Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous: A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.BrazilPhosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.VenezuelaParasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.ColombiaSkin UlcerBenzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mice, Inbred BALB CPeruAfghanistanPanamaTunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.ArgentinaZoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.BoliviaRodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.IranSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)IndiaFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)EcuadorSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Facial DermatosesMorocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Eyelid DiseasesInterleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Erysipeloid: An infection caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae that is almost wholly restricted to persons who in their occupation handle infected fish, shellfish, poultry, or meat. Three forms of this condition exist: a mild localized form manifested by local swelling and redness of the skin; a diffuse form that might present with fever; and a rare systemic form associated with endocarditis.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.

*Rodent

... s also help to transmit diseases including babesiosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Lyme ... Rats also need plenty of space and can become very tame, can learn tricks and seem to enjoy human companionship. Mice are short ... Rodents have also thrived in human-created environments such as agricultural and urban areas. Though some species are common ... They are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments ...

*Naval Medical Research Unit Six

... demonstrating superiority of glucantime to pentamidine therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in 2005, developing non-human ... and all human research conducted by NAMRU-6 is conducted under supervision of duly constituted Institutional Review Board (IRB ... little or no investment by major pharmaceutical companies and includes parasitic infection such as malaria and leishmaniasis, ...

*Robovirus

"Leishmaniasis" World Health Organization. Website: http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/cutaneous_leishmaniasis/en/ Human Health in ... The resulting disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, causes large skin lesions on the face, arms, and legs. Rodent populations are ... Increased rainfall accompanied by flooding can also increase human to rodent contact Global climate change will affect the ... 14 November 2014). Molecular epidemiology of human pathogenic "ArboRobo-viruses" in Croatia (pdf). CroViWo-1st Croatian Virus ...

*Leishmania

Canine leishmaniasis List of parasites (human) L.F. Schnur (1989). On the Clinical Manifestations and Parasites of Old World ... causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, ... The first written reference to the conspicuous symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis surfaced in the Paleotropics within oriental ... 2004). "The psychological impact of cutaneous leishmaniasis". Clin Exp Dermatol. 29 (5): 464-467. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2004. ...

*Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Promastigotes of Leishmania are transmitted to human skin by the bite of a sandfly. Leishmania then invades human macrophages ... Besides humans, cutaneous leishmaniasis often affects other animals, notably in dogs as canine leishmaniasis. Calvopiña, M; ... Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an especially disturbing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, because it produces destructive and ... and fail to consider the possibility of leishmaniasis.[citation needed] Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in all tropical and ...

*Neglected tropical diseases

Cutaneous leishmaniasis occurs in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, Iran, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Around ... human African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma, and ... For guinea worm, Buruli ulcer, or cutaneous leishmaniasis, wound management is needed to speed up healing and reduce disability ... The three forms of leishmaniasis are visceral (Kala-azar), cutaneous, and mucocutaneous. There are an estimated 12 million ...

*TMEM239

RNA-seq was used to analyze the transcriptomes of human and Leishmania primary cutaneous lesions, in order to understand ... to Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML). Decreased expression of TMEM239 in a primary cutaneous lesions indicates a higher probability of ... No human paralogs for TMEM239 have been identified. Based on human expressed sequence tag (EST) profiles, TMEM239 appears to be ... Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Protein TAX-1 (TAX) and Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were found to interact with TMEM239 ...

*Leishmania infantum

It is also an unusual cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is normally caused by specific lineages (or zymodemes). Wild ... than its human counterpart. Furthermore, analyses revealed that LiBRCA2 possesses key features of the BRCA2 family. The smaller ... Aoun, K.; Bouratbine, A. (2014). "Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review". Parasite. 21: 14. doi:10.1051/parasite/ ... 2006). "Occurrence of Leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Tunisia". Transactions of the Royal Society of ...

*Battle of Aleppo (2012-2016)

... measles and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Food prices also grew astronomically during the war. A kilogram (two pounds) of sugar cost ... It appealed: "The human cost of the fighting in Aleppo is simply too high. We urge all parties to stop the destruction and ... Human Rights Watch issued a statement claiming that the Syrian and Russian military campaign killed more than 440 civilians, ... The Syrian Observatory of Human Rights stated that the Syrian army dropped 7,000 barrel bombs in the first five months of 2015 ...

*Leishmaniavirus

Recently, LRV2 has also been found in strains of L. aethiopica (L.ae) isolated from biopsies of cutaneous leishmaniasis ... The prevalence of LRV1 in human parasites is still largely unknown. So far, no LRV1 has been detected in other key L. (Viannia ... Protozoa serve as natural hosts, and Leishmaniaviruses are present in several species of the human protozoan parasite ... Ives, A., et al., Leishmania RNA virus controls the severity of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Science, 2011. 331(6018): p. 775. ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

1987) Human cutaneous myiasis - a review and report of three cases due to Dermatobia hominis. Clinical and Experimental ... 2009) Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum transmitted by Phlebotomus tobbi. International Journal for ... 1995) Cutaneous myiasis: review of 13 cases in travelers returning from tropical countries. International Journal of ... sandflies are notorious as transmitters of species of Leishmania protozoa that cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in ...

*Canine leishmaniasis

... (LEESH-ma-NIGH-ah-sis) is a zoonotic disease (see human leishmaniasis) caused by Leishmania parasites ... 2009). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a study of possible animal reservoirs". International Journal of Infectious ... The Canine Leishmaniasis Site by Vetstream Video of Leishmaniasis positive dog (<- link does not work) Treatment options ( ... Canine leishmaniasis: an update. Proceedings of the International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum. Barcelona, Spain Ferroglio E, ...

*List of dog diseases

Leishmaniasis* is spread by the sandfly, and in the dog as well as human has both cutaneous and visceral forms. The dog is ... Signs are similar to human disease, including anorexia, fever, and thrombocytopenia. Clostridium species are a potential cause ... considered to be the reservoir for human disease in the Americas. Babesiosis* is spread by members of the family Ixodidae, or ...

*Miltefosine

This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. It may be used together with liposomal amphotericin ... It significantly reduces replication of HIV-1 in cocultures of human dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+ T cells, which is due to a ... Soto J, Berman J (2006). "Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 100: S34- ... Miltefosine is primarily used for the treatment of visceral and New World cutaneous leishmaniasis, and is undergoing clinical ...

*Neglected tropical disease research and development

Ameen M. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: therapeutic strategies and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007 Nov;8(16):2689- ... These seven are among a larger list of thirteen major NTDs: onchocerciasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, leprosy, Human ... Hotez PJ, Bethony J, Bottazzi ME, Brooker S, Diemert D, Loukas A. New technologies for the control of human hookworm infection ... Potential actions to improve and expand this R&D capacity have been recommended including expansion of human capital, increased ...

*Metofluthrin

... in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in the Judean Desert, Israel". Journal of Vector Ecology. 36 Suppl 1: S157-65. doi:10.1111/j ... Metofluthrin is neurotoxic, and is not meant to be applied directly to human skin. Although metofluthrin has insectidal ...

*Leishmania major

Though a vaccine does not yet exist that can prevent cutaneous leishmaniasis, it is speculated that one will be developed in ... doi:10.1016/0166-6851(87)90114-9. Desjeux, P (1992). "Human leishmaniasis: Epidemiology and public health aspects". World ... L. major and its cousin, L. tropica, are recognized as causing the majority of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis across the ... Dogs have also been documented as contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. This is rare however, and dogs ...

*Leishmaniasis

... may be divided into the following types: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, which causes an open ... Cox FE (2002). "History of Human Parasitology". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15 (4): 595-612. doi:10.1128/CMR.15.4.595-612.2002. PMC ... The evidence around the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is poor. A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous ... The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis. The cutaneous form presents ...

*List of cutaneous conditions

... cutaneous larva migrans) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, bay sore, Biskra button, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi ... mutated in pigmented cutaneous lesions List of histologic stains that aid in diagnosis of cutaneous conditions List of human ... necrotic cutaneous loxoscelism) Mal morando Millipede burn Mosquito bite Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia, leishmaniasis ... Cutaneous ciliated cyst Cutaneous columnar cyst Cutaneous horn (Cornu cutaneum) Cystic basal cell carcinoma Dermal eccrine ...

*Lutzomyia

... cutaneous or mucocutaneous forms of the disease depending on the Leishmania species. The human-sand fly-human cycle of ... In southern Brazil, for example, levels of cutaneous leishmaniasis are increasing as a result of the adaptation of three, ... Peterson, A. T. & Shaw, J. (2003). "Lutzomyia vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Brazil: ecological niche models, ... The most medically important species for human disease transmission are those which predominantly favour humans as a source of ...

*Phellodendron amurense

and cutaneous leishmaniasis Phellodendron amurense may protect cartilage against osteoarthritis progression. It may prove to be ... "Effect of Phellodendron amurense in protecting human osteoarthritic cartilage and chondrocytes." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. ...

*Robert Killick-Kendrick

Dye C; Killick-Kendrick R; Ben Ismail R; al-Gindan Y. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: results of a ... Comparison with the technic of capture on human bait. Annales de parasitologie humaine et comparée 1982;57(6):631-5. Maazoun R ... Killick-Kendrick R; Killick-Kendrick M; Tang Y. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul, Afghanistan: the high ... Killick-Kendrick R; Killick-Kendrick M; Tang Y. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul, Afghanistan: the low ...

*Pentamidine

It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein ... "Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness)". World Health Organization. February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 ... Pentamidine was first used to treat African trypanosomiasis in 1937 and leishmaniasis in 1940 before it was registered as ... Pentamidine is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and to prevent and ...

*Antiparasitic

... for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, currently undergoing investigation for Chagas disease) Mebendazole ( ... and no significant adverse events have been noted in human trials [13]. ... In vitro, NTZ and tizoxanide function against a ...

*Science and technology in Venezuela

In his recently founded section he studied Chagas disease, Trypanosoma rangeli, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, ... José G. Esparza is currently an adjunct professor of medicine, at the Institute of Human Virology (University of Maryland ... A vaccine for leishmaniasis was later developed using Convit's method. He also worked on mycosis, onchocerciasis, and other ... leishmaniasis, with special attention to Chagas Disease. He published numerous scientific works that make him an international ...
To development a reliable murine model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection, parasites were injected into BALB/c mice in the presence of phlebotomine sand fly salivary gland lysates, which have previously been shown to greatly increase the infectivity of L. major in mice. When injected with salivary gland lysates, L. braziliensis braziliensis produced progressively enlarging cutaneous nodules, containing many macrophages filled with Leishmania amastigotes. In contrast, L. braziliensis injected without gland extracts produced small and rapidly regressing lesions. Isoenzyme analysis, monoclonal antibodies, and the polymerase chain reaction with L. braziliensis-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes confirmed that parasites causing the lesions were L. braziliensis. ...
Dual effect of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva on Leishmania braziliensis infection is mediated by distinct saliva-induced cellular recruitment into BALB-c mice ear. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neutrophils, by interacting with monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, through cell-cell contact or secreted products, drive inflammatory responses involved in host defense and tissue repair (7). Neutrophils have been shown to play an active role in the control of infections with specific and distinct pathogens such as Legionella (17), Toxoplasma (27), Mycobacterium (28), Entamoeba (29), Histoplasma (30), and Cryptosporidium (31). BALB/c mice infected in the ear dermis with L. braziliensis develop cutaneous lesions at the site of inoculation and histological analyses of infected ear sections have demonstrated a constant recruitment of neutrophils to the inoculation site (14). Since in this experimental model ear lesions heal spontaneously, we hypothesized that neutrophils exert a protective effect. Data presented herein collectively indicate that live neutrophils play an important yet unresolved role during experimental infection with Lb: in vivo neutrophil ...
RESUMO. Os A A. analisaram as alterações histológicas encontradas em 162 casos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar da localidade de Três Braços, Estado da Bahia, dos quais 131 (80,9%) eram de portadores de lesões cutâneas e 31 (19,1%) de portadores de lesões mucosas. Analisaram, também, o comportamento clínico dos cinco padrões histopatológicos, já antes descritos, em relação à terapêutica. O melhor prognóstico esteve sempre ligado ao padrão de Reação Exsudativa e Granulomatosa, ou seja, a uma fase na qual o organismo, tendo lançado mão de um mecanismo endógeno de lise parasitária, já circunscreveu a área de necrose por uma reação granulomatosa, e esta é agora apenas o elemento residual. A ação terapêutica nessa fase somente acelera a resolução natural do caso. O grupo seguinte é amplo, e compreende os casos em que a lesão pertence aos padrões de Reação Exsudativa Celular (formas cutâneas), Reação Exsudativa e Necrótica e Reação Exsudativa e ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reinfection in American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. T2 - Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes in the Hamster Model. AU - Osorio, Y.. AU - Gonzalez, S. J.. AU - Gama, V. L.. AU - Travi, B. L.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - There is no clear understanding of the outcome of reinfection in New World cutaneous leishmaniasis, and its role in the relationship to the development of protection or secondary disease. For this reason, reinfection experiments with homologous (Leishmania panamensis-L. panamensis) and heterologous (L. major-L. panamensis) species of leishmaniae were conducted in the hamster model. The different protocols for primary infections prior to the challenge with L. panamensis were as follows: (a) L. major, single promastigote injection, (b) L. major, three booster infections, (c) L. panamensis, followed by antimonial treatment to achieve subclinical ...
Mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare form of the disease, that affects only 6% of the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. It causes deformities and may be lethal if not treated. It is part of the neglected tropical diseases because on the past sixty years there was few progress regarding other treatment options or improvement at quality of life of its patients. Also, there was little interest from the pharmaceutical industry and government authorities to develop new researches. The standard treatment, meglumine antimoniate, is toxic, invasive, requires trained personnel and has many adverse effects and restrictions. On the other hand, miltefosine is the first oral drug to demonstrate efficacy against mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Few clinical trials have being performed in Central and South American countries, but so far, just ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis remains endemic in many regions of the world. The purpose of this study is to report the ocular complications of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Methods: Seven patients from the southern region of Saudi Arabia presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Five patients complained of decrease in vision in both eyes, two patients presented with lid deformity, and one patient complained of redness of the eye. History of cutaneous ulcers over the cheeks elicited in five patients, and two patients had cutaneous ulcers over the arms and cheek. Cutaneous ulcers appeared 6-12 months prior to the onset of ocular symptoms, and healed leaving scars. Laboratory work-up for uveitis, interstitial keratitis, and phlyctenulosis were negative. ...
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is characterized by cutaneous lesions that heal spontaneously or after specific treatment. This paper reports on the analysis of kDNA minicircle sequences from clinical samples (typical lesions and scars) that were PCR-amplified with specific primers for Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia. From 56 clinical isolates we obtained a single amplified fragment (ca. 790 bp), which after cloning and sequencing resulted in 290 minicircle sequences from both active lesions and scars. We aimed to get a compositional profile of these sequences in clinical samples and evaluate the corresponding compositional changes. Sequences were analyzed with the compseq and wordcount (Emboss package) to get the composition of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides. Additionally, we built a nucleotide dictionary with words of 7, 8, 9 and 10 nucleotides. This compositional analysis ...
A Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis é o agente etiológico de mais de 90% dos casos de leishmanioses cutânea e mucocutânea no Brasil. Apesar da alta freqüência no Brasil, poucos estudos de vacinação estão descritos utilizando esta espécie de Leishmania. Com intuito de iniciar os estudos de vacinação experimental contra as leishmanioses cutânea e mucocutânea causada por L. (V.) braziliensis, isolamos os genes que codificam os antígenos LACK, TSA, LeIF e LbSTI1 desta espécie. Os genes foram caracterizados segundo sua seqüência de DNA e transcrição de mRNA nas diferentes formas do parasita. Observamos alta conservação na seqüência predita de aminoácidos quando comparamos as espécies L. (V.) braziliensis e L. (L.) major com identidades de 83% a 96%. Observamos também a presença de mRNA tanto nas formas promastigotas como amastigotas de L. (V.) braziliensis. Em seguida, inserimos estes genes em vetores para expressão em células eucarióticas e procarióticas. As ...
An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous ...
Abstract Clinical and immunological findings from 35 dogs infected with Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis are described. The majority of the dogs had ulcerated single lesions on the ears. Sera from all infected dogs showed detectable Leishmania-induced antibodies using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antimonial therapy resulted in prompt healing of the lesions in 80.9% of the animals followed by a significant reduction in the anti-Leishmania antibody titers. However, treatment follow-up showed recurrences at the site of the primary lesion in 42.8% of the cases. These data were correlated with a persistence of the parasite in clinically healed lesions as well as with a negative intradermal test (leishmanin-delayed type hypersensitivity) observed in all animals but one.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection caused by various species of Leishmania protozoa and is endemic in more than 70 countries throughout Latin America, Asia, Middle-East and southern Europe. The global number of reported cases has increased in the past decades because of improved diagnosis and case notification, but also because of drug resistance and inadequate vector control as a result of urbanisation and deforestation.1Leishmania parasites are transmitted by sandflies belonging to either Phlebotomus spp (Asia, Europe, Middle-East and North-Africa) or Lutzomya spp (Central and South America). The ecological context of the transmission cycles between the Old World (i.e., Africa, Asia and Europe) and the New World (i.e., the Americas) is different. New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is mostly associated with forests, whereas an open semi-arid climate is the transmission ...
OBJECTIVES. Canine leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonotic disease highly widespread in the Mediterranean basin. There is a broad spectrum on clinical features ranging from local cutaneous forms to visceral forms, depending mainly on hosts immune response. Mucosal leishmaniasis is an atypical presentation form produced by metastatic leishmanial dissemination all through the mucous membranes that was firstly described by Font et al. in 1995. To try to describe five new cases of mucosal leishmaniasis is the first objective of this work, one of the cases was localized on a bitch nipple, and that, to the authors knowledge hasnt been previously described. Second objective is focused in the study of the incidence of this rare leishmaniasis type, in order to make a right valuation within the differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions of mucous ...
Bush yaws --, pian bois a form of new world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the amazon delta; a small proportion of cases are said to metastasize to the nasal mucosa with espundia-like involvement. ...
Health, ...Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a non-lethal disease but can have grav...Van der Meide has developed and evaluated a technique for the detectio...Part of the research was carried out in Suriname. Van der Meide discov...,Improved,diagnosis,of,cutaneous,leishmaniasis,thanks,to,new,techniques,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Genetic factors play a crucial role in host susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases. Variations within the SLC11A1 gene were assessed in this study with respect to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan which has not been reported before from this region. A total of eight polymorphisms present in SLC11A1 gene were analyzed and their possible role in disease association and linkage was tested.. Six of these genetic variations (rs2276631, rs2290708, rs3731864, rs201565523, rs17235409 and rs17235416) have been analyzed before in various populations with regard to leishmaniasis. In addition to these six SNPs, two polymorphisms, rs2695342 (825A/G) in exon 9 and rs17215556 (V443A) in exon 13, not investigated previously for their role in cutaneous leishmaniasis, were also included. The SNP rs2695342 (825A/G) in exon 9 alters the codon GCA ...
immune Uncategorized 1135280-28-2 supplier, a 140 kDa B-cell specific molecule, Mouse monoclonal to CD22.K22 reacts with CD22 In Tunisia, instances of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the consequences of environmental adjustments could explain the way the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. Author Summary In Tunisia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a significant public health problem. ...
Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Here we report the sequencing of the genomes of two species of Leishmania: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The comparison of these sequences with the published genome of Leishmania major reveals marked conservation of synteny and identifies only 200 genes with a differential distribution between the three species. L. braziliensis, contrary to Leishmania species examined so far, possesses components of a putative RNA-mediated interference pathway, telomere-associated transposable elements and spliced leader-associated SLACS retrotransposons. We show that pseudogene formation and gene loss are the principal forces shaping the different genomes. Genes that are differentially distributed between the species encode proteins implicated in host-pathogen interactions and parasite survival in the macrophage. ...
Gene expression is known to vary significantly during the Leishmania life-cycle. Its monitoring might allow identification of molecular changes associated with the infective stages (metacyclics and amastigotes) and contribute to the understanding of the complex host-parasite relationships. So far, very few studies have been done on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, one of the most pathogenic species. Such studies require, first of all, reference molecular markers. In the present work, we applied differential display analysis (DD analysis) in order to identify transcripts that might be (i) candidate markers of metacyclics and intracellular amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis or (ii) potential controls, i.e. constitutively expressed. In total, 48 DNA fragments gave reliable sequencing data, 29 of them being potential markers of infective stages and 12 potential controls. Eight sequences could be identified with reported genes. Validation of the results of DD analysis was done for 4 genes (2 ...
ID A4HCD6_LEIBR Unreviewed; 664 AA. AC A4HCD6; DT 01-MAY-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 05-APR-2011, sequence version 2. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 49. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAM45119.2}; GN ORFNames=LBRM_22_0730 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAM45119.2}; OS Leishmania braziliensis. OC Eukaryota; Euglenozoa; Kinetoplastida; Trypanosomatidae; OC Leishmaniinae; Leishmania; Leishmania braziliensis species complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=5660 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007258}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAM45119.2, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007258} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=MHOM/BR/75/M2904 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CAM45119.2, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007258}; RX PubMed=17572675; DOI=10.1038/ng2053; RA Peacock C.S., Seeger K., Harris D., Murphy L., Ruiz J.C., Quail M.A., RA Peters N., Adlem E., Tivey A., Aslett M., Kerhornou A., Ivens A., RA Fraser A., Rajandream M.-A., Carver T., Norbertczak H., RA Chillingworth T., Hance Z., Jagels K., ...
As key cells, able to host and kill Leishmania parasites, inflammatory monocytes/macrophages are potential vaccine and therapeutic targets to improve immune responses in Leishmaniasis. Macrophage phenotypes range from M1, which express NO-mediated microbial killing, to M2 macrophages that might help infection. Resistance to Leishmaniasis depends on Leishmania species, mouse strain, and both innate and adaptive immunity. C57BL/6 (B6) mice are resistant and control infection, whereas Leishmania parasites thrive in BALB/c mice, which are susceptible to develop cutaneous lesions in the course of infection with Leishmania major, but not upon infection with Leishmania braziliensis. Here, we investigated whether a deficit in early maturation of inflammatory monocytes into macrophages in BALB/c mice underlies increased susceptibility to L. major versus L. braziliensis parasites. We show that, after infection with L. ...
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that distresses millions in the poorest regions of the globe. There are no anti-Leishmania vaccines approved for human use. Mice pre-exposed to uninfected sand fly bites (USFB) are protected against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). To test if pre-exposure to USFB protects rhesus monkeys against CL, we first developed a model where monkeys challenged with 50 L. major-infected Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies developed self-healing cutaneous lesions mimicking human CL. In a following experiment, we exposed animals 3 times, every 21 days, to 20 uninfected P. duboscqi. We found that 70% of the monkeys reacted to USFB(DTH reaction and antibodies). Twenty-one days after the last exposure to USFB naïve, pre-exposed reactive (PE-R) and pre-exposed non-reactive monkeys were challenged with 50 L. major-infected P. ...
Cytochrome b and Molecular Typing of Leishmania spp. in a Passive Sampling of Suspected Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Eastern Iran
A series of fifty arylideneketones and thiazolidenehydrazines was evaluated against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Furthermore, new simplified thiazolidenehydrazine derivatives were evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi. The cytotoxicity of the active compounds on non-infected fibroblasts or macrophages was established in vitro to evaluate the selectivity of their anti-parasitic effects. Seven thiazolidenehydrazine derivatives and ten arylideneketones had good activity against the three parasites. The IC50 values for T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. ranged from 90 nM-25 µM. Eight compounds had multi-trypanocidal activity against T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. (the etiological agents of cutaneous and visceral forms). The selectivity of these active compounds was better than the three reference drugs: benznidazole, glucantime and miltefosine. They also had low toxicity when tested in vivo on zebrafish. Trying to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds, ...
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed ...
Received: 19 Feb, 2010 Accepted: 26 May , 2010 Abstract Background &Aims: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that more than 12 million people suffer from it currently. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still an important public health problem in many parts of the world. No satisfactory treatment of the CL has been ...
To the Editor: Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) is a fatal disease caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the female sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes. In the state of Assam, India, kala-azar epidemics occurred during 1875-1950 and resulted in thousands of deaths in the districts of Kamrup, Garo Hills, Goalpara, and Nagaon (1,2). The disease gradually disappeared from Assam because of the extensive use of DDT in the national malaria elimination program, and results of later entomologic studies indicated that there were no P. argentipes sandflies in this region after DDT use (3). However, sporadic kala-azar cases appeared again in Assam in 2004 (4), and in 2008, we reported a kala-azar outbreak in Kamrup (5), where kala-azar epidemics had occurred during the 1870s (1).. At bimonthly intervals during 2012, we conducted house-to-house surveys in 4 villages in the district of Kamrup, 845 households and 4,376 persons. Residents are socioeconomically ...
Abstract. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. A total of 539 cases of leishmaniasis were confirmed, with 29.5% occurring in children under 5 years of age. The median age was 10 years, with predominance in males (55.5%). The indigenous Emberá (aboriginal Americans) were the most affected (50.8%), and 93.3% of cases occurred in people living in scattered rural areas. All lesions corresponded to ...
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but p
Abstract. Miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species with variable efficacy. Our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. In this phase II/III randomized clinical trial, 90 CL patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (N = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/Sb/kg/day/20 days) (N = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. Patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) noninfected parasitological proven CL without previous treatment. Definitive cure was accessed at 6 months follow-up visit. No severe adverse events occurred. Vomiting was the most frequent adverse event (48.3%) followed by nausea (8.6%) and diarrhea (6.7%). Cure rates were 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.8-82.7) and 53.6% (95% CI = 33.9-72.5) (P = 0.05) for miltefosine and antimonial, ...
A research team at The University of Texas at El Paso is one step closer to developing an effective human vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, a tropical disease found in Texas and Oklahoma, and affecting some U.S. troops stationed in Afghanistan and Iraq.. UTEP biological sciences doctoral student Eva Iniguez; her mentors Rosa Maldonado, Ph.D., and Igor Almeida, Ph.D.; and their teams and collaborators in Liverpool (Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ph.D.) and Saudi Arabia (Waleed Al-Salem, Ph.D.), recently published their research findings in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the first journal solely devoted to the worlds most neglected tropical diseases.. Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan leishmania parasites, which are transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies - flies that are three times smaller than a mosquito. According to the World Health Organization, there are ...
Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct shows in vitro activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis associated with a reduction in IL-6 and IL-10 but independent of nitric oxide - Volume 140 Issue 1 - F. M. AMORIM, Y. K. S. RODRIGUES, T. P. BARBOSA, P. L. N. NÉRIS, J. P. A. CALDAS, S. C. O. SOUSA, J. A. LEITE, S. RODRIGUES-MASCARENHAS, M. L. A. A. VASCONCELLOS, M. R. OLIVEIRA
The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fisch...
Cutaneous Old World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in an Afghan woman. A, Initial presentation of the dry, plaque-like lesion with central nodule on
Leishmaniasis constitutes a complex of diseases with clinical and epidemiological diversity and includes visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that is fatal when left untreated. In earlier studies, the authors reported that Aloe vera leaf exudate (AVL) is a potent antileishmanial agent effective in promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum and also in axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that, in promastigotes of L. donovani (IC50=110 μg ml−1), AVL mediates this leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. Incubation of promastigotes with AVL caused translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane as measured by annexin V binding, which was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and concomitant nuclear ...
The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992-2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven ...
Transmission of Leishmania tropica was studied in 2 adjacent foci in Israel where vector populations differ. Only Phlebotomus sergenti was found infected with L. tropica in the southern focus; P. arabicus was the main vector in the northern focus. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were incriminated as reservoir hosts in both foci. L. tropica strains from the northern focus isolated from sand flies, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and rock hyraxes were antigenically similar to L. major, and strains from the southern focus were typically L. tropica. Laboratory studies showed that P. arabicus is a competent vector of L. tropica, and P. sergenti is essentially refractory to L. tropica from the northern focus. Susceptibility of P. arabicus may be mediated by O glycoproteins on the luminal surface of its midgut. The 2 foci differ with respect to parasites and vectors, but increasing peridomestic rock hyrax populations are probably responsible for ...
Infections caused by the protozoan leishmania represent a wide range of diseases, including CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) [10]. The disease is endemic in 88 countries of southern Europe, Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. More than 350 million men, women and children are at risk of leishmaniasis worldwide [11]. The are 12 million individuals suffering from the disease worldwide, with half a million new cases of VL and 1.5 million cases of CL registered annually [11]. The incidence of infections caused by leishmania in HIV-infected patients is increasing throughout the world [12].. Although VL is the most frequent form of leishmania infection seen in HIV-infected patients, CL and HIV co-infections are also becoming frequent in these individuals [12]. CL manifests as single or multiple ...
Activated CD4(+) T helper cells (Th) comprise at least two functionally distinct subsets, Th1 and Th2, which mediate different immunological effector functions. Experimental leishmaniasis is widely used to study the effector function of Th cell subsets in vivo. Healing and nonhealing Leishmania major infections have been correlated with polarized Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively. In the study presented here, a stable cell surface marker expressed on Th2 cells, T1/ST2, has been used to assess the distribution of CD4(+)T1/ST2(+) T cells in different organs of healer and nonhealer strains of mice during the course of L. major infection. The frequency of CD4(+) T cells expressing the T1/ST2 cell surface marker and Th2 cytokines in the lymphoid organs was low in both strains of infected mice; however, CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells could be enriched from the lymphoid organs of infected nonhealer but riot from healer strains of mice. The highest frequency of CD4(+) T1/ST2(+)T cells ...
Leishmaniasis is a disease spread by the bite of the sandfly. It is found mostly in tropical countries. There are several types of leishmaniasis, and they vary in symptoms and severity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, or kala azar) is the most severe; left untreated, it is always fatal. Its symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and a swelling of the spleen and liver. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, or espundia) produces lesions that affect the nose, mouth, and throat and can destroy their mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) produces skin ulcers, sometimes as many as 200, that cause disability and extensive scarring. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is similar to CL, and infected people ...
Abstract Oligonucleotide primers directed to the minicircle kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania strains supported enzymatic amplification of this DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single product of 70 basepairs was obtained from parasites belonging exclusively to the L. braziliensis complex. Direct sequencing of the amplified product confirmed its minicircle origin. Skin biopsy specimens from human patients were used directly for the PCR. A pulse incubation of such specimens with deoxyribonuclease I prior to the PCR increased the reliability of the assay. Nuclease disruption of the kinetoplast network was expected to make more copies of the minicircle accessible to amplification. Comparative results between the PCR and conventional parasitologic detection procedures indicate that the DNA detection approach presented is by far more sensitive for diagnostic purposes. Innovations in the PCR protocol are presented that adapt the diagnosis of leishmaniasis ...
In order to understand the mechanism of molecular interactions at the active site of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P), homology modeling and docking studies were performed. We generated a Three-Dimensional (3D) model of target protein based on the Crystal structure of Leishmania Major Try PI (PDB ID: 3TUE) using modeler software. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P). Inhibition of the Tryparedoxin peroxidase interaction has become a new therapeutic strategy in treating leishmaniasis. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (TryP). Tryparedoxin peroxidase of Trypanosomatidae family functions as antioxidant through their peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities. The theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample previously reported for anti-cancer properties of Methotrexate at the binding site of 3D models of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase of ...
The Leishmanin skin test was performed on 1353 people in a kala-azar endemic region of south-west Ethiopia. Physical examinations were also carried out on 2723. Two of these individuals, both males, had active visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania organisms demonstrated by spleen puncture. Two other males, including one member of the research team, had parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because there was negligible migration and little movement of individuals outside of their tribal territories, the geographical distribution of skin test positivity and clinical findings could be determined and correlated with environmental parameters. The level of positive skin tests for the groups tested ranged from over 64% for the three tribes collectively inhabiting the lower regions of the Omo Valley (altitude approx. 500 m) to 6.4% for the Suri tribe, which lives at 1400 m. Skin test positivity was ...
Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) is a protozoan parasite, and the causative agent of cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous (ML) leishmaniasis in South America. ML is a severe and disfiguring form of the disease, usually compromising ...
PENAFORTE, Klauber Menezes et al. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. [online]. 2013, vol.22, n.4, pp.592-596. ISSN 1984-2961. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612013000400022.. Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical ...
Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) from Ecuador were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia) panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes), L. (V.) guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes), L. (V.) braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes), L. (Leishmania) mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes), L. (L.) amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes) and L. (L.) major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme). L. panamensis was ...
Fig 2: unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic averages dendrogram built from Jaccards genetic distance based on the analysis of 11 isoenzymatic loci. References stocks of Leishmania: L. (L.) mexicana (MNYC/BZ/M379), L. (L.) chagasi (MHOM/BR/74/PP75), L. (V.) braziliensis (MHOM/BO/84/LPZ595). The strains were isolated from the corresponding code of the patient in Table.. The current analysis of the strains evidences the occurrence of the three Leishmania complexes (L. donovani, L. braziliensis and L. mexicana) in the studied area as well as co-infections with T. cruzi. Detection of Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi from blood and aspirate samples byPCR-hybridization - PCR-hybridization was applied on blood and aspirate lesion samples of the 29 patients using the five specific probes to identify Leishmania complexes and major clones 20 and 39 of T. cruzi. A typical result for a series of PCR tests is shown in Fig. 3a. Using L1-L2 primers, multi-sized products ranging from 100 bp to 1300 bp and ...
INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular parasite which is transmitting to humans via the bite of infected sand flies. The disease is prevalent in over 90 countries and in excess of 1 million new cases were reported yearly around the globe 1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL( is considered as the most frequently type of leishmaniasis that is explained by lengthened coutaneous lesions and constant scars in place of sand fly bites 2, 3.. Reviews have shown that, the greater part of the CL patients are reported from Iran, Afghanistan, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria in the Old World; and Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru in the New World 3 - 5.. Although researchers are studying to achieve an effective vaccine for CL, however, no effective vaccine has been discovered; accordingly, the perfection and improvement of the current agents and ...
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and ...
RAMAYO, L.G. et al. Study of the sera electrophoretic profile in dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. InVet [online]. 2011, vol.13, n.2, pp. 69-76. ISSN 1668-3498.. Visceral leishmaniasis in a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi), transmited by phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis. Canines are its main reservoir in urban and suburban areas. Forty sera from sick dogs with leishmaniasis confirmed by parasitological diagnosis were analized in a retrospective study. Sera were obtained during 2006-2008 in the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Argentina. Eighty % (32 out of 40) of these samples showed distortions in the electrophoretic profile, characterized by a diminished albumin/globulin ratio and the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 52.5 % (21 out of 40) of the samples, or IgG-monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 27.5 % ...
Photo 4. Show lesion in hamster thre months after inoculation. L. braziliensis, the causative organism of Espundia, is difficult to demonstrate in the lesions. Inoculation into the nose and feet of hamsters may result in the development of small nodules at the inoculation sites nine months or more later. Culture in vitro is very difficult. This is termed a slow strain of parasite.. ...
To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote endemic regions, a simple and cheap sampling methodology was required for miltefosine quantification. The aim of this study was to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spots (DBS) and to validate its use in Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Since hematocrit (Ht) values are typically severely decreased in VL patients, regressing to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values.Miltefosine was extracted from DBS using a simple pre-treatment method with methanol, resulting in ,97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10-2,000 ng/mL and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at LLOQ), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10-30 ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a ...
Evaluation of a Possible Synergistic Effect of Meglumine Antimoniate with Paromomycin, Miltefosine or Allopurinol on in Vitro Susceptibility of Leishmania tropica Resistant Isolate.
ALVES, Graziella Borges et al. Phlebotomine sandflies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) at rural settlements in the municipality of Cáceres, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2012, vol.45, n.4, pp.437-443. Epub 26-Jul-2012. ISSN 0037-8682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822012005000010.. INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is expanding across Brazil, including the State of Mato Grosso (MT). The aim of this study was to characterize the phlebotomine sandfly fauna at threerural settlements located in the municipality of Cáceres, MT, from August 2010 to July 2011. METHODS: Sandfly captures were conducted at the forest border and in intra and peridomicile areas with automatic light traps, biweekly, from 5pm to 6am. RESULTS: Of the 630 sandflies collected, 348 were female, and 282 were male. Captured specimens were distributed across 11 genera - Brumptomyia, Evandromyia, Expapillata, Lutzomyia, Martinsmyia, Micropygomyia, Nyssomyia, Pintomyia, Psathyromyia, ...
Background: Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India. Methods: Standard treatment (1 mg/kg amphotericin B infusion on alternate days for 30 days, total dose 15 mg/kg) was compared with three drug combinations (single injection of 5 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin B and 7-day 50 mg oral miltefosine or single 10-day 11 mg/kg intramuscular paromomycin; or 10 days each of miltefosine and paromomycin) in an open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in two hospital sites in Bihar, India. Patients aged 5-60 years with parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were randomly assigned one of the four treatments by the trial statistician using a computer-generated list. Clinical assessments were done at the end of treatment (15 days on combination ...
Leishmania /liːʃˈmeɪniə/ is a genus of trypanosomes that are responsible for the disease leishmaniasis. They are spread by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World, and of the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. At least 93 sandfly species are proven or probable vectors worldwide. Their primary hosts are vertebrates; Leishmania commonly infects hyraxes, canids, rodents, and humans. The first written reference to the conspicuous symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis surfaced in the Paleotropics within oriental texts dating back to the 7th century BC (allegedly transcribed from sources several hundred years older, between 1500 and 2000 BC). Due to its broad and persistent prevalence throughout antiquity as a mysterious disease of diverse symptomatic outcomes, leishmaniasis has been dubbed with various names ranging from "white leprosy" to "black fever". ...
The unpleasant smell of infected fungating tumors and benign cutaneous ulcers is a distressing clinical problem, known to be associated with anaerobic infection. Topical metronidazole 0.8% gel has been shown to decrease smell from fungating malodorous tumors. This study was conducted to assess prospectively the subjective and bacteriological response to 0.75% metronidazole gel to decrease smell from these lesions and to assess whether bacterial contamination of the tubes of gel occurs during use. Forty-seven patients with benign or malignant cutaneous lesions associated with a foul smell were assessed for smell, pain, appearance, and bacteriological profile before entry and at 7 and 14 days. Forty-one (95%) of the 43 patients assessed at 14 days reported decreased smell. Anaerobic infection was initially found in 25 (53%) of patients and was eliminated in 21 (84%) of these. At review after 7 days, patients reported less pain from the ...
The leishmaniosis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoan from the genus Leishmania spp., wich is considered in expansion in Brazil. In 2002 it was notify the first autochthonous human case of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in a district of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Presently, 17 human cases were notified until November 2005, and there are many suspect cases, waiting for the diagnostic confirmation, converting this State in a risk area for the ATL. In the urban area, the dog plays an important role, acting as a source of infection and reservoir of this protozoan. Therefore a serological evaluation was done in 200 domicilliary dogs in a 1 km radius from 3 autochthonous human cases that occurred at the Rincão Road, located at the region of Lomba do Pinheiro, Porto Alegre district, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Indirect immunofluorescent reaction (IFR) was used for the serologic ...
Development of Leishmania parasites in the digestive tract of their sandfly vectors involves several morphological transformations from the intracellular mammalian amastigote via a succession of free and gut wall-attached promastigote stages to the infective metacyclic promastigotes. At the foregut midgut transition of Leishmania-infected sandflies a gel-like plug of unknown origin and composition is formed, which contains high numbers of parasites, that occludes the gut lumen and which may be responsible for the often observed inability of infected sandflies to draw blood. This "blocked fly" phenotype has been linked to efficient transmission of infectious metacyclic promastigotes from the vector to the mammalian host. We show by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy on two Leishmania/sandfly vector combinations (Leishmania mexicana/Lutzomyia longipalpis and L. major/Phlebotomus papatasi) that the gel-like mass is formed mainly by a parasite-derived mucin-like filamentous ...
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ...
Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively, affect millions of people worldwide, most of them belonging to neglected populations. Diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are employed during epidemiological surveys of vectorial and oral transmission, blood bank screening, analysis of pregnant women and their newborns, and in individual cases. However, the currently available assays need improvement. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite increase the difficulties of making diagnostic kits with different markers suitable for the diverse scenarios of T. cruzi infection. Different Leishmania species cause diverse clinical features and sequelae and require different clinical management. In contrast to Chagas disease diagnosis, molecular diagnosis for leishmaniasis requires not only confirmation of the ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Despite the euthanasia of dogs serologically positive, such action has not solved the endemic in Brazil. A risk area for VL involves the presence of the vector, the occurrence of canines and the record of human cases. The factors that have favored the persistence and spread of VL in Brazil are related to the predatory action of man on the environment, to the migratory movements and rural exodus, and a close coexistence of man and animals. Thus considering the epidemiological chain of VL, one fact seems clear: we do not know yet the true extent of the participation of the dog in the infectious cycle of VL. The clinical disease is an important indicator of the extent of the problem in an endemic area. The immunological events are complex and involve resistance and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). One aspect in CVL is ...
by Ibarra-Meneses AV, Ghosh P, Hossain P, Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Alvar J, Moreno J and Carrillo E. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2017, doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00200.. Summary: New biomarkers are needed for monitoring the effectiveness of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis. They might also improve the detection of the asymptomatic population in Leishmania-endemic areas. This paper examines four potential biomarkers - IL-2, IFN-g, IFN-g-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and monokine-induced-by-IFN-g (MIG) - from asymptomatic individuals and patients treated for VL living in a post-outbreak (Leishmania infantum) area in Spain, and in an endemic (Leishmania donovani) area of Bangladesh. Determining IP-10, MIG, and IFN-g levels proved useful in monitoring the cellular immune response following treatment for active disease caused by L. infantum.. Click here to read the article / PDF. ...
Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis is principally predicated on antimonials. and 13e werent dangerous against fibroblasts, macrophages, or dendritic cells. Jointly, these results claim that the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates 13b and 13e are potential antileishmanial business lead substances with low toxicity against web host cells and selective antiparasitic results. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is situated generally on antimony substances, initially defined in 1912 by Vianna (42) in Brazil as trivalent antimonials [Sb(III)]. These substances display high toxicity and a small therapeutic window, conditions that led to the introduction of the pentavalent antimonium [Sb(V)] agencies sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), presented around 1940 (31, 38). Pentavalent antimonium substances display a wider healing window and therefore became the medications of preference against ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection caused primarily by Leishmania donovani in the Old World, and by Leishmania amazonensis in the New World.1 VL is also known as kala azar (Hindu name meaning black poison), and is found in tropical and subtropical regions. VL is a chronic illness that is characterised by irregular fever, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia and leucopenia, and progressive weakness and emaciation which can result in death if left untreated. The vector is the female sandfly, and in most regions, the dog is the reservoir. The causative organism was first isolated in 1903.2 In vertebrates, the parasites are found intracellularly in the reticuloendothelial system as the amastigote form, which is aflagellate, round, and 2-4 μm in diameter (Leishman-Donovan body, LDB). Infection results in notable proliferation of the reticuloendothelial system. In the vector, the promastigote form is flagellate, spindle shaped, and 15-20 μm long.1 It is estimated that ...
Families have resorted to the use battery acid for cars, ground sulfur, petroleum jelly and herbs to treat the parasitic disease that causes skin ulcers.. Uta is a mild form of New World or American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by the parasite, Leishmania peruviana, occurring in the high Andean valleys of Peru and Bolivia, and characterized by numerous small dermal lesions occurring almost exclusively on exposed skin surfaces.. The provinces of Pallasca, Santa and Yungay have been hit badly, according to the report.. The regional head of Ancash, Jhony Cano Suarez said 10,800 vials of gluconate have been distributed for the treatment of patients and has asked that patient go to health centers for treatment and not to use "home remedies"on Uta wounds as it can be harmful.. Related: ...
Background: Leishmania is a pathogenic parasite which infects mononuclear cells in vertebrate hosts. Different strategies have been taken to develop immunity against Leishmania . DCs loaded with immunogenic antigen have resulted in different levels of Th1-type immune response and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activity. Objective: To evaluate the potency of DCs primed with soluble Leishmania mexicana antigens (SLA) in developing CTL activity. Methods: DCs were loaded with SLA and injected to Balb/c mice. After two weeks the mice were sacrificed and their splenocytes were used as effector cells in a standard 4-hour cytotoxicity assay against DCs transfected with pcDNA3 containing L. mexicana gp63 gene. Results: Immunization of Balb/c mice with DCs loaded with SLA resulted in high levels of CTL activity against DCs transfected with pcDNA3 containing L. mexicana gp63 gene. Conclusions: The results indicate a high potency for DCs primed with Leishmania antigens in inducing CTL activity, which can be used for
... is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and to prevent and treat pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system involvement, as a second line option to suramin.[1] It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney problems.[1] Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea.[1] It is unclear if doses should be changed in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] Pentamidine is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used ...
Infection by protozoa haemoflagates of the genus leishmania can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes which are grouped together as visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous disease.1 Imported leishmania infection is on the increase as a result of increased travel to endemic areas and adventure tourism.. There are at least 30 species of leishmania of which 12 named and several un-named affect man.2 The protozoa are intracellular (amastigote) in rodents and dogs, which act as a reservoir, and there is an extracellular form (promastigote) in sandflies, which are the vector.. The mucocutaneous form of the disease is almost exclusively restricted to South America where it is known as espundia. Untreated, this can lead to gross nasal oral and laryngopharyngeal destruction and death. All reported cases in the UK have been in travellers from South America.3,4 The protozoon responsible is commonly L braziliensis, and ...
SHAFAQNA-. Leishmaniasis is a chronic skin disease shared between humans and animals that transmitted to humans by rats and appear to skin lesions that may appear after a few months. If you do not pay attention to the treatment of cutaneous wound, that remained even if improve.. While ago, Health Minister, on the sidelines of the National Conference of the disease in 17 of the countrys health and increased disease in the province due to the increase in planting summer crops in some cities and the ravages of modern state construction and demolition wastes.. The incidence of leishmaniasis in tropical countries such as China, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Palestine, the Caucasus and southeastern Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India is the story of having old story and even in our country long ago as endemic diseases Kerman, Isfahan, Shiraz, Bushehr, Khuzestan, ...
Title: Perspectives for New Drugs Against Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Michael P. Barrett and Ian H. Gilbert. Affiliation:University of Glasgow,Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection&Immunity, The Joseph Black Building, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, U.K.. Keywords:trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, phenanthridinium compound, trypanocidal drugs, megazol. Abstract: Diseases caused by pathogenic trypanosomatids cause great suffering throughout the developing world. New drugs for these diseases are urgently needed. Recent technological advances have permitted the identification and validation of numerous drug targets in these organisms. However, efforts to develop inhibitors of these targets, that may then be taken forward for development into new drugs, have been comparatively scarce. In this review we discuss the design, synthesis and evaluation of inhibitors of two drug targets in ...
The current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) throughout arid areas of Central Tunisia is a major public health concern. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia have led to the establishment of a stable cycle involving sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius and Leishmania infantum, and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. Sand flies were collected from the village of Saddaguia, a highly irrigated zone located within an arid bio-geographical area of Central Tunisia by using modified Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps. Morphological keys were used to identify sand flies. Collected sand flies were pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool according to date and tested by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing from positive pools was used to identify Leishmania spp. A total of 4915 sand flies (2422 females and 2493 males) were collected from ...
Here we describe extracellular matrix alterations in footpad lesions and draining lymph nodes caused by Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in mouse strains with distinct susceptibilities to this parasite: BALB/c (susceptible), C57BL/6 (intermediate), and DBA/2 (resistant). Changes in ECM were observed mainly in BALB/c mice that, in general, presented tissue damage associated with high parasite burden. Under polarized light, Sirius Red revealed type I collagen that was predominant in the primary lesion in all strains studied at the early phase of infection, but gradually decreased and was replaced by abundant type III collagen fibre in chronic phase lesions. the presence of type III collagen seemed to provide support to inflammatory cells, mainly vacuolated and parasitized macrophages. Laminin expression was not altered during infection by L. (L.) amazonensis in any of the mouse strains studied. Furthermore, the decreased fibronectin expression, in all strains, in areas where amastigotes have been ...
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a vector-borne disease caused by|i| Leishmania infantum|/i| and is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies primarily between animals and secondarily to humans. The course of infection may be different from one individual dog to another, ranging from spontaneous cure to acute evolution that leads to death, if proper management and therapy are not adopted. A parasitological cure is rarely achieved and clinical recurrences in CanL are frequent. Vaccination associated with the use of topical insecticides is undoubtedly the most effective form of prevention and control of the disease. In order to integrate the most important scientific knowledge of the literature in one objective publication, this review proposes a short overview of the main points of CanL.
The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS) is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of v
Journal of Tropical Medicine and Health is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes research related to health problems that occur in a unique or more generalized way or more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions along with surgical concepts.
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic disease in some parts of Iran. Many techniques have been used for diagnosis of VL, among which the urine based la-tex agglutination test (KAtex) is a promising one. Objective: To compare three diag-nostic tests of VL including KAtex, ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in VL patients and healthy controls in the south west of Iran. Methods: Serum (n = 29) and urine samples (n = 31) were collected from parasitologically confirmed VL patients. Control samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n = 61) and also from patients with infectious diseases other than VL. The collected serum samples were tested by DAT and ELISA using crude antigen from promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and the urine samples were tested by KAtex. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex for diagnosis of VL was found to be 83.9% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of DAT and ELISA were 93.1% and 86.2% and their specificities were ...
Issue Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the major neglected parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and Africa, and is fatal if left untreated. Although assays based on detection of antibodies against the parasite (such as the rK39 test) have been developed, these tests cannot distinguish active disease from asymptomatic infections because they cannot directly detect the presence of the parasite in the blood. Definitive diagnosis of VL still relies on non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever and enlarged spleen, combined with a positive rK39 serological test. Development of a simple assay that can determine Leishmania levels in the blood is urgently needed for VL diagnosis, monitoring, treatment and to determine which asymptomatic-infected individuals can transmit or develop disease. Solution The project aimed to develop a diagnostic test that could detect Leishmania parasites in the blood. Based on the assumption that Leishmania proteins that are ...
OBJECTIVES. Pentavalent antimonials, alone or in combination with allopurinol, are the most frequently drugs used in the management of canine leishmaniasis (CL). Despite clinical remission occurs in a majority of cases, most dogs remain parasitologically infected and relapses are frequent. It should be considered that if a clinical but not parasitological cure is achieved, dogs may act as a reservoir of the disease. Moreover, side effects and development of resistances must be considered. Amphotericin B desoxycholate (AmB) is a powerful leishmanicidal agent. Its use in dogs with CL it not very extended, due in part to its nephrotoxicity. Recently the initial effectiveness and toxicity of a new protocol using a lipid emulsion of AmB was assessed.2 The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate both, the initial and the long-term efficacy of this protocol in the treatment of dogs naturally infected with CL. MATERIALS. 14 dogs showing clinical signs of CL and diagnosed after ...
False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Leishmania sp., a parasitic flagellate protozoan that causes the disease leishmaniasis in humans. The parasite assumes a different form in each of its two hosts, humans & the sandfly, its insect carrier. This example, from human tissue, appears as an elongated oval structure, with no protruding flagellum, and is known as a Leishman- Donovan body. Here, the flagellum (outlined in pink) appears retracted. In its sandfly host, it takes on an elongated, motile (flagellate) form. Human infection affects cells of the lymphatic system, spleen & bone marrow. Magnification: x7,600 at 6x7cm, x3,800 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0067
Parasitic promastigotes that cause leishmaniosis in humans (Leishmania braziliensis), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This tropical protozoan disease is transmitted by bites from infected sand flies (insect vector). The parasites are ingested by the insect vector during a blood meal from a mammal or human. The parasites in humans are found within macrophages in the amastigote form. In the blood stream they transform into the promastigote form. Promastigotes multiple by longitudinal fission in the gut of the insect. Leishmaniosis occurs in two forms: cutaneous which affects the skin and mucous membranes, usually giving rise to an ulcer at the site of the insect bite. Some patients develop a more destructive and progressive infection in mucosal tissue. The more serious kala-azar causes fever and liver damage, and it can be fatal. Magnification: x2,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image ...
Parasitic promastigotes that cause leishmaniosis in humans (Leishmania braziliensis), scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This tropical protozoan disease is transmitted by bites from infected sand flies (insect vector). The parasites are ingested by the insect vector during a blood meal from a mammal or human. The parasites in humans are found within macrophages in the amastigote form. In the blood stream they transform into the promastigote form. Promastigotes multiple by longitudinal fission in the gut of the insect. Leishmaniosis occurs in two forms: cutaneous which affects the skin and mucous membranes, usually giving rise to an ulcer at the site of the insect bite. Some patients develop a more destructive and progressive infection in mucosal tissue. The more serious kala-azar causes fever and liver damage, and it can be fatal. Magnification: x2,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C036/9918
Author Summary We explored the consequences of climate change for the spread of leishmaniasis in North America. We modeled the distribution of two sand fly vector and four rodent reservoir species found in northern México and the southern United States. Models were based on occurrence data and environmental and topographic layers. Successful models were projected to 2020, 2050, and 2080 using an extreme (A2) and a conservative (B2) future climate scenario. We predicted potential range shifts of vector and reservoir species varying assumptions about dispersal ability and capacity to persist in habitats with different degrees of ecological suitability. Even with the most conservative assumptions the distributions of both vector and reservoir species expand northwards, potentially reaching as far as southern Canada in the east. Assuming that at least one vector and one reservoir species must be present for a parasite cycle, the extent of this shift is predicted to be controlled ...
Cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) is referred to a group of diseases because of the varied clinical presentation, ranging from small cutaneous nodule to wide spread mucosal destruction. The nose is rarely involved by CL in even in endemic region. In this report we describe a rare rhinophymatous presentation of CL from a non-endemic region which was diagnosed by fine needle sampling and treated with Miltefosine.
Vice President, Formulation / Principal Investigator. Since joining IDRI in 2007, Chris has played an integral role in developing, characterizing, and manufacturing cGMP vaccine adjuvant formulations for clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates against a variety of infectious diseases, including leishmaniasis, malaria, tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. He currently serves as principal investigator on multiple projects including a $17.5M contract from the National Institutes of Health to develop a first-in-human intranasal vaccine against amebiasis, a $11.9M contract from the NIH to develop and clinically test a thermostable tuberculosis vaccine, an $8M cooperative agreement from BARDA to establish IDRI as a global adjuvant hub for pandemic influenza preparedness, and a $4.4M R01 grant from the NIH to develop sustainable raw material sources for vaccine adjuvant formulations using bioengineering and chemical engineering approaches.. He also leads IDRIs ...
We identified four Qa SNARE proteins (SynE1 and SynE2, Syx16A and SyxB), four Qb SNARE (VTI1-like A, B and NPSNA and NPSNB), four Qc SNAREs (Syp7A, Syp7B, Syx6-like and Syx8-like), and four R-SNAREs (VAMP7A, B, C and D) as orthologues of SNARE proteins involved in endosomal, lysosomal and retrograde trafficking pathways. For several, multiple paralogs exist, particularly in the basal bodonids and the T. cruzi group (Fig. 5A; Fig. S3A-D).. Except for B. saltans and T. vivax, SynE1 is present in all kinetoplastids and possibly duplicated in the parasitic bodonid T. borreli. SynE2 is also present in all kinetoplastids and duplicated in the T. cruzi group. Two paralogs of Syx16, Syx16A and Syx16B, are conserved across kinetoplastids. Thus, both SynE and Syn16 underwent duplication at least once early in the lineage evolution. As in the SynPM proteins, all Syx16A proteins lack a TMD, while all Syx16B except T. borreli retain the TMD. L. braziliensis also shows lineage-specific duplication of Syx16A, ...
Parasites that ulcerate the skin, can disfigure the face, and may fatally mutilate its victims internal organs are creeping closer to the southern edges of the United States.. No vaccine is available against Leishmania yet, but researchers have now come closer to changing that. A new experimental vaccine, made with a proprietary biological particle developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology, has immunized laboratory mice that were genetically altered to mimic the human immune system.. The vaccine exploits a weakness in Leishmanias tricky chemical camouflage, which normally hides it from the victims disease-fighting cells, to trigger a forceful immune response against the parasite, according to a new study.. Second-deadliest parasite. Leishmania are the second-deadliest parasites in the world, topped only by malaria, according to the World Health Organization. There are some 30 strains of Leishmania.. They are transmitted mainly through the bite of a phlebotomine sand fly, which feeds ...
Casal, the true substructure in the data is unknown. 51,52 The eye itself may occasionally be destroyed in severe cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. 000 0.
Learn how to call Montenegro from Netherlands. Out complete resource guide gives you the Montenegro country code & Dutch dialing code to make your international calls.
The power in Montenegro doesnt change for quarter of a century, in fact, it has developed a one-party system with the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists there. It is headed by Milo Djukanovic, who is 26 years at the helm of the Montenegro either as a president or as the prime minister.. Djukanovic considers one of his main achievements is the declaration of Montenegrin independence in 2006 and doesnt get tired to assert the correctness of this decision, allegedly there could be seen increase of the economy, wages and inflow of investments. However, those stories are good only for the Western partners that the current PM is trying to show in every way, saying he is worthy to take a place on EU and NATO Olympus.. In fact, half of the population lives below the absolute poverty, unemployment and corruption exponentialy prospers. The gap between rich and poor increases and, as a consequence, increases public discontent with the policy of ruling elite.. Peoples anger is quite understandable. ...
United States Foreign Relations Montenegro News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about United States Foreign Relations Montenegro From The latimes
The report Rice Market in Montenegro to 2021 offers the most up-to-date industry data on the actual market situation, and future outlook for rice in Montenegro.
... is competent body for the production of official statistics. National and international public recognizes MONSTAT role as a provider of official statistics in Montenegro s statistical system.
... is competent body for the production of official statistics. National and international public recognizes MONSTAT role as a provider of official statistics in Montenegro s statistical system.
Introduction:. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, is a disease with high incidence in Colombia. The diagnosis and identification of the infectious species are critical factors. when selecting and initiating treatment. Currently, the methods for diagnosing and typing cutaneous leishmaniasis require complicated procedures and there is a need for the validation of new molecular markers and methods to simplify the process. ...

Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.  - PubMed - NCBIAntigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. - PubMed - NCBI

Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.. ElHassan AM1, Gaafar A, Theander TG. ... In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7882568

Indigenous Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and...Indigenous Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and...

This is the first report of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica indigenous to Africa south of the Sahara. ... All of the study patients developed cutaneous leishmaniasis while living in or visiting districts in Central and Rift Valley ... Indigenous Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya * Yemane Mebrahtu*,‡, Phillip Lawyer*,‡, John ... This is the first report of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica indigenous to Africa south of the Sahara. ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1988.39.267

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador: Identification of Parasites...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador: Identification of Parasites...

Abstract Twenty-six strains of Leishmania were isolated from cutaneous lesions in humans in 3 different geographical areas of ... Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador: Identification of Parasites by Enzyme Electrophoresis * Authors: Rodrigo X. Armijos, ... Increasing Incidence of Human Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand Authors: Direk Limmathurotsakul, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin, ... Twenty-six strains of Leishmania were isolated from cutaneous lesions in humans in 3 different geographical areas of Ecuador. ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1990.42.424

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 production by monocytes is enhanced by TNF and participates in the pathology of human cutaneous...Matrix metalloproteinase 9 production by monocytes is enhanced by TNF and participates in the pathology of human cutaneous...

9 production by monocytes is enhanced by TNF and participates in the pathology of human cutaneous Leishmaniasis.. [Taís M ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to L.braziliensis infection is characterized by a strong inflammatory response with high ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25393535

B-cell infiltration and frequency of cytokine producing cells differ between localized and disseminated human cutaneous...B-cell infiltration and frequency of cytokine producing cells differ between localized and disseminated human cutaneous...

... role of B cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Immune response in leishmaniasis is implicated in both protection and ... Evaluation of T-cell subsets in the lesion infiltrates of human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunol 9: ... Epidemiological features of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. I. Human ... Experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis: disseminated leishmaniasis in genetically susceptible and resistant mice. Am J Trop Med ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762002000700009

Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Production by Monocytes is Enhanced by TNF and Participates in the Pathology of Human Cutaneous...Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Production by Monocytes is Enhanced by TNF and Participates in the Pathology of Human Cutaneous...

... production by CL patients was presented in higher levels when compared with healthy subjects and early cutaneous leishmaniasis ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003282

Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus | Parasites & Vectors | Full TextMucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text

A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was ... Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic ... Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern ... It has also been described as a rare cause of human visceral leishmaniasis [7]. Although cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-7-118

0054 Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous...0054 Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous...

Species diversity causing human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil. Trop Med Int Health. 2006; 11(9 ... diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border ... Identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi e P. duboscqi using random amplified polymorphic DNA. ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ceará state in Northeasten Brazil: incrimination of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) as a ...
more infohttp://memorias.ioc.fiocruz.br/issues/past-issues/item/6150-0054_phlebotomine-sandfly-diptera-psychodidae-diversity-and-their-leishmania-dna-in-a-hot-spot-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-human-cases-along-the-brazilian-border-with-peru-and-bolivia

IL2RA genetic variants reduce IL-2-dependent responses and aggravate human cutaneous leishmaniasis.  - PubMed - NCBIIL2RA genetic variants reduce IL-2-dependent responses and aggravate human cutaneous leishmaniasis. - PubMed - NCBI

IL2RA genetic variants reduce IL-2-dependent responses and aggravate human cutaneous leishmaniasis.. Oliveira PR1, Dessein H2, ... cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]), limited or disseminated lesions, or lethal visceral disease. We previously reported an ... In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of IL-2 signaling in human CL. We first showed that the transcripts of ... Thus, IL-2 plays a crucial role in protection against the cutaneous ulcers caused by Leishmania, and the IL-2 pathway is a ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=104390

B-cell Infiltration and Frequency of Cytokine Producing Cells Differ between Localized and Disseminated Human Cutaneous...B-cell Infiltration and Frequency of Cytokine Producing Cells Differ between Localized and Disseminated Human Cutaneous...

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease with severe deformating potential in new world. It affects preferentially young ... Evaluation of T-cell subsets in the lesion infiltrates of human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunol 9: ... At present we have no sufficient elements to clarify the complex role of B cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. ... Epidemiological features of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. I. Human ...
more infohttp://memorias-old.ioc.fiocruz.br/issues/current-issue/item/2304-b-cell-infiltration-and-frequency-of-cytokine-producing-cells-differ-between-localized-and-disseminated-human-cutaneous-leishmaniases

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka - Volume 13, Number 7-July 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDCCutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka - Volume 13, Number 7-July 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 ... Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani sensu stricto in Yemen.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995;89:398-9. DOI ... Epidemiological aspect of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:616-20. DOIPubMed ... Sharma NL, Mahajan VK, Kanga A, Sood A, Katoch VM, Mauricio I, Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani and ...
more infohttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/7/06-0773.htm

Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka - Volume 13, Number 3-March 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka - Volume 13, Number 3-March 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...

We identified Leishmania donovani as the agent of Sri Lanka cutaneous leishmaniasis and showed that these parasites are closely ... To investigate the relationship of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates from Sri Lanka to known species, we performed DNA ... related to those causing visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. ... Mebrahtu YB, Van Eys G, Guizani I, Lawyer PG, Pamba H, Koech D, Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani s.l ...
more infohttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/3/06-0242.htm

Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis | Clinical and Vaccine ImmunologyImmunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis | Clinical and Vaccine Immunology

Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused in South American by L. braziliensis is characterized by the presence of one or ... Down-regulation of Th1 type of response in early human American cutaneous leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Dis. 180:1731-1734. ... Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in chronic lesions of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect. Immun. 62:837- ... Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Maria L. B. Sousa-Atta, Gregório S. Salamé, ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/9/1/101

9th symposium on canine vector-borne diseases9th symposium on canine vector-borne diseases

Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus Leishmania tropica is a ... implications for the recent outbreak of human leishmaniosis? Since 2009, the incidence of human leishmaniosis in the SW of the ... causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although ...
more infohttps://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/cvbd9

WHO EMRO | Comparative proteomics study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from...WHO EMRO | Comparative proteomics study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from...

... study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian anthroponotic cutaneous ... Identification of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous Leishmaniasis, using RAPD-PCR. Iranian Journal of Public ... With an annual rate of 1.5 to 2 million new cases throughout the world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains a serious public ... Comparison of miltefosine and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) by a randomized ...
more infohttp://www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-18-2012/issue-2/article-9.html

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing |...Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing |...

The molecular detection of this parasite in human skin smears and in P. sergenti supports the vector status of this species in ... L. tropica ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of P. sergenti specimens and from skin smears of cutaneous leishmaniasis ... L. tropica is confirmed to be the aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the central provinces. RFLP technique ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted by sand fly bites. This disease is highly prevalent in Syria where Leishmania ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-1147-0

WHO EMRO | Cutaneous leishmaniasis as an increasing threat for Iranian travellers attending religious ceremony in Iraq | Short...WHO EMRO | Cutaneous leishmaniasis as an increasing threat for Iranian travellers attending religious ceremony in Iraq | Short...

isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mehran, Western Iran using nested PCR. Iran J Parasitol. 2016 Jan-Mar;11(1):65- ... including cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis (1). Some cutaneous lesions can ... detection and identification of the parasites causing human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Iranian city of Ahvaz. Ann Trop Med ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis as an increasing threat for Iranian travellers attending religious ceremony in Iraq ...
more infohttp://www.emro.who.int/fr/in-press/short-communications/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-as-an-increasing-threat-for-iranian-travellers-attending-religious-ceremony-in-iraq.html

Seasonal dynamics of canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva in an endemic area of Leishmania infantum |...Seasonal dynamics of canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva in an endemic area of Leishmania infantum |...

... while stronger correlations are reported between human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and recent vector exposure (reviewed in [23 ... Immune responses during cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology. 2014;141:1544-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Kamhawi S, Belkaid Y, Modi G, Rowton E, Sacks D. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from bites of uninfected ... Measurement of recent exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian visceral leishmaniasis, by using human antibody ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13071-018-3123-y

The effect of Nd:YAG laser therapy on cutaneous leishmaniasis compared to intralesional meglumine antimoniate
	The effect of Nd:YAG laser therapy on cutaneous leishmaniasis compared to intralesional meglumine antimoniate

Identification of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD- ... Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis. Indian J Dermatol 2006; 72: 41-2. 7. Minodier P, Parola P. Cutaneous leishmaniasis ... Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol 1997; 36: 161-6. 5. Willard RJ, Jeffcoat AM, Benson PM, Walsh DS. Cutaneous ... Leishmaniasis is divided into the new world and the old world [2]. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries (Asia, ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/The-effect-of-Nd-YAG-laser-therapy-on-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-compared-to-intralesional-meglumine-antimoniate,7,35803,1,1.html

Perelló R[au] - PubMed - NCBIPerelló R[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani sensu stricto in Yemen.. Pratlong F, Bastien P, Perello R, Lami P, ... Detection of human cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage of intensive care unit patients. Vergara A et al. Eur Respir J. ( ... Acute street drug poisoning in the patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: the role of chemsex. Perelló R et al. ... Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with community-acquired pneumonia: implication of respiratory viruses]. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Perell%C3%B3+R%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Frontiers | Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients Display Altered Composition and Maturity of Neutrophils as well as Impaired...Frontiers | Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients Display Altered Composition and Maturity of Neutrophils as well as Impaired...

Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, however, their role in human visceral ... Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, however, their role in human visceral ... leishmaniasis is poorly understood.In the present study we evaluated the activation status and effector functions of ... leishmaniasis is poorly understood. In the present study we evaluated the activation status and effector functions of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00517/full

Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny of Leishmania | Springer for Research & DevelopmentMolecular Evolution and Phylogeny of Leishmania | Springer for Research & Development

Etiology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Nicaragua. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85(1):58-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Increased prevalence of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel and the Palestinian Authority caused by the recent emergence of ... A putative Leishmania panamensis/Leishmania braziliensis hybrid is a causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in ... An autochthonous case of cutaneous bovine leishmaniasis in Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169(3-4):408-14.PubMedCrossRef ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-74186-4_2

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American...Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American...

An evaluation of the microbiota present in cutaneous ulcers from 31 patients with a clinical and parasitological diagnosis of ... American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antimicrobial ... Spira, D. T. & Rabinowitz, H. ( 1975;). Host-parasite relationships in cutaneous leishmaniasis. In Dynamic Aspects of Host- ... antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis in ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46070-0
  • Current status of L. infantum infection in stray cats in the Madrid region (Spain): implications for the recent outbreak of human leishmaniosis? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, the prevalence of human parasitic infections, especially those caused by intestinal helminths, has remarkably decreased in the Islamic Republic of Iran (13), but zoonotic CL is spreading in the country and new foci of infection have been reported in recent years (14-19). (who.int)
  • Acute street drug poisoning in the patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: the role of chemsex. (nih.gov)
  • Generally the focus of study is "orphan" illnesses with little or no investment by major pharmaceutical companies and includes parasitic infection such as malaria and leishmaniasis, viral diseases such as dengue fever and other arboviruses, and bacterial illnesses like traveler's diarrhea (ETEC, campylobacter, shigella). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. (fiocruz.br)
  • The findings of different epidemiological profiles of leishmaniasis, together with records of outbreaks both in the wild as well as in peri-urban environments (WHO 2015), reinforces the hypothesis of the possible adaptation of vectors to changing environments and also the incorporation of domestic animals as reservoirs (Teles et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • There are several types of systemic and topical treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis. (termedia.pl)
  • Since intralesional injection of Glucantime is very painful, requires weekly injections and may be associated with systemic complications, and there may be resistance to glucantime, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Nd:YAG (NDY) laser therapy on cutaneous leishmaniasis compared to Glucantime [12, (termedia.pl)
  • All of the study patients developed cutaneous leishmaniasis while living in or visiting districts in Central and Rift Valley Provinces, Kenya. (ajtmh.org)
  • Detection of human cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage of intensive care unit patients. (nih.gov)
  • This review aims to provide an integrated view on the migration, activation, inhibition, function, and therapeutic modulation of NK cells in experimental and human leishmaniasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of IL-2 signaling in human CL. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the definition of the World Health Organization, Leishmaniasis is divided into the new world and the old world . (termedia.pl)
  • 2 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran 3 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • All animal research conducted at NAMRU-6 is subject to approval by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)and all human research conducted by NAMRU-6 is conducted under supervision of duly constituted Institutional Review Board (IRB). (wikipedia.org)