Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Re-Epithelialization: Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.PeptidoglycanLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
  • Ouellette A. J. Secretion of microbicidal alpha-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Low levels of enteric defensin expression in the fetus may be characteristic of an immaturity of local defense, which is thought to predispose infants born prematurely to infection from intestinal microorganisms. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to their response to food stimuli, enteroendocrine cells sense the presence of bacterial Ags through TLRs and are involved in neutralizing intestinal bacteria by releasing chemokines and defensins, and maybe in removing them by releasing hormones such as cholecystokinin, which induces contraction of the muscular tunica, favoring the emptying of the distal small intestine. (jimmunol.org)
  • HIE, human intestinal enteroid. (cdc.gov)
  • The defensin-rich secretions of Paneth cells work in conjunction with nearby intestinal stem cells to maintain micro flora balance and renew intestinal cellular surfaces. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Two other β-defensins, hBD1 and 2, lacked this protective activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Certain human β-defensins (e.g., hBD1) are expressed constitutively ( 9 ), and others (e.g., hBD2 and 3) show increased expression in response to inflammation or infection ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • HBD1 has been reported to have low activity against HIV-1 compared to other defensins, suggesting that in vivo induced defensins may not significantly contribute to the robust early antiviral response against HIV-1. (harvard.edu)
  • Based on quantitative PCR, expression of hBD2 mRNA by human keratinocytes was significantly induced by contact with S. aureus , and expression of hBD3 and CAP18 mRNA was slightly induced, while hBD1 mRNA was constitutively expressed irrespective of the presence of S. aureus . (asm.org)
  • Ec-LDP-hBD1 effectively bound to EGFR highly expressed human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. (chinaphar.com)
  • The results demonstrate that the novel recombinant EGFR-targeting β-defensin Ec-LDP-hBD1 displays both selectivity and enhanced cytotoxicity against relevant cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and exhibits high therapeutic efficacy against the EGFR-expressed carcinoma xenograft. (chinaphar.com)
  • Here, the function and mechanism of the human β-defensin 1 (hBD1) binding to potassium channels was investigated. (usda.gov)
  • Based on the structural similarity between hBD1 and Kv1.3 channel-sensitive hBD2, hBD1 was found to selectively inhibit human and mouse Kv1.3 channels with IC50 values of 11.8 ± 3.1 μM and 13.2 ± 4.0 μM, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • Different from hBD2 modifying Kv1.3 channel activation and increasing activation time constant, hBD1 did not affect the activation feature of both human and mouse Kv1.3 channels. (usda.gov)
  • Because adherence is the first step in the onset of respiratory tract infections, our findings indicate that neutrophil defensins likely contribute to the pathogenesis of H. influenzae infection in the lower respiratory tract. (nih.gov)
  • We postulated that altered β-defensin production may play a role in the pathogenesis observed in the lungs of smokers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As HBD-2 has been shown to control growth of M. tuberculosis and has chemotactic activity, our results suggest that HBD-2 induction by M. tuberculosis may have a role in the pathogenesis of human tuberculosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. (jci.org)
  • Synthetic and purified preparation of α-defensins inhibited the replication of HIV isolates in vitro. (aappublications.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the ability of human β-defensin (HBD) 2 to promote antiviral immunity in vitro and in vivo using a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen (Ag). (springer.com)
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  • Ten clinical S. aureus isolates, including five MRSA isolates, induced various levels of expression of hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 mRNA by human kertinocytes. (asm.org)
  • In this study, data from an anchored polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy suggest that only two defensin mRNA isoforms are expressed in the human small intestine, far fewer than the number expressed in the mouse. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of human fetal RNA by reverse transcriptase-PCR detected enteric defensin HD-5 mRNA at 13.5 weeks of gestation in the small intestine and the colon, but by 17 weeks HD-5 was restricted to the small intestine. (elsevier.com)
  • Northern analysis of total RNA from small intestine revealed quantifiable enteric defensin mRNA in five samples from 19-24 weeks of gestation at levels approximately 40-250-fold less than those observed in the adult, with HD-5 mRNA levels greater than those of HD-6 in all samples. (elsevier.com)
  • In situ hybridization analysis localized expression of enteric defensin mRNA to Paneth cells at 24 weeks of gestation, as is seen in the newborn term infant and the adult. (elsevier.com)
  • Consistent with earlier morphological studies, the ratio of Paneth cell number per crypt was reduced in samples at 24 weeks of gestation compared with the adult, and this lower cell number partially accounts for the lower defensin mRNA levels as determined by Northern analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • I. persulcatus defensin mRNA transcripts were detected at all life cycle stages of fed ticks and found to be predominantly expressed in the midguts of adult female ticks, but not in the salivary glands, a finding corroborated by Western blotting analysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Bacterial defensins have also been identified, but are by far the least studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many human tissues produce anionic AMPs, such as the dermcidins ( 4 ), that are not subject to the bacterial resistance mechanisms based on the repulsion of positively charged molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Pre-incubation of tachyzoites with human α-defensin-5 followed by exposure to a mouse embryonal cell line (NIH/3T3) significantly reduced T. gondii infection in these cells. (springer.com)
  • Thus, human α-defensin-5 is an innate immune molecule that causes severe toxocity to T. gondii and plays an important role in reducing cellular infection. (springer.com)
  • This study examined the ability of nine human defensins (HD) to protect against herpes simplex virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Noncytotoxic concentrations of all six α-defensins (HNP1-4, HD5, and HD6) and human β-defensin (hBD) 3 inhibited HSV infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • These observations provide additional insights for further investigating the complex interplay between β-defensin genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to, or the progression or severity of, HIV infection/disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the approved drugs date from the last 5 years, and at least half of them are used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using immunoblot and ELISA assays, HD5 was not routinely detected in non-infected human urine samples while mean urinary HD5 production increased with E.coli urinary tract infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Post-infection production of interleukin-8 and human β-defensin-3 in LS174T cells significantly reduced because of yqiC deleted in S . Typhimurium. (frontiersin.org)
  • This novel format of β-defensin, which induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, may play an active role in EGFR-targeting cancer therapy. (chinaphar.com)
  • Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. (lsbio.com)
  • Release of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and β-defensin 2 was also observed after stimulation of STC-1 cells with the three TLR agonists, but not with fatty acids. (jimmunol.org)