Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Fibroblast Growth Factor 9: A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Fibroblast Growth Factor 5: A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Fibroblast Growth Factor 3: A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Fibroblast Growth Factor 6: A fibroblast growth factor that was initially identified based on its sequence similarity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4. It is found in MYOBLASTS and plays an important role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 5: The most divergent of the known fibroblast growth factor receptors. It does not contain an intracellular TYROSINE KINASE domain and has been shown to interact with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 5 is found primarily in skeletal tissue.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLHypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.GlucuronidaseCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Acrocephalosyndactylia: Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ThymidineDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Craniofacial Dysostosis: Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.PhosphoproteinsAutocrine Communication: Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
1991). "Fibroblast growth factor 5 proto-oncogene is expressed in normal human fibroblasts and induced by serum growth factors ... 1996) "Fibroblast growth factor signalling in the hair growth cycle: expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor and ... fibroblast growth factors on expression of genes of the plasminogen activator and insulin-like growth factor systems by human ... Schneeberger SA, Hjelmeland LM, Tucker RP, Morse LS (1997). "Vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 5 ...
... fibroblast growth factors on expression of genes of the plasminogen activator and insulin-like growth factor systems by human ... Fibroblast growth factor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1 on functional development of stromal layers in acute myeloid ... Koh KR, Ohta K, Nakamae H, Hino M, Yamane T, Takubo T, Tatsumi N (Oct 2002). "Differential effects of fibroblast growth factor- ...
"Motor neurons in human and rat spinal cord synthesize fibroblast growth factor-9". Neuroscience Letters. 221 (2-3): 181-4. doi: ... Tsai SJ, Wu MH, Chen HM, Chuang PC, Wing LY (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factor-9 is an endometrial stromal growth factor". ... "Entrez Gene: FGF9 fibroblast growth factor 9 (glia-activating factor)". Sánchez L, Chaouiya C (May 2016). "Primary sex ... "Neuronal localization of fibroblast growth factor-9 immunoreactivity in human and rat brain". Brain Research. 783 (2): 179-87. ...
Fibroblast growth factor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: FGF6 fibroblast growth factor 6". Vainikka S, Partanen J, Bellosta P, et al. (1992). "Fibroblast growth factor ... 2000). "Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 in human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer". ... 1989). "Characterization of the HST-related FGF.6 gene, a new member of the fibroblast growth factor gene family". Oncogene. 4 ...
... in multiple myeloma involves the fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 gene". Blood. 90 (10): 4062-70. PMID 9354676. Kikuno R, ... Probable histone-lysine N-methyltransferase NSD2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the WHSC1 gene. This gene encodes a ... in multiple myeloma is associated with increased expression and activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3". ... 2001). "A unique mRNA initiated within a middle intron of WHSC1/MMSET encodes a DNA binding protein that suppresses human IL-5 ...
Fibroblast growth factor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor 10 is a paracrine signaling ... Ye F, Duvillié B, Scharfmann R (February 2005). "Fibroblast growth factors 7 and 10 are expressed in the human embryonic ... "Immunohistochemical analysis of keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 expression in psoriasis". ...
Gagnon ML, Moy GK, Klagsbrun M (Apr 1999). "Characterization of the promoter for the human antisense fibroblast growth factor-2 ... 2001). "The endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 antisense gene product regulates pituitary cell growth and hormone production ... from the human basic fibroblast growth factor gene". Mol Endocrinol. 8 (7): 852-9. doi:10.1210/me.8.7.852. PMID 7984147. ... "Basic fibroblast growth factor sense (FGF) and antisense (gfg) RNA transcripts are expressed in unfertilized human oocytes and ...
"The human gallbladder secretes fibroblast growth factor 19 into bile: towards defining the role of fibroblast growth factor 19 ... Fibroblast growth factor 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF19 gene. It functions as a hormone, regulating ... "Potent stimulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression in the human ileum by bile acids". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: FGF19 fibroblast growth factor 19". Jones SA (2012). " ...
Hu MC, Wang YP, Qiu WR (1999). "Human fibroblast growth factor-18 stimulates fibroblast cell proliferation and is mapped to ... Fibroblast growth factor 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF18 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2001). "Assignment of fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) to human chromosome 5q34 by use of radiation hybrid mapping and ... 2006). "Fibroblast growth factor 16 and 18 are expressed in human cardiovascular tissues and induce on endothelial cells ...
2007). "Fibroblast growth factor inducible 14 (Fn14) is required for the expression of myogenic regulatory factors and ... Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 12A also known as the TWEAK receptor (TWEAKR) is a protein that in humans is ... 2005). "The tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) signaling ... "Increased fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 expression levels promote glioma cell invasion via Rac1 and nuclear factor- ...
"Dermatan sulfate released after injury is a potent promoter of fibroblast growth factor-2 function". The Journal of Biological ... Human CHST14 genome location and CHST14 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Otsuki T, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Hayashi K, ... Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHST14 gene. CHST14, a protein-coding gene, ... August 2010). "Loss-of-function mutations of CHST14 in a new type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Human Mutation. 31 (8): 966-74. ...
Fibroblast growth factor 16 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FGF16 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: Fibroblast growth factor 16". This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ... on the fibroblast growth factor family". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 243 (1): 148-52. doi:10.1006/bbrc ... member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FRS3 gene. The protein encoded by ... recruit intracellular signaling pathways by binding to diverse targets on fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor ... "Entrez Gene: FRS3 fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3". Lim YP, Low BC, Lim J, et al. (1999). "Association of ... Xu H, Lee KW, Goldfarb M (Aug 1998). "Novel recognition motif on fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates direct association ...
2001). "Enhanced invasion and tumor growth of fibroblast growth factor 8b-overexpressing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". ... "Role of fibroblast growth factor 8 in growth and progression of hormonal cancer". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 257-66 ... Fibroblast growth factor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2002). "Fibroblast growth factor 8 is expressed at higher levels in lactating human breast and in breast cancer". Br. J. Cancer ...
Qing K, Mah C, Hansen J, Zhou S, Dwarki V, Srivastava A (January 1999). "Human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a co- ... aVβ5 integrin and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR-1). The first functions as a primary receptor, while the latter two ... Koeberl DD, Alexander IE, Halbert CL, Russell DW, Miller AD (February 1997). "Persistent expression of human clotting factor IX ... and AAV5 was shown to enter cells via the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. There have been many efforts to engineer and ...
The RMF/EG fibroblast must then be irradiated to allow the expression of key proteins and growth factors. After 4 weeks of ... Humans and mice both have around 30,000 protein-coding genes. The number of mouse genes without a corresponding human homologue ... Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). The role of autocrine transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling on ... Siegel, P. M.; Shu, W; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J.; Massagué, J (2003). "Transforming growth factor beta signaling impairs ...
"Human fibroblast-like cultures in the presence of platelet-rich plasma as a single growth factor source: clinical implications ... Fabi, S; Sundaram, H (Apr 2014). "The potential of topical and injectable growth factors and cytokines for skin rejuvenation". ... Yuksel, EP; Sahin, G; Aydin, F; Senturk, N; Turanli, AY (Oct 2014). "Evaluation of effects of platelet-rich plasma on human ... The stimulating effects on fibroblasts, cells and stemcells already shown in scientific publications regarding microneedling, ...
... of syndromic craniosynostoses correlate with differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 during human ... on chromosome 8 or the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene on chromosome 10. These genes code for fibroblast ... 1994). "A common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome". Nat Genet. 8 (3): 269-74. doi: ... Pfeiffer syndrome is strongly associated with mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) ...
... in Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Mediated Conversion of Fibroblasts to Myofibroblasts". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (2): 471-80. doi: ... CLIC4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CLIC4 genome location and ... 2006). "Proteomic analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell differentiation reveals a role for ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ...
MeSH FGFR1+protein,+human. *Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 on the Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and ... Recruit Intracellular Signaling Pathways by Binding to Diverse Targets on Fibroblast Growth Factor and Nerve Growth Factor ... "The complete amino acid sequence of the shorter form of human basic fibroblast growth factor receptor deduced from its cDNA". ... Groth C, Lardelli M (2003). "The structure and function of vertebrate fibroblast growth factor receptor 1". Int. J. Dev. Biol. ...
"Localization of transforming growth factor beta and its natural inhibitor decorin in the human placenta and decidua throughout ... "Influence of collagen lattice on the metabolism of small proteoglycan II by cultured fibroblasts". The Biochemical Journal. 269 ... Other angiogenic growth factors that decorin inhibits are angiopoietin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and platelet-derived ... epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Decorin has been shown to either ...
One of the first applications of pro-angiogenic methods in humans was a German trial using fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) ... including several growth factors. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family with its prototype members FGF-1 (acidic FGF) and ... by secreting various growth factors (e.g. VEGF). Growth factors such as bFGF and VEGF can induce capillary growth into the ... "Synergistic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on the proliferation and cord ...
"Tumor-promoting phorbol diesters cause the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors in normal human fibroblasts at ... Davis RJ, Czech MP (1985). "Platelet-derived growth factor mimics phorbol diester action on epidermal growth factor receptor ... "Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD1 gene. Members of the protein kinase D ( ...
This effect has also been seen with the Thomson reprogramming factors, reverting human fibroblast cells to iPSCs through Oct-4 ... "The POU homeodomain protein OCT3 as a potential transcriptional activator for fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) in human ... Enhancer Histone Nanog (transcription factor) Pribnow box RNA polymerase Transcription factors Gene regulatory network Induced ... transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. Oct-4 is a homeodomain transcription factor ...
"Human ryudocan from endothelium-like cells binds basic fibroblast growth factor, midkine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor ... Barillari G, Gendelman R, Gallo RC, Ensoli B (1993). "The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, a growth factor ... "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as receptors for fibroblast growth factor-2 activation of extracellular signal-regulated ... and growth-factors. It also regulates the actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Syndecan-4 activates protein ...
... , also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In normal tissue, basic fibroblast growth factor is present in basement membranes and in the subendothelial extracellular matrix of blood vessels. It stays membrane-bound as long as there is no signal peptide. It has been hypothesized that, during both wound healing of normal tissues and tumor development, the action of heparan sulfate-degrading enzymes activates bFGF, thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted by human adipocytes and the concentration of bFGF correlates with the BMI in blood samples. In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast ...
The Pax Genes, or Paired-Box Containing Genes, play important roles in the development and proliferation of multiple cell lines, development of organs, and development and organization of the central nervous system.[7] The transcription factor gene Pax2 is important in the regionalized embryological development of the central nervous system. In mammals, the brain is developed in three regions: the forebrain, midbrain, and the hindbrain.[8] Concentration gradients of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 1 (Wnt1) control expression of Pax2 during development of the Mesencephalon, or midbrain.[9] Similar patterning during embryological development can be observed in "basal chordates or ascidians," in which organization of the central nervous system in ascidian larvae are also controlled by fibroblast growth ...
Fibroblast growth factor 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF18 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. It has been shown in vitro that this protein is able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. FGF18 signals through fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3 to promote chondrogenesis and has been shown to cause thickening of cartilage in a murine model of osteoarthritis, and the recombinant version of it (sprifermin) will soon enter trials ...
... is a naturally occurring, 20-kDa C-terminal fragment derived from type XVIII collagen. It is reported to serve as an anti-angiogenic agent, similar to angiostatin and thrombospondin. Endostatin is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor and may interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Endostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It was first found secreted in the media of non-metastasizing mouse cells from a hemangioendothelioma cell line in 1997 and was subsequently found in humans. It is produced by proteolytic cleavage of collagen XVIII, a member of the multiplexin family that is characterized by interruptions in the triple helix creating multiple domains, by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and ...
FGFs are multifunctional proteins with a wide variety of effects; they are most commonly mitogens but also have regulatory, morphological, and endocrine effects. They have been alternately referred to as "pluripotent" growth factors and as "promiscuous" growth factors due to their multiple actions on multiple cell types.[14][15] Promiscuous refers to the biochemistry and pharmacology concept of how a variety of molecules can bind to and elicit a response from single receptor. In the case of FGF, four receptor subtypes can be activated by more than twenty different FGF ligands. Thus the functions of FGFs in developmental processes include mesoderm induction, anterior-posterior patterning,[8] limb development, neural induction and neural development,[16] and in mature tissues/systems angiogenesis, keratinocyte organization, and wound healing processes. FGF is critical during normal development of both vertebrates and invertebrates and any ...
The keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing. In this phase, keratinocytes are covering the wound, forming the epithelium. KGF is a small signaling molecule that binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b).[1] For signalling to occur, a dimer is required between two FGF:FGFR complexes that is linked together by a molecule of heparin. There are 23 known FGFs, and 4 FGF receptors. FGF:FGFR binding is complex and regulated by a variety of mechanisms in a tissue specific manner. FGF10 is also known as "keratinocyte growth factor 2".[2] ...
... is the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development. Muscle fibers generally form the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated fibers called myotubes. In the early development of an embryo, myoblasts can either proliferate, or differentiate into a myotube. What controls this choice in vivo is generally unclear. If placed in cell culture, most myoblasts will proliferate if enough fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or another growth factor is present in the medium surrounding the cells. When the growth factor runs out, the myoblasts cease division and undergo terminal differentiation into myotubes. Myoblast differentiation proceeds in stages. The first stage, involves cell cycle exit and the commencement of expression of certain genes. The second stage of differentiation involves the alignment of the myoblasts with one another. Studies have shown ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development,[2] cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown to be expressed in normal brain, particularly the cerebellum. The rat homolog is preferentially expressed in the brain and able to enhance the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro.[3]. ...
În perioada dezvoltării embrionare, celulele gonadelor primordiale, situate de-a lungul crestei urogenitale, sunt celule bipotente ce au capacitatea de a se diferenția fie în celulele Sertoli și Leydig ale testiculului la sexul masculin, fie în celule foliculare și celulele tecale ale ovarului la sexul feminin. SRY inițiază diferențierea testiculului prin activarea unor factori de transcripție specifici sexului masculin ce determină proliferarea și diferențierea celulelor bipotențiale. SRY activează transcripția genei SOX9, genă ce codifică un factor de transcripție ce conține un situs de fixare la ADN similar celui al proteinei SRY.. SOX9 la rândul său activează gena FGF9 (factorul 9 de creștere a fibroblastelor, fibroblast growth factor 9 în engleză), FGF9 fiind necesar pentru buna diferențiere a celulelor Sertoli. Activarea continuă a genei SOX9 este ...
Fibroblasts ir šūna, kas sintezē ārpusšūnu matricu, kolagēnu, audu pamatu jeb stromu, kā arī šīm šūnām ir būtiska nozīme brūču dzīšanas procesos.[1] Fibroblasti ir visizplatītākās šūnas dzīvnieku saistaudos. Mēdz izšķirt arī fibrocītus, kas ir mazāk aktīvi fibroblasti un saistīti ar struktūru uzturēšanu. Fibroblastiem ir labi attīstīts graudainais endoplazmatiskais tīkls, jo tajos notiek intensīva olbaltumvielu sintēze. Fibroblasti sintezē kolagēnu, glikoproteīnus, retikulārās un elastīgās šķiedras, citokīnu TSLP un glikozaminoglikānus. ...
... , also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In normal tissue, basic fibroblast growth factor is present in basement membranes and in the subendothelial extracellular matrix of blood vessels. It stays membrane-bound as long as there is no signal peptide. It has been hypothesized that, during both wound healing of normal tissues and tumor development, the action of heparan sulfate-degrading enzymes activates bFGF, thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted by human adipocytes and the concentration of bFGF correlates with the BMI in blood samples. In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast ...
Fibroblast growth factor 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF18 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. It has been shown in vitro that this protein is able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. FGF18 signals through fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3 to promote chondrogenesis and has been shown to cause thickening of cartilage in a murine model of osteoarthritis, and the recombinant version of it (sprifermin) will soon enter trials ...
Achondroplasia is caused by a mutation in Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). In normal development FGFR3 has a ... Although used by those without achondroplasia to aid in growth, human growth hormone does not help people with achondroplasia. ... The disorder is caused by a change in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which causes an abnormality of ... studies in short-limbed dogs reveal a strong association of this trait with a retro-gene coding for fibroblast growth factor 4 ...
Patients with TD1 have mutations in a gene that codes for fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) which is also mutant in a ... Human-friendly medical definition of Dwarfism, Thanatophoric ... Dwarfism, thanatophoric: A form of short-limbed (micromelic) ... Thanatophoric Dwarfism: A Parents Point of View Delaware Medical Journal 1985 Apr;57(4):221-5 Thanatophoric dwarfism: a ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays a role in the regulation of ... Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 is a growth factor predominantly expressed during embryonic development, playing a key role in limb ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 (FGF-4) is a growth factor predominantly expressed during embryonic development, playing a key role ... Heparin-binding growth factor 4, HBGF-4, Heparin secretory-transforming protein 1, HST, HST-1, HSTF1, Transforming protein KS3 ... These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use. ...
Among these factors, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 is a multifunctional growth factor that exerts a variety of effects, ... Effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 on dental pulp cells derived from human deciduous teeth in vitro *Authors: *Tomokazu ... Effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 on dental pulp cells derived from human deciduous teeth in vitro . Exp Ther Med 1: 477-480 ... Effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 on dental pulp cells derived from human deciduous teeth in vitro . Experimental and ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) also known as CD332 (cluster of differentiation 332) is a protein that in humans is ... FGFR2 is a receptor for fibroblast growth factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor ... "Entrez Gene: FGFR2 fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (bacteria-expressed kinase, keratinocyte growth factor receptor, ... "Related fibroblast growth factor receptor genes exist in the human genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) ... BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Cell ... TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and ... Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth ...
Human activin A and BMP4 (R & D Systems) were applied at 20 and 50 ng/ml, respectively. FGF4 (Sigma) was used at 40 ng/ml ... Abbreviations: Fgf4, fibroblast growth factor 4; ExE, extraembryonic ectoderm; EPC, ectoplacental cone; SPC, subtilisin-like ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. Marcela ... A critical component of this microenvironment is fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4), but additional, unknown signals are also ...
Refinement of the structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor at 1.6 A resolution and analysis of presumed heparin ... REFINEMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BASIC FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR AT 1.6 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION AND ANALYSIS OF PRESUMED ... BASIC FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR A 146 Homo sapiens Gene Name(s): FGF2 Gene View FGFB ...
A Multicenter Trial of Sprifermin (AS902330 [Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-18]) or Placebo After Microfracture ... A Multicenter Trial of Sprifermin (AS902330 [Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-18]) or Placebo After Microfracture ... recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-18 [rhFGF-18]) as an adjunct treatment to subjects following microfracture (MFx) ... Each lesion has an area of ,= 1 square centimeter (cm^2) and less than equal to (,=) 4 cm^2 ...
Homo sapiens (Human). And more. 810. UniRef50_Q90Z00. Cluster: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-A. 157. ... tr,C9J205,C9J205_HUMAN Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=FGFR1 PE=1 SV=9 ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... Homo sapiens (Human)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>, ...
Homo sapiens (Human). Pan paniscus (Pygmy chimpanzee) (Bonobo). 216. UniRef100_O95750. Cluster: Fibroblast growth factor 19. 4 ... "Bile acids activate fibroblast growth factor 19 signaling in human hepatocytes to inhibit cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene ... sp,O95750,FGF19_HUMAN Fibroblast growth factor 19 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FGF19 PE=1 SV=1 ... Fibroblast growth factor 19Add BLAST. 192. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
... fibroblasts growth factor 2 (FGF2), dietary fatty acids (oleic acid, palmitic acid) and retinol, as demonstrated by the ... Transforming growth factor-beta 1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta subunit in human liver fat-storing ... nerve growth factor receptor p75). Studies showed that human HSCs express the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75, ... and established human HSC cell lines.. Keywords. Human hepatic stellate cells Human HSC isolation Human HSC markers Human ...
Doses of a Human Monoclonal Anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Antibody (KRN23) in Adults with X-linked Hypophosphatemia. Mary ... Doses of a Human Monoclonal Anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Antibody (KRN23) in Adults with X-linked Hypophosphatemia (. ... Objectives: In X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), abnormally elevated serum Fibroblast growth Factor 23 (FGF23) results in low ... Assessment of Quality of Life Data After 4 Monthly S.C. ... Assessment of Quality of Life Data After 4 Monthly S.C. ...
Terminal complement proteins C5b-9 release basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor from endothelial ... Fluid Flow Releases Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 From Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. David N. Rhoads, Suzanne G. Eskin, Larry ... Shear stress influences the release of platelet derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor by arterial smooth ... Fluid Flow Releases Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 From Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells ...
... including growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of FGFR... ... Fibroblast growth factors receptors (FGFR) are transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases involved in many cellular process, ... Eswarakumar VP, Lax I, Schlessinger J (2005) Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor ... NMR backbone assignments of the tyrosine kinase domain of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in apo state and in complex ...
"Three-dimensional structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Fibroblast growth factor 1(FGF1) Fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) Fibroblast growth factor 3(FGF3) Fibroblast growth factor 4( ... Fibroblast growth factor 5(FGF5) Fibroblast growth factor 6(FGF6) Fibroblast growth factor 7(FGF7) Fibroblast growth factor 8( ... Fibroblast growth factor 9(FGF9) Fibroblast growth factor 10(FGF10) Fibroblast growth factor 11(FGF11) Fibroblast growth factor ...
Normal human fibroblasts require growth factors for proliferation in culture; these growth factors are usually provided by ... Addition of FBS or purified growth factors induces proliferation of the fibroblasts; the changes in gene expression that ... In the absence of growth factors, fibroblasts enter a nondividing state, termed G0, characterized by low metabolic activity. ... A normal human diploid fibroblast cell line derived from foreskin (ATCC CRL 2091) in passage 8 was used in these experiments. ...
Human Dermal Fibroblast Fibronectin and Collagenase Production.. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded at 50,000 cells/well in a ... transforming growth factor β type II receptor in human cell lines resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ... 3 The abbreviations used are: TGF-β, transforming growth factor β; TGF-βRI or RII, transforming growth factor β receptor I or ... Physiological actions and clinical applications of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).Growth Factors , 8: 1 -9,1993 .. ...
... ... Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), encompasses a family of 22 related polypeptide. There are 18 different biologically active ...
Human Endogenous Metabolite Compound Library * Angiogenesis Related compound Library * Anti-alzheimers Disease Compound ... Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Targeting in Cancer: New Insights into Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies. by ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), a tyrosine kinase receptor for FGFs, is involved in diverse cellular processes, ... Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Targeting in Cancer: New Insights into Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies ...
Human Disease Modeled: spinocerebellar ataxia type 27. Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. Reference. Phenotypes. ... J:41070 Smallwood PM, et al., Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors: new members of the FGF family implicated in ... 1 human;1 mouse;1 rat;1 chimpanzee;1 dog;1 zebrafish;1 frog, western clawed;1 macaque, rhesus. ...
Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6304346. ... Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 (FGF13) Protein. Purity. , 95 %. * Target Details Protein Name. FGF13 Molecular Weight. 15.2 ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 (FGF13) Protein Protein FGF13 Origin: Human Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Recombinant , 95 % ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 (FGF13) (Transcript Variant 6) protein (Myc-DYKDDDDK Tag) Protein ...
HUMAN (CAS 106096-93-9) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on fibroblast growth factor, ... human market forecast. 6. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR, BASIC, HUMAN MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Fibroblast growth factor, basic, human ... Fibroblast growth factor, basic, human prices in other regions. 7. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR, BASIC, HUMAN END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Fibroblast growth factor, basic, human prices in Asia 6.3. Fibroblast growth factor, basic, human prices in North America. 6.4 ...
... human dermal fibroblast; hDPC, human dermal papilla cell; TGF, transforming growth factor; VD3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. ... acidic fibroblast growth factor; atRA, all-trans retinoic acid; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CS, cholesterol sulfate; ... growth-related oncogene-α; HB-EGF, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth ... nerve growth factor; PDGF-BB, platelet-derived growth factor-BB; SF-DMEM, serum-free Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; VC, ...
  • TGF-β produces profound growth inhibition on many types of cells, including normal epithelia, induces a differentiated phenotype, and has the potential to produce an apoptotic response in various cell types ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans. (mendeley.com)
  • We find that disruption of either the PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 or the Ser 473 phosphorylation/PIF-pocket mechanism only moderately impacts on Akt activation, but induces marked sensitization to PDK1 inhibitors. (biochemj.org)
  • Exogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 induces modest leukocyte recruitment in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Can transform NIH 3T3 cells from a human stomach tumor (hst) and from karposi's sarcoma (KS3). (abcam.com)
  • By means of intravital microscopy, tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated leukocyte-vessel wall interactions were studied in ear skin microvessels of nude mice bearing small human LS174T colon carcinomas and in C57Bl/6 mice bearing murine B16F10 melanomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To this purpose, a xenograft model was used in which a human tumor (LS174T) was grown in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most important prognostic factor for this cancer is tumor stage, or extent of disease at diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alterations in tumor suppressor genes such as p53 (3 , 4) , pRB (3 , 5) , NOEY2 (6) , BRCA1 (7) , and oncogenes such as K-ras (8) , c-myc (9) and c-erbB-2 (10) have been shown to play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When injected in human breast cancer xenografts, pAd-T34A inhibited growth of established tumors and triggered tumor cell apoptosis in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consistent with the idea that manipulation of apoptotic pathways could provide novel cancer therapeutics (11) , molecular targeting of survivin showed promising results in preclinical models in vivo , suppressing de novo tumor formation and inhibiting growth of established tumors, alone or in combination with other anticancer approaches (reviewed in Refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 promotes tumor progression in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer. (howard.edu)
  • Sprouty4 is a suppressor of tumor cell motility that is methylated in human prostate cancer. (howard.edu)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (origene.com)
  • Overexpression of this gene has been shown to increase tumor growth and angiogensis. (origene.com)
  • Cellular senescence is controlled by tumor suppressor genes and seems to be a checkpoint that prevents the growth of cells at risk for neoplastic transformation ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, this secretory phenotype resembles that of fibroblasts adjacent to some carcinomas, although senescent and tumor-associated fibroblasts differ in growth potential, morphology, and other traits. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor-associated fibroblasts can stimulate epithelial tumorigenesis ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • To recapitulate the attachment and growth of a micro- or metastatic tumor, our experimental tumorigenesis model examined human xenograft tumors in nude mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the current information on human HSCs isolation methods, human HSCs markers, and established human HSC cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Methods and Results- Skin biopsies were taken from 12 mongrel dogs, and derived fibroblasts were dissociated and grown in culture for 2 weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We examined the change in ulcer area over a 4-week period as a predictor of wound healing within 12 weeks in patients who were seen weekly in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Additionally, these methods combined with SILAC labeling in general have proven problematic in their large scale application to sensitive cell types including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from the mouse and human. (mcponline.org)
  • The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA microarray hybridization was used to measure the temporal changes in mRNA levels of 8613 human genes ( 3 ) at 12 times, ranging from 15 min to 24 hours after serum stimulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cDNA made from purified mRNA from each sample was labeled with the fluorescent dye Cy5 and mixed with a common reference probe consisting of cDNA made from purified mRNA from the quiescent culture (time zero) labeled with a second fluorescent dye, Cy3 ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The development of therapeutics targeting key signaling pathways important in human breast cancer, notably estrogen receptor (ER) and heregulin, has accounted for the recent decrease in mortality of several breast cancer subtypes ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Precise modulation of signaling pathways, including Wnt, insulin growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor, in combination with mechanical isolation of neural rosette cell clusters significantly enriched RX and PAX6 double-positive eye field progenitors from hPSCs by day 12. (arvojournals.org)
  • A significant morphological transformation is recognized in human esophageal cancer cells with an amplification/overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Human FGF2 occurs in low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different APN isoforms circulate in serum, and here, the effect of low molecular weight (LMW) and higher molecular weight (HMW) APN on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) has been analyzed. (mdpi.com)
  • The evasion from apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an invariant molecular trait of human cancer (1) , which may facilitate the acquisition of additional cancer traits (2) promoting resistance to therapy and disseminated disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A fully biologically active molecule obtained by proprietary chromatographic techniques at GenScript, rhFGF-4 has a molecular mass of 19.4kDa as analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE. (genscript.com)
  • APOE4 Causes Widespread Molecular and Cellular Alterations Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC-Derived Brain Cell Types. (peprotech.com)
  • Human FGF-4 activity assay. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We have studied fibroblasts stably overexpressing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) with a defined capacity for the removal of superoxide anions and concomitant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide to evaluate the role of enhanced MnSOD activity on the dynamics of cell-matrix interactions in the three-dimensional collagen lattice contraction assay. (nih.gov)
  • Following their establishment in vivo , teratomas typically progress by remodeling their microenvironment to support their growth and the formation of blood vessels for nutrients. (stembook.org)
  • In this review we will examine the current information on human HSCs, including the methodologies for HSC isolation, primary cultures of human HSCs, human liver tissues, as well as established human HSC cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Human FGF18 is involved in cell development and morphogenesis in various tissues including cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have been alternately referred to as "pluripotent" growth factors and as "promiscuous" growth factors due to their multiple actions on multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hela cell lysis and human lung cancer tissue sections. (abcam.com)
  • The mouse prostate gland consists of three major cell types: luminal cells that secrete prostatic peptides, basal cells that have stem-like properties, and neuroendocrine cells that secrete peptides to support the growth and viability of luminal cells. (stemcell.com)
  • The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The cell death pathway initiated by survivin targeting was mapped with respect to cytochrome c release, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and apoptosome requirements using mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in Apaf-1 or caspase-9. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell death induced by survivin targeting exhibited the hallmarks of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis with release of cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and was suppressed in Apaf-1 or caspase-9 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MIPs affect a wide array of cell types and are important regulators of inflammation, immune responses and cell growth. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Labeled fibroblasts that expressed vimentin were identified in all dogs that received cell injections at 4 weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • The human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 ( FGFR3 ) gene is frequently mutated in superficial urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). (biologists.org)
  • When proteasome activity is inhibited for 6 h, the kinase-active 80-kD ErbB-4 fragment accumulates to a level equivalent to 60% of the initial amount of native ErbB-4 (∼10 6 receptors per cell). (rupress.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) is a heparin-binding growth factor and member of the FGF family, which controls several physiological and pathological development processes, including cell growth, cell survival, and morphogenesis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Adenovirus-mediated delivery of the PTEN gene inhibits cell growth by induction of apoptosis in endometrial cancer. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cisplatin-induced p53-independent growth arrest and cell death in cancer cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Adriamycin activates E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in human breast cancer cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Moreover, it presents a robust, feeder cell-free, protocol for performing SILAC experiments on ESCs from both the mouse and the human. (mcponline.org)
  • We previously showed that rodent MDSCs differentiate into CM-like cells with cardiac-like electrophysiological, biochemical, and contractile properties using cell aggregate formation and 3-dimensional (3D) culture in a collagen-based scaffold [ 5 ], but engineered tissue models of human MDSCs in the context of their relationship to cardiac development and disease have not been investigated before. (hindawi.com)
  • The iPS cells can be obtained from theoretically any somatic cell type by virus-mediated transfection of a quartet of reprogramming factors [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells can then be differentiated into CMs or other cell types using established protocols [ 9 , 10 ], which combine 3-dimensional culture with sequential growth factor and cytokine treatments. (hindawi.com)
  • This capability to become any somatic cell type within the human body has garnered significant attention and interest in the fields of cell biology and regenerative medicine. (stembook.org)
  • Upon engraftment, teratoma formation is affected by three main factors: PSC type, cell number, and delivery route. (stembook.org)
  • The origins of these human cell lines were lung (A549), breast (MDA MB-231), colon (HCT-116), ovarian (SK-OV-3) and prostate (PC3) carcinomas. (biomedcentral.com)