. (ku.edu)
- The constitutive glomerular expression of CCR7 and its ligand SLC/CCL21 in adjacent cell types of the human kidney suggests novel biological functions of this chemokine/chemokine receptor pair and a potential role in processes involved in glomerular homeostasis and regeneration. (uni-regensburg.de)
- To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied 7 BAT positive (BAT+) men and 5 BAT negative (BAT-) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5-8 h) cold exposure (CE). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In so doing, TRPM6 alters whole-body Mg 2+ homeostasis by controlling urinary excretion. (asnjournals.org)
Maintenance of homeostasis1
- It was demonstrated that S. salivarius K12 specifically altered the expression of 565 host genes, particularly those involved in multiple innate defense pathways, general epithelial cell function and homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell development and migration, and signaling pathways. (asm.org)
- BACKGROUND: For understanding cholesterol and phospholipid efflux pathways there is a need for cellular fluorescence-based high-content screens (HCS) to investigated the cholesterol and phospholipid content in human macrophages. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Elucidating a whole body map ofthe human immune system will provide fundamental new insights into the pathways that regulate immunity and chronic inflammation that could aid in the design of new vaccines and immuno-therapeutic approaches. (grantome.com)
- The Human Body and Homeostasis Pre-Test concentrated substances are then secreted as hormones to regulate body processes. (herokuapp.com)
- The human body undergoes a lot of processes each. (herokuapp.com)
- Yet, the study of food intake integrates fundamental cognitive and emotional processes in the human brain, and can in particular provide evidence on the neural correlates of the hedonic experience central to guiding behaviour. (ox.ac.uk)
- The liver, the kidneys, and the brain (hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system) help maintain homeostasis. (hubpages.com)
- Thus, these data support the possibility of a critical window of PBDE exposure, i.e., early human brain development, which has to be acknowledged in risk assessment. (springer.com)
- However, it remains unclear whether the human brain can efficiently eliminate AGE-modified proteins and whether excessive AGEs can contribute to inflammatory changes leading to brain injury in aging. (elsevier.com)
- Food for thought: hedonic experience beyond homeostasis in the human brain. (ox.ac.uk)
- Neuroimaging experiments provide a novel basis for the further exploration of the brain systems involved in the conscious experience of pleasure and reward, and thus provide a unique method for studying the hedonic quality of human experience. (ox.ac.uk)
- Recent neuroimaging experiments have identified some of the regions involved in the cortical networks mediating hedonic experience in the human brain, with the evidence suggesting that the orbitofrontal cortex is the perhaps strongest candidate for linking food and other kinds of reward to hedonic experience. (ox.ac.uk)
- This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- However, our poor understanding of the variability of Zn distribution among the different organs and fluids of the human body, and the ensuing isotope fractionation, limits the use of this isotopic system as a typical diagnostic tool for cancers and for past hominin diet reconstructions. (rsc.org)
- 2002) to document these Zn isotope signatures focused on mammal organs with further primary research focusing on humans by Helal et al. (rsc.org)
- These 24 The human body has specialized organs which collect and process substances from the blood. (herokuapp.com)
- Homeostasis plays a major role in the proper functioning of the body. (omicsonline.org)
- The review concluded that sweet taste receptor activation from low calorie sweeteners does not play a significant role in acute glucose homeostasis and that, weighing the totality of the evidence, low calorie sweeteners do not affect acute postprandial glucose homeostasis when ingested alone, or when added to energy or carbohydrate-matched foods/ drinks, or when delivered as preloads. (sweeteners.org)
- Understanding intramammary estrogen homeostasis constitutes the basis of understanding the role of lifestyle factors in breast cancer etiology. (springer.com)
- These data suggest a role for TRPM1-mediated Ca 2+ homeostasis, which is also regulated by ultraviolet B, in melanogenesis. (physiology.org)
- However, the exact function of TRPM1 in human epidermal melanocytes and its role in melanoma progression remains unknown. (physiology.org)
- 42 ) showed that TRPM1 preferentially transports Ca 2+ raising the possibility that in melanocytes, TRPM1 plays a role in Ca 2+ homeostasis. (physiology.org)
- The excretory system plays an important role in homeostasis. (scribd.com)
- Dopaminergic role in regulating neurophysiological markers of sleep homeostasis in humans. (cdc.gov)
- For instance, taking into account the effect of some nutrients to lower blood glucose concentration on a day-by-day basis might support improvement of glucose homeostasis in the long run. (nih.gov)
- The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration , or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, core body temperature in humans varies during the course of the day (i.e. has a circadian rhythm ), with the lowest temperatures occurring at night, and the highest in the afternoons. (wikipedia.org)
- Not every homeostasis, however, has a perfect regulating center and a typical set-point, such as body temperature ( Boulant, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The usual means of maintaining homeostasis is a general mechanism called a negative feedback loop. (biologyreference.com)
- IL-6 neutralization restores the MSC-HPSC crosstalk in senescent and adult MSC-HSPC co-cultures highlighting the relevance of the local microenvironment in maintaining HSPC homeostasis. (oncotarget.com)
- Maintaining homeostasis requires that the body continuously monitors its internal conditions. (reference.com)
- The body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay alive. (hubpages.com)
- How does the human body maintain homeostasis? (ehow.co.uk)
- Sebocytes are able to synthesize testosterone from adrenal precursors and to inactivate it in order to maintain androgen homeostasis, whereas keratinocytes are responsible for androgen degradation. (nih.gov)
- A non-stop working SCS can maintain a homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
- So in summary conclusion, the human body has a robust way to maintain inner pH at a constant and physiologically optimal level. (debunkingdenialism.com)
- Using a human MSC-HSPC co-culture system, we demonstrated that DNA damaged MSC have impaired capacity to maintain CD34 + CD38 - HSPC quiescence. (oncotarget.com)
- Furthermore, human MSC from adult donors display some hallmarks of cellular senescence and have a decreased capacity to maintain HSPC quiescence and the most primitive CD34 + CD38 - subset compared to MSC from pediatric donors. (oncotarget.com)
- To maintain homeostasis, negative feedback loops exist throughout the body. (reachingfordreams.com)
- So how does your body maintain homeostasis? (reference.com)