A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A characteristic symptom complex.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
A coordinated international effort to identify and catalog patterns of linked variations (HAPLOTYPES) found in the human genome across the entire human population.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.
"Ripped Genes: Let's Talk Orphan Diseases". Medium. Human Disease Database. "Hypotrichosis-Lymphedema-Telangiectasia-Renal ... "The Benefits of Disease". Oprah. "Featured Profile: Dr. Sharon Moalem". CPBN. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. " ... "This App Will Soon Detect Your Genetic Diseases - Based Only on a Picture". MIC. Love, Dylan. "A Doctor Is Building A Powerful ... "Why we need disease". Today. Velasquez-Manoff, Moises (May 1, 2014). "Gene Persuasion". Scientific American. 25 (3): 72. doi: ...
"Human disease genes". Nature. 409 (6822): 853-855. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..853J. doi:10.1038/35057050. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID ... the American Society of Human Genetics, USA (1997), the Latin American Society of Human Genetics, USA (1990), the Society for ... Along with David Valle and Barton Childs, he completed the first medical analysis of the human genome. He was founder and ... He obtained a PhD in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology at Johns Hopkins University. His postgraduate training included ...
"human genetic disease". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2015-10-13. Retrieved 2015-10-16. Chial, Heidi ( ... Autosomal recessive diseases, however, require two copies of the deleterious allele for the disease to manifest. Because it is ... For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes ... All human autosomes have been identified and mapped by extracting the chromosomes from a cell arrested in metaphase or ...
Goh KI, Cusick ME, Valle D, Childs B, Vidal M, Barabási AL (May 2007). "The human disease network". Proceedings of the National ... These models are now used in network analysis, to classify human diseases into groups that share common proteins or metabolites ... Human metabolism Topics in Medical Biochemistry Guide to human metabolic pathways. School level. THE Medical Biochemistry Page ... "The implications of human metabolic network topology for disease comorbidity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Ribes, J. A.; Vanover-Sams, C. L.; Baker, D. J. (1 April 2000). "Zygomycetes in human disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. ... due to similar disease manifestation in human: cutaneous or subcutaneous infections. Infections involving these two species (S ... but can also cause primary sinusitis and rhinocerebral disease. Cutaneous diseases by S. vasiformis present red blisters. with ... The first human infection by S. vasiformis was reported in 1976 in a 19-year-old male with cranial and facial wounds incurred ...
Saksena, S; Emr, SD (Feb 2009). "ESCRTs and human disease". Biochemical Society Transactions. 37 (Pt 1): 167-72. doi:10.1042/ ... Takikita, S; Myerowitz, R; Zaal, K; Raben, N; Plotz, PH (Apr 2009). "Murine muscle cell models for Pompe disease and their use ...
Involvement of mediator in various human diseases has been reviewed. Since inhibiting one interaction of a disease-causing ... Spaeth JM, Kim NH, Boyer TG (2011). "Mediator and human disease". Semin Cell Dev Biol. 22 (7): 776-87. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb. ... Napoli C, Sessa M, Infante T, Casamassimi A (2012). "Unraveling framework of the ancestral Mediator complex in human diseases ... and are prevented by mutations in MED12 that produce the human disease FG syndrome. Thus, the structure of a mediator complex ...
Wiser, Mark (2010). Protozoa and Human Disease. Garland Science. p. 60. ISBN 9781136738166. Archived from the original on 2016- ... The human genital tract is the only reservoir for this species. Trichomonas is transmitted through sexual or genital contact. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, and TB. Division of STD Prevention. ... People who are infected may spread the disease even when symptoms are not present. Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in the ...
Muller R. & Wakelin D. (2002). Worms and human disease. CABI. page 43-44. Sripa, B. (2008). Loukas, Alex (ed.). "Concerted ... In the lower Mekong River basin, the disease is highly endemic, and more so in lowlands, with a prevalence up to 60% in some ... In humans, the onset of cholangiocarcinoma occurs with chronic opisthorchiasis, associated with hepatobiliary damage, ... "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans". monographs.iarc.fr. Retrieved 17 July 2017. Young, ND; ...
Ribes, JA; Vanover-Sams, CL; Baker, DJ (200). "Zygomycetes in Human Disease". Clin Microbiol Rev. 13 (2): 236-301. doi:10.1128/ ... Liu, D (2011). Molecular detection of human fungal pathogens (1st ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 9781439812419.. ...
ISBN 0-521-45393-3. Strauss, Ellen G.; Strauss, James H. (2008). Viruses and Human Disease. Boston, MA: Elsevier / Academic ... Exotic ungulate encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, identified in infected ...
Humans are considered an accidental host, as the parasite can survive without humans. It causes a helminthic disease called ... ISBN 978-1-4398-1242-6. Müller R, Wakelin D (2001). Worms and Human Disease. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. pp. 55-56. ISBN ... Humans are now considered as the accidental host because humans are not the primary requirement for the life cycle; pigs are ... It is a parasite of a variety of vertebrates, including humans. The first definitive specimen was described from a human ...
H., Strauss, James (2008). Viruses and human disease. Strauss, Ellen G. (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier / Academic Press. ISBN ... Examples are human antibodies F10, FI6, CR6261. They recognize sites in the stem/stalk region (orange region in figure at right ... A highly pathogenic avian flu virus of H5N1 type has been found to infect humans at a low rate. It has been reported that ... The first three hemagglutinins, H1, H2, and H3, are found in human influenza viruses. By phylogenic similarity, the HA proteins ...
Diez-Roux G, Ballabio A (2005). "Sulfatases and human disease". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6: 355-79. doi: ... In humans, mutations in SUMF1 result in defects in FGE, which in turn causes the impairment of sulfatases. The result is a ... This disease can be further differentiated into neonatal, late infantile, and juvenile, with neonatal being the most severe. ... The aerobic enzyme has a structure homologous to the complex alpha/beta topology found in the gene product of human sulfatase- ...
"Zygomycetes in Human Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (2): 236-301. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.2.236. PMC 100153. PMID ... However, Apophysomyces elegans and Apophysomyces trapeziformis are able to cause mucormycosis, in humans, which is often fatal ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 19 (2): 329-31. doi:10.1093/clinids/19.2.329. PMID 7986910. Image of Apophysomyces sp. ... International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (12): e1240-e1242. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.06.008. ISSN 1201-9712. PMID ...
"WHO , Genes and human disease". Who.int. 2010-12-07. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 2013-01-23. Russell P ... Although technically a rare disease, CF is ranked as one of the most widespread life-shortening genetic diseases. It is most ... Other common autosomal recessive diseases such as sickle-cell anemia have been found to protect carriers from other diseases, ... a coagulation evaluation may be warranted to determine whether an underlying disease is present. Lung disease results from ...
... and Human Disease". In Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel; Roland K. O. Sigel (eds.). Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions ... chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses. In the ... The human rhinovirus - the most common viral pathogen in humans - is the predominant cause of the common cold. The hypothesized ... In humans, the biological roles of zinc are ubiquitous. It interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands", and has roles in ...
Numerous new hantaviruses have been detected by RT-PCR in rodent tissues but have yet to be associated with human disease. ... Strauss, Ellen G.; Strauss, James H. (2002). Viruses and human disease. Boston: Academic Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-12-673050-0 ... Black Creek Canal virus was isolated from S. hispidus collected near the residence of a human case in Dade County, Florida. ... peak incidences for HCPS have been reported in regions in which there is a lot of contact between humans and mice (New Mexico, ...
Staphylococci in human disease. Ed. Gordon Archer. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. LPSN Type strain of Salinicoccus ...
Human disease is amicrofilaremic. Infections in humans usually manifest as a single subcutaneous nodule, which is caused by a ... Although humans may become infected as aberrant hosts, the worms fail to reach adulthood while infecting a human body. It is ... Adult worms are 1-2 mm in diameter (females are 25-30 cm in length, the males being shorter). Humans are accidental hosts ... In terms of surgical care, excision of lesions and affected areas is the treatment of choice for patients with human ...
Viruses and Human Disease. Elsevier. pp. 345-368. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-373741-0.50012-x. ISBN 978-0-12-373741-0. TaxoProp ... Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus, particularly for higher plants and animals. In 2019, the ICTV published a ... Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory ... and the type of disease they cause. The formal taxonomic classification of viruses is the responsibility of the International ...
Retrieved 2 May 2012.[permanent dead link] Horowitz M, Zimran A (1994). "Mutations causing Gaucher disease". Human Mutation. 3 ... Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene cause Gaucher's disease, a lysosomal storage disease characterized by an accumulation ... "Mutation analysis and genotype/phenotype relationships of Gaucher disease patients in Spain". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5 ... "Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations in patients with type 2 Gaucher disease". Human Mutation (Submitted manuscript). 15 (2): 181- ...
MalaCards Human Disease Database. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Silfeler, Dilek. "Malouf Syndrome with Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism ... This disease is named after J. Malouf, who performed a case study on a family suffering from this disease in 1985.[citation ... Malouf noted that this disease may be familial as the two sisters were children of first degree cousins. In 1992, Kouji ... Diagnosis of this syndrome is sometimes conflicting as the symptoms displayed match that of other diseases such as limb girdle ...
Ribes, J. A.; Vanover-Sams, C. L.; Baker, D. J. (2000). "Zygomycetes in Human Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (2): ... with the former causing far more disease than the latter. These diseases are known as "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis ... Nagao K, Ota T, Tanikawa A, Takae Y, Mori T, Udagawa S, Nishikawa T. Genetic identification and detection of human pathogenic ... It is one of the most rapidly spreading fungal infections in humans. Treatment consists of prompt and intensive antifungal drug ...
Tollefsbol, T. (ed.) Epigenetics in Human Disease. Kidlington, GB, Academic Press, 297-320. 2011 Lillycrop, Karen A., Hanson, ... focused on the influence of early life environment on the epigenetic regulation of genes and the development of human disease. ... Roach, Helmtrud I., Bronner, Felix and Oreffo, Richard O.C. (eds.) Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases. Heidelberg, DE, ... 2007: Nick Hales Award for outstanding contribution to the developmental origins of health and disease. "Karen A Lillycrop". ...
Pathobiology of Human Disease. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 2003-2013. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-386456-7.04408-7. ISBN 978-0-12- ... Human PNPLA2 genome location and PNPLA2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. v t e v t e. ... June 2020). "Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Is a Key Lipase for the Mobilization of Lipid Droplets in Human β-Cells and Critical ... Mairal A, Langin D, Arner P, Hoffstedt J (July 2006). "Human adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is not regulated by obesity ...
Tamm, R. (2010). "Novel human pathological mutations. Gene symbol: SPAST. Disease: Hereditary spastic paraplegia". Human ... In a June 2012 interview she said that more work is needed to map out the human genetic structure, but much has been done ... Tamm is a board member of the Estonian Society of Human Genetics (Eesti Inimesegeneetika Ühing) and the Estonian Association of ... Genetic information may help to determine risk of certain diseases, and may be useful in determining appropriate drug ...
Disease: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome". Human Genetics. 124 (3): 300. doi:10.1007/s00439-008-0551-3. PMID 18846624. Sanchez-Cespedes ... "The LKB1 tumor suppressor kinase in human disease". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 1775 (1): 63-75. ... Testosterone and DHT treatment of murine 3T3-L1 or human SGBS adipocytes for 24 h significantly decreased the mRNA expression ... Sanchez-Cespedes M (December 2007). "A role for LKB1 gene in human cancer beyond the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome". Oncogene. 26 (57 ...
Deroo, B. J.; Korach, K. S. (1 March 2006). "Estrogen receptors and human disease". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116 (3 ... causing the monitoring of ER activity an essential variable in disease and treatment progression. In 2002, 6 cases of breast ...
Heaney ML1, Golde DW (1998). "Soluble receptors in human disease". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 64 (2): 135-146. PMID 9715251 ...
For instance, human beings seem to have an enormous capacity for memorizing and recognizing faces. One of the key goals of ... Adaszewski S1, Dukart J, Kherif F, Frackowiak R, Draganski B; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2013). "How early ... The Computational Representational Understanding of Mind (CRUM) is another attempt at modeling human cognition through ... Budapest Reference Connectome, web based 3D visualization tool to browse connections in the human brain ...
Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease.. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4 (1): 20- ... Mitochondrial DNA and human history. The Human Genome. 2003-10-09 [2006-09-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-07) (英语).. ... 大多數的基因是存在細胞核中,但是細胞中一個稱為粒線體的胞器,也擁有自己的基因組。粒線體基因組在粒線體疾病(mitochondrial disease)中具有一
The essential idea in Patterns of Culture is, according to the foreword by Margaret Mead, "her view of human cultures as ' ... Fulton loved his work and research, it eventually led to his premature death, as he acquired an unknown disease during one of ... And the writers explicate, in section after section, the best evidence they knew for human equality. They want to encourage all ... "the great arc of human potentialities" only a few characteristics which become the leading personality traits of the persons ...
Role in disease[edit]. Plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia and plasma cell leukemia are malignant ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology) (v. 67). S. Karger AG ( ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases" *↑ The Australia Group. "List of Biological ... US Department of Health and Human Services. "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition" ... "Ebola virus disease" , *↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 M. P. Kiley, E. T. Bowen, G. A. Eddy, M. Isaäcson, K. M. Johnson, J. B. McCormick, F. A. ... US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select ...
... s have a good nose and can learn to track either animal or human scent. Many Irish Terriers enjoy Lure Coursing, ... In the 1960s and 1970s there were problems with hyperkeratosis, a disease causing corny pads and severe pain. Today it is ... widely known which dogs carried the disease and respectable breeders do not use those bloodlines any more. A health study ...
This species is always found near humans. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ... Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they also carry disease-causing organisms. Flies are not only an irritant to farm ...
October 2006). "Human pharmacology of the methamphetamine stereoisomers". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 80 (4): 403-20. doi:10.1016/j. ... a therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease?". BioEssays. 26 (1): 80-90. doi:10.1002/bies.10378. PMID 14696044.. ... Mendelson J, Uemura N, Harris D, Nath RP, Fernandez E, Jacob P, Everhart ET, Jones RT (October 2006). "Human pharmacology of ... "CFR TITLE 21: DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE: PART 341 -- COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER- ...
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... "Twin Research and Human Genetics. 18 (6): 762-771. doi:10.1017/thg.2015.83. ISSN 1832-4274. PMID 26678054.. ... Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22] ... two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower ...
Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Borna Disease Virus, das Virus der Bornaschen Krankheit, mit Species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (Typus) u. a. ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ... Genus Mastadenovirus (mit den Species Human mastadenovirus (Humane Adenoviren) A bis G) ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] ... "The antiparkinsonian drug budipine binds to NMDA and sigma receptors in postmortem human brain tissue". J. Neural Transm. Suppl ... H. Przuntek; T. Müller (1999). Clinical efficacy of budipine in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neural Transmission. ... "Budipine provides additional benefit in patients with Parkinson disease receiving a stable optimum dopaminergic drug regimen" ...
Life at the edge: the nuclear envelope and human disease. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2002, 3 (8): 575-85. PMID 12154369. doi: ... Human laminopathies: nuclei gone genetically awry. Nat. Rev. Genet. December 2006, 7 (12): 940-52. PMID 17139325. doi:10.1038/ ... Dense Deposit Disease/Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Type II. 19 May 2011. PMID 20301598. NBK1425.. In GeneReviews ... Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ...
Consequently, the company decided that it was safe to start human trials on September of the same year.[11] ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease.[10] ... proved that indinavir was a clinically efficient drug based on data from human trials. They were able to show that indinavir, ... It significantly increased life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of ...
of Health and Human Services (US HHS). May 2002. Archived from the original on 2005-12-08. Retrieved 2006-07-11.. Cite journal ... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... A belief that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people cures similar symptoms in sick people.[n 8] ... Treatments for severe diseases such as cancer and HIV infection have well-known, significant side-effects. Even low-risk ...
MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July 2009). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases". Dev. Cell. 17 (1): 9- ... Hirohashi S, Kanai Y (July 2003). "Cell adhesion system and human cancer morphogenesis". Cancer Sci. 94 (7): 575-81. doi: ... human prostate cancer cells). As a result, it is possible that the EMT associated with upregulated HIF-1α is controlled by ... may help prevent clinical recurrence of the disease after surgery, but much more work is needed before an adequate treatment ...
Multifactorially inherited diseases are said to constitute the majority of genetic disorders affecting humans which will result ... Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritance[edit]. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... If it is shown that the brothers and sisters of the patient have the disease, then there is a strong chance that the disease is ... then the chance of the patient contracting the disease is reduced only if cousins and more distant relatives have the disease.[ ...
The marsh environment meant that certain diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, were endemic;[12] Maʻdānī agriculture ... Human rights *in pre-Saddam Iraq. *in Saddam Hussein's Iraq. *in post-invasion Iraq *in ISIL-controlled territory ...
... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, and severe burns; patients who have "cachexia" in these disease settings ... In humans, prolonged periods of immobilization, as in the cases of bed rest or astronauts flying in space, are known to result ... There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy, including activity, as seen ... Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD ( ...
The institute is also the first develop a test to detect chromosome translocations in human embryos to increase the success ... the 3rd highest score in New Jersey for Kidney disease; and the 4th highest score in New Jersey for Cancer, Gynecology, and ... Human cloning is a long way off, but bioengineered kids are already here, Washington Monthly, March 2002 - accessed July 11, ... issues in this field including a possibility that a child may have genes from more than two adults and the usage of human ...
"Maiden Japan Licenses Maria Watches Over Us, Hataraki Man, Basquash!, Yumeiro Pâtissière, Votoms, Ideon, Xabungle, Human ... Young Disease Outburst Boy (2019). *The Seven Deadly Sins: Wrath of the Gods (2019-2020) ...
Diseases and symptoms[edit]. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever ... As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century ... 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. *^ "Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper--2012" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 87 ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... 2009). "Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling". Gut. 58 (8): 1078- ... 2008). "Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome". Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp. ... "MN1, a novel player in human AML". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID ...
2009). «Human tropoelastin sequence: dynamics of polypeptide coded by exon 6 in solution». Biopolymers. 91 (11): 943-52. PMID ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... Coolen NA, Schouten KC, Middelkoop E, Ulrich MM (2010). «Comparison between human fetal and adult skin». Arch. Dermatol. Res. ... 2009). «Soluble elastin decreases in the progress of atheroma formation in human aorta». Circ. J. 73 (11): 2154-62. PMID ...
Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... PET technology can be used to trace the biologic pathway of any compound in living humans (and many other species as well), ... The development of a number of novel probes for noninvasive, in vivo PET imaging of neuroaggregate in human brain has brought ... PET is also an important research tool to map normal human brain and heart function, and support drug development. ...
Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... 2001). Immunobiology 5: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland Pub., ISBN 0-8153-3642-X ... of thought that believes that there are different genetic loci for different ethnicities for the same inflammatory disease.[16] ...
Pests and diseases[edit]. The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the ... A related species, Lathyrus sativus, is grown for human consumption but when it forms a major part of the diet it causes ...
... is not thought to cause disease in humans, but has caused disease in other primates.[44][45] All five viruses are closely ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... human consumption of bushmeat has been linked to animal-to-human transmission of diseases, including Ebola.[80] ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ...
The CRH test uses recombinant human or bovine-sequence CRH, which is administered via a 100μg intravenous bolus dose. The ... The disease is often diagnosed 3-6 years after the onset of illness.[19] Several studies have shown that Cushing's disease is ... Cases of Cushing's disease are rare, and little epidemiological data is available on the disease. An 18-year study conducted on ... Cushing disease, tertiary or secondary hypercortisolism, tertiary or secondary hypercorticism, Itsenko-Cushing disease[1][2]. ...
What is clear is that Harappan society was not entirely peaceful, with the human skeletal remains demonstrating some of the ... with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of ... seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. ... "Infection, Disease, and Biosocial Processes at the End of the Indus Civilisation". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e84814. Bibcode:2013PLoSO ...
పాలీసిస్టిక్ అండాశయ వ్యాధి (Polycystic Ovary Disease or PCOD). *అండాశయం మడతపడటం (Ovarian torsion) ... Internal reproductive organs of human female లాటిన్ ovarium గ్రే'స్ subject #266 1254 ...
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But, anyone can get ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
Human Disease may refer to: Disease "Human Disease", a song by Slayer from Soundtrack to the Apocalypse "Human Disease", a song ... by Betty X from Dystopia This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Human Disease. If an internal link ...
... the human "disease phenome") with the complete list of disease genes (the "disease genome"), resulting in a global view of the ... of which 398 are associated with human diseases, representing 22% of all known human disease genes. This allows us to ... disease gene network;. HDN,. human disease network;. GO,. Gene Ontology;. OMIM,. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man;. PCC,. ... One strategy to explore the impact of this in utero essential segment of human disease is to consider human orthologs of mouse ...
... in a human disease network, two diseases are linked if they share at least one associated gene. A typical human disease network ... A human disease network is a network of human disorders and diseases with reference to their genetic origins or other features ... "Interactome networks and human disease." Cell 144.6 (2011): 986-998. Zhou, XueZhong, et al. "Human symptoms-disease network." ... built a symptom-based human disease network by mining biomedical literature database. A large-scale human disease network shows ...
Purchase Viruses and Human Disease - 1st Edition. E-Book. ISBN 9780080521688 ... Viruses and Human Disease 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... This is the first text to examine the connection between virology and human disease. It is also the first book to integrate ... Viruses and Human Disease is four-color throughout and contains clearly labeled figures and tables. ...
Cite this: Adrenarche: Physiology, Biochemistry and Human Disease - Medscape - Mar 01, 2004. ... The enzymatic activities of human CYP17 can also be regulated post-translationally through phosphorylation. Human CYP17 is ... In human beings there are two 3βHSDs: type 1 3βHSD is found in liver, skin, placenta and other peripheral tissues, and type 2 3 ... Human CYP17, as well as CYP17 from sheep, cow and other primates, executes the 17,20-lyase reaction efficiently only with 17α- ...
Mobius Disease Project 2012 MRSA Team JMRNJacob Couture, Matthew Downey, Rhiannon Reeder, Nick Seminerio ... MRSA - Mobius Human Disease Project 2012 * 1. Mobius Disease Project 2012 MRSA Team JMRNJacob Couture, Matthew Downey, Rhiannon ... This book provides details about the origin of the disease, how the disease affects the body in terms of spreading and symptoms ... 8. Human body interaction• The bacteria starts by colonizing the patients nostrils, and it will then take hold of open wounds ...
Understanding what causes a disease is the first step in understanding the entire abnormal course of disease. Sometimes it is ... Source for information on Human Disease Genes, Identification of: Genetics dictionary. ... Identification of In order to help treat human diseases, it is important to understand what causes them to occur. ... However, in other cases it is not nearly as easy to tell what is causing a disease, so scientists look for clues from a number ...
The human splicing code reveals new insights into the genetic determinants of disease. Science 347:1254806. doi: 10.1126/ ... Chabot B, Shkreta L (2016) Defective control of pre-messenger RNA splicing in human disease. J Cell Biol 212:13-27. doi: ... Padgett RA (2012) New connections between splicing and human disease. Trends Genet TIG 28:147-154. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.01. ... Dhir A, Buratti E (2010) Alternative splicing: role of pseudoexons in human disease and potential therapeutic strategies. FEBS ...
... Anne Halenius and Hartmut Hengel. Institute of Virology, University Medical ... N. R. Rose and I. R. Mackay, "Molecular mimicry: a critical look at exemplary instances in human diseases," Cellular and ... J. P. Pandey and E. C. LeRoy, "Human cytomegalovirus and the vasculopathies of autoimmune diseases (especially scleroderma), ... J. Han, S. B. Rho, J. Y. Lee et al., "Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 protein interacts with human CD1d (hCD1d) and down- ...
Parvovirus B19 is a virus that infects humans only. Infection with the virus can cause different signs and symptoms, depending ... Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Division of Viral ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Since parvovirus B19 only infects humans, a person cannot get the virus from a dog or cat. Also, dogs and cats cannot get ...
There are an increasing number of reports showing that mutations in the ATG genes were identified in various human diseases ... Here, we review the major advances in identification of mutations or polymorphisms of the ATG genes in human diseases. Current ... However, direct evidence of the connections between ATG gene dysfunction and human diseases has emerged only recently. ... such as neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. ...
Rough lessons can lessen the pull of human scent on a mosquito ... CRISPR/Cas9 can reverse multiple diseases in mice December 07, ...
The causes of disease: The search for the causes (etiologies) of human diseases goes back to antiquity. Hippocrates, a Greek ... In the development of a disease (pathogenesis) more is involved than merely exposure to a causative agent. A room full of ... Scientists have since continually searched for the causes of disease and, indeed, have discovered the causes of many. ... physician of the 4th and 5th centuries bce, is credited with being the first to adopt the concept that disease is not a ...
An example of a natural system that models a simple human disease is anemia in icefish. Note that the icefish (bottom panel) ... Evolutionary mutant models for human disease.. Albertson RC1, Cresko W, Detrich HW 3rd, Postlethwait JH. ... Although induced mutations in traditional laboratory animals have been valuable as models for human diseases, they have some ... These evolutionary adaptations model human diseases of decreased bone mineralization including osteopenia. An example of an ...
Autophagy and human disease: emerging themes.. Schneider JL1, Cuervo AM2. ... Scheme of organ-specific (left) and systemic (right) human diseases in which alterations in autophagy are discussed in this ... has been linked to a variety of human diseases. As the number of pathologies associated with defective autophagy increases, ... Red dot indicates primary autophagy defects and green dot autophagy changes secondary or reactive to disease. Mutations (m), ...
Human genetic disease - Autosomal dominant inheritance: A disease trait that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner can ... human disease: Diseases of genetic origin. Certain human diseases result from mutations in the genetic complement (genome) ... www.britannica.com/science/human-genetic-disease", "title": "Human genetic disease", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED LARGE ... Examples of autosomal dominant inheritance are common among human traits and diseases. More than 2,000 of these traits have ...
Contact , Emergency , Privacy , Regulations , Consumer Information , Disability Accommodations , Diversity, Jobs at UNF. If you are experiencing difficulty accessing information on the site due to a disability, visit our website accessibility page. ...
Pigs can breathe oxygen via their rectum, so humans probably can too ... Killer tomatoes attack human diseases. Health 28 June 2006 By Andy Coghlan ...
Human Diseases/Syndromes Beginning with "A" To see all annotations for a disease, click the disease name. OMIM ID. Human ... The current vocabulary contains human disease, syndrome, and condition terms from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM ... Alzheimer Disease, Familial Early-Onset, with Coexisting Amyloid and Prion Pathology OMIM:502500. Alzheimer Disease, ... Autoimmune Disease, Multisystem, Infantile-Onset, 1; ADMIO1 OMIM:617006. Autoimmune Disease, Multisystem, Infantile-Onset, 2; ...
Human Diseases/Syndromes Beginning with "G" To see all annotations for a disease, click the disease name. OMIM ID. Human ... The current vocabulary contains human disease, syndrome, and condition terms from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM ... Granulomatous Disease, Chronic, Autosomal Recessive, 1; CGD1 OMIM:233710. Granulomatous Disease, Chronic, Autosomal Recessive, ... Granulomatous Disease, Chronic, Autosomal Recessive, 3; CGD3 OMIM:233690. Granulomatous Disease, Chronic, Autosomal Recessive, ...
... scientists have been frustrated by their inability to figure out exactly how variations in genes promote disease.But the ... In the decade since the human genome was published, ... New human genome research aids understanding of disease. ... ENCODE project sheds light on human DNA and disease. September 5, 2012 ... Similarly, the "image" projected by the human genome -- the raw list of Ts and As and Cs and Gs in our DNA -- is a snapshot of ...
It can uniquely help us understand embryonic development, neurobiology, human disease and the basis of evolution," Lander said. ... said dog genetics could help narrow down the search for human disease genes. ... "The leading causes of death in dogs are a variety of cancers, and many of them are very similar biologically to human cancers ... "Its going to make the identification of many disease genes 50 times easier," Dr Eric Lander, a gene expert at the Broad ...
DynAges key aim was to initiate and support interdisciplinary research into disease in human aging focusing on tumors, cardio‐ ... Disease in Human Aging: Dynamics at the Level of Molecules, Individuals, and Society. ... Disease in Human Aging: Dynamics at the Level of Molecules, Individuals, and Society. ... vascular disease, musculo-skeletal diseases, and cognitive disorders/depression. To do that, DynAge provided start-up funding ...
Our current focus is on four age-related disease groups: tumors, cardio‐vascular disease, musculo-skeletal diseases, and ... DynAges key aim is to initiate and support interdisciplinary research into disease in human aging. To do that, DynAge provides ... Disease in Human Aging: Dynamics at the Level of Molecules, Individuals, and Society. ... Disease in Human Aging: Dynamics at the Level of Molecules, Individuals, and Society. ...
Fibroblast heterogeneity: implications for human disease Magnus D. Lynch et al. * Insights from human genetic studies of lung ... Furthermore, they are important for the study of human disease, since many studies have sought to infer disease mechanisms ... To understand the role that fibroblast subtypes play in human disease, markers that permit subtype identification in human ... Fibroblast heterogeneity: implications for human disease. Magnus D. Lynch1,2 and Fiona M. Watt1 1Kings College London Centre ...
This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans. Phylogenetic ... when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently ... WH-Human 1 coronavirus (and has also been referred to as 2019-nCoV). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome ( ... and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1-3. Despite intense research efforts, how, ...
... of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophil ... physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% ... This volume provides recent advances in Drosophila models for various human diseases, with each chapter providing a review of ... Starting with a review of Drosophilas value as a highly tractable model organism for studying human diseases, subsequent ...
"While the discovery of mutations in fly genes has been linked to human disease before, it has often taken many years to decades ... One such disease, Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia with frequent Leukoencephalopathy (ARSAL), had already been mapped to this ... "We found the same defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chains in the human cells, which produced a lot of reactive oxygen ... identify fly mutants with neurodegenerative phenotypes and that these mutants can assist in the identification of human disease ...
... a disease that also afflicts humans. Patients with this disease can develop a wide range of liver and kidney problems, as well ... The mouse enzyme serves as an easily studied model for the same disease in humans. "I found that this enzyme folds into a three ... Mouse models for the human disease of chronic hereditary tyrosinemia. ORNL researchers found that a nearby gene that is also ... so we would have a live mouse model of a disease that some humans have. In this way, interested researchers could assess the ...
  • A selection-based model explains the observed difference between essential and disease genes and also suggests that diseases caused by somatic mutations should not be peripheral, a prediction we confirm for cancer genes. (pnas.org)
  • Variations or mutations within a gene may themselves act to cause the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we review evidence from mRNA analysis and entire genomic sequencing indicating that pathogenic mutations can occur deep within the introns of over 75 disease-associated genes. (springer.com)
  • There are an increasing number of reports showing that mutations in the ATG genes were identified in various human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. (nature.com)
  • Here, we review the major advances in identification of mutations or polymorphisms of the ATG genes in human diseases. (nature.com)
  • Although induced mutations in traditional laboratory animals have been valuable as models for human diseases, they have some important limitations. (nih.gov)
  • If the type and mode of action of mutations favored by natural selection in wild populations are similar to those that contribute to human diseases, then studies in evolutionary mutant models have the potential to identify novel genetic factors and gene-by-environment interactions that affect human health and underlie human disease. (nih.gov)
  • In many genetic diseases, including those that are autosomal dominant, specific mutations associated with the same disease present in different families may be uniform, such that every affected individual carries exactly the same molecular defect ( allelic homogeneity), or they may be heterogeneous , such that tens or even hundreds of different mutations, all affecting the same gene, may be seen in the affected population ( allelic heterogeneity). (britannica.com)
  • A collaborative study by scientists at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) and the Montreal Neurological Institute of McGill University, and published March 20 in the online, open access journal PLoS Biology, has discovered that mutations in the same gene that encodes part of the vital machinery of the mitochondrion can cause neurodegenerative disorders in both fruit flies and humans. (redorbit.com)
  • While the discovery of mutations in fly genes has been linked to human disease before, it has often taken many years to decades to accomplish this," said Dr. Bellen. (redorbit.com)
  • Making mice with mutations is really the best way of trying to define gene function, whether it's a mouse gene or a human gene," says genetic engineer Andrew Smith of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and lead author of a report in Cell that describes the technique. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Mutations in the related DVL1 and DVL3 genes are known to cause Robinow syndrome, a rare inherited disorder in humans characterized by strikingly similar anatomical changes - a short, wide "babyface," short limbs and spinal deformities. (ucdavis.edu)
  • First, the discovery of functionally important mutations that are specific to the human lineage offers a new path towards medical benefits. (nih.gov)
  • 2009. The consequences of pathogenic mutations to the human prion protein. (prezi.com)
  • This process will also lead to making it possible to determine whether any humans with NCL have the same mutations in the corresponding human genes. (petsbest.com)
  • Importantly, genetic studies have revealed that mutations in some of these genes are associated with certain human diseases, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne Syndrome (CS), and Werner Syndrome (WS) ( Puzianowska-Kuznicka and Kuznicki, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Autoimmune diseases such as IPEX arise when Treg cells are defective or lacking, which can be due to mutations at the Foxp3 gene locus. (els.net)
  • The process of identifying these genes, called disease gene discovery, is important because it helps scientists to understand what is going wrong as a result of such diseases, called the disease pathogenesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, these experimental results do not directly demonstrate that defects in autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of human diseases. (nature.com)
  • In the development of a disease (pathogenesis) more is involved than merely exposure to a causative agent. (britannica.com)
  • Thus, in the pathogenesis of disease, the resistance, immunity, age, and nutritional state of the person exposed, as well as virulence or toxicity of the agent and the level of exposure, all play a role in determining whether disease develops. (britannica.com)
  • This review summarises the human polyomaviruses with particular emphasis on pathogenesis in those directly implicated in disease aetiology and the therapeutic options available for treatment in the immunocompromised host. (hindawi.com)
  • 12 ]. The increased incidence of JCV/PML in association with the HIV-1 pandemic and the emergence of BKV/BKVN in association with renal transplantation (and haemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients) highlighted the importance of the host immune system in the control of these latent infections and the pathogenesis of these diseases [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tractable and accurate disease models are essential for understanding disease pathogenesis and for developing new therapeutics. (nih.gov)
  • See 'Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology' . (uptodate.com)
  • Pathogenesis of prion diseases: current status andfuture outlook. (prezi.com)
  • However, in other cases it is not nearly as easy to tell what is causing a disease, so scientists look for clues from a number of different sources. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists have since continually searched for the causes of disease and, indeed, have discovered the causes of many. (britannica.com)
  • In the decade since the human genome was published, scientists have been frustrated by their inability to figure out exactly how variations in genes promote disease. (latimes.com)
  • Scientists working on the ENCODE project, which sought to delve deeper into DNA function, were able to show that there are millions of DNA segments in the genome that are involved in turning the 20,000 genes in the human genome on and off, Stamatoyannopoulos said. (latimes.com)
  • But the idea is that this type of analysis should one day help scientists understand how networks of genes and gene regulators work together to drive biology - and how failures in the system lead to disease, Schadt said. (latimes.com)
  • A detailed analysis of the dog genome answers these questions and will also shed light on human health and biology, scientists said on Wednesday. (redorbit.com)
  • The book provides a useful resource for all scientists who are starting to use the Drosophila model in their studies, and for researchers working in the pharmaceutical industry and using new screening models to develop new medicines for various diseases. (springer.com)
  • For example, some scientists are concerned that the technology could be used to engineer human embryos . (technologyreview.com)
  • Scientists have established a mouse model for human malignant mesothelioma (MM) that will provide valuable insight into cancer development and progression along with new directions for design of therapeutic strategies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists have discovered that a certain type of pathogen from human waste is infecting coral reefs. (zdnet.com)
  • More importantly, the tests proved what the scientists had long suspected: That bacteria from human waste as to blame for causing white pox disease in coral and now they had the genetic evidence to prove it. (zdnet.com)
  • Scientists know that pathogens spread from wildlife-to-humans like with bird flu and HIV, but this is the first time human microbes have been shown to be pathogenic to marine invertebrate. (zdnet.com)
  • Scientists suspect the disease is transmitted from human waste to snails to coral. (zdnet.com)
  • Scientists have long thought that animals in Antarctica were isolated from harmful human-linked bacteria, but a new study provides evidence that this is no longer the case. (cnn.com)
  • UCSF scientists have identified a cell population that is a primary target of the degenerative brain disease known as frontotemporal dementia, which is as common as Alzheimer's disease in patients who develop dementia before age 65. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Researchers in Sweden are compiling a remarkable 'atlas' that pinpoints the location of thousands of individual proteins in the body's tissues and cells which will give scientists important insights into the function of different proteins and how changes in the distribution of proteins could be reflected in diseases such as cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Innsbruck meeting brought together more than 450 scientists from across Europe to discuss recent advances in the role of functional genomics in disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • A human protein - called CyP40 - can untangle the neurodegenerative clumps that characterize Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, scientists reported Tuesday in the journal PLoS Biology. (pbs.org)
  • Going further, the scientists repeated this experiment, but replaced tau with one of two other proteins that tangle in neurodegenerative disease: alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and amyloid beta in Alzheimer's disease. (pbs.org)
  • The scientists postulate that genetic recombination between these 2 viruses generated XMRV while human prostate tumor cells were being grown in a mouse. (nih.gov)
  • The results published today are not what we would have expected, but due to the time and resources dedicated to the understanding of this virus by researchers at NCI and NIH as well as others, scientists can now concentrate on identifying the real causes of these diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The explanations have been varied but overlook simple molecules known to play critical roles in multiple organ systems through the chemical messenger NO. The dietary contributions to normal NO homeostasis would not only help explain significantly lower rates of cardiovascular disease in those who regularly consume fruits and vegetables, but also arm scientists and physicians with a relatively simple and inexpensive therapeutic intervention. (newswise.com)
  • The short answer: scientists don't know exactly how the microbiome influences the beginning and development of disease, but they know that it plays an important role. (ibm.com)
  • A long preclinical phase followed by progressive disease is also exactly what researchers observe in humans, and will allow scientists to monitor treatment effects, Marsala said. (alzforum.org)
  • This form of the disease was once found mainly in primates called macaques, and scientists from the London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene wondered why there was a sudden spike in human cases. (truthout.org)
  • The research work is urgent - land development is rapidly taking place across regions with high biodiversity, and the greater the number of species, the greater the number of diseases, scientists say. (truthout.org)
  • Metabolism of Human Diseases " is a must-have, state-of-the-art textbook written by International experts for graduate students, postdocs and scientists in metabolic research, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacy as well as for physicians interested in molecular mechanisms underlying common human diseases. (springer.com)
  • These exciting findings have encouraged scientists to research mechanisms of the age-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 and the International HapMap Project in 2005, researchers now have a powerful set of research tools, including the high-speed DNA sequencing technology that make it possible to identify the genetic contributions to specific diseases, even if they are rare. (nature.com)
  • ORNL researchers found that a nearby gene that is also knocked out by irradiation causes chronic hereditary tyrosinemia in mice, a disease that also afflicts humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Georgia have discovered genetic evidence that points to human waste as the source of the pathogen that is killing coral. (zdnet.com)
  • For nearly a decade, researchers suspected human waste was the source to blame, but have never been able to prove it until now. (zdnet.com)
  • To be sure, researchers at the University of Georgia collected human samples from a wastewater treatment facility in Key West and compared it strains found in other animals such as cats and seagulls. (zdnet.com)
  • Now, however, researchers have found widespread evidence of human-linked pathogens among Antarctic seabirds for the first time -- which they say could have devastating consequences for the continent's wildlife. (cnn.com)
  • Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. (rti.org)
  • Researchers have successfully reproduced a human blood disease in mice for the first time by precisely swapping out a larger-than-normal portion of the mouse genome for the equivalent human DNA. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers already knew how to trade a single mouse gene for its human counterpart to create a so-called transgenic mouse. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In addition, Smith says, there were no random insertions of human DNA into other locations, or insertions of multiple copies or fragments pointing the wrong direction-problems which typically occur when researchers insert big pieces of DNA into the mouse genome by other means. (scientificamerican.com)
  • HARTFORD, Conn. - Connecticut researchers are involved in a new and potentially important effort to break the cycle of infections among wild animals and ticks that leads to the transmission of Lyme disease to humans. (bostonherald.com)
  • In a recently published paper on the study, researchers reported a 26% drop in the number of Lyme disease-infected white-footed mice trapped at those Redding homes. (bostonherald.com)
  • When studying cancer, researchers often graft human tumors onto mice to create what are called xenografts. (nih.gov)
  • Now researchers at the University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine have found the genetic basis for these dogs' appearance, and linked it to a rare inherited syndrome in humans. (ucdavis.edu)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The human form of 'mad cow' disease is hard to diagnose early on, but UK researchers have put together a profile of symptoms that may help catch more cases sooner. (rense.com)
  • One way to get around the altered properties of the stranded cells is to populate mouse livers with human hepatocytes in the hope of creating a natural environment, which is exactly what researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies did. (scienceblog.com)
  • What if you could help researchers learn more about how the bacteria in and on our bodies play a role in diseases such as Type 1 diabetes? (ibm.com)
  • The project's goal is to study all the proteins (the building blocks of organisms) of the human microbiome, so that we and other researchers have a strong foundation to address these diseases. (ibm.com)
  • Researchers with the National Institutes of Health showed in 2011 that some Americans contract the disease from contact with armadillos . (popsci.com)
  • In the November 21 Neurobiology of Disease, researchers led by Cristiano Corona, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Turin, Italy, characterize the ALS-like signs and symptoms seen in pigs that express the mutant human SOD1 G93A transgene. (alzforum.org)
  • He sees this as especially promising for studies of gene therapy, where researchers can study methods of delivery and vector volume that resemble what humans require. (alzforum.org)
  • The most recent example came to light this month in the Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases, with researchers documenting a steep rise in human malaria cases in a region of Malaysian Borneo undergoing rapid deforestation. (truthout.org)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins have shown that transplanting human stem cells into spinal cords of rats bred to duplicate Lou Gehrig's disease delays the start of nerve cell damage typical of the disease and slightly prolongs life. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • As a comparison, the researchers injected rats with dead human stem cells, which would not affect disease progression. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In a study published in Scientific Reports , a team of international researchers led by University of Hawai'i (UH) at Mānoa postdoctoral fellow Jamie Caldwell used a statistical technique typically employed in human epidemiology to determine the ecological risk factors affecting the prevalence of two coral diseases--growth anomalies, abnormalities like coral tumors, and white syndromes, infectious diseases similar to flesh-eating bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • Though important to understand, it has been a challenge for researchers to study how those diseases are transmitted because of low rates of occurrence. (news-medical.net)
  • A team of researchers spoke to News-Medical about their latest research investigating whether micro and nanoplastics are accumulating in human tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • The shorter life span of a dog allows researchers to conduct their studies much faster than with people, and the similarity of the disease will allow for better and faster results for humans. (petsbest.com)
  • It may seem obvious that to study the genetics of a disease such as epilepsy (seizures), families with seizure sufferers should be studied. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Elaine Ostrander, chief of cancer genetics at the National Human Genome Research Institute, said dog genetics could help narrow down the search for human disease genes. (redorbit.com)
  • Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. (rti.org)
  • When not conducting critical research, or making significant discoveries for N-O, you can find him at Baylor College of Medicine in the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics where he is an Adjunct Assistant Professor. (newswise.com)
  • These genetic changes not only have major implications for understanding the evolution of Antarctica's unusual animals, but also highlight that some key adaptations used by fishes mirror the genetics of human bone diseases such as osteoporosis. (enn.com)
  • It is basically impossible to grow human hepatocytes in the lab, which was a big hurdle for the study of viruses such as hepatitis A and hepatitis B," says senior author Inder Verma, Ph.D., a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics. (scienceblog.com)
  • A similar matter of recent debate is if and how infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), another human herpes virus, could be linked with certain autoimmune diseases and how both conditions could interfere with each other. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversely, anti-inflammatory activities known to be associated with HCMV infection could also exert protective effects on the course of autoimmune diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The U.S. National Institutes of Health registers 3253 gene therapy studies worldwide, enrolling tens of thousands of subjects, mostly dying from incurable diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases (AIDS), and viral infections. (scirp.org)
  • Epigenetic abnormalities have been found to be causative factors in cancer, genetic disorders and pediatric syndromes as well as contributing factors in autoimmune diseases and aging. (cmaj.ca)
  • Various autoimmune diseases such as IPEX occur when Treg‐cell function or numbers are abrogated. (els.net)
  • Intracellular pathogens long associated with inflammatory disease are able to slow the innate immune response by dysregulating activity of the VDR nuclear receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory disease allow pathogens driving these processes to spread with greater ease. (nih.gov)
  • Other common respiratory pathogens, including human adenoviruses, also tested negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR) (Extended Data Fig. 2 ). (nature.com)
  • This means that sooner or later human activity will introduce pathogens to Antarctic fauna that could cause mass deaths and even local extinctions," González-Solís said. (cnn.com)
  • To prevent the arrival of pathogens, stricter biosecurity measures will be necessary in order to limit the impact of humans in Antarctica," Cerdà-Cuéllar said. (cnn.com)
  • According to Jonas Bonnedahl, lecturer in clinical sciences in the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine at Sweden's Linköping University, humans have spread pathogens in the Antarctic that have, on rare occasions, spread to wildlife. (cnn.com)
  • 10. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Human Bacterial Pathogens. (routledge.com)
  • Sexually Transmissible Viral Pathogens: The Human Papillomaviruses and Herpes Simplex Viruses. (routledge.com)
  • Mosquitoes are not the only carriers of pathogens from the wild to humans. (truthout.org)
  • Throughout human history pathogens have emerged from forests. (truthout.org)
  • The same strain of bacteria causes white pox disease of Caribbean elkhorn coral, which is an infection that makes white blotches form on the coral's tissue, leaving the skeleton exposed. (zdnet.com)
  • Bacteria from humans kill corals -- that's the bad news. (zdnet.com)
  • Parasitic bacteria that are entirely dependent on the other bacteria they infect have been discovered for the first time, in human spit. (newscientist.com)
  • Actinomyces bacteria are known to contribute to gum disease, but are usually kept under control by white blood cells called macrophages, which engulf and destroy them. (newscientist.com)
  • McLean says he has evidence that when these bacteria are infected with the parasite, they can evade these macrophages and make gum disease worse. (newscientist.com)
  • Previous studies had found scattered instances of transmission of bacteria from humans to animals, known as reverse zoonosis, in the region, but research remained fragmented. (cnn.com)
  • I also think it is fair to say that it is the permanent research bases that have to be blamed here, rather than the tourism industry," Bonnedahl, who has researched human-linked bacteria in the Antarctic and was not involved in the study, wrote in an email. (cnn.com)
  • The key is finding a way to give a specially developed vaccine to white-footed or deer mice, carriers that are one of the major ways that Lyme disease bacteria get into the ticks that eventually infect humans. (bostonherald.com)
  • The intent of the Redding field trial was to "target the rodent reservoir (of Lyme disease bacteria) to reduce tick infections," said Scott Williams, an agricultural scientist at the experiment station and one of the co-authors of the paper. (bostonherald.com)
  • And that bacteria, in dogs, horses and humans, can cause Lyme disease, a serious affliction that can be permanently debilitating for people when it's not treated early and well. (freep.com)
  • Currently with the development of multi-drug resistant bacteria, a renewed interest in bacteriophage research has again emerged with emphasis not only on its antibacterial properties, but on its potential role in treating malignant diseases. (bartleby.com)
  • In the article below, the project's principal investigators - Dr. Rob Knight, Dr. Ramnik Xavier, and Dr. Rich Bonneau - explain the importance of this first of its kind, large-scale, comprehensive study of the bacteria within the human microbiome. (ibm.com)
  • The human microbiome is a collection of all of the microbes - including bacteria - that live inside our bodies and all of the genes that they have. (ibm.com)
  • The bacteria in the microbiome are usually beneficial to humans. (ibm.com)
  • One example in Alzheimer's disease is tau protein, an often overshadowed counterpart to the more heavily studied amyloid beta protein. (pbs.org)
  • In this study, mice genetically modified to display features of Alzheimer's disease showed fewer tau tangles and improved memory after gene therapy with CyP40. (pbs.org)
  • In Alzheimer's disease, nerve cells lose their connectivity with each other due to the buildup of amyloid plagues made of cleaved amyloid beta protein and neurofibrillary tangles made of tau protein. (pbs.org)
  • For example, while the mouse model mimics Alzheimer's disease, the rodents produce a different form of tau, compared to what's found in the human disease. (pbs.org)
  • Gene therapy that increases the levels of an enzyme called CyP40 can reduce toxic tangles of tau protein in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (right panel versus control condition in left panel). (pbs.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a common type of dementia where the brain tissue degenerates. (brighthub.com)
  • The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is unknown at the present time, but it is strongly suspected that there are several factors involved such as age, inherited genes, diet, overall health, and environmental factors. (brighthub.com)
  • Genes that are thought to be involved in the cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease include presenilin-1 and the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21. (brighthub.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is rare in younger people, but the risk does increase with age. (brighthub.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells. (brighthub.com)
  • Is Alzheimer's Disease a Uniquely Human Disorder? (alzforum.org)
  • Does only Homo sapiens get Alzheimer's disease? (alzforum.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease is defined clinically by progressively debilitating, multidomain cognitive impairments, and pathologically by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • However, neurofibrillary tangles are rare to nonexistent, and profound Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral dysfunction has never been linked to plaques and tangles in any species but humans. (alzforum.org)
  • Finally, the panelists considered experimental strategies for addressing issues that might reveal uniquely human risk factors, or uniquely nonhuman protective factors, for Alzheimer's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • What can we learn about Alzheimer's disease from nonhuman animals that we cannot learn from human samples? (alzforum.org)
  • Nonhuman species can tell us what isn't Alzheimer's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • For example, we can never be sure that non-demented humans with abundant Aβ plaques in the brain at death were not on the path to Alzheimer's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Additionally, some human disease networks use other features such as symptoms and proteins to associate diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human symptoms-disease network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, they may modify the risk of developing the disease or modify how it is expressed (i.e., what the symptoms are). (encyclopedia.com)
  • When humans contract swine flu , the symptoms resemble other flu infections, according to Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD , an emergency medicine doctor. (medicinenet.com)
  • At issue is both how to test for the tick-borne disease and how to treat it, especially in patients suffering long-term symptoms like fatigue, arthritis and cognitive problems with memory and concentration. (bostonherald.com)
  • They say that early on, the brain-wasting condition, known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), is largely one of anxiety, depression and other psychiatric symptoms. (rense.com)
  • And although the disease is invariably fatal, experts say it is important to understand the common early symptoms. (rense.com)
  • To put together a picture of early vCJD symptoms, a team led by Dr. Robert G. Will, of the National CJD Surveillance Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland, reviewed the medical records of the first 100 people diagnosed with the disease in the UK. (rense.com)
  • Symptoms like depression, however, or obesity, are ailments animals can contract on their own (or with some help from humans). (popsci.com)
  • A pig model for ALS develops progressive motor neuron disease after more than two years without symptoms. (alzforum.org)
  • Adult rats not yet showing symptoms were injected in the lower spine with human neural stem cells - cells that can in theory become any type found in the nervous system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Disease course is less than 2 years from the onset of symptoms. (prezi.com)
  • Disease course is months to years from the onset of symptoms. (prezi.com)
  • Disease course is 15 months from the onset of symptoms. (prezi.com)
  • The strategy is to first look for highly significant temporal correlations potentially linking a chemical to a disease or a set of symptoms, and to follow this up with a perusal of the research literature characterizing the disease on the one hand and the toxic effects of the chemical on the other hand. (mit.edu)
  • Statistical analyses of word frequencies within these databases can reveal interesting associations between vaccines and/or drugs and/or agrichemicals and specific symptoms and/or diseases. (mit.edu)
  • According to Dr. Martin Katz, professor of ophthalmology with a dual appointment in the School of Medicine and the College of Veterinary Medicine, human NCL often goes misdiagnosed due to its rarity and symptoms that are similar to other diseases. (petsbest.com)
  • Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28− T-cells in RA patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we propose a complementary approach to discover genes and mechanisms that might contribute to human disorders: the analysis of evolutionary mutant models in which adaptive phenotypes mimic maladaptive human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The general mechanisms of disease as well as specific body systems will be discussed from a human- interest point of view. (merrimack.edu)
  • Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease, Second Edition describes the mechanisms of polyphenol antioxidant activities and their use in disease prevention. (elsevier.com)
  • Analyse human adaptive and compensatory physiological mechanisms affected by specific pathological conditions. (edu.au)
  • Analyse some of the ways in which human adaptive and compensatory physiological mechanisms are affected by specific pathological conditions. (edu.au)
  • This world-shattering new science presented from basic mechanisms to randomized controlled clinical trials in humans can no longer be ignored by health care practitioners. (newswise.com)
  • We use this natural variation to better understand genetic mechanisms of disease. (enn.com)
  • In this review, we examine the basic principles of epigenetic mechanisms and their contribution to human health as well as the clinical consequences of epigenetic errors. (cmaj.ca)
  • This research project uses computer science techniques to integrate diverse sources of information in order to inform a theory on the biological mechanisms of autism and other diseases, and to uncover the causal relationships between environmental chemicals and these diseases. (mit.edu)
  • Autism is associated with a complex set of comorbidities, and this provides a rich context in which to explore plausible disease mechanisms. (mit.edu)
  • In order to assess the mechanisms of diseases, including cancer, which are caused by dysfunctions of helicases, several approaches could be applied. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pet dogs and cats can get infected with other parvoviruses that do not infect humans. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, 32 PyV species have been described, ten of which have been reported to infect humans (HPyVs), although not all of those have yet been definitively linked with disease [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ref. 18 ), a compendium of human disease genes and phenotypes. (pnas.org)
  • A dynamic network approach for the study of human phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, we have shown that you can use flies to identify fly mutants with neurodegenerative phenotypes and that these mutants can assist in the identification of human disease genes. (redorbit.com)
  • DynAge's key aim was to initiate and support interdisciplinary research into disease in human aging focusing on tumors, cardio‐vascular disease, musculo-skeletal diseases, and cognitive disorders/depression. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Our current focus is on four age-related disease groups: tumors, cardio‐vascular disease, musculo-skeletal diseases, and cognitive disorders/depression. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The mouse MM tumors, which could be followed noninvasively through the use of bioluminescence imaging, closely resembled human MM. Interestingly, Nf2;Ink4a/Arf knockout mice had a more invasive cancer when compared with Nf2;p53 knockout mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • HIV-related, classic endemic, and iatrogenic) and with two rare neoplastic conditions usually associated with HIV infection: body cavity-based lymphoma, also known as primary effusion lymphoma (a B-cell lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities such as the pleural space), and multicentric Castleman disease (non-cancerous tumors that may develop in lymph nodes in a single site or in multiple sites throughout the body). (nih.gov)
  • The exact mechanism by which HHV-8 infection leads to neoplastic disease has not been fully elucidated, but seroconversion to HHV-8 antibody positivity virtually always precedes development of the tumors. (nih.gov)
  • They also compared the dog genome to the already-completed maps of human genes, mice, rats and chimpanzees. (redorbit.com)
  • But people and mice with the disease lack a normally functioning protein (enzyme) to carry out one step of the tyrosine metabolism process, which involves a series of enzymes. (eurekalert.org)
  • So, unless people with this disease are put on a special tyrosine-free diet, a substance that is not broken down because of the absence of a normally functioning enzyme will build up to toxic levels in the liver and kidneys, a fatal condition in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mice with this disease die of poisoned livers," says ORNL biologist Dabney Johnson. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because mice entirely lacking this enzyme die right away, we exposed male mice to ENU to produce mice with this enzyme in crippled form, rather than entirely missing, so we would have a live mouse model of a disease that some humans have. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lab mice: Are they limiting our understanding of human disease? (slate.com)
  • The same held for mice that had been engineered to develop something like Parkinson's disease: Take away their food, and their brains stayed healthier. (slate.com)
  • Mice just got a little more human. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The technology, which exchanges both a gene and the region of the genome around it, may allow geneticists to overcome some of the current obstacles to studying human disease in mice. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Sure enough, although the genetic exchange happened rarely, when the resulting transgenic mice were again altered to mimic α-thalassemia they had the same changes in hemoglobin gene expression and red blood cell shape as people with the human disorder, the group reports. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fewer infected mice means fewer infections in the ticks that bite them and then later go on to bite humans. (bostonherald.com)
  • The virus appears to have infected the human tumor cells while they were in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Closely related murine leukemia viruses are known to cause cancers and other diseases in mice. (nih.gov)
  • They developed a simple system that allows them to transplant human hepatocytes into immunodeficient mice, which can now be used to test how drugs affect the liver. (scienceblog.com)
  • 2) Genetic engineering techniques in mice are revealing more about the progression of the disease and the consequences of therapeutic intervention . (brighthub.com)
  • All TSEs result in the gradual and irreversible degeneration of the brain and are fatal Basics Proteins Prion Diseases Mabbott et al. (prezi.com)
  • Diagnosing prion diseases: needs, challenges, and hopes. (prezi.com)
  • 1999. Investigation of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human prion diseases with tonsil biopsy samples. (prezi.com)
  • To do that, DynAge provided start-up funding in seven rounds for a total of 42 interdisciplinary and trans-institutional research projects that partnered up different perspectives on disease processes over the life-span: molecular, individual and societal perspectives. (fu-berlin.de)
  • To do that, DynAge provides start-up funding for research that partners up different perspectives on disease processes over the life-span: molecular, individual and societal perspectives. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Second, chimpanzee-human comparisons are likely to yield molecular insights into how new biological characteristics evolve--findings that might be relevant throughout the tree of life. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular Diagnostic Approaches in Infectious Disease. (routledge.com)
  • Premature and exaggerated adrenarche can be indicative of future onset of adult diseases, thus increasing the clinical relevance of adrenarche. (medscape.com)
  • We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. (hindawi.com)
  • However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. (hindawi.com)
  • He was admitted to and hospitalized in the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019, 6 days after the onset of disease. (nature.com)
  • On the first day of admission (day 6 after the onset of disease), chest radiographs were abnormal with air-space shadowing such as ground-glass opacities, focal consolidation and patchy consolidation in both lungs (Extended Data Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • A chest radiograph revealed a bilateral diffuse patchy and fuzzy shadow on day 5 after admission (day 11 after the onset of disease) (Extended Data Fig. 1e ). (nature.com)
  • MM is associated with asbestos exposure and is characterized by a long latency period between exposure and disease onset. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is an urgent need for experimental models of MM that can be used to not only study the onset and progression of the disease, but also to serve as a model to select new combination therapies and targeted agents," says study leader, Dr. Anton Berns, from The Netherlands Cancer Institute. (eurekalert.org)
  • The interval between the most likely period for the initial extended exposure of the population to potentially BSE-contaminated food (1984-1986) and the onset of initial variant CJD cases (1994-1996) is consistent with known incubation periods for the human forms of prion disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • He would have liked to see more animals available for characterization, to be sure they had a consistent disease onset at a specific time. (alzforum.org)
  • Weight loss, according to Koliatsos, indicates disease onset. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A network of disorders and disease genes linked by known disorder-gene associations offers a platform to explore in a single graph-theoretic framework all known phenotype and disease gene associations, indicating the common genetic origin of many diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Genes associated with similar disorders show both higher likelihood of physical interactions between their products and higher expression profiling similarity for their transcripts, supporting the existence of distinct disease-specific functional modules. (pnas.org)
  • Here we take a conceptually different approach, exploring whether human genetic disorders and the corresponding disease genes might be related to each other at a higher level of cellular and organismal organization. (pnas.org)
  • Given the highly interlinked internal organization of the cell ( 12 - 17 ), it should be possible to improve the single gene-single disorder approach by developing a conceptual framework to link systematically all genetic disorders (the human "disease phenome") with the complete list of disease genes (the "disease genome"), resulting in a global view of the "diseasome," the combined set of all known disorder/disease gene associations. (pnas.org)
  • One set corresponds to all known genetic disorders, whereas the other set corresponds to all known disease genes in the human genome ( Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although this history introduces some biases, and the disease gene record is far from complete, OMIM represents the most complete and up-to-date repository of all known disease genes and the disorders they confer. (pnas.org)
  • A human disease network is a network of human disorders and diseases with reference to their genetic origins or other features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in genes that encode mitochondrial proteins have been previously associated with human metabolic and neurological disorders. (redorbit.com)
  • Dr. Bayat, a recent graduate from the Program in Developmental Biology at BCM, searched the medical literature for genetic neurological disorders that were thought to be caused by defects in the region of our genome that contains the human version of the Aats-met gene, MARS2. (redorbit.com)
  • The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) is a nonprofit organization concerned with children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Parasite-infected dragonflies suffer the same metabolic disorders that have led to an epidemic of obesity and type-2 diabetes in humans, reveal the findings of research conducted at Penn State University that are due to be published in the 5 December 2006 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science and also in the PNAS early online edition at www.pnas.org on 21 November. (innovations-report.com)
  • The work raises a fascinating question about what role microbial communities found in human intestines may play in human metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, and obesity. (innovations-report.com)
  • Folate deficiency has been associated with various adverse health effects including megaloblastic anaemia, neural tube defects and other congenital disorders, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline, coronary heart disease, stroke and development of some cancers. (els.net)
  • Using the powerful mutagen ENU to alter a single DNA base pair in this gene, ORNL biologists recently produced two mouse models that more closely mimic the gene mutation that causes chronic hereditary tyrosinemia in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Investigators are also developing culturally appropriate approaches to prevent and treat obesity and related chronic diseases in both domestic and international at-risk populations based on this research. (jhsph.edu)
  • The broader context of research regarding nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide suggests these simple nitrogen oxides serve as a critical dietary component for protection against various chronic diseases. (newswise.com)
  • Can chronic wasting disease jump to humans? (jsonline.com)
  • A recent monkey study and a growing number of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases are raising concerns that chronic wasting disease could infect people. (jsonline.com)
  • Amid renewed concern about whether chronic wasting disease can jump from deer to people, a fatal human brain condition in the same family is showing up more often in Wisconsin and nationally. (jsonline.com)
  • The increase in Wisconsin comes as chronic wasting disease - which, like Creutzfeldt-Jakob, is caused by infectious agents known as prions - continues to spread among deer. (jsonline.com)
  • Charles Pickhardt of Madison prepares a deer for chronic wasting disease testing at a CWD sampling kiosk in Spring Green. (jsonline.com)
  • A study in Canada, where the deer disease also is present, found that macaque monkeys had contracted chronic wasting disease after being fed meat from deer that had tested positive for CWD. (jsonline.com)
  • Disturbances in FOXP3+ Treg‐cell development, homeostasis and/or function are thought to occur in many autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. (els.net)
  • We proposed to investigate subclinical cognitive impairment secondary to chronic Chagas' disease (CCD). (scielo.br)
  • The impairment in non-verbal reasoning, speed of information processing, problem solving, learning and sequencing observed in chronic Chagas disease patients resembles the cognitive dysfunction associated with white matter disease. (scielo.br)
  • 4. Genovese OM, Sanz OP, Correale J, Garcia Erro M, Sica REP. Cerebral evoked potentials in human chronic Chagas' disease. (scielo.br)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates the number of Lyme disease cases nationwide could be 10 times higher than what's actually reported. (freep.com)
  • In January, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said these cuddly, adorable creatures are harbingers of a deadly form of salmonella . (popsci.com)
  • In 2002, there were 260 cases, compared with 481 in 2015, an 85% increase, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (jsonline.com)
  • Autism has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, now affecting one in 36 children, according to the Centers for Disease Control. (mit.edu)
  • We have made use of multiple online databases readily available for download from the internet, and maintained by the US government, such as hospital discharge data provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the FDA's adverse event reporting system (FAERS) as well as their vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS). (mit.edu)
  • Applications are sought that will apply the Human Connectome data collection protocol to disease/disorder cohorts of interest to the Institutes and Centers that are participating in this FOA. (nih.gov)
  • Ataxias such as ARSAL are progressive neurodegenerative diseases that cause coordination problems, leading to modified gait and speech as well as other problems. (redorbit.com)
  • This suggests that disease genes also would play a central role in the human interactome. (pnas.org)
  • One such clue is having a disease run in families, which suggests that a disease might be caused by a gene or genes passed from parent to child, perhaps over many different generations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our research suggests that diseases may have played a more important role in the extinction of the Neanderthals than previously thought. (freerepublic.com)
  • My research suggests that this sounds a lot like another humans are evil project, just like European diseases supposedly wiped out Indians. (freerepublic.com)
  • However, the team found that these strains were resistant to commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, which suggests contamination from humans or domestic animals. (cnn.com)
  • Some evidence still suggests that these diseases may stem from viruses, but not from XMRV. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery expands the known taxonomic breadth of metabolic disease and suggests that the study of microbes found in human intestines may provide a greater understanding of the root causes of human metabolic dysfunction. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Max Planck Institute for Human Development was a collaborator from 2015 to 2017. (fu-berlin.de)
  • 2017)‎. Seminar on noncommunicable diseases and human rights. (who.int)
  • Genetic diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. (google.com)
  • James Marden, professor of biology and an insect physiologist at Penn State, and Ruud Schilder, who in August 2006 earned his doctorate in biology at Penn State and is now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Nebraska, are the first to show a non-mammalian species suffering from metabolic dysfunction in ways similar to humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Metabolic disease isn't some strange thing having just to do with humans," said Marden. (innovations-report.com)
  • The work is also novel because it links metabolic disease to a supposedly harmless parasite living in the dragonfly's gut. (innovations-report.com)
  • This finding begs the question of whether something similar might be happening in human metabolic diseases, the root causes of which remain poorly understood despite intense study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Might disturbances in the microbial balance of human intestines trigger an immune system response that leads to metabolic disease? (innovations-report.com)
  • People who study metabolic disease should test the hypothesis that changes in gut microbial composition can cause these syndromes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mattson was lecturing on a research program that he'd been conducting since 1995, on whether a strict diet can help ward off brain damage and disease. (slate.com)
  • In Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, certain proteins in the brain stick together in toxic, knotted clumps that cause cognitive decline. (pbs.org)
  • The human disease is believed to be transmitted through beef from cows with a similar brain-wasting condition called bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE. (rense.com)
  • Humans are not alone in accumulating Aβ in their brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Both diseases attack the brain, and death usually occurs within a year. (jsonline.com)
  • Like its human counterparts, CWD also attacks the brain and is always fatal. (jsonline.com)
  • There has long been an interest in understanding the connectional organization of the human brain, though interest in connectivity has recently increased, as the tools to obtain such data have emerged and as other lines of inquiry have made clear the importance of such data. (nih.gov)
  • Without connectivity data, this kind of understanding is not possible for human brain function and dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • Knowledge of human brain connectivity will transform human neuroscience by providing not only a qualitatively novel class of data, but also by providing the basic framework necessary to synthesize diverse data and, ultimately, elucidate how our brains work in health, illness, youth, and old age. (nih.gov)
  • Human brain disease stock illustration. (dreamstime.com)
  • Human brain disease and intelligence puzzle with a blue glowing maze and labyrinth in the shape of a human head as a symbol of the complexity of brain thinking as a challenging problem to solve by medical doctors. (dreamstime.com)
  • Explain the physiological processes, interactions, and controls to maintain homeostasis in the specific areas of cardiovascular disease. (edu.au)
  • The vascular effects of NO alone include vasodilatation, inhibition of platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, scavenging of superoxide anions, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, all protective against cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of men and women worldwide. (newswise.com)
  • After accounting for all variables, the research found that an additional 15,000 people died from cardiovascular disease and 6,000 more from lower respiratory disease in the 15 states infected with the bug, compared with uninfected areas of the country. (slashdot.org)
  • In addition, recent efforts to map the protein-protein interactions in humans ( 6 , 7 ), together with efforts to curate an extensive map of human metabolism ( 8 ) and regulatory networks offer increasingly detailed maps of the relationships between different disease genes. (pnas.org)
  • A by-product of the botched metabolism process is succinyl acetone, which accumulates in the liver and is excreted in urine where it serves as a diagnostic indicator of the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Polyphenols have proven effective for key health benefits, including bone health, organ health, cardiac and vascular conditions, absorption and metabolism, and cancer and diseases of the immune system. (elsevier.com)
  • Self-reactive immune responses can occur only transiently and may not necessarily cause overt disease, but in many cases self-destruction of initially healthy tissue gets permanently out of control, resulting in self-perpetuating clinical disease progressing in the absence of the triggering event. (hindawi.com)
  • Investigators at the Center address the need for new approaches to managing obesity and its associated health problems in the United States via individualized programs offered at The Weight Management Center and through clinical trials that test the impact of nutrition on blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. (jhsph.edu)
  • Discuss the clinical manifestations and nursing management of selected disease processes and health problems. (edu.au)
  • But while replicating this work in humans is years away, Blair hopes their research provides a deeper understanding of the biology of tau and alpha-synuclein that will eventually lead to clinical advances and earlier diagnoses. (pbs.org)
  • Is there an indication for serologic testing for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in asymptomatic HIV-infected children (compared with not testing) to guide clinical management? (nih.gov)
  • clinical trials have reported largely null effects of folic acid supplementation on the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. (els.net)
  • Cautioning that clinical applications are still far from possible, Koliatsos hopes to take further advantage of his rodents with ALS to learn as much as possible about how human stem cells behave when transplanted. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Decades-long efforts to map human disease loci, at first genetically and later physically ( 1 ), followed by recent positional cloning of many disease genes ( 2 ) and genome-wide association studies ( 3 ), have generated an impressive list of disorder-gene association pairs ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • derived complex disease-gene network using GWAs (Genome Wide Association studies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Network properties of complex human disease genes identified through genome-wide association studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past efforts to figure out the puzzle of how DNA in the genome caused disease had focused on hundreds of genome-wide association studies, which screened genomes of people with particular medical conditions to determine DNA variants linked to those diseases, said University of Washington genome scientist Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos, lead author of a study examining the connection between gene regulation and disease published Wednesday in the journal Science . (latimes.com)
  • A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (nih.gov)
  • Validation of diagnostic criteria for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (nih.gov)
  • There is a relationship between mad cow disease and a human prion disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • There exists strong epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for a causal association between a new human prion disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) that was first reported from the United Kingdom in 1996 and the BSE outbreak in cattle. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, direct evidence of the connections between ATG gene dysfunction and human diseases has emerged only recently. (nature.com)
  • Chagas' disease, cognitive dysfunction, cerebral white matter involvement. (scielo.br)
  • In addition to the Freie Universität Berlin, the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin (2013 - 2019), the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke (DIfE, 2015 - 2019), and the Robert Koch Institute (2016 - 2019) were further institutional partners. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In 2015 the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke (DIfE) as well as the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and in 2016 the Robert Koch Institute joined DynAge as further partners. (fu-berlin.de)
  • On December 15, 2016 Human Herpesvirus 8 and Microsporidiosis were updated. (nih.gov)
  • We found the same defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chains in the human cells, which produced a lot of reactive oxygen species," said Dr. Bayat. (redorbit.com)
  • We might find that these species have an important role in human diseases. (newscientist.com)
  • In the laboratory, these viruses can infect cells from other species, including humans. (nih.gov)
  • Many species have evolved traits that are adaptive in their environment but are similar to disease states in humans," says Jake Daane, lead author of the study (Northeastern University). (enn.com)
  • Viruses are species specific, meaning dog viruses cannot survive in humans. (menshealth.com)
  • If we can determine what protects nonhuman species from AD pathology, we might learn why humans are vulnerable, information that could illuminate new therapeutic strategies. (alzforum.org)
  • Bats, primates, and even snails can carry disease, and transmission dynamics change for all of these species following forest clearing, often creating a much greater threat to people. (truthout.org)
  • We tested this claim by developing a 'metamodel' - a network of linked species models - that evaluated whether the combined impacts of Europeans could have exterminated the thylacine, without any disease. (webpronews.com)
  • We showed that the negative impacts of European settlement were powerful enough that, even without any disease epidemic, the species couldn't escape extinction. (webpronews.com)
  • We estimate the relationship between life expectancy and human capital investments using genetic variation in life expectancy driven by Huntington disease (HD), an inherited degenerative neurological disorder with large impacts on mortality. (nber.org)
  • Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) is a progressive neurological disorder. (medicinenet.com)
  • A rare, inherited neurological disorder, NCL/Batten disease does not currently have a cure. (petsbest.com)
  • Now it aims to find ways to transform this tool into a method of treating genetic diseases that for the most part have no treatments today. (technologyreview.com)
  • She says the best advocates for the technology are patients with the untreatable genetic diseases Editas hopes to address. (technologyreview.com)
  • Epidemiological investigations by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that the patient worked at a local indoor seafood market. (nature.com)
  • In addition the role of antimicrobial peptides in the development of therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of disease is becoming increasingly important. (routledge.com)
  • A recurring theme is the possibility of creating therapeutics that induce the expression of endogenous antimicrobial peptides for the prevention or treatment of disease. (routledge.com)
  • The first interdisciplinary reference on the subject, the Handbook of Anthropometry brings this wide-ranging field together: basic theory and highly specialized topics in normal and abnormal anthropometry in terms of health, disease prevention, and intervention. (google.com)
  • Corollary to this, FA supplementation has garnered a considerable amount of interest as an ideal functional food component for disease prevention. (els.net)
  • Although the benefits of FA supplementation in treatment of megaloblastic anaemia and in prevention of neural tube defects are well established, the effects of FA supplementation on other disease outcomes remain largely equivocal. (els.net)
  • Nevertheless, prevention or remedies for inherited age-related diseases, including cancer, have not yet been completely established. (frontiersin.org)
  • A detailed understanding of the enzyme may lead to a drug to treat hereditary tyrosinemia in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • This highly promising technology has great social economic values in treating hereditary, fatal and debilitating disease conditions. (scirp.org)
  • In the past few years, the dog's genome has been sequenced, which has opened up tremendous possibilities for uncovering the genetic background of the hereditary diseases and behavioral characteristics, as well as traits such as build, coat color and size of different dog breeds. (helsinki.fi)
  • Recognise and understand the pathophysiological processes of common health problems, using the background knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology of human body systems. (edu.au)
  • Apply the principles of normal anatomy and physiology of human body systems to the pathophysiological processes of common health problems. (edu.au)
  • Louis J. Ignarro, Ph.D., who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his ground-breaking work for in understanding the effect of NO in blood vessels, said, "This body of work may have revolutionary implications in terms of developing strategies to combat heart disease and many other contemporary diseases associated with a NO deficiency. (newswise.com)
  • Pigs offer an advantage over rodents in that they are closer to humans in size, biochemistry, and physiology, and they have bigger brains that are more amenable to intervention. (alzforum.org)
  • Thus it serves as a useful supplement to previous textbooks of human physiology. (springer.com)
  • It found, for example, that variants common in people with Crohn's disease seemed to control elements important in immune cells, which are known to be involved in the disease. (latimes.com)
  • In spite of this, there remains a dearth of specific therapeutic options for human polyomavirus infections and an incomplete understanding of the relationship between the virus and the host immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • 1) By using the body's immune system to fight back against the disease . (brighthub.com)
  • 2018. "PTEN Inhibition in Human Disease Therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • In humans, the pathogen causes a slew of health problems, including respiratory, wound and urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. (zdnet.com)
  • The sickness is known to only affect dogs and humans, according to the Iowa Department of Public Health. (ajc.com)
  • Signs of the disease in a dog include infertility, spontaneous abortions and stillbirths, according to the department of public health. (ajc.com)
  • The disease is most common in kennels and breeding facilities, the Iowa Department of Public Health said. (ajc.com)
  • Biology of Human Disease I identifies some of the most significant pathologies challenging the health of the Australian population. (edu.au)
  • Recent cases highlight the need to practice health safety to protect yourself from the spread of disease during animal encounters. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doctors also don't always report finding Lyme disease to their local public health department, said Erik Foster, an entomologist with the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and a co-author of the recent study. (freep.com)
  • Limited Life Expectancy, Human Capital and Health Investments " (with E. Ray Dorsey and Ira Shoulson). (nber.org)
  • Newswise - AUSTIN, TX…February 21… Nathan Bryan, Ph.D., a recognized world authority in Nitric Oxide (NO) research, is pleased to announce the publication of the second edition of Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Health and Disease, 2e . (newswise.com)
  • Drs. Bryan and Loscalzo have assembled the world's experts to present a first of its kind, comprehensive work on nitrite and nitrate in human health and disease, carefully examining the context for a risk benefit assessment. (newswise.com)
  • 8. Antimicrobial Peptides in the Oral Environment: Expression and Function in Health and Disease. (routledge.com)
  • So if we take away these 100 million trees, does the health of humans suffer? (slashdot.org)
  • Speaking of poking out eyes, I have long known that EAB (Emerald Ash Borer) has been affecting human health, and you would too if you watch much baseball. (slashdot.org)
  • While the University recognizes each individual's responsibility in this regard, the University reserves the right to take steps necessary to protect the health and safety of the University community and the individual with the life-threatening disease within the limitations of the law. (drexel.edu)
  • Folate, a water‐soluble B vitamin, and its synthetic form folic acid (FA) used in fortification and supplements, are critical to human health due to their role in one‐carbon transfer reactions required for biological methylation and nucleotide biosynthesis. (els.net)
  • As such, folate deficiency has been linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes such as megaloblastic anaemia, neural tube defects, coronary heart disease and cancer among others. (els.net)
  • The Borneo malaria study is the latest piece of a growing body of scientific evidence showing how cutting down large swaths of forests is a major factor in a serious human health problem - the outbreak of some of the world's most serious infectious diseases that emerge from wildlife and insects in forests. (truthout.org)
  • In 2002, the year CWD was discovered in Wisconsin, six cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were recorded, according to the state Department of Health Services. (jsonline.com)
  • however, these markers are not specific to Treg cells and therefore are the cause of inconsistencies in the literature on the topic of Treg‐cell function in health and disease. (els.net)
  • This section focuses on topics related to human or animal health, and medicine. (curlie.org)
  • McLean and his colleagues discovered the organisms by searching for bacterial strains in human saliva samples. (newscientist.com)
  • If so, are the human "strains" of Aβ more pathogenic? (alzforum.org)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that results primarily from the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (genome.jp)
  • Although its underlying concept is a relatively simple one-the measurement of the human body and its parts-anthropometry employs a myriad of methods and instruments, and is useful for a variety of purposes, from understanding the impact of disease on individuals to tracking changes in populations over time. (google.com)
  • They realized the primates were concentrating in the remaining fragments of forest habitat, possibly increasing disease transmission among their own populations. (truthout.org)
  • Can enough families with enough affected members be found to help study the disease? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Which type of seizures to study depends mostly on how important genes are for that particular type of disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One important type of population study looks at a large set of twins to see how often two identical twins (who have all the same genes) both have a disease and compares that to how often two fraternal twins (who are just like brothers and sisters in that they have only half of their genes in common) both have the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It's going to make the identification of many disease genes 50 times easier," Dr Eric Lander, a gene expert at the Broad Institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University who helped coordinate the study, told a news conference. (redorbit.com)
  • The dangers of using one lab animal to study every disease. (slate.com)
  • The parasite, which appears to make its host more harmful to humans, evaded our detection until now because it is difficult to grow and study in the laboratory . (newscientist.com)
  • In a new study published in the journal Nature Communications, Greenbaum and his colleagues propose that complex disease transmission patterns can explain not only how modern humans were able to wipe out Neanderthals in Europe and Asia in just a few thousand years but also, perhaps more puzzling, why the end didn't come sooner. (freerepublic.com)
  • They may even be the main reason why modern humans are now the only human group left on the planet,' said Greenbaum, who is the first author of the study and a postdoctoral researcher in Stanford's Department of Biology. (freerepublic.com)
  • We were surprised that CyP40 could disaggregate the tangles," Laura Blair, a biologist at the University of South Florida and senior author of the study, said because very few human proteins can take these clumps and undo them. (pbs.org)
  • My study found a similar correlation between cardiovascular and respiratory disease and radio stations whose names begin with "W" compared to those beginning with "K. (slashdot.org)
  • Anyways, it makes sense that air quality is worse in areas with less trees leading to higher rates of lung disease, but we didn't need this study to affirm that. (slashdot.org)
  • In the current study, first author Paola Crociara followed up by studying disease in four of the founder pigs that reached adulthood. (alzforum.org)
  • The particular SOD-1 rats in the study developed an "especially aggressive" form of the disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While no human cases of CWD have been reported to date, the new study findings raise concerns that people who hunt or consume meat from infected animals could be at risk for CWD infection," Christine Pearson, a spokesperson for the CDC, said in an email. (jsonline.com)
  • A new study from the University of Adelaide has shown that humans, not diseases, were responsible for the extinction of the Tasmanian tiger. (webpronews.com)
  • The Utrecht study has shown that CRISPR base-editing also works effectively and safely on human stem cells. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • For the current study, they organoids were used to investigate whether CRISPR base-editing works on the DNA in human stem cells, and whether it can be used to cure CF in the mini intestines. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • 6. Losavio A, Jones MC, Sanz OP, Mirkin G, Gonzalez Cappa SM, Muchnik S, Sica REP. A sequential study of the peripheral nervous system involvement in experimental Chagas' disease. (scielo.br)
  • Yet, for a substantial proportion of patients, sequence information restricted to exons and exon-intron boundaries fails to identify the genetic cause of the disease. (springer.com)
  • Akman HO et al (2015) Deep intronic GBE1 mutation in manifesting heterozygous patients with adult polyglucosan body disease. (springer.com)
  • The ability of antioxidants to counteract the negative consequences of the mutant gene in flies raises the possibility that a related approach might have beneficial effects in human patients, though this remains to be determined. (redorbit.com)
  • Patients with this disease can develop a wide range of liver and kidney problems, as well as problems affecting the eye, the skin of the feet and hands, and the central nervous system. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research, published by Cell Press in the March issue of Cancer Cell, may eventually lead to a substantially improved outlook for patients with this devastating disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chemotherapy can sometimes lead to improvement of overall survival but there is no cure for MM and patients often succumb from the disease within a year of diagnosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • If we understand which kinds of tau are more likely to aggregate and form neurotoxic entities, then we can know which patients are more likely to be at risk to develop this disease," Blair said. (pbs.org)
  • In addition, Robinow patients and the screwtail breeds also share other disease traits, such as cleft palate. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation, Inc. was created in 1993 by two families who lost relatives to CJD and the neurologist who treated the patients. (nih.gov)
  • For example, antibiotics and vaccines have been developed that were successfully administered to patients with infectious diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • DynAge's key aim is to initiate and support interdisciplinary research into disease in human aging. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. (nature.com)
  • Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. (rti.org)
  • Here, an overview of human diseases and conditions in which PTEN inhibition could be beneficial is presented, together with an update on the current status of specific small molecule inhibitors of PTEN enzymatic activity, their use in experimental models, and their limitations as research or therapeutic drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • The phenomenon of course has to be seen in humans if this particular avenue of research is to bear fruit. (brighthub.com)
  • 4. You will visit Internet sites to research the topic of exotic diseases transmitted to humans and native animals by exotic animals. (teacherweb.com)
  • What research is demonstrating is that because of a complex chain of ecological changes, the risk of disease outbreaks, especially those carried by some mosquitoes, can be greatly magnified after forests are cleared for agriculture and roads. (truthout.org)
  • The research team used so-called SOD-1 rats, animals engineered to carry a mutated human gene for an inherited form of ALS. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Since 2013, PostDoc in CardioMetabolic Diseases Research at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG in Biberach (Riss), Germany. (springer.com)
  • Many people, however, believe that bounty hunting alone could not have driven the thylacine extinct and therefore claim that an unknown disease epidemic must have been responsible," said Thomas Prowse, leader of the project and a research associate at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences and the Environment Institute. (webpronews.com)
  • At the University of Missouri-Columbia, Tibetan terriers are contributing to a canine DNA bank in an ongoing research program that studies the genetic basis of a neurological disease that affects both dogs and humans. (petsbest.com)
  • A range of physical and neurological inflammatory diseases are now associated with shifts in microbiome composition. (nih.gov)
  • Most biological pathways, physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • The protein atlas team first uses the human genome - the sequence of all the 20000 or so genes in human cells - to encode individual proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • The search for the causes (etiologies) of human diseases goes back to antiquity. (britannica.com)
  • The leading causes of death in dogs are a variety of cancers, and many of them are very similar biologically to human cancers," Ostrander said. (redorbit.com)
  • It was reported to be present in 6% to 27% of human prostate cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the successful studies building on these new approaches have focused, however, on a single disease, using network-based tools to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the genes implicated in a selected disorder ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the lab, a strain of fecal bacterium from humans and animals, called Serratia marcescens, was isolated and put on coral fragments which had been taken from the ocean. (zdnet.com)
  • The approach is multipronged, and it involves integrating information from diverse sources in order to synthesize a story explaining potential links between chemicals and specific diseases. (mit.edu)
  • A number of effective drugs for specific diseases could be purified from natural resources or created by chemical synthesis, and recent recombinant DNA technologies have brought about antibody-drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, the "image" projected by the human genome -- the raw list of Ts and A's and Cs and Gs in our DNA -- is a snapshot of human biology that requires context to really make sense, he said. (latimes.com)
  • The genes that make some dogs big and others little, that give some dogs long snouts and others pushed-in faces, and that predispose some dogs to certain diseases provide a convenient laboratory for studying biology, medicine and evolution. (redorbit.com)
  • Professional Interests: Vascular biology, Organ development and regeneration, Retinal diseases, Public availability and comprehension of natural sciences, Didactics. (springer.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the β -subgroup of the herpesvirus family. (hindawi.com)
  • After the reports of XMRV in human prostate cancer, and later of XMRV in people with CFS, retrovirologists all over the world were excited to explore its role in human infection and disease," Pathak says. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial peptides rapidly and directly inhibit infection by microbes and are of enormous importance in the body's natural defence against disease. (routledge.com)
  • 9. Natural Antimicrobial Peptides: A Barrier against Human Skin Infection. (routledge.com)
  • Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Australia: time to amend infection control measures for pituitary hormone recipients? (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis and treatment of HTLV-I infection and what is known about the disease associations will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • We have been particularly interested in autism, as this is a debilitating disease affecting children whose prevalence has been rising exponentially over the past two decades. (mit.edu)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. (nature.com)
  • Which critters contract venereal disease, as well as sicknesses of the respiratory tract, skin and cardiovascular system, may surprise you. (popsci.com)
  • A disease trait that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner can occur in either sex and can be transmitted by either parent. (britannica.com)
  • Examples of autosomal dominant inheritance are common among human traits and diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Breeding this pig produced first-, second-, and third-generation progeny that inherited disease in an autosomal-dominant pattern. (alzforum.org)
  • We find that essential human genes are likely to encode hub proteins and are expressed widely in most tissues. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, we find that the vast majority of disease genes are nonessential and show no tendency to encode hub proteins, and their expression pattern indicates that they are localized in the functional periphery of the network. (pnas.org)
  • The team has so far mapped the location of around 5000 proteins in human cells and tissues. (innovations-report.com)
  • CyP40 is a human enzyme that normally helps healthy proteins mold into useful shapes, but also unfolds and degrades ones that deform over time. (pbs.org)
  • This will help us understand the role of these proteins and therefore allow us to unlock new strategies for treating diseases impacted by the microbiome. (ibm.com)
  • Following removal of unbound serum proteins, bound IgE antibody is detected with a fluorophore-labeled anti-human IgE reagent. (mdpi.com)
  • This volume provides recent advances in Drosophila models for various human diseases, with each chapter providing a review of studies involving Drosophila models, as well as detailed protocols commonly used in laboratories. (springer.com)
  • However, the adrenal glands of adult human beings secrete generous quantities of the C 19 steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S). Neither DHEA nor DHEA-S activate the androgen receptor, but in peripheral tissues they act as precursors for the potent androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. (medscape.com)
  • Are micro and nanoplastics accumulating in human organs and tissues? (news-medical.net)
  • There were fewer than 30 human cases of Lyme disease reported in Michigan in any year between 2000 and 2004. (freep.com)
  • This is the first text to examine the connection between virology and human disease. (elsevier.com)
  • There lies one big difference between dogs and people -- human genes are found on just 23 pairs of chromosomes. (redorbit.com)
  • The zoonotic bacterial disease, "zoonotic" meaning the sickness can be transmitted from one animal to people or other types of animals, is spread through reproductive fluids, the release states. (ajc.com)
  • McClean says he has found high concentrations of the new bacterium's DNA in people who have gum disease or cystic fibrosis . (newscientist.com)
  • But when animals and people get together, some disease risks spike. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although the same deletion causes the disease in people, regulatory DNA outside of the mouse gene compensated for the loss, resulting in a weak version of the disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Curiously, necrosis and inflammation had taken hold in skeletal muscles toward the end of disease, two signs not typically seen in people with ALS. (alzforum.org)
  • Then, as humans worked on the new palm plantations, near the recently created forest edges, mosquitoes that thrived in this new habitat carried the disease from macaques to people. (truthout.org)
  • Some 60 percent of the diseases that affect people spend part of their life cycle in wild and domestic animals. (truthout.org)
  • The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects 10 to 20 million people worldwide, as estimated by seroprevalence studies. (uptodate.com)
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob is closely related to the form of mad cow disease that infected people, primarily in Great Britain, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, after they ate beef from infected cows. (jsonline.com)
  • Concerns about possible transmission of the disease to humans have led to a two-pronged approach by the CDC: It is looking for unusual cases of human prion disease and attempting to find cases of prion disease in people who may have eaten meat from infected animals. (jsonline.com)
  • For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. (greenmedinfo.com)