Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.United StatesReceptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Carcinogenesis: The origin, production or development of cancer through genotypic and phenotypic changes which upset the normal balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Carcinogenesis generally requires a constellation of steps, which may occur quickly or over a period of many years.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
2001). "Synthesis and localization of the mucin-associated TFF-peptides in the human uterus". Cell Tissue Res. 303 (1): 109-15 ... Cancer Res. 8 (5): 1092-9. PMID 12006524. Kimura Y, Leung PS, Kenny TP, et al. (2002). "Differential expression of intestinal ... 1997). "Human intestinal trefoil factor is expressed in human hypothalamus and pituitary: evidence for a novel neuropeptide". ... "Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 ...
... in the human breast". Cell Tissue Res. 296 (3): 549-54. doi:10.1007/s004410051316. PMID 10370142. Bennett KL, Karpenko M, Lin ... IRX1 has also been shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in several forms of cancer. IRX1 is a member of the Iroquois ... The human gene product is a 1858 base pair mRNA with 4 predicted exons in humans. Promoter analysis was performed using El ... Expression data from human, mouse, and developing mouse brains are available though the Allen Brain Atlas. The mature IRX1 ...
2007). "Notch and HES5 are regulated during human cartilage differentiation". Cell Tissue Res. 327 (3): 539-51. doi:10.1007/ ... Cancer. 17 (6): 1293-9. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1438.2007.00930.x. PMID 17388915. Karlsson C, Jonsson M, Asp J, Brantsing C, ... Kageyama R, Lindahl A (March 2007). "Notch and HES5 are regulated during human cartilage differentiation". Cell Tissue Res. 327 ... HES5 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Herzfeld A, Greengard O (1981). "Enzyme activities in human fetal and neoplastic tissues". Cancer. 46 (9): 2047-54. doi:10.1002 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Dougherty KM, Brandriss MC, Valle D (Feb 1992). "Cloning human pyrroline-5 ... Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PYCR1 gene. This gene encodes ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Herzfeld A, Greengard O (1980). "Enzyme activities in human fetal and neoplastic tissues". Cancer. 46 (9): 2047-54. doi:10.1002 ... aminothymidine in human bladder cancer cells in vitro". Cancer Res. 46 (9): 4522-6. PMID 3731105. Fischer PH, Fang TT, Lin TS, ... Fang CY, Tsai YD, Lin MC, Wang M, Chen PL, Chao CN, Huang YL, Chang D, Shen CH (2015). "Inhibition of human bladder cancer ... The former was first found in fetal tissue, the second was found to be more abundant in adult tissue, and initially they were ...
King CM, Olive CW, Cardona RA (1975). "Activation of carcinogenic arylhydroxamic acids by human tissues". J. Natl. Cancer Inst ... have shown that palladin is overexpressed in the non-neoplastic stroma of pancreatic cancer, but only rarely in the cancer ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ... "Palladin Mutation Causes Familial Pancreatic Cancer and Suggests a New Cancer Mechanism". PLoS Med. 3 (12): e516. doi:10.1371/ ...
The Human Protein Atlas. "Cell atlas - RBM3". The Human Protein Atlas. "Expression of RBM3 in cancer - Summary". The Human ... According to antibody-based profiling and transcriptomics analysis, RBM3 protein is present in all analysed human tissues and ... and the proapoptotic Bax gene in human breast cancer". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 97 (6): 1275-82. doi:10.1002/jcb.20725 ... a novel human gene in Xp11.23 with a putative RNA-binding domain". Human Molecular Genetics. 4 (12): 2307-11. doi:10.1093/hmg/ ...
Peptides encoded by human lncRNAs have been found in cells and adult tissues. The protein SPAR has been found to be encoded by ... According to LncRNAWiki, many lncRNAs are correlated with human diseases, especially cancer. A handful of studies have ... Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; Garber, Manuel (April 2014). "Evolutionary dynamics and tissue specificity of human long ... September 2007). "Ultraconserved regions encoding ncRNAs are altered in human leukemias and carcinomas". Cancer Cell. 12 (3): ...
2013). "Quantitative Analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 Protein Over-Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue". PLoS ONE ... 2002). "Enhanced expression of a novel protein in human cancer cells: a potential aid to cancer diagnosis". Cell Biol. Toxicol ... 2000). "Drg-1 as a differentiation-related, putative metastatic suppressor gene in human colon cancer". Cancer Res. 60 (3): 749 ... 2003). "Expression of NDRG1, a differentiation-related gene, in human tissues". Histochem. Cell Biol. 118 (5): 399-408. doi: ...
Studies in prostate cancer find that human prostate cancer cell lines in culture overexpress ALOX12, overproduce 12(S)-HETE, ... Recently, hypermethylation of the ALOX12 gene in prostate cancer tissue was associated with clinical predictors for a high rate ... it also promotes the malignant behavior of cultured human cancer cells as well as the growth of certain cancers in animal ... have been shown to inhibit the growth of cultured human prostate cancer cell by causing them to enter apoptosis. Studies on ...
The FMNL2 gene is expressed in multiple human tissues. Formin-like protein 2 is a formin-related protein. Formin-related ... FMNL2 expression is considerably higher in colorectal cancer tumors compared to normal tissue. FMNL1 FMNL3 GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues". BMC Cell Biol. 11: 55. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-11-55. PMC ... Formin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FMNL2 gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of ...
Cancer Cell. 2017 Aug 14;32(2):169-184.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.ccell.2017.07.005. Tissue Regeneration Promoted through Gene ... ARID1A protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ARID1A genome location and ... Berns K et al; Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Nov 1;22(21):5238-5248 Genomic Evolution of Breast Cancer Metastasis and Relapse. Yates LR ... This gene has been commonly found mutated in gastric cancers, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. In breast ...
Cancer Research. 57 (12): 2362-5. PMID 9192809. Ikeguchi EF, Stifelman MD, Hensle TW (1998). "Ureteral tissue expansion for ... a potential biomarker for human renal cell carcinoma". ... Stifelman MD, Ikeguchi EF, Hensle TW (1998). "Ureteral tissue ... Cancer, 86(3):492-7, 1999. Stifelman MD, Sosa RE, Andrade A, Tarintino, Shichman SJ.: Hand assisted laparoscopic ... Marien TP, Shapiro E, Melamed J, Taouli B, Stifelman MD, Lepor H. Management of localized prostate cancer and an incidental ...
"Identification of novel single nucleotide substitutions in the NKp30 gene expressed in human natural killer cells". Tissue ... Cancer Res. 8 (3): 636-40. PMID 11895890. Holzinger I, de Baey A, Messer G, et al. (1995). "Cloning and genomic ... NCR3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCR3 gene. NCR3 has also been ...
"A novel secreted tumor antigen with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored structure ubiquitously expressed in human cancers ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 335-43. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00070.x. PMID 12753652. Onda H, Ohkubo S, Shintani Y, Ogi K, ... Steinle A, Li P, Morris DL, Groh V, Lanier LL, Strong RK, Spies T (2001). "Interactions of human NKG2D with its ligands MICA, ... Cerwenka A, Lanier LL (May 2003). "NKG2D ligands: unconventional MHC class I-like molecules exploited by viruses and cancer". ...
Steinle A, Li P, Morris DL, Groh V, Lanier LL, Strong RK, Spies T (2001). "Interactions of human NKG2D with its ligands MICA, ... Cerwenka A, Lanier LL (May 2003). "NKG2D ligands: unconventional MHC class I-like molecules exploited by viruses and cancer". ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 335-43. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00070.x. PMID 12753652. Eleme K, Taner SB, Onfelt B, Collinson LM ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000131019 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Cosman D, Müllberg J, Sutherland CL ...
... does not cause DNA damage that can lead to cancer. Its only consistently observed biological effect in humans is tissue heating ... In animal studies, it has not been found to cause cancer or to enhance the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinogens ... The majority of human studies have failed to find a link between cell phone use and cancer. In 2011 a World Health Organization ... a b c What has research shown about the possible cancer-causing effects of radiofrequency energy?, United States National ...
BMC Cancer. 6: 186. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-186. PMC 1538620 . PMID 16836752. "Entrez Gene: CLDN20 claudin 20". Human CLDN20 ... expression in normal and neoplastic tissues". ... Claudin-20 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN20 ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ...
"Cadherin cell-adhesion molecules in human epithelial tissues and carcinomas". Cancer Research. 49 (8): 2128-33. PMID 2702654. ... CDH3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CDH3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... Rufas O, Fisch B, Ziv S, Shalgi R (Feb 2000). "Expression of cadherin adhesion molecules on human gametes". Molecular Human ... its low expression in human placental tissues". The Journal of Cell Biology. 109 (4 Pt 1): 1787-94. doi:10.1083/jcb.109.4.1787 ...
Naguib FN, el Kouni MH, Cha S (1985). "Enzymes of uracil catabolism in normal and neoplastic human tissues". Cancer Res. 45 (11 ... "A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue distribution". ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Dihydropyrimidinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DPYS gene. Dihydropyrimidinase catalyzes the conversion of 5, ...
Naguib FN, el Kouni MH, Cha S (1985). "Enzymes of uracil catabolism in normal and neoplastic human tissues". Cancer Res. 45 (11 ... Beta-ureidopropionase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UPB1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the ... 2005). "A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biol. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10- ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Several human genetic disorders are associated with mutations in gap junction genes. Many of those affect the skin because this ... Tissues in this section have well known functions observed to be coordinated by gap junctions with inter-cellular signaling ... An indication of what results from reduction or absence of gap junctions may be indicated by analysis of cancers or the aging ... Gap junctions appear to be in all animal organs and tissues and it will be interesting to find exceptions to this other than ...
ISBN 0-13-041696-7. Palsson, Bernhard; Masters, John C. (1999). Cancer cell lines. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0- ... His research interests include metabolic network modelling, systems biology, tissue engineering and cell culture, the ... "A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (5): 419-425. doi:10.1038/nbt.2488. PMC ... Bhatia, Sangeeta; Palsson, Bernhard (2004). Tissue engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ...
It is also amplified in solid tumor cell lines, and may be involved in human cancer. Two alternatively spliced transcript ... This gene is ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues. ... MLL4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine ... Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 4, also known as MLL4, is a human gene. This gene encodes a protein which contains ... 2000). "MLL2, the second human homolog of the Drosophila trithorax gene, maps to 19q13.1 and is amplified in solid tumor cell ...
"Human BLCAP transcript: new editing events in normal and cancerous tissues". International Journal of Cancer. 127 (1): 127-37. ... Bladder cancer and Colorectal cancer when compared with the relevant normal tissues. HEK 293t cells transfected with either ... Bladder cancer-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BLCAP gene. BLCAP was identified using a ... The human BLCAP gene is composed of two exons which are separated by an intron. Exon 1 of the gene encodes a 5′ sequence of the ...
In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia and plasma cell leukemia are malignant neoplasms ("cancer") of ... Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology) (v. 67). S. Karger AG ( ...
Characterization of human frataxin missense variants in cancer tissues.. Petrosino M1,2,3, Pasquo A4, Novak L1, Toto A1,5,6, ... cancer tissues; human frataxin; missense variants; protein folding; protein stability; protein variants; single amino acid ... In this study, we selected, from COSMIC database, the somatic human frataxin missense variants found in cancer tissues p.D104G ... as well as the molecular dynamics of the frataxin missense variants found in cancer tissues point to local changes confined to ...
Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Mammary Tumor Breast Cancer Tissue Mammary Carcinogenesis These keywords were added by ... Effect of murine milk samples and human breast tissues on human leukocyte migration indices, Cancer Res. 34: 1054.PubMedGoogle ... Distinctive protein components of human breast cancer tissues: MuMTV-like properties, Cancer Res., in press.Google Scholar ... Prognostically favorable immunogens of human breast cancer tissue: Antigenic similarity to murine mammary tumor virus, Cancer ...
One of NCIs longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic ... Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. ... Human biospecimens, as any cancer researcher will tell you, are a foundational resource in basic and clinical cancer research. ... NCIs Cooperative Human Tissue Network was originally published by the National Cancer Institute." ...
... ... of cancer cases respectively. Only 3 benign breast tumour tissues (‎12.5%)‎ and none of the healthy breast tissue specimens ... In the breast cancer group, cocktail HPV genotypes were detected in 60 (‎46.5%)‎ archived tissue blocks. Of these, genotypes 16 ... ABSTRACT Studies have suggested a possible link between breast cancer pathogenesis and human papillomavirus (‎HPV)‎ infection. ...
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Jan;77(2):157-65. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in human breast cancer tissue.. Upadhyay G1, Singh R, Agarwal G, Mishra ... has also been demonstrated in extra-thyroidal tissues including lactating mice mammary gland and also in human breast cancers. ... The aim of the present study was to investigate NIS expression, in vivo iodine transport ability and fate of iodine in human ...
... of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our ... can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a ... and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers. ... Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, ...
Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... Cadherin Cell-Adhesion Molecules in Human Epithelial Tissues and Carcinomas. Yutaka Shimoyama, Setsuo Hirohashi, Shinji Hirano ... Cadherin Cell-Adhesion Molecules in Human Epithelial Tissues and Carcinomas. Yutaka Shimoyama, Setsuo Hirohashi, Shinji Hirano ... Cadherin Cell-Adhesion Molecules in Human Epithelial Tissues and Carcinomas. Yutaka Shimoyama, Setsuo Hirohashi, Shinji Hirano ...
The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is assessed through conventional clinicopathological parameters, which ... The human kallikrein gene family: new biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Res. 2009;149:165-87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Evaluation and prognostic significance of human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 10 (KLK10) in colorectal cancer. ... Clinical significance of human kallikrein gene 6 messenger RNA expression in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:2889- ...
Each antibody was used to screen a multitude of normal human tissues and cancer tissue from individually different tumors. ... Some Examples of Cancer Tissue Profiles-. In Fig. 7, some examples of cancer tissue profiles selected from the protein atlas ... The summary page for cancer profiles. Two examples of summary pages for cancer tissue profiles in 20 different cancer types are ... protein expression patterns in a multitude of normal human tissues and cancer tissues representing the 20 most prevalent cancer ...
Premade cDNA from human cancer tissues and cell lines. Very pure, double-stranded cDNA synthesized from premium, high quality ... Tissue-Specific Human cDNA, Cancer & Cell Line. QUICK-Clone cDNAs are premade double-stranded cDNA from which you can amplify a ... Products , cDNA_Synthesis_and_Library_Construction , cDNA_and_Genomic_DNA , Tissue-Specific_cDNA , Human_Cancer_and_Cell_Line. ... Synthesized from premium, high quality poly A+ RNA prepared from cancer tissues and various cancer cell lines using an oligo(dT ...
Light-based Probe Sees Early Cancers in First Tests on Human Tissue. March 27th, 2007 Josh Umbehr Oncology ... "Being able to detect pre-cancer in epithelial tissues would therefore help prevent all types of cancer by catching it early, ... We could detect pre-cancer in the esophagus and distinguish it from normal tissue like you would find in the stomach.". The fa/ ... In its first laboratory tests on human tissue, a light-based probe built by researchers at Duke Universitys Pratt School of ...
Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in normal and malignant human tissues.. D A Silver, I Pellicer, W R Fair, W D ... Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in normal and malignant human tissues.. D A Silver, I Pellicer, W R Fair, W D ... Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in normal and malignant human tissues.. D A Silver, I Pellicer, W R Fair, W D ... Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in normal and malignant human tissues. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
... next-generation sequencing analysis of RNA extracted from cancer and normal lung tissue was performed.... ... Homo sapiensIn order to identify divergent transcripts involved in cancer development, ... eg.(cancer,cancers)(cervical,cervix)!("Squamous cell carcinoma",SCC). will return records where either the words cancer or ... In the present study, the function of NLK in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. Immunohistochemical ...
Home -, Tissue Related -, Human Endometrium Cancer -, Paraffin Tissue Microarray Paraffin Tissue Microarray For Verifying ... Human Endometrial cancer tissue array, normal/benign (5 cases) and cancer (97 cases with grading and TNM staging data) tissues ... Human Endometrial cancer tissue array, normal/benign (5 cases) and cancer (97 cases with grading and TNM staging data) tissues ... Human Endometrial cancer tissue array, one normal paired with two tumor tissue cores from each patient, with grading and TNM ...
Home -, Tissue Related -, Human Nasopharynx Cancer -, Paraffin Tissue Microarray Paraffin Tissue Microarray For Verifying ... of your interest in the Tissue Related Overview list. Multi Species Tissue Products, Control Tissue Microarrays, and Tissue ... Tissue-specific Products. Select from a large variety of tissue-specific products from many species including human (adult & ... Up to 128 individual human tissues, either tumor samples or non neoplastic tissue samples, are delivered on a single slide. ...
Human breast and prostate tissue specimens were obtained from the Co-operation Human Tissue Network (CHTN) and the National ... Stokes shift spectroscopic analysis of multifluorophores for human cancer detection in breast and prostate tissues. ... the S3 technique has received increasing interest for diagnostics of different types of cancers in human tissues.8,9 ... "Stokes shift spectroscopic analysis of multifluorophores for human cancer detection in breast and prostate tissues," Journal of ...
Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... in homogenates of cancer and normal tissue aliquots obtained from human cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, and lung were ... Cellular Binding Proteins for Vitamin A in Human Carcinomas and in Normal Tissues. Prabhudas R. Palan and Seymour L. Romney ... Cellular Binding Proteins for Vitamin A in Human Carcinomas and in Normal Tissues ...
Oral Cancer Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Laryngeal Cancer Sinus Cancer Hypopharyngeal Cancer Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With ... Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.. This study is ongoing, but not ... Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer Stage 0 ... Food-Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer. ...
Oral Cancer Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Hypopharyngeal Cancer Tongue Cancer Sinus Cancer Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With ... Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.. The safety and scientific validity ... Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer Stage 0 ... Food-Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer. ...
Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer. ... It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific ... Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. ... A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC), and ...
... increases the risk for prostate cancer in human prostate tissue," Prins said. "The findings of adverse effects of BPA in human ... increases the risk for prostate cancer in human prostate tissue," Prins said. "The findings of adverse effects of BPA in human ... BPA increases risk of cancer in human prostate tissue. Sharon Parmet January 2, 2014 ... including prostate cancer, in rodent models. The new findings show that human prostate tissue is also susceptible. ...
Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from the adipose tissue into carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts in interaction with ... human breast cancer cells. [Constantin Jotzu; Andreas Jung] ... myofibroblasts in interaction with human breast cancer cells. ... mesenchymal stem cells from the adipose tissue into carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts in interaction with human breast cancer ... mesenchymal stem cells from the adipose tissue into carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts in interaction with human breast cancer ...
A nonsaponification method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in solid human tissues.. Y M Peng, ... There has been an increasing interest in the measurement of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human tissues because ... A nonsaponification method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in solid human tissues. ... A nonsaponification method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in solid human tissues. ...
Cancer). Analyze up to 100 tissues on the same slide. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... Human Larynx and Pharynx Tissue MicroArray (Cancer) Summary. Description. Microarray Panel:. Larynx and pharynx cancer No. of ... Hematoxylin & Eosin Stain: Human Larynx and Pharynx Tissue MicroArray (Cancer) [NBP2-30270] - 16. Soft tissue, neck, squamous ... Hematoxylin & Eosin Stain: Human Larynx and Pharynx Tissue MicroArray (Cancer) [NBP2-30270] - 18. Soft tissue, neck squamous ...
We report here the generation of functional human mast cells from adipose tissue. The adipose-derived mast cells are ... We report here the generation of functional human mast cells from adipose tissue. The adipose-derived mast cells are ... when incubated with HER2/neu-positive human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3). Importantly, the HER2/neu IgE-sensitized adipose- ... when incubated with HER2/neu-positive human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3). Importantly, the HER2/neu IgE-sensitized adipose- ...
  • Human frataxin is an iron-binding protein involved in the mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters assembly, a process fundamental for the functional activity of mitochondrial proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report a new publicly available database containing, in the first version, ∼400,000 high resolution images corresponding to more than 700 antibodies toward human proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Our results suggest it should be possible to extend this analysis to the majority of all human proteins thus providing a valuable tool for medical and biological research. (mcponline.org)
  • The results are presented as a publicly available protein atlas database, and the data suggest that it should be possible to extend this analysis to most or all human proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Tissue Arrays can also be used for the characterization of antibodies and for the tissue specific expression profiling of proteins and genes in situ. (biocat.com)
  • Blinded analyses of the concentrations of binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid (CRABP) in homogenates of cancer and normal tissue aliquots obtained from human cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, and lung were carried out by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation technique. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There were no significant differences between the log-mean concentrations of cellular retinol-binding proteins in the cytosols from tissue aliquots of carcinoma of the cervix and those in the cytosols from tissue aliquots of normal cervix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Solid tissues are first incubated in a collagenase solution, homogenized, then incubated in a protease solution, followed by precipitation of tissue proteins and extraction with hexane. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The results presented in the paper provide strong evidence that the global acetylation level of histone and non-histone proteins increases in human breast cancer cells. (rsc.org)
  • The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Our hydrogel is well positioned to replicate aspects of the complex mixture of proteins and glycans that embeds and supports cells, and can also be manipulated to mimic ECM stiffness (breast density) which is a key predictor of DCIS recurrence and primary invasive breast cancer development. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • The proteins and glycans will then be combined to generate a panel of 6 bespoke hydrogel environments modelling the range of tissue types. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • Various studies have shown that the disruption of components of this control pathway, either by the activation of positive acting components such as cyclin D1 and Cdk4 or by the inactivation of negative components such as the tumor suppressor proteins pRb and p16, can lead to the loss of growth control underlying the development of various forms of human cancer ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Two of the proteins in this family are exclusively or predominantly expressed in the prostate, as well as in prostate cancer, and thus members of this family have been termed "STEAP" (Six Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The human STEAPs exhibit a high degree of structural conservation among them but show no significant structural homology to any known human proteins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These tissue sections are designed to localize genes or proteins in human tumor tissues/cells. (insightbio.com)
  • A team of scientists led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas at Austin have harnessed Escherichia coli bacteria to help discover human proteins that can initiate DNA damage, and which may play a role in triggering cells to become cancerous. (genengnews.com)
  • One way proteins can cause DNA damage is by being overproduced, which is a relatively frequent cellular event," commented Susan M. Rosenberg, PhD, Ben F. Love chair in cancer research and professor of molecular and human genetics, of molecular virology and microbiology and of biochemistry and molecular biology at Baylor, who is co-corresponding author of the researchers' published paper in Cell . (genengnews.com)
  • In this study, we set out to uncover proteins that, when overproduced by the cell, cause damage to DNA in ways that can lead to cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • One way of discovering which proteins can promote DNA damage is to investigate protein overproduction, which is a major cancer driver, the researchers continued. (genengnews.com)
  • Rather than try to identify human proteins directly, they turned to E.coli , and looked for bacterial proteins that, when overproduced, caused DNA damage in the bacterial cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Given DNA biology conservation across life, proteins that promote spontaneous DNA damage may be conserved, and their identification could potentially inform strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, including cancer, aging, and pathogen evolution," the team stated. (genengnews.com)
  • The team subsequently identified 284 human proteins with amino acid sequences similar to 58 of the E. coli DDPs, and which represented candidate human DDPs (hDDPs). (genengnews.com)
  • They determined that the human DDPs were linked to cancer more often than a random set of proteins, while evaluation of protein and RNA data from resources including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) suggested that many of the human DDPs were linked with reduced patient survival and higher total tumor mutation loads in different types of cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • More screening centers are needed to care for the high number of rural smokers at risk for lung cancer. (medworm.com)
  • The levels of cathepsins in malignant and surrounding nonmalignant lung tissue were determined in 17 non-small cell lung cancer specimens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We performed transcriptomic profiling of tumor-infiltrating CTLs from treatment-naive patients with lung cancer to define the molecular features associated with the robustness of anti-tumor immune responses. (soton.ac.uk)
  • also reported that β-lap effectively inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing tube formation and the invasion of HUVECs in vitro , and suppressed the growth and angiogenesis of human lung cancer xenografts in nude mice 18 . (nature.com)
  • Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death globally, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has one of the lowest survival rates of any type of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest that microRNAs play important and complex roles in lung cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spanish epidemiologists and geologists have found associations between esophageal cancer and soils where lead is abundant, lung cancer and terrains with increased copper content, brain tumor with areas rich in arsenic, and bladder cancer with high cadmium levels. (news-medical.net)
  • They have found various associations, such as increased mortality in both genders from esophageal cancer in areas with higher concentrations of lead, and lung cancer in areas with high copper levels. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, the researchers identified complex indels in the gene EGFR , which is implicated in lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer diagnosis requires better screening of early stages of pathology and monitoring patient responses to treatment. (rsc.org)
  • The study of naturally occurring cancers in the domestic dog provides a suitable model for advancement of the understanding, diagnosis and management of cancer in humans [ 1 - 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The restricted genetic variation in many purebred dog breeds allows for easier identification of the genetic basis of disease, including cancers, and the shorter lifespan of dogs facilitates timely and efficient evaluation of new approaches to cancer diagnosis, treatment and prevention. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Considering that non-invasive screening is usually the first step of cancer diagnosis, and could be associated with a fair ratio of false positives, such follow-up would be likely to increase the burden on the medical care system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 23 ] pioneered an approach of using nucleosome footprinting to predict the tissue of origin of the cfDNA, but its power in cancer diagnosis has not been demonstrated because only five plasma samples with high ctDNA burden were selected for testing from 44 late-stage cancer patients, and less than one half had their cancer types correctly predicted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mavridis K, Scorilas A. Prognostic value and biological role of the kallikrein-related peptidases in human malignancies. (springer.com)
  • This optimized protocol will contribute to biomarker discovery and biological studies of EVs in renal cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • They selected 77 candidate fusions based on their biological relevance to cancer and supported 61% of these using TaqMan assays. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • As part of our pledge to elevate biological models, ATCC is collaborating with the Human Cancer Models Initiative (HCMI) to offer scientists a wide variety of next-generation 2D and 3D patient-derived in vitro cancer models, including organoids. (atcc.org)
  • Therefore, these discoveries suggest the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in human genetics and genomics studies. (crg.eu)
  • Gonzalo López-Abente, another of the co-authors and also researcher at ISCIII, agrees: 'The conclusions move in the field of hypotheses and statistical associations, which will have to be confirmed with future analyzes to check whether the composition of the soil itself has its counterpart in the biological markers of humans. (news-medical.net)
  • However, she noted, "although bacteria and people are different, their basic biological processes are similar, so with this approach we thought we might find common mechanisms of DNA damage that could be relevant to cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • HGF and Met may exert functions in the development of SLM when concurrent with lymph node metastases but had little influence on SLM without lymph node metastasis, further indicating their roles and potential values for a subtype of colorectal cancer metastasis. (medsci.org)
  • Blood and lymph are also connective tissues. (cancer.ca)
  • After the tissue was allowed to mature for one month, the mice were given estrogen to mimic the naturally rising estrogen levels seen in aging men. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mice on trial: is xenografts using human tissue a better model of cancer than xenografts formed from cell lines? (ovid.com)
  • Similarly, topically administered DFMO in an acetone vehicle dramatically reduced UVBinduced skin cancers in BALB/c mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The team created two human-sized ear s that they implanted on mice. (fox61.com)
  • The spectral properties, the thermodynamic and the kinetic stability, as well as the molecular dynamics of the frataxin missense variants found in cancer tissues point to local changes confined to the environment of the mutated residues. (nih.gov)
  • BioCat cooperates with partners in Korea, USA, Estonia and Germany which are specialised in molecular pathology to offer you a complete selection of premade tissue arrays as well as tissue array related custom services. (biocat.com)
  • Imaging MS combined with CE/MS serves as a method to provide semi-quantitative and spatial information of small molecular metabolites in tissue slices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fetal exposure to a commonly used plasticizer found in products such as water bottles, soup can liners and paper receipts can increase the risk for prostate cancer later in life, according to a study from the University of Illinois at Chicago published Jan. 7 online in the journal Endocrinology. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, not all metabolites including amino acids have fully been visualized, because of low-ionization efficiency in MALDI MS. This study aimed to acquire semi-quantitative spatial information for multiple amino acids in frozen tissue slices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human papillomavirus is not associated with colorectal cancer in a large international study. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These HCMI models are valuable tools to study cancer, identify and target novel therapies, and facilitate translational cancer research. (atcc.org)
  • Topical DFMO for 6 months can reduce the number of AK lesions and skin spermidine concentrations in high-risk participants and deserves additional study as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study was funded by Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), Stand Up To Cancer, the Pollock Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and other donors to the Children's Medical Center Foundation. (medindia.net)
  • Surgical goggles developed by researchers at the University of Illinois and Washington University are able to spot cancerous tissue where the human eye won't, a new study claims. (breastmri.net)
  • human treatments based on the development are years away, study co-author Glenn Gaudette said. (fox61.com)