Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, fms: Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP140(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms): Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Abnormalities, MultipleLoss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage: DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of BACTERIOPHAGE P1. They can carry large amounts (about 100-300 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
These mutations are described by connecting the chromosome site for the FGFR1 gene, 8p11 (i.e. human chromosome 8's short arm [ ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine ... 9 were found to have tumors that bore fusions between the FGFR1 gene and the FN1 gene located on human chromosome 2 at position ... The FGFR1 gene is located on human chromosome 8 at position p11.23 (i.e. 8p11.23), has 24 exons, and codes for a Precursor mRNA ...
Chromosome 13 (human)
See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 13. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 5. For complete ... Fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) GJB2: gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa ( ... Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 13. Because researchers use different approaches to ...
Chromosome 8 (human)
See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 8. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 8. For complete ... fms-related tyrosine kinase 2, Pfeiffer syndrome) FGL1: Fibrinogen-like protein 1 GDAP1: ganglioside-induced differentiation- ... Chromosome 8 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 8 ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 8. Because researchers use different approaches to ...
... gene from a megabase-range YAC and cosmid contig in the neurofibromatosis type 2/meningioma region on human chromosome 22q12". ... 2000). "FMIP, a novel Fms-interacting protein, affects granulocyte/macrophage differentiation". Oncogene. 18 (47): 6488-95. doi ... THO complex subunit 5 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THOC5 gene.THOC5 is a member of THO complex which ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain ...
The human ETV6 gene is located at position "13.2" on the short (i.e. "p") arm of chromosome 12, i.e. its notated position is ... "Response of ETV6-FLT3-positive myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with eosinophilia to inhibitors of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3". Blood ... near to a second gene on another chromosome or, more rarely, its own chromosome. This creates a fusion gene of the oncogene ... Thus, the ETV6 gene reportedly forms translocation-induced fusion genes with: a) tyrosine kinase receptor gene FGFR3; b) non- ...
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
"Reassignment of the human macrophage colony stimulating factor gene to chromosome 1p13-21". Biochemical and Biophysical ... and downmodulation of CSF-1 receptors in NIH 3T3 cells transformed by cotransfection of the human CSF-1 and c-fms (CSF-1 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CSF1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)". Jang MH, ... "Human CSF-1: molecular cloning and expression of 4-kb cDNA encoding the human urinary protein". Science. 235 (4795): 1504-8. ...
Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor
Xu DQ, Guilhot S, Galibert F (May 1985). "Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the human c-fms gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... The gene is located on long arm of chromosome 5 (5q32) on the Crick (minus) strand. It is 60.002 kilobases in length. The ... Visvader J, Verma IM (March 1989). "Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and ... in humans, by the CSF1R gene (known also as c-FMS). It is a receptor for a cytokine called colony stimulating factor 1. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2B3 gene on chromosome 12. SH2B adapter protein 3 is a protein that in humans ... c-Fms), and their related pathways. LNK is a negative regulator of signaling in endothelial cells, such as the TNF signaling ... SH2B3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. SH2B3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... The SH2B3 gene resides on chromosome 12 at the band 12q24 and contains 12 exons. This protein belongs to the Src homology 2-B ( ...
Placental growth factor
... genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 and 14q24-q31 regions, respectively". Genomics. 32 (1): 168-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0098. ... Serum levels of PGF and sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, also known as soluble VEGF receptor-1) are altered in women ... "A sequence-ready physical map of the region containing the human natural killer gene complex on chromosome 12p12.3-p13.2". ... Placental growth factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGF gene. Placental growth factor (PGF) is a member of ...
Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4, also known as FLT4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FLT4 gene. This gene encodes ... Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 33 (3): 295-303. doi:10.1002/gcc.10028. PMID 11807987. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Milroy ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: FLT4 fms-related tyrosine kinase 4". Galland F, Karamysheva ... Mutations in this gene cause hereditary lymphedema type IA. FLT4 has been shown to interact with SHC1. VEGF receptors GRCh38: ...
List of MeSH codes (G14)
... chromosomes, human MeSH G14.162.520.300.117 --- chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.520.300.235 --- chromosomes, human ... genes, erbb-1 MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791.295.305 --- genes, erbb-2 MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791.325 --- genes, fms ... human, pair 5 MeSH G14.162.520.300.325 --- chromosomes, human, 6-12 and x MeSH G14.162.520.300.325.330 --- chromosomes, human, ... human, pair 2 MeSH G14.162.520.300.235.250 --- chromosomes, human, pair 3 MeSH G14.162.520.300.280 --- chromosomes, human, 4-5 ...
The human endoglin gene is located on human chromosome 9 with location of the cytogenic band at 9q34.11. Endoglin glycoprotein ... Luft FC (Nov 2006). "Soluble endoglin (sEng) joins the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt) receptor as a pre-eclampsia ... Fernández-Ruiz E, St-Jacques S, Bellón T, Letarte M, Bernabéu C (1993). "Assignment of the human endoglin gene (END) to 9q34--> ... In humans endoglin may be involved in the autosomal dominant disorder known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) type ...
"Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Son of sevenless gene map to murine chromosomes 17 and 12 and to human chromosomes 2 and ... and a 150-kilodalton tyrosine-phosphorylated protein form complexes with Fms in hematopoietic cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (9): ... Son of sevenless homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOS1 gene. RAS genes (e.g., MIM 190020) encode ... "Entrez Gene: SOS1 son of sevenless homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Roberts AE, Araki T, Swanson KD, Montgomery KT, Schiripo TA, Joshi ...
The amplification of chromosome 4q12, the site of the PDGFRA gene, has been identified in 13-29% of adult ... Human bone marrow progenitor cell growth assays showed that crenolanib has modest effects on GM-CSF and BFUE driven colony ... FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3), PDGFR α (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor), and PDGFR β. Unlike most RTK inhibitors, ... genes on chromosome 4, and also overexpress PDGFRα, was sensitive to crenolanib with an IC50 of ~80 nM. In CHO cells expressing ...
Index of biochemistry articles
... fms gene - Formaldehyde - fos gene - free energy - freezing point - FSH receptor - functional group - fungal protein - fungi - ... housekeeping gene - Human Genome Project - hybridization - hydrocarbon - Hydrogen - Hydrogen bond - hydrogenation - hydrogen- ... chromosome - chromosome walking - cilium - circular dichroism - - cis face - Citric acid - Citric acid cycle - cladistics - ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic ...
Consistent with the fact that human immune systems tolerate things better when they enter the body via the mouth, the Dutch ... Abnormal chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC) impairs extravillus trophoblast cell invasion to the spiral arteries, causing ... Both circulating and placental levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) are higher in women with pre-eclampsia ... Having already noted the importance of a woman's immunological tolerance to her baby's paternal genes, several Dutch ...
Stem cell marker
October 2005). "Retinoic acid represses a cassette of candidate pluripotency chromosome 12p genes during induced loss of human ... Flt3/Flk2 FMS (CD115) FORSE-1 G alpha16 GDF3 GFPM Giant granules of beige C57B1/6 (bg) mice Gli2 Gli3 glial fibrillary acidic ... Czerwinski M, Kiem HP, Slattery JT (March 1997). "Human CD34+ cells do not express glutathione S-transferases alpha". Gene ... gene in the mouse germ cells". Gene Expression Patterns. 6 (6): 607-12. doi:10.1016/j.modgep.2005.11.013. PMID 16434236. Mohan ...
Genes on human chromosome 1. Hidden categories: *CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh) ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Fonatsch C, Latza U, Dürkop H, Rieder H, Stein H (Nov 1992). "Assignment of the human CD30 (Ki-1) gene to 1p36". Genomics. 14 ( ... Human TNFRSF8 genome location and TNFRSF8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
Genes on human chromosome 3. *Peptide hormones. *Kinin-kallikrein system. Hidden categories: *CS1 German-language sources (de) ... In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase P (APP), and ... "Inactivation of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and by carboxypeptidase N in human plasma". American Journal of ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
Gene structure. In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • insulin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth ... genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression ...
Galanin receptor 1
Genes on human chromosome 18. *Transmembrane receptor stubs. *G protein coupled receptors ... Nicholl J, Kofler B, Sutherland GR, Shine J, Iismaa TP (Dec 1995). "Assignment of the gene encoding human galanin receptor ( ... and transcriptional regulation of the human galanin-1 receptor gene (GALN1R)". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... "Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 6 (5): 473-81. PMID ...
Human IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 genes are located on chromosome 21q22.1. ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... "Assignment of the human interferon-α receptor gene to chromosome 21q22.1 by in situ hybridization". Journal of Interferon ... intronless gene structure. The regulatory elements upstream of type I IFN genes differ, allowing differential ...
Gene. In humans, the gene that encodes TRAIL is located at chromosome 3q26, which is not close to other TNF family ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... "NCBI Gene.. *^ a b Cormier Z (February 2013). "Small-molecule drug drives cancer cells to suicide". Nature. 494. doi:10.1038/ ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • metal ion binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • tumor necrosis ...
Genes on human chromosome X. *Clusters of differentiation. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Human CD40LG genome location and CD40LG gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • CD40 receptor binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • ...
Genes on human chromosome 17. *Neuropeptides. *Molecular neuroscience. Hidden categories: *Articles lacking reliable references ... In humans, narcolepsy is associated with a specific variant of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Furthermore, ... Hence the absence of orexin-producing neurons in narcoleptic humans may be the result of an autoimmune disorder. ... There are only 10,000-20,000 orexin-producing neurons in the human brain, located predominantly in the perifornical area and ...
"Human immune interferon gene is located on chromosome 12". J. Exp. Med. 157 (3): 1020-7. doi:10.1084/jem.157.3.1020. PMC ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... In humans, the IFNγ protein is encoded by the IFNG gene. ... "Structure of the human immune interferon gene". Nature. 298 ( ... "Entrez Gene: INFG".. *^ Schoenborn JR, Wilson CB (2007). Regulation of interferon-gamma during innate and adaptive immune ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2
Genes on human chromosome 7. *G protein-coupled receptors. *Corticotropin-releasing hormone ... The human CRHR2 gene contains 12 exons. Three major functional isoforms, alpha (411 amino acids), beta (438 amino acids), and ... "Entrez Gene: CRHR2 corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2".. *^ Pal K, Swaminathan K, Xu HE, Pioszak AA (Dec 2010). " ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • ...
Neurotensin receptor 1
Genes on human chromosome 20. *Transmembrane receptor stubs. *G protein-coupled receptors ... Neurotensin receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTSR1 gene. For a crystal structure of NTS1, ... and a tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism of the human neurotensin receptor gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (2 ... "Chromosomal localization of mouse and human neurotensin receptor genes". Mammalian Genome. 5 (5): 303-6. doi:10.1007/BF00389545 ...
... in beta cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the gene for human IAPP and transplanted human islets". Diabetologia. 49 (6): ... Human DAP genome location and DAP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Human IAPP genome location and IAPP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Genes on human chromosome 12. *Peptide hormones. *Diabetes. *Endocrine system. *Anti-diabetic drugs ...
... the system was then tested for genes involved in the injected chromosome 6. KISS1 was discovered to be the only gene expressed ... The gene for kisspeptin codes for a peptide that can be cleaved into several pieces. In humans, one of these pieces is made ... Kisspeptin (formerly known as metastin) is a protein that is encoded by the KISS1 gene in humans. Kisspeptin is a G-protein ... The Kiss1 gene is located on chromosome 1. It is transcribed in the brain, adrenal gland, and pancreas. ...
Cholecystokinin B receptor
"Localization of the human cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor gene (CCKBR) to chromosome 11p15.5--,p15.4 by fluorescence in situ ... The cholecystokinin B receptor also known as CCKBR or CCK2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCKBR gene. ... a preferential splice donor site in the human receptor gene". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (10): 1127-35. PMID 7848914.. ... "The human gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor gene: alternative splice donor site in exon 4 generates two variant mRNAs". ...
Parathyroid hormone-related protein
Genes on human chromosome 12. *Oncology. *Parathyroid hormone receptor agonists. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles ... flanking region of the gene encoding human parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP)". Gene. 77 (1): 95-105. doi:10.1016/0378 ... Yasuda T, Banville D, Hendy GN, Goltzman D (May 1989). "Characterization of the human parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene. ... "Isolation and characterization of the human parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Genes on human chromosome 9. *Protein stubs. Hidden categories: *All stub articles ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Interferon omega-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNW1 gene. ... 1991). "Human interferon omega 1: isolation of the gene, expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells and characterization of the ...
CD117 - Wikipédia
Cloning and structural analysis of the human c-kit gene. », Oncogene, vol. 7, no 7, 1992. , p. 1259-66 (PMID 1377810) ... Sequence analysis of two genomic regions containing the KIT and the FMS receptor tyrosine kinase genes. », Genomics, vol. 39, n ... situé sur le chromosome 4 humain. De multiples variants de transcription codant différents isoformes ont été trouvés pour ce ... Human piebald trait resulting from a dominant negative mutant allele of the c-kit membrane receptor gene. », J. Clin. Invest., ...
Receptor 1 faktora stimulacije kolonija
"Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the human c-fms gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (9): 2862-5. JSTOR 25278. ... Galland F, Stefanova M, Lafage M, Birnbaum D (1992). "Localization of the 5' end of the MCF2 oncogene to human chromosome 15q15 ... "Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and monocytes". Mol. Cell. Biol. 9 (3): ... Sherr CJ, Rettenmier CW (1986). "The fms gene and the CSF-1 receptor". Cancer Surv. 5 (2): 221-32. PMID 3022923. ...
CD14 is a member of the family of leucine-rich proteins and is encoded by a gene syntenic with multiple receptor genes. -...
Fms). Thus CD14 and the receptor genes form a conserved syntenic group localized on mouse chromosome 18 and human chromosome 5 ... The CD14 gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 18 which also contains at least five genes encoding receptors (Pdgfr, Adrb2r ... The murine and human CD14 genes are highly conserved in their intron-exon organization and nucleotide sequence. Their deduced ... CD14 is a member of the family of leucine-rich proteins and is encoded by a gene syntenic with multiple receptor genes.. ...
anti-FLT3 antibody | GeneTex
Anti-FLT3 pAb (GTX10654) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... fms related tyrosine kinase 3) for ELISA, Neut, WB. ... The gene for FL has been mapped to chromosomes 19q13.3 and ... fms related tyrosine kinase 3. Background. Flt3/Flk2 Ligand (FL) is produced from a DNA sequence encoding amino acid residues 1 ... Also, an alternatively spliced soluble isoform of FL has been identified in both human and mouse. Human and mouse FL share 72% ...
Metaphase and Interphase Cytogenetics with Alu-PCR-amplified Yeast Artificial Chromosome Clones Containing the BCR Gene and the...
... c-fms, and c-erB-2. Alu-PCR-generated human DNA sequences were obtained from the respective YAC clones and used for ... A human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library was screened by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers ... After chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization to GTG-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, seven of nine initially ... Metaphase and Interphase Cytogenetics with Alu-PCR-amplified Yeast Artificial Chromosome Clones Containing the BCR Gene and the ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 - Wikipedia
These mutations are described by connecting the chromosome site for the FGFR1 gene, 8p11 (i.e. human chromosome 8s short arm [ ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine ... 9 were found to have tumors that bore fusions between the FGFR1 gene and the FN1 gene located on human chromosome 2 at position ... The FGFR1 gene is located on human chromosome 8 at position p11.23 (i.e. 8p11.23), has 24 exons, and codes for a Precursor mRNA ...
Chromosome 13 (human) - Wikipedia
See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 13. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 5. For complete ... Fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) GJB2: gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa ( ... Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 13. Because researchers use different approaches to ...
acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 mll abnormalities 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / ultrastructure. Chromosomes, Human, X / ultrastructure. Exons. Fatal Outcome. Gene Deletion. ... MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Leukemia, Myeloid / enzymology. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. fms-Like ... Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Banding. Chromosome Breakage. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. ... MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Translocation, ...
Antibodies against human CSF-1R - HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE INC.
The present invention relates to antibodies against human CSF-1R (CSF-1R antibody), methods for their production, ... Human antibodies from V-gene libraries displayed on phage," J Mol Biol. 222(3):581-597 (1991). Paul, Structure and funtcion of ... Ashmun, R. et al., "Monoclonal antibodies to the human CSF-1 receptor (c-fms proto-oncogene product) detect epitopes on normal ... Jakobovits et al., "Germ-line Transmission and Expression of a Human-Derived Yeast Artificial Chromosome" Nature 362(6417):255- ...
Rosnet O[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Expression of the FMS/KIT-like gene FLT3 in human acute leukemias of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. ... Assignment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PLGF) genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 ... a yeast artificial chromosome from human chromosome band 13q12 containing the FLT1 and FLT3 receptor-type tyrosine kinase genes ... Genomic structure of the downstream part of the human FLT3 gene: exon/intron structure conservation among genes encoding ...
LLS Search Results | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
Chromosomes. Threadlike structures within cells that carry genes in a linear order. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes: ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3). An abbreviation for the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene. FLT3 is expressed on blood ... A mutant gene that is formed when a piece of chromosome 9 attaches to the end of chromosome 22. The BCR-ABL cancer gene gives ... The order, number and appearance of chromosomes within a cell. There are 46 human chromosomes with the sex chromosomes shown as ...
Posttranscriptional regulation of cancer traits by HuR - WIREs WIREs RNA
Akama, Y, Yasui, W, Yokozaki, H, Kuniyasu, H, Kitahara, K, et al. Frequent amplification of the cyclin E gene in human gastric ... Woo, HH, Zhou, Y, Yi, X, David, CL, Zheng, W, et al. Regulation of non‐AU‐rich element containing c‐fms proto‐oncogene ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1998, 22: 66-71.. *. Musgrove, EA, Lee, CS, Buckley, MF, Sutherland, RL. Cyclin D1 induction in breast ... Denkert, C, Koch, I, von Keyserlingk, N, Noske, A, Niesporek, S, et al. Expression of the ELAV‐like protein HuR in human colon ...
FGF3 | Cancer Genetics Web
Allelic loss at chromosome 11q13 alters FGF3 gene expression in a human breast cancer progression model.. Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6 ... Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) methylation exhibited a perfect specificity for detecting OSCC, with an area under the ... Among them, different members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of genes are clustered around human chromosome 11q13 ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(10):775-87 [PubMed] Related Publications The chromosomal region 11q13 is amplified in 15-20 ...
VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR
Localization of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene, VEGF, at chromosome 6p12. Hum. Genet. 97: 794-797, 1996.. ... Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and ... Assignment of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene to human chromosome 6p21.3. Circulation 93: 1493-1495, 1996.. PubMed ... Assignment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PIGF) genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 ...
CBL Exon 8/9 Mutants Activate the FLT3 Pathway and Cluster in Core Binding Factor/11q Deletion Acute Myeloid Leukemia...
CBL, a known negative regulator of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), is localized on human chromosome 11q23, a region ... Functionally, CBL negatively regulated FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) activity and interacted with human FLT3 via the ... Exon 8 splice site mutations in the gene encoding the E3-ligase CBL are associated with core binding factor acute myeloid ... As murine and human CBL share 92% homology, we conclude that this signaling event is conserved from mice to humans. Recently ...
Molecular Pathways: Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations in Cancer | Clinical Cancer Research
Mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been found in a variety of human cancers, most commonly glioma, ... TET2, Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2; DNMT3A, DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 3 Alpha; FLT3, Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase ... or codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (oligodendrogliomas; refs. 32,33). In AML patients with a normal cytogenetic ... and enhanced soft agar growth of human astrocytes (66). Consistent with this result, the expression of HIF1α-responsive genes, ...
The impact of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutant level, number, size, and interaction with NPM1 mutations in a large...
An internal tandem duplication in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3/ITD) is associated with poor prognosis in acute ... An internal tandem duplication in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3/ITD) is associated with poor prognosis in acute ... Adolescent, Adult, Clone Cells, Cohort Studies, Demography, Female, Gene Duplication, Humans, Karyotyping, Leukemia, Myeloid, ... Acute, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Nuclear Proteins, Tandem Repeat Sequences, Treatment Outcome, X Chromosome ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
AE is known to be caused by mutations of the SLC39A4 gene on the chromosome band 8q24.3, encoding the zinc transporter in human ... human papilloma virus genotyping, gene rearrangement tests for leukaemias and lymphomas, genetic tests for JAK2, FMS-like ... human papilloma virus genotyping, gene rearrangement tests for leukaemia and lymphomas, genetic tests for JAK2, FMS-like ... The human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene contains several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are distributed across the ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
... human papilloma virus genotyping, gene rearrangement tests for leukaemia and lymphomas, genetic tests for JAK2, FMS-like ... Adult , Base Sequence , Bone Marrow/pathology , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 , Female , Humans , In ... human papilloma virus genotyping, gene rearrangement tests for leukaemia and lymphomas, genetic tests for JAK2, fms-related ... Bone Marrow/metabolism , DNA Mutational Analysis , Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Infant , ...
Expression of Cellular Oncogenes | SpringerLink
Neel BG, Jhanwar SC, Chaganti RSK, Hayward WS (1982) Two human c-onc genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 8. Proc ... Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Stephenson JR (1983 a) Isolation of v-fms and its cellular homolog. Virology 126:248-258PubMed ... of transforming gene in two human saracoma cell lines as a new member of the ras gene family located on chromosome 1. Nature ... Dalla-Favera R, Gelmann EP, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1981) A human onc gene homologous to the transforming gene (v-sis) of ...
Chromosome and Molecular Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes | SpringerLink
Human mortalin (HSPA9): a candidate for the myeloid leukemia tumor suppressor gene on 5q31.Leukemia. 2000;14:2128-2134.CrossRef ... FMS mutations in myelodysplastic, leukemic, and normal subjects.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1377-1380.CrossRefPubMed ... Molecular cytogenetic delineation of the critical deleted region in the 5q- syndrome.Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1998;22:251-256. ... A novel gene, MEL1, mapped to 1p36.3 is highly homologous to the MDS1/EVI1 gene and is transcriptionally activated in t(1;3)( ...
Estimation of the Percentage of US Patients With Cancer Who Benefit From Genome-Driven Oncology - PubMed
... human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene; IDH2, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 gene; KRAS WT, K-Ras wild-type gene; MSI-high, ... epidermal growth factor receptor gene; FLT3, Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 gene; GI, genome informed; GIST, ... high microsatellite instability; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; Ph+, Philadelphia chromosome positive; ROS1, c-ros oncogene ... ALK indicates anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene; ALL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; AML, acute myeloid leukemia; BRAF, B-raf gene ...
Roles of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in leukemia therapy | Leukemia
Controlling the expression of this pathway could improve leukemia therapy and ameliorate human health. ... phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)) activated in ... Mutations of the PTPN11 gene in therapy-related MDS and AML with rare balanced chromosome translocations. Genes Chromosomes ... Fms and Fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3) or chromosomal translocations (for example, BCR-ABL and TEL-platelet-derived growth ...
Genetics Glossary - ISOGG Wiki
... or locus on a chromosome. For example, in humans, one allele of the eye-color gene produces blue eyes and another allele of the ... Full mitochondrial sequence (FMS): The name given by Family Tree DNA to a mitochondrial DNA test which sequences the entire ... X-chromosome: A sex chromosome. A female child receives one X-chromosome from her father and one X-chromosome from her mother. ... Sex chromosome: The X-chromosome or Y-chromosome. Normally males have one X and one Y and females have two Xs. ...
Chromosome 8 (human) - wikidoc
Genes. See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 8.. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome ... FGFR1: fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (fms-related tyrosine kinase 2, Pfeiffer syndrome) ... Chromosome 8 (human). File:Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 8 cropped.png. Human chromosome 8 pair after G- ... Chromosome 8 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 8 ...
Tissue‐specific Locus Control: Structure and Function
... lineage by establishing a unique gene expression pattern ... Organization of the human β‐globin cluster on chromosome 11 ( ... fms gene. Molecular Cellular Biology 27: 878-887. Laherty CD, Yang WM, Sun JM et al. (1997) Histone deacetylases associated ... Genes and Development 14: 940-950. Sharpe JA, Wells DJ, Whitelaw E et al. (1993) Analysis of the human α‐globin gene cluster in ... 2000) Comparative structural and functional analysis of the olfactory receptor genes flanking the human and mouse β‐globin gene ...
Chromosome 13 (human)
... human) Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. ... Genes. The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 13: * ATP7B: ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide ( ... FLT1: Fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) ... Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia | HTML
... gene located on chromosome 15q21, and retinoic acid receptor α (RARA) gene from chromosome 17q21, and to the formation of the ... MicroRNA gene expression during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia. Oncogene 2007, 26 ... Internal tandem duplication and Asp835 mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia ... Primary structure of the reciprocal products of the PML-RARA gene in a patient with t(15;17). Gene. Chromosome.Canc. 1993, 6, ...
CD30 - Wikipedia
Genes on human chromosome 1. Hidden categories: *CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh) ... FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L). *Leukemia/leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Fonatsch C, Latza U, Dürkop H, Rieder H, Stein H (Nov 1992). "Assignment of the human CD30 (Ki-1) gene to 1p36". Genomics. 14 ( ... Human TNFRSF8 genome location and TNFRSF8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
b cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t 9 22 q34 q11 2 bcr abl1 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
... human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / homeobox protein HOXA9; EC 184.108.40.206 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 220.127.116.11 / fms-Like ... Mutation of genes encoding tyrosine kinases is uncommon in ALL, with the exception of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL, ... Genes, abl. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. ... Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Philadelphia Chromosome. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult ...
CGAT: a vital instrument in the prognostic toolbox for AML
... human cells contain two copies of each chromosome; one each from the mother and the father. In some cases, whole chromosomes or ... Further, the CGAT findings were correlated with results from molecular testing for gene mutations. Fms-related tyrosine kinase ... In the cnLOH cohort, 33 of 40 had cnLOH involving a single chromosome arm; cnLOH involving 2, 3, and 4 chromosome arms were ... Research Areas Behavioral Research Biostatistics Cell & Gene Therapy Cell Biology Data Science Diagnostics & Biomarkers Disease ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Michael Armstrong (Translated to Japanese)
Chromosome Aberrations in Chinese Hamster and Human Cells: a Comparison Using Compounds with Various Genotoxicity Profiles ... Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies ... Evaluation of Placenta Growth Factor and Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 1 Receptor Levels in Mild and Severe Preeclampsia ... Our patient is unique because his duplicated region includes the MYCN gene only; the ALK gene is unaffected. These data, ...
MutationsFLT3Tyrosine kinase-3 ligandOncogeneGenomeProteinsReceptorsDeletionCancerLocusProtein-codinAllelesExtra copy of chromosome1991Patients with myelodysplasiaTranslocationsGenomicLigandMolecularNeoplastic transformationSeveral genesAutosomalOntologyAnother chromosomeOrganismsAntigenHomoMutationSpeciesMyeloidFLT4Tumor supprGeneticsAmplificationYeastLociFunctionalCellDiseasesEncodesMRNAStructuralAcuteCancersInterphase nucleusFLT3LGBacterialOrganizationFoundPhenotypicLineageMurineTraitVascular endothResearchers use different approachesNucleus
- Mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been found in a variety of human cancers, most commonly glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chondrosarcoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- The first identification of a cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH) mutation was in a patient with colorectal cancer, and emerged from one of the earliest comprehensive analyses of mutations in protein-coding genes ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Since these initial studies, many human cancers were examined for the presence of mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 . (aacrjournals.org)
- An internal tandem duplication in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3/ITD) is associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the impact of mutant level, size, and interaction with nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations remains controversial. (ox.ac.uk)
- Ras mutations are the molecular abnormalities most frequently found in MDS, followed by p15 gene hypermethylation, FLT3 duplications, and p53 mutations, but none of these abnormalities are specific for MDS. (springer.com)
- Mutations in this pathway and upstream signaling molecules can alter sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors targeting components of this cascade as well as to inhibitors targeting other key pathways (for example, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)) activated in leukemia. (nature.com)
- There are more than 200 known chromosome translocations and mutations in leukemic cells of patients diagnosed with AML [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Further, the CGAT findings were correlated with results from molecular testing for gene mutations. (fredhutch.org)
- There are numerous other types of mutations, both small scale (e.g., base modification) and large scale (e.g., gene duplication or deletion). (apologeticspress.org)
- While it is true that relatively "small" mutations can cause major problems and conversely, some "larger" mutations do not result in immediate lethality (for example, the extra copy of chromosome 21 in Down's Syndrome), this argument may be missing a more relevant point. (apologeticspress.org)
- At least two mutations in the FGFR1 gene have been identified in people with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), a rare condition characterized by the growth of noncancerous tumors and other abnormalities affecting the brain, eyes, and skin. (nih.gov)
- The FGFR1 gene mutations associated with ECCL change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the FGFR1 protein. (nih.gov)
- At least seven mutations in the FGFR1 gene have been identified in people with Hartsfield syndrome, a rare condition characterized by holoprosencephaly, which is an abnormality of brain development, and a malformation of the hands and feet called ectrodactyly. (nih.gov)
- Some of these mutations affect one of the two copies of the FGFR1 gene in each cell, causing the autosomal dominant form of the disorder. (nih.gov)
- Researchers believe that these mutations have a "dominant negative" effect, which means that the version of the FGFR1 protein produced from the mutated copy of the gene interferes with the activity of the version of the protein made from the normal copy of the gene. (nih.gov)
- At least 19 mutations in the FLT4 gene have been found to cause Milroy disease. (nih.gov)
- Most mutations in this gene change a single protein building block (amino acid) in regions known as tyrosine kinase domains. (nih.gov)
- It is not known how mutations in the FLT4 gene lead to the other signs and symptoms of Milroy disease. (nih.gov)
- Two types of FLT3 gene mutations are found in CN-AML. (medlineplus.gov)
- In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mutations in the juxtamembrane and tyrosine kinase 1 domain (exons 13-15) of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD/LM) are heterogeneous with respect to mutation load, size, and localization. (nih.gov)
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a complex imprinting disorder involving fetal overgrowth and placentomegaly, and is associated with a variety of genetic and epigenetic mutations affecting the expression of imprinted genes on human chromosome 11p15.5. (biologists.org)
- BWS is caused by genetic or epigenetic mutations that disrupt the expression of one or more imprinted genes, which, unlike most autosomal genes, are expressed predominantly from one parental allele ( Ferguson-Smith and Surani, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
- Mutations in this gene have been associated with Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Antley-Bixler syndrome, osteoglophonic dysplasia, and autosomal dominant Kallmann syndrome 2. (abnova.com)
- The fascinating thing is that there have been 19 mutations of this gene that have been found to actually cause Milroy's. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Mutations in this gene cause hereditary lymphedema type IA. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The Flt3 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 3)/Flk2 (fetal liver kinase 2) Ligand (FL), a hematopoietic cytokine, was cloned based on its ability to bind and activate c-kit and Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptors. (genetex.com)
- Functionally, CBL negatively regulated FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) activity and interacted with human FLT3 via the autophosphorylation sites Y589 and Y599 and colocalized in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- We describe that all known human CBL deletion mutants lead to transformation of wild-type FLT3-expressing hematopoietic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation data was available for 78 of the 112 patients, and the mutation was clearly associated with cnLOH in 13q. (fredhutch.org)
- Recently, treatment with bromodomain and extraterminal protein antagonist (BA) such as JQ1 has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells, including those expressing FLT3-ITD. (aacrjournals.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that cotreatment with JQ1 and the FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib or AC220 synergistically induce apoptosis of cultured and primary CD34 + human AML blast progenitor cells (BPC) expressing FLT3-ITD. (aacrjournals.org)
- Compared with the parental human AML FLT3-ITD-expressing MOLM13, MOLM13-TKIR cells resistant to AC220 were markedly more sensitive to JQ1-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Collectively, these findings support the rationale for determining the in vivo activity of combined therapy with BA and FLT3-TKI against human AML cells expressing FLT3-ITD or with BA and HDI against AML cells resistant to FLT3-TKI. (aacrjournals.org)
- The FLT3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), which is part of a family of proteins called receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). (medlineplus.gov)
- Changes in the FLT3 gene are involved in a form of blood cancer known as cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). (medlineplus.gov)
- The other type of FLT3 gene mutation is found in about 14 percent of people with CN-AML. (medlineplus.gov)
- Overexpression of FLT3 gene and FLT3 -ITD has been found, respectively in 50% and 15-30% patients with acute leukemias. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
- Cloning of the human homologue of the murine flt3 ligand: a growth factor for early hematopoietic progenitor cells. (cloud-clone.com)
- Structural analysis of human and murine flt3 ligand genomic loci. (cloud-clone.com)
Tyrosine kinase-3 ligand2
- This gene was identified by its similarity with mouse fgf3/int-2, a proto-oncogene activated in virally induced mammary tumors in the mouse. (cancerindex.org)
- Alitalo K, Schwab M, Lin CL, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (1983) Homogenously staining chromosomal regions contain amplified copies of an abundantly expressed cellular oncogene (c -myc ) in malignant neuroendocrine cells from a human colon carcinoma. (springer.com)
- Anderson SJ, Furth M, Wolff L, Ruscetti SK, Sherr CJ (1982) Monoclonal antibodies to the transformation-specific glycoprotein encoded by the feline retroviral oncogene v- fms . (springer.com)
- In 1976 they published the remarkable conclusion that the oncogene in the virus did not represent a true viral gene but instead was a normal cellular gene, which the virus had acquired during replication in the host cell and thereafter carried along. (nobelprize.org)
- The cellular gene is split (a mosaic gene) whereas the oncogene in the virus is continuous. (nobelprize.org)
- These findings led to the remarkable conclusion that the oncogene in the virus did not represent a true viral gene but a cellular gene which the virus had picked up far back during its replication in cells and carried along. (nobelprize.org)
- An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer . (wikimili.com)
- Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction). (wikipedia.org)
- 2007) Manipulating the mouse genome to engineer precise functional syntenic replacements with human sequence. (els.net)
- The term used for the human genome reference standard (Build 38 is the most recent reference genome ). (isogg.org)
- Dr. Vashee also helps lead ongoing NIH funded projects that leverage synthetic genomics approaches to engineer large DNA viruses, including human herpesviruses on a genome-wide and combinatorial scale. (jcvi.org)
- In addition to genetic fingerprinting, RFLP was an important tool in genome mapping, localization of genes for genetic disorders, determination of risk for disease, and paternity testing. (science20.com)
- The GenoChip has a SNP density of approximately (1/100,000) bases over 92% of the human genome and is highly compatible with Illumina and Affymetrix commercial platforms. (isogg.org)
- However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. (beds.ac.uk)
- In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. (beds.ac.uk)
- Although familial aggregation has been well studied for many diseases [ 1 ], genome-wide gene expressions typically have not been used as the traits. (beds.ac.uk)
- About 33,443 differentially methylated sites (DMRs) were obtained in the whole human genome, of which 24,188 (72 %) were hypermethylated and 9255 (28 %) were hypomethylated. (cancerindex.org)
- With word-for-word accuracy, you could encode the whole of the New Testament in those parts of the human genome that are at present filled with "junk" DNA - that is, DNA not used, at least in the ordinary way, by the body. (uncommondescent.com)
- I will now list some of the dominoes that fell in the wake of questioning the gene-centric view of genome-phenotype relationships. (uncommondescent.com)
- Each cell clearly controls its genome to produce a pattern of gene expression that is unique to that type. (uncommondescent.com)
- We hope to identify genes or proteins which can help us grade leukemia at diagnosis in order to: (a) develop better means of diagnosis and (b) more accurately choose the best therapy for each patient. (stanford.edu)
- Expression patterns of several LIM protein genes are compatible with roles in vertebrate CNS development, but little is known about the expression, regulation, or function of LIM proteins in the mature CNS. (jneurosci.org)
- These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. (wikimili.com)
- Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikimili.com)
- The CD14 gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 18 which also contains at least five genes encoding receptors (Pdgfr, Adrb2r, li, Grl-1, Fms). (nih.gov)
- The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors (flt1/fms, flk1/KDR, flt4) and vascular endothelial growth inhibitor in the bovine uterus during the sexual cycle and their correlation with serum sex steroids. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- [email protected] Abstract The present study was conducted to demonstrate of the immunohistochemical localization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (flt1/fms, flk1/KDR and flt4) as well as vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) and to determine the correlation of VEGF and its receptors and VEGI with serum sex steroids (estrogen and progesterone) in the bovine uterus during the sexual cycle. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Characterization of insulin-like growth factor II receptors in human small cell lung cancer cell lines. (atcc.org)
- Human small cell lung cancer cell lines express functional atrial natriuretic peptide receptors. (atcc.org)
- This subtype causes refractory (treatmentresistant) anemia associated with a deletion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5, designated "del(5q). (lls.org)
- These abnormalities generally consist of partial or complete chromosome deletion or addition (del5q, -7, +8, -Y, del20 q ), whereas balanced or unbalanced translocations are rarely found in MDS. (springer.com)
- 14 Table 1: Known CDKs, their cyclin partners, and their functions in the human and consequences of deletion in mice. (healthdocbox.com)
- Abstract Cancer‐related gene expression programs are strongly influenced by posttranscriptional mechanisms. (wiley.com)
- Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expression of mutant IDH impairs cellular differentiation in various cell lineages and promotes tumor development in cooperation with other cancer genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- This drawing depicts a relative common, yet frequently overlooked phenomenon in human cancer, autocrine transformation. (nature.com)
- About 8% of its genes are involved in brain development and function, and about 16% are involved in cancer . (wikidoc.org)
- When a gene is "haplo in sufficient," the loss of one copy of that gene can lead to major problems (like cancer) and sometimes death (as in heterozygous lethal). (apologeticspress.org)
- The Human Microbiome and Cancer. (jcvi.org)
- The FGFR1 gene is involved in a type of blood cancer called 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Expression profiling identifies genes involved in neoplastic transformation of serous ovarian cancer. (labome.org)
- Human breast cancer showed no FGFR1 gene amplification. (abnova.com)
- Amplification and expression of protooncogenes in human small cell lung cancer cell lines. (atcc.org)
- Altered structure and expression of the human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene in small cell lung cancer. (atcc.org)
- If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. (wikimili.com)
- Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. (wikimili.com)
- Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. (wikimili.com)
- The National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (wikimili.com)
- 2 Cancer is genetic Hereditary cancers Predisposition genes Ex. (healthdocbox.com)
- Overexpression of this gene has also been observed in ovarian, stomach, and uterine cancer. (healthdocbox.com)
- Adams J, Gerondakis S, Webb E, Corcoran LM, Cory S (1983) Cellular myc gene is altered by chromosome translocation to immunoglobulin locus in murine plasmacytomas and is rearranged similarly in human Burkitt lymphoma. (springer.com)
- Bender MA, Bulger M, Close J and Groudine M (2000) Beta‐globin gene switching and DNase I sensitivity of the endogenous β‐globin locus in mice do not require the locus control region. (els.net)
- 2000) Nuclear localization and histone acetylation: a pathway for chromatin opening and transcriptional activation of the human β‐globin locus. (els.net)
- An allele (pronounced UH-leel is one of multiple alternative forms of a single gene , each of which is a viable DNA sequence occupying a given position, or locus on a chromosome . (isogg.org)
- Molecular cloning of the c-fms locus and its assignment to human chromosome 5. (asm.org)
Extra copy of chromosome1
- with the parental conflict hypothesis predicting that paternally expressed imprinted genes promote growth and maternally expressed imprinted genes restrict growth ( Moore and Haig, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
- Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of a Rcombinant .alpha.1-Antitrypsin Gene to the Lung Epithelium in Vivo," Science 252: 431-434, 1991. (patentgenius.com)
Patients with myelodysplasia1
- The band-specific YACs were successfully applied to visualize specific structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood cells from patients with myelodysplasia exhibiting del(5)(q13q34), chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11), acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) with t(15;17)(q22;q21), and in a cell line established from a proband with the constitutional translocation t(3;8)(p14.2;q24). (uni-muenchen.de)
- Translocations t(4;11) and t(11;14), and mixed-lineage leukemia fusion genes involving CBL have been described in patients with leukemia and lymphoma ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The rare cases of balanced translocations in MDS have allowed the identification of genes whose rearrangements appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of MDS. (springer.com)
- These genes include MDS1-EVI1 in t(3;3) or t(3;21) translocations, TEL in t(5;12), HIP1 in t(5;7), MLF1 in t(3;5), and MEL1 in t(1;3). (springer.com)
- We have isolated and characterized genomic and cDNA clones encoding the murine homolog of the human monocyte/granulocyte cell surface glycoprotein, CD14. (nih.gov)
- This is called copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH), and can be identified using chromosome genomic array testing (CGAT). (fredhutch.org)
- A total of 112 AML patients who underwent chromosome genomic array testing (CGAT) at the SCCA were included in the study. (fredhutch.org)
- The genomic structure of the TRAIL gene spans approximately 20 kb and is composed of five exonic segments 222, 138, 42, 106, and 1245 nucleotides and four introns of approximately 8.2, 3.2, 2.3 and 2.3 kb. (wikipedia.org)
- Frequent amplification of this gene has been found in human tumors, which may be important for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. (cancerindex.org)
- Another category of c -one genes has been detected in the DNA of malignant cells by virtue of these genes' ability to induce neoplastic transformation when "transfected" into a mouse fibroblastic cell line in vitro (for review see C ooper 1982). (springer.com)
- Researchers have not determined which other genes are located in the deleted region, but a loss of several genes is likely responsible for these developmental problems. (wikipedia.org)
- These results highlight several genes that may play an important role across the spectrum of serous ovarian tumorigenesis. (labome.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include mRNA binding . (genecards.org)
- Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. (beds.ac.uk)
- 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. (beds.ac.uk)
- Nucleic acids are particularly attractive as they can be engineered to deliver complete antigens with optimized properties for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent antigen-specific immunization ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- As compared with gene transfer by viral or plasmid DNA, naked antigen-encoding RNA is considered a safer and superior pharmaceutical. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mutation of FOP/FGFR1OP in mice recapitulates human short rib-polydactyly ciliopathy. (nih.gov)
- This region shows a significant divergence between human and chimpanzee , suggesting that its high mutation rates have contributed to the evolution of the human brain. (wikidoc.org)
- 2012). Heterozygous lethal means one of the two copies of a given gene in an organism are defective due to mutation (heterozygous) leading to the death of the organism (lethal). (apologeticspress.org)
- Whole exome sequencing of the patient's postmortem tumor revealed a novel KDR (G681R) mutation, and focal high-level amplification at chromosome 1q encompassing MDM4 , a negative regulator of TP53. (biomedcentral.com)
- Disruption of these signals through mutation of the ras gene is involved in many tumor types, including roughly half of all colon cancers and 90% of pancreatic carcinomas. (healthdocbox.com)
- Human and mouse FL share 72% amino acid sequence homology and exhibit full species cross-reactivity.FL has been shown to synergize with a wide variety of hematopoietic cytokines to stimulate the growth and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitors. (genetex.com)
- Andersen PR, Devare SG, Tronick SR, Ellis RW, Aaronson SA, Scolnick EM (1981) Generation of BALB/MuSV and Ha-MuSV by type C virus transduction of homologous transforming genes from different species. (springer.com)
- 129. Dawson DA , dos Remedios N, Horsburgh GJ (2016) A new marker based on the avian spindlin gene that is able to sex most birds, including species problematic to sex with CHD markers . (sheffield.ac.uk)
- The cDNA of 300 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 82 human leukemic cell lines was screened for aberrations in the linker and RING finger domain of CBL. (aacrjournals.org)
- Genes exhibiting specific mutational and/or transcriptional patterns in mixed-lineage leukemia- rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (MLL leukemia) relative to other types of AMLs are disclosed. (sumobrain.com)
- A human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library was screened by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers defined for DNA sequences of the BCR gene and the protooncogenes c-raf-1, c-fms, and c-erB-2. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Cloning, Assembly, and Modification of the Primary Human Cytomegalovirus Isolate Toledo by Yeast-Based Transformation-Associated Recombination. (jcvi.org)
- Efficient size-independent chromosome delivery from yeast to cultured cell lines. (jcvi.org)
- In a landmark study in 2008 all 6000 genes in yeast were studied using individual knockouts. (uncommondescent.com)
- Although these two isoforms have different tissue distributions and FGF-binding affinities, FGFR1-IIIc appears responsible for most of functions of the FGFR1 gene while FGFR1-IIIb appears to have only a minor, somewhat redundant functional role. (wikipedia.org)
- Barbacid M, Beemon K, Devare SG (1980a) Origin and functional properties of the major gene product of the Snyder-Theilen strain of feline sarcoma virus. (springer.com)
- Functional genes are indicated as boxes. (els.net)
- Functional megaspore (FMS). (biologists.org)
- Human FL, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is biologically active on the cell surface and can be cleaved to generate a soluble form that is also biologically active. (genetex.com)
- Human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLV) tend to induce some fatal human diseases like Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) by targeting human T lymphocytes. (storysteel.gq)
- In humans, OSCAR is expressed by macrophages, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells and modulates the response of the innate and adaptive immune systems by promoting cell activation and maturation, Ag presentation, and proinflammatory circuits. (jimmunol.org)
- Enter a living human cell to discover a world of unimaginable precision, complexity and design. (uncommondescent.com)
- Excerpt: If you arranged the DNA in a human cell linearly, it would extend for nearly two meters. (uncommondescent.com)
- Every cell contains numerous such core particles - there are some 30 million in a typical human cell - and the DNA double helix, after wrapping a couple of times around one of them, typically extends for a short stretch and then wraps around another one. (uncommondescent.com)
- You may recall from my earlier article, "Getting Over the Code Delusion" (Talbott 2010), that packing DNA into a typical cell nucleus is like packing about 24 miles of very thin, double-stranded string into a tennis ball,,,, To locate a protein-coding gene of typical size within all that DNA is like homing in on a one-half-inch stretch within those 24 miles. (uncommondescent.com)
- Lmo1, Lmo2, and Lmo3 are LIM-only genes originally identified as putative oncogenes that have been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and are active during CNS development. (jneurosci.org)
- Previously, DNase I HS sites were studied mainly in human cell types for mammalian. (frontiersin.org)
- In the previous studies, the exploration of chromatin accessibility and recognition of gene regulatory elements by DNase-seq technique were conducted mostly in human or mouse cell types for mammalian. (frontiersin.org)
- Representative images of normal human cell (lymphocyte) stain with the dual color FISH probe. (abnova.com)
- In every cell, these tapes - the chromosomes - contain the same information, but the reading heads in different kinds of cells seek out different parts of the database for their own specialist purposes. (uncommondescent.com)
- 1 Department of Pediatrics, 2 Biomedical Sciences Program, 3 Center for Reproductive Sciences and the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, 4 Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, 5 Program in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense, 6 Department of Anatomy, and 7 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Program, University of California, San Francisco. (jci.org)
- Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikimili.com)
- casein gene promoter constructs in a mammary epithelial cell line," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
- Transfer of the bacterial gene for cytosine deaminase to mammalian cell confers lethal sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine: A negative selection system," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
- The FGFR1 gene is located on human chromosome 8 at position p11.23 (i.e. 8p11.23), has 24 exons, and codes for a Precursor mRNA that is alternatively spliced at exons 8A or 8B thereby generating two mRNAs coding for two FGFR1 isoforms, FGFR1-IIIb (also termed FGFR1b) and FGFR1-IIIc (also termed FGFR1c), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Only trace amounts of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, RB mRNA were detected. (atcc.org)
- In addition to the analysis of metaphase spreads, we demonstrate the particular usefulness of these YAC clones in combination with whole chromosome painting to analyze specific chromosome aberrations directly in the interphase nucleus. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The left image is chromosomes at metaphase, and the right image is an interphase nucleus. (abnova.com)
- and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset (A.P.), Valencia 46020, Spain The existence of a vasoactive molecule released in response to hCG is believed to be the main feature in the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in women, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main candidate as the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mediator. (mafiadoc.com)
- Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels increase after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in hyperstimulated women at risk of developing OHSS (1). (mafiadoc.com)