Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Chemical EngineeringBioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)HandbooksChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).

Differences in heart rate variability between young and elderly normal men during graded head up tilt. (1/527)

An autoregressive spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to analyze the differences in autonomic functions during graded head up tilt (HUT) between young and elderly men. After recording at the 0 degree position, the table was rotated to an upright position. The incline of the table was increased progressively to 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 60 degrees. The data obtained from seven young subjects (mean age of 20.0 years) and nine elderly subjects (mean age of 63.3 years) were analyzed. The high frequency components expressed by normalized units (HFnu) were used as the parasympathetic indicators, and HFnu decreased with tilt angle in both age groups. These results suggested that parasympathetic withdrawal have an important role in adaptation to an upright posture in both age groups. However, mean HF amplitude at the 0 degree position in elderly men was not significantly different from that of young men at 60 degrees tilt. A significant interaction effect (age group x tilt angle) was found for mean HF amplitude. The increase of the low frequency components expressed by normalized units (LFnu) and the LF-to-HF ratio in elderly subjects from 0 degree to 15 degrees seemed to be larger than that in young subjects. Sympathetic activities may be sensitive to lower levels of orthostatic stress in the elderly, and the elderly workers are easily affected by a change in workload. Therefore, keeping the workload lower and constant may be recommended to avoid excessive sympathetic activation among the elderly.  (+info)

International standards on mental work-load--the ISO 10,075 series. (2/527)

After a short review of the history and an introduction into the background of standardization in the field of mental work-load an overview over the ISO 10,075 series of standards on ergonomic principles related to mental work-load is given. The review also presents relationships of these standards with some other ergonomic standards and some of the problems associated with standardization in the field of mental work-load. The stress-strain model, the concepts and the terminology used in ISO 10,075 are presented in the overview, together with the basic ideas and the frame of reference of the design guidelines provided by ISO 10,075-2. An outline of the state of discussion and possible developments of a working draft for ISO 10,075-3 on diagnostic methods concludes the presentation of the international standards on mental work-load.  (+info)

Measurement of fatigue in industries. (3/527)

Fatigue of workers is a complex phenomenon resulting from various factors in technically innovated modern industries, and it appears as a feeling of exhaustion, lowering of physiological functions, breakdown of autonomic nervous balance, and decrease in work efficiency. On the other hand industrial fatigue is caused by excessive workload, remarkable alteration in working posture and diurnal and nocturnal rhythms in daily life. Working modes in modern industries have changed from work with the whole body into that with the hands, arms, legs and/or eyes which are parts of the body, and from physical work to mental work. Visual display terminal (VDT) work is one of the most characteristic jobs in the various kinds of workplaces. A large number of fatigue tests have already been adopted, but it is still hard to draw a generalized conclusion as to the method of selecting the most appropriate test battery for a given work load. As apparatus for fatigue measurement of VDT work we have developed VRT (Visual Reaction Test) and the Portable Fatigue Meter. Furthermore, we have presented immune parameters of peripheral blood and splenic T cells for physical fatigue.  (+info)

Occupational stress in human computer interaction. (4/527)

There have been a variety of research approaches that have examined the stress issues related to human computer interaction including laboratory studies, cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal case studies and intervention studies. A critical review of these studies indicates that there are important physiological, biochemical, somatic and psychological indicators of stress that are related to work activities where human computer interaction occurs. Many of the stressors of human computer interaction at work are similar to those stressors that have historically been observed in other automated jobs. These include high workload, high work pressure, diminished job control, inadequate employee training to use new technology, monotonous tasks, por supervisory relations, and fear for job security. New stressors have emerged that can be tied primarily to human computer interaction. These include technology breakdowns, technology slowdowns, and electronic performance monitoring. The effects of the stress of human computer interaction in the workplace are increased physiological arousal; somatic complaints, especially of the musculoskeletal system; mood disturbances, particularly anxiety, fear and anger; and diminished quality of working life, such as reduced job satisfaction. Interventions to reduce the stress of computer technology have included improved technology implementation approaches and increased employee participation in implementation. Recommendations for ways to reduce the stress of human computer interaction at work are presented. These include proper ergonomic conditions, increased organizational support, improved job content, proper workload to decrease work pressure, and enhanced opportunities for social support. A model approach to the design of human computer interaction at work that focuses on the system "balance" is proposed.  (+info)

Ergonomic strategies for improving working conditions in some developing countries in Asia. (5/527)

Ergonomic action is growing in Asia in response to increasing local needs. Recent studies in some developing countries in Asia commonly developed and applied widely-applicable measures for assessing local needs in field conditions including small enterprises and agriculture. For this purpose, carefully examining the actual workplace conditions of the local people was essential. Consequently, a number of field studies could contributed to improving the working conditions of the local people in materials handling, workstation design, work organization and work environment by using available local resources. Building on local capacity and practice, action-oriented ergonomics training has also been developing and spreading into many workplaces. Various non-expert human resources including local government units, trade unions, industrial associations and the agricultural sectors have been mobilized to act as participatory trainers in the action-oriented ergonomic training programmes. Training tools such as action checklists, good local examples and group work dynamics have been developed and applied to such training activities. Learning from local achievements and focusing on locally available resources, ergonomists have facilitated these local action processes by developing action-oriented training tools and training local trainers. It was confirmed that a number of ergonomic improvements could be formulated by the self-help initiative of the local people when participatory action tools and training were provided. Developing flexible and dynamic ergonomic research and training methods to meet the diversifying needs of the local people will continuously be important. Ergonomists' efforts to cover the wider population and workplaces need to be strengthened and accelerated.  (+info)

Occupational health psychology: an emerging discipline. (6/527)

There is growing concern that rapidly changing patterns of work organization and employment pose risk for occupational illness and injury. In the present article, we assert that these changes create new needs and opportunities for research and practice by psychologists in the area of work organization and health. We begin with an historical overview of the contribution of psychologists to the occupational safety and health field, and to the study of work organization and health. We then describe new initiatives by the American Psychological Association and national health organizations in the United States and Europe to frame a new field of study--called "occupational health psychology"--that focuses on the topic of work organization and health. We conclude with a discussion of emerging research needs and trends within this field.  (+info)

The Conquest Hospital picture archiving and communications system development, 1992 to 1999. (7/527)

Conquest Hospital was a UK regional development site for a pre-Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The initial system was installed in mid 1992. Identification has been made of data transfer, ergonomic and single point of failure issues in the original PACS, which was called "iLAN." This has informed respecification of a DICOM/HTML PACS, the first stages of which have been hospital renetworking and installation of new DICOM 3.0 computed radiography/fluorography and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging segments. Final PACS elements are at contract stage. Plans are being completed for linkage of PACS to a clinical information system to create a comprehensive electronic patient record system.  (+info)

The effects of strapped spectacles on the fit factors of three manufactured brands of full facepiece negative pressure respirators. (8/527)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of strapped spectacles on the fit factors obtained during quantitative fit testing on three different brands of full facepiece negative pressure respirators. The three brands of respirators were evaluated with and without strapped spectacles worn by the test subjects. A total of 180 quantitative fit testing trials were conducted on ten male test subjects. For each test subject, three quantitative fit testing trials were performed with each brand of respirator with and without the spectacles. The average of the fit testing trials for each subject with each respirator was used for statistical analysis. The results demonstrated that the fit factor values were significantly lower during use of the spectacles (p < 0.05). The estimated percentage of test subjects who failed the American National Standards Institute pass/fail criteria for quantitative fit testing (1000) increased by 15-36% when spectacles were worn.  (+info)

  • This genetic map gives the location of each of the approximately 100,000 human genes composed of roughly 3 billion nucleotides. (factmonster.com)
  • The use of transgenic monkeys to study human genes linked to brain evolution is a very risky road to take," says James Sikela, a geneticist who carries out comparative studies among primates at the University of Colorado. (nationalreview.com)
  • Other companies in the market, which come from the biotech industry, have bred pigs with human genes added to their livers, kidneys and hearts. (mercola.com)
  • The simple definition for genetic engineering according to CSIRO is "The use of modern biotechnology techniques to change genes of an organism, such as plant or animal. (bartleby.com)
  • This challenge, called network reverse engineering or deconvolution, has led to an entirely new class of methods aimed at producing high-fidelity representations of cellular networks as graphs, where nodes represent genes and edges between them represent interactions, either between the encoded proteins or between the encoded proteins and the genes (we use 'genetic interaction' to refer to both types of mechanisms). (psu.edu)
  • Though embryo screening is seen as a gift because of its ability to detect diseased genes, human genetic engineering can be viewed as a greater blessing with its ability to modify the gene carrying the disease. (brightkite.com)
  • Besides screening for diseases, people would take advantage of human genetic engineering by changing other genes not for health reasons, but for the sake of "improvement. (brightkite.com)
  • Oncogenes are mutant forms of normal human genes which, if not regulated, can trigger a cell to grow and divide uncontrollably. (brighthub.com)
  • This is possible by adding the silk-producing genes of a spider to the genome of a human: creating a bulletproof human. (mnn.com)
  • The framework regions (FR) - the regions most implicated in tolerance - of these NHP antibody fragments were shown to be very similar to FR encoded by human germline genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Scientists can identify pathogenic genes through genetic engineering. (phys.org)
  • Currently, there are no FDA-approved reporter genes and few methods have advanced to human studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we outline current reporter gene approaches to track engineered cells in vivo , analyze why current reporter genes have not progressed into the clinic, and propose "rules" for designing a widely applicable reporter gene for use in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The first attempt to edit the human germline was reported in 2015, when a group of Chinese scientists used the gene editing technique CRISPR/Cas9 to edit single-celled, non-viable embryos to see the effectiveness of this technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical Devices and Human Engineering , the second volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biomedical sensors, medical instrumentation and devices, human performance engineering, rehabilitation engineering, and clinical engineering. (routledge.com)
  • Now, Chinese scientists have genetically engineered a monkey to make it more human. (nationalreview.com)
  • For example, scientists there brought cloned monkeys to birth recently, meaning human reproductive cloning could be on the horizon. (nationalreview.com)
  • About 70% of dieses that humans encounter can be easily traced to a similar case that can be found in the fly's genome, which is why scientists choose to work them (Ren 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • The scientists used genetic engineering to block a particular immune system response in cells outside the brain. (brighthub.com)
  • Scientists at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have printed the world's first 3D vascularized engineered heart using a patient's own cells and biological materials. (genengnews.com)
  • Last year scientists cloned cow's milk to resemble human breast milk . (inhabitat.com)
  • Now other livestock are fair game as scientists have recently engineered goats chock full of human breast milk qualities. (inhabitat.com)
  • Scientists have been working on how to design genetically modified goats who can produce human breast milk for some time now, but recently, animal scientists at the University of California, Davis figured out the puzzle. (inhabitat.com)
  • Scientists reporting research data in Cell Reports say their goal is to one day translate the bioengineering process to human patients with diabetes. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • To engineer the organs, the scientists used animal livers that were treated with a mild detergent to remove all cells (a process called decellularization), leaving only the collagen "skeleton" or support structure. (scienceblog.com)
  • After a week in the bioreactor system, the scientists documented the progressive formation of human liver tissue, as well as liver-associated function. (scienceblog.com)
  • This presentation at 'Diskurs, Macht, Biomedizin' (Discourse, Power, Biomedicine) conference at Institut für Pölitische Wissenschaft, University of Hannover illustrates how, in anticipation of such unease, as well as because of growing distrust in scientists and the government, many discussions and debates about embryo cloning and further embryo research have been carefully channelled in certain directions in an attempt to 'engineer consent' to such research. (thecornerhouse.org.uk)
  • Scientists at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have developed a tissue-engineered model of lung and trachea which contains the diverse cell types present in the human respiratory tract. (scienceblog.com)
  • Now, as if inspired by a comic book, scientists working with the Forensic Genomics Consortium in the Netherlands want to mix the genomes of spiders and humans to create - though not quite a real-life spiderman - a superhuman with silk-like, bulletproof skin, according to the Daily Mail . (mnn.com)
  • The problem, Johnston explained, is that when scientists want to place human-made DNA into bacteria, they confront the exact same defense systems that protect bacteria against a virus. (phys.org)
  • To get past this barrier, scientists add specific modifications to disguise the human-made DNA and trick the bacterium into thinking the intruder is a part of its own DNA. (phys.org)
  • Scientists have used genetic engineering to create mosquitoes whose immune systems kill the malaria parasite. (earthsky.org)
  • Scientists at the University of California at Irvine and and the Pasteur Institute in Paris say they've used genetic engineering to create mosquitoes that can't infect people with malaria. (earthsky.org)
  • Bottom line: Scientists at the University of California at Irvine and and the Pasteur Institute in Paris have used genetic engineering to create mosquitoes whose immune systems kill the malaria parasite. (earthsky.org)
  • Exponent scientists and engineers have published peer-reviewed articles on the subjects of risk communication including experimental research on warnings compliance, reviews of the warnings scientific literature, analyses of the real-world effectiveness of warnings, and historical trends in warning labeling. (exponent.com)
  • 2) Genetic engineering techniques in mice are revealing more about the progression of the disease and the consequences of therapeutic intervention . (brighthub.com)
  • In this report, we used mice expressing only human FcγRs to evaluate the contribution of FcγR-mediated pathways to the neutralizing activity of an anti-anthrax toxin chimeric mAb. (jci.org)
  • We generated anti-anthrax toxin mAbs with specific Fc domain variants with selectively enhanced affinity for particular human FcγRs and assessed their activity in FcγR-humanized mice. (jci.org)
  • Takebe's and Taniguchi's research team already demonstrated the ability to use a "self-condensation" cell culture process using iPS cells to tissue engineer three-dimensional human liver organoids that can vascularize after transplant into laboratory mice. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Daily doses of the bacteria improved survival in mice genetically engineered to have one of the ammonia-raising metabolic disorders. (newscientist.com)
  • These provisional findings confirm the results achieved under similar tests with real mice and humans. (dtu.dk)
  • Transplanting regionally specific lung tissue (proximal or distal) from mice and humans generates TELu with typical location-specific tissue markers such as particular alveolar or air sac cells in the distal TELu or tracheal epithelial cells organized with cartilage and ciliated appendages for proximal lung. (scienceblog.com)
  • However, we know that mice and monkeys don't develop diseases the same way that humans do, so they often don't make for the most ideal test subjects. (medgadget.com)
  • There is no current legislation in the United States that explicitly prohibits germline engineering, however, the Consolidated Appropriation Act of 2016 banned the use of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) funds to engage in research regarding human germline modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Authors included Dimitra Pouli, Carlo Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle Quinn, and Associate Professor Irene Georgakoudi from the Tufts Department of Biomedical Engineering, working alongside colleagues from the University of Malaga and the University of California, Irvine. (tufts.edu)
  • A paper titled, "The iAAMCS Ecosystem: Retaining Blacks/African-Americans in CS PhD Programs," recently earned a best paper award at the 2020 Research on Equity and Sustained Participation in Engineering, Computing, and Technology (RESPECT) Conference. (ufl.edu)
  • According to them, many see germline modification as being more moral than the alternative, which would be either discarding of the embryo, or birth of a diseased human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journalistic hype over CRISPR has reached heights unseen since embryo destructive stem cell (ESC) research was touted fifteen years ago as a panacea for all human ills. (culture-of-life.org)
  • T he first experiment in changing the genetic instructions in a human embryo is now up for review at the National Institutes of Health. (vision.org)
  • Many viewed his actions as a violation of international bans on the gene editing of a live human embryo. (naturalnews.com)
  • We found a way to genetically engineer human embryonic kidney cells to form the same types of particles that you see in leucophores," explains Gorodetsky. (forbes.com)
  • When you genetically engineer an isolated human embryonic cell, you can change its transparency by putting these protein particles inside. (forbes.com)
  • In a paper published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal, Dr. Christopher Johnston and his colleagues at the Forsyth Institute describe a new technique to genetically engineer bacteria by making human-made DNA invisible to a bacterium's defenses. (phys.org)
  • The Safety Guide provides a structured approach and guidance on application of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design of the HMI, which is the basis for human physical and cognitive processes in nuclear power plants. (iaea.org)
  • Our study is based on ARACNe (algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks), a new approach for the reverse engineering of cellular networks from microarray expression profiles. (psu.edu)
  • Our results demonstrate the potential of our approach for engineering personalized tissue and organ replacement in the future. (genengnews.com)
  • Published online Nov. 21, the findings describe an unprecedented approach to engineer and study tissues in the intestine - the body's largest immune organ, its food processor and main interface with the outside world. (eurekalert.org)
  • The approach, of tweaking bacteria so they turn harmful ammonia into a safe compound, has shown promise in animal tests and in healthy human volunteers. (newscientist.com)
  • These significant and promising research advances are a prime example of how a collaborative approach can solve persistent human health challenges," said Deepak Vashishth, the director of CBIS. (news-medical.net)
  • The most straightforward approach to isolate human antibodies with high affinities is the construction and screening of human immune libraries, but Humans cannot be immunized with all antigens of interest, for ethical and practical reasons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, the methodological peculiarities of our approach, in comparison with immune libraries built from immunised Humans, and the rationales behind these peculiarities, will be reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is a very impressive first step for PTC for supporting a human-centric design approach. (mcadcafe.com)
  • In addition, engineered tissues should behave similarly regardless of the varying source of cells, thus requiring robust, reproducible and scalable methods of biofabrication that can be achieved using a holistic systems engineering approach. (ca.gov)
  • This field trial of the WCPM affirms the congruency between production and operator training by providing a unique cost linkage between performance engineering and human behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. (oreilly.com)
  • Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the connection of non-verbal behavior to social engineering and scamming. (oreilly.com)
  • Social engineers take advantage of human behavior to pull off a scam. (csoonline.com)
  • They bring expertise on human cognition, perception, behavior, and information processing to both the design of warnings and the potential for behavioral change in response to safety messages. (exponent.com)
  • This heart is made from human cells and patient-specific biological materials. (genengnews.com)
  • It was completed in collaboration with Robert Linhardt, an endowed professor of chemistry and chemical biology, and Mattheos Koffas, an endowed professor of chemical and biological engineering, both of whom are members of CBIS as well. (news-medical.net)
  • We've translated the many processes of the cerebellum into an 'engineering system' in which we've combined the biological mechanisms with conventional control techniques to control robots. (dtu.dk)
  • This is the first completely biological TEBV to display a burst strength comparable to that of human vessels. (nih.gov)
  • The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM). (hindawi.com)
  • These technologies are based on a decellularized Biological Vascularized Scaffold (BioVaSc), primary human cells and a tumor cell line, which can be cultured under static as well as under dynamic conditions in a flow bioreactor. (jove.com)
  • This Working Group report summarizes the discussions of an expert scientific panel regarding the gaps in knowledge that impede effective human health risk assessment for nanomaterials, particularly those that are suspended in a gas or liquid and, thus, deposit on skin or in the respiratory tract. (rti.org)
  • New material discusses, among other topics, models of the human body that provide practical and design-oriented information, biomechanics describing the body's capabilities and limitations, effects of shift work / sleep loss on attitude and performance, and new techniques to measure body sizes and the resultant changes in applications of that information. (springer.com)
  • It focuses on the numerical modeling of total human joint replacements and simulation of their functions, along with the rigorous biomechanics of human joints and other skeletal parts. (wiley.com)
  • Widely used and referenced, David Winter's Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. (wiley.com)
  • His many distinctions include Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Canadian Society for Biomechanics. (wiley.com)
  • HFE is based on design related aspects of several biomedical disciplines, including anthropometrics, biomechanics, sensation and perception anatomy and physiology, and cognitive psychology, which covers models and theories of human performance, memory, and attention. (bmj.com)
  • We began by synthesizing a human codon-optimized version of the Cas9 protein bearing a C-terminal SV40 nuclear localization signal and cloning it into a mammalian expression system ( Fig. 1A and fig. S1A). (sciencemag.org)
  • A ) RNA-guided gene targeting in human cells involves coexpression of the Cas9 protein bearing a C-terminal SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS) with one or more gRNAs expressed from the human U6 polymerase III promoter. (sciencemag.org)
  • The kidney cells were engineered to express the protein reflectin A1 that is commonly found in the mantle of the female squids known as Doryteuthis opalescens. (forbes.com)
  • The idea is to replace our keratin, the protein that makes up human skin, with a modified version of the protein in spider silk. (mnn.com)
  • Furthermore, little success has been seen in treating solid tumors with engineered T cells and uncovering modes of failure is a topic of much research. (frontiersin.org)
  • This scheme depicts the complexity of factors affecting outcome of adoptive T cell therapy against tumors arising from harvesting of T cells, generation of the engineered T cells, and intra- and interindividual differences in the tumor-bearing host. (frontiersin.org)
  • This fifth edition of "Engineering Physiology" has the same purpose as the earlier prints: to provide physiological information which engineers, designers, supervisors, managers and other planners need to make work and equipment "fit the human. (springer.com)
  • More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including optical sensors, implantable cardiac pacemakers, electrosurgical devices, blood glucose monitoring, human-computer interaction design, orthopedic prosthetics, clinical engineering program indicators, and virtual instruments in health care. (routledge.com)
  • Generation of thick vascularized tissues that fully match the patient still remains an unmet challenge in cardiac tissue engineering. (genengnews.com)
  • During the past year we have made significant progress in creating 3D cardiac microtissues from heart muscle and supporting cells derived from PSCs and/or human tissue. (ca.gov)
  • We anticipate that these investigations will lead to better models of engineered cardiac tissue that more accurately reflect properties of real heart tissue. (ca.gov)
  • The process was essentially the same as that used by the Wells' lab in a landmark 2010 Nature study, which reported the first-ever generation of three-dimensional human intestinal organoids in a laboratory. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are the first to use human liver cells to successfully engineer miniature livers that function - at least in a laboratory setting - like human livers. (scienceblog.com)
  • Laboratory-engineered livers could also be used to test the safety of new drugs. (scienceblog.com)
  • The narrative deals with the intervention in human nature by growing humans in a laboratory instead of being born. (grin.com)
  • He directs the Human Centered Robotics Laboratory , where his research focuses on design and control of robots that are safe, compliant and autonomous. (utexas.edu)
  • Human Factors in Engineering and Design is an engineering textbook, currently in its seventh edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper will address the human factors engineering effort undertaken to aid in the early-on design of the Space Station structure, with particular emphasis on structural assembly operations. (sae.org)
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Human Factors Engineering in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-51, IAEA, Vienna (2019). (iaea.org)
  • This publication provides recommendations and guidance for meeting Requirement 32 of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, for optimal operator performance involving systematic consideration of human factors, including the human machine interface (HMI). (iaea.org)
  • This module aims to develop students' competence and self-confidence in the key elements of creative human centred design engineering tools and process. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • including design drawing, engineering drawing, 3D computer aided design, 2D digital graphics and oral presentation. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • These two elements combine in a substantial structured design engineering project which involves both individual and team based activity. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Student confidence and ability to work autonomously is developed through the requirement to investigate and define a human centred design engineering opportunity/problem area, establish meaningful links with users and stakeholders for information gathering and validation and manage the overall project process to deliver a complete set of outcomes in submissions, presentation and an exhibition of work. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The Engineering of Human Joint Replacements covers the design, engineering, production and manufacture of human joint replacements, as well as associated engineering concerns such as surface coatings, orthopedic bone cement, the causes and effects of wear and tear, and rapid prototyping for clinical evaluation. (ecampus.com)
  • The Engineering of Human Joint Replacements bridges the divide between engineering and orthopaedic surgery, offering an introductory text to young engineers entering the field, as well as a reference for medical staff who will benefit from an understanding of the materials and methods used in their design, engineering and manufacture. (ecampus.com)
  • It develops a series of hypotheses to be tested, articulates a new Taylorist theory to explain the design of human-computer interfaces used to form electronic contracts, and defends a series of reform proposals. (ssrn.com)
  • Led by Dr. Laurence Kenney and Professor David Howard (School of Computing, Science and Engineering) within this research area we are focusing on the biomechanical aspects of the design and development of new functional electrical stimulation (FES) prosthetic and orthotic technologies, as well as their evaluation using wearable sensors. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Sentis' class gives the students a hands-on chance to design and implement a human-centered robotics project of their choosing. (utexas.edu)
  • They were able to investigate how different position and force control strategies influence the dynamics of below-knee amputee walking by comparing their design to normal human locomotion. (utexas.edu)
  • The Third Edition of Kroemer's "Engineering Physiology" provides information on how the body functions at work, and on how one should design a work environment so that the body can function well. (powells.com)
  • The steps of that process -- Evolutionary Engineering -- show how 18 different bodies of knowledge are used by human ecologists when they create, improve, influence, or design systems that reflexively evolve. (ssrn.com)
  • Difficulties in designing systems that evolve, living systems, human systems, and difficulties inherent in design itself are used to specify roles for Evolutionary Engineers. (ssrn.com)
  • The study, measurement improvement, and self-emergent design of policy processes is examined as a major field of application of Evolutionary Engineering. (ssrn.com)
  • This guidance provides recommendations for medical device design optimization through human factors analysis, testing and validation. (elsmar.com)
  • A case study is presented which illustrates the vulnerabilities of human factors design in a transport monitor. (bmj.com)
  • Human factors engineering (HFE) is a discipline concerned with the design of tools, machines, and systems that take into account human capabilities, limitations, and characteristics. (bmj.com)
  • The goals are to design for safe, comfortable, and effective human use. (bmj.com)
  • This design process focuses on user needs, user characteristics, and end user testing of the human-machine interface. (bmj.com)
  • PTC announced the launch of Pro/ENGINEER Manikin, a 3D digital human modeling solution that enables design teams to add a digital human model to a CAD product model to simulate and communicate human-product interactions. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Additionally, beginning in December 2008, basic manikin capabilities that enable users to insert a pre-defined manikin into a CAD model and easily manipulate the posture to gain an understanding of how a human would fit or interact with a proposed design will be included in all Pro/ENGINEER packages at no additional charge for those customers on the latest maintenance release of Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 4.0. (mcadcafe.com)
  • The new capabilities introduced in Pro/ENGINEER Manikin will dramatically improve our ability to design innovative products for our customers. (mcadcafe.com)
  • The vision cones, reach envelopes and other human factors analysis capabilities provide valuable insight earlier in the product design and development process," states Patrick Hodgins, chief engineer, Callaway Cars. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Having the capability to perform human-product interactions early in the development cycle supports innovation and helps optimize the design process," said Michael Campbell, senior vice president, product management, PTC. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Allowing design engineers to know how a customer will physically interact with a product during the design process enables them to design products that will be optimized for their target audience. (mcadcafe.com)
  • 52% of human embryos were successfully edited to retain only the wild type normal copy of MYBPC3 gene, the rest of the embryos were mosaic, where some cells in the zygote contained the normal gene copy and some contained the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to develop new 3D models of neural tissue, particularly spinal cord, we have successfully differentiated multiple neuronal cell types, including a new excitatory spinal interneuron (V2a) that has not previously been reported from human PSCs. (ca.gov)
  • Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. (oreilly.com)
  • Sharing proven scientific methodology for reading, understanding, and deciphering non-verbal communications, Unmasking the Social Engineer arms readers with the knowledge needed to help protect their organizations. (oreilly.com)
  • The Tools of the Social Engineer. (prweb.com)
  • He presently is "Operations" for Offensive Security and the lead developer of Social-Engineer.Org. (prweb.com)
  • Chris is also the lead social engineer in the Offsec pen testing team. (prweb.com)
  • Chris can be found online at http://www.social-engineer.org , twitter as @humanhacker. (prweb.com)
  • For example, instead of trying to find a software vulnerability, a social engineer might call an employee and pose as an IT support person, trying to trick the employee into divulging his password. (csoonline.com)
  • Even if you've got all the bells and whistles when it comes to securing your data center, your cloud deployments, your building's physical security, and you've invested in defensive technologies, have the right security policies and processes in place and measure their effectiveness and continuously improve, still a crafty social engineer can weasel his way right through (or around). (csoonline.com)
  • Once a social engineer has a trusted employee's password, he can simply log in and snoop around for sensitive data. (csoonline.com)
  • A team led by Tufts biomedical engineers developed a 3D contusion model that could be used to study the effects of traumatic brain injuries. (tufts.edu)
  • This concept encourages research directed toward developing next-generation human cell-derived microphysiological systems (MPS) and related assays that replicate complex nervous system architectures and physiology with improved fidelity over current capabilities. (nih.gov)
  • The Third Edition of Engineering Physiology has new information on body size and how to fit equipment to it. (powells.com)
  • Written for engineers, managers, designers, and safety professionals, concise, comprehensive information is presented in a way that does not require expertise in physiology, biology or medicine. (powells.com)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages research grant applications directed toward developing next-generation human cell-derived microphysiological systems (MPS) with improved fidelity to complex human brain, spinal, peripheral nervous system and/or sensory end organ circuit physiology in vivo, which will ultimately facilitate analysis of higher order functional deficits relevant to complex nervous system disorders. (nih.gov)
  • It fills the gap in human movement science area where modern science and technology are integrated with anatomy, muscle physiology, and electromyography to assess and understand human movement. (wiley.com)
  • Current genetic engineering approaches often disguise the human-made DNA as bacterial DNA to thwart these defenses, but the process requires highly specific modifications and is expensive and time-consuming. (phys.org)
  • Fundamental approaches to live T cell immune therapy are the use of cells transduced with T cell receptors (TCRs) in which recognition of the tumor antigen occurs through presentation on cell surface human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and the use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that typically are specified by a single-chain variable region domain of an antibody and directed to a cell surface tumor-associated antigen ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The student selected for this position will need to complete on-line certification training related to ethical conduct of human subjects research provided through the Social and Behavioral Sciences Institutional Review Board. (virginia.edu)
  • The phenomenon of course has to be seen in humans if this particular avenue of research is to bear fruit. (brighthub.com)
  • The article is misleading as tissue engineering research is in its infancy and products of sufficient quality for routine clinical use remain a long way away. (bmj.com)
  • Human-Computer Interaction: An Empirical Research Perspective is the definitive guide to empirical research in HCI. (tradebit.com)
  • As science continues to learn more about how important intestinal health is to overall health, Wells and Helmrath said using functioning lab-generated human intestine creates an array of new research opportunities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Handbook of Research on Computational Simulation and Modeling in Engineering. (igi-global.com)
  • Handbook of Research on Computational Simulation and Modeling in Engineering (pp. 359-388). (igi-global.com)
  • A research group at DTU Electrical Engineering headed by Assistant Professor Silvia Tolu has developed a new bio-inspired control system for robots based on the human cerebellum. (dtu.dk)
  • Experience of experimental research involving human participants is also preferable but is not essential. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Modification of the human genome will occur as a natural result of genetic research, even if it does not directly pertain to reshaping human DNA. (brightkite.com)
  • The natural procedure for research in medicine or any science is to experiment first with animals and then with humans, making the latter the next step for human genetic engineering. (brightkite.com)
  • If you are interested in finding out more about this class or research work in human-centered robotics, please email Dr. Sentis to set up a meeting. (utexas.edu)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Human and Computer Engineering are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • Though in passing this article deals with material on the origins of human ecology as a field and the way it is taught at various higher education institutions, the primary thrust of this article is answering the research questions, not repeating institutional or intellectual history. (ssrn.com)
  • This new genetic engineering tool opens up the possibilities for research on bacteria that haven't been well studied before. (phys.org)
  • Engineering faculty Professor Sameer Sonkusale and Associate Professor Qiaobing Xu , working with Assistant Professor Jimmy Crott from the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, have received a $1 million grant from the Office of Naval Research to build biomedical microdevices to investigate the gut microbiome. (tufts.edu)
  • Nikhil Nair , assistant professor of biomedical engineering, received an NIH Director's New Innovator Award for his research on engineering bacteria to treat inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs). (tufts.edu)
  • Lastly, we are using engineered PSC lines to examine how cells self-organize to create complex structures during tissue development. (ca.gov)
  • Herein, we propose that reporter gene-based imaging of engineered T cells in humans would be tremendously valuable in elucidating the fate of the transplanted T cells and would greatly facilitate clinical translation of new CAR and TCR technologies. (frontiersin.org)
  • When compared to aerobic coculture conditions, the establishment of a transluminal hypoxia gradient in the chip increased intestinal barrier function and sustained a physiologically relevant level of microbial diversity, consisting of over 200 unique operational taxonomic units from 11 different genera and an abundance of obligate anaerobic bacteria, with ratios of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes similar to those observed in human faeces. (nature.com)
  • And when healthy humans took the bacteria in a drink for two weeks, blood tests showed the bacteria were working as intended. (newscientist.com)
  • Other groups are engineering bacteria so they can make human immune system chemicals as a treatment for other bowel disorders, such as Crohn's disease. (newscientist.com)
  • The capacity to engineer bacteria has profound implications for medicine, for agriculture, for the chemical industry, and for the environment. (phys.org)
  • For almost a decade, chemical engineers at the Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine, have been working on materials that are either derived or inspired by squids, octopus, and cuttlefish. (forbes.com)
  • It's amazing how they can change colors," says Alon Gorodetsky, associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the university. (forbes.com)
  • Chemical engineers develop a directed evolution technique to engineer phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzymes. (tufts.edu)
  • The development of an in vitro human bone marrow (BM) tissue appears essential to compile information on human hematopoiesis. (pnas.org)
  • Maybe, but we can get a feeling of what this transhumanistic idea would be like by letting a bulletproof matrix of spider silk merge with an in vitro human skin. (mnn.com)
  • Before UserWise, Shannon was a Human Factors Engineer at Intuitive Surgical, where she worked on da Vinci surgical systems, instruments, and accessories including the da Vinci Xi System. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Addressing this complex technical challenge requires the collaboration of experts from diverse fields, including developmental and stem cell biology, circuit and systems level neuroscience, materials science, engineering and bioethics. (nih.gov)
  • A method that sustains complex microbial communities in direct contact with living human intestinal cells and their overlying mucus layer in vitro would thus enable the investigation of host-microbiome interactions. (nature.com)
  • Amir H. Alavi, PhD, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering, has spent much of his career developing sensors to monitor the health of large, complex structures like bridges and roads. (news-medical.net)
  • Now, he has applied those skills to a smaller and even more complex structure--the human spine. (news-medical.net)
  • Although the subject of aggression can be quite complex in human beings. (brighthub.com)
  • This microscopic image from a study published online by Nature Medicine shows complex tissue-engineered human intestinal organoids with enteric (intestinal) nerves generated in a petri dish. (newswise.com)
  • This Article shows how the current legal and technical architecture of electronic contracting nudges human beings to behave like simple stimulus-response machines and conditions us to become increasingly predictable and programmable. (ssrn.com)
  • Have a complete collection of information on our mechanical engineering program sent straight to your inbox. (purdue.edu)
  • Shannon graduated in 2010 from UCLA with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering and a technical breadth in Technology Management. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Luis Sentis is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin since January 2010. (utexas.edu)
  • Dr. Sentis' class is offered in the spring semester, and is open to all mechanical engineering graduate and senior undergraduate students, as well as a select number of other engineering and natural sciences graduate and undergraduate seniors. (utexas.edu)
  • So far this "human" like milk has only been given to "the toddler equivalent" of pigs, who have indeed shown an increased resistance to illness after drinking the human-goat milk. (inhabitat.com)
  • Should human babies get "breast milk" from a goat or should we leave the goat's milk for baby goats and breastfeed human babies ? (inhabitat.com)