A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Freedom from activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
... the major target of human autoantibodies which immunoprecipitate voltage-gated potassium channel complexes from mammalian brain ... Following genetic linkage studies placing the hereditary form of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ... Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA, Fukata M (September 2006). "Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features. ...
Persons with narcolepsy and complex-partial seizures also reported euphoria and sexual thoughts from self-elicited DBS of the ... Schlaepfer TE, Bewernick BH, Kayser S, Hurlemann R, Coenen VA (May 2014). "Deep brain stimulation of the human reward system ... Medtronic Receives FDA Approval for Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Medically Refractory Epilepsy". newsroom.medtronic.com. ... "brain pacemaker"), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain ...
1998). "Doublecortin, a brain-specific gene mutated in human X-linked lissencephaly and double cortex syndrome, encodes a ... Lowenstein DH (2011). "Seizures and Epilepsy". In Loscalzo J, Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL (eds.). Harrison's ... 2001). "Doublecortin interacts with mu subunits of clathrin adaptor complexes in the developing nervous system". Mol. Cell. ... 2002). "So-called 'cryptogenic' partial seizures resulting from a subtle cortical dysgenesis due to a doublecortin gene ...
... with consciousness have focused on the persistence of experiences reported by individuals who display complex partial epilepsy ... His most well-known hypotheses include the temporal lobes of the human brain as the central correlate for mystical experiences ... Dotta, Blake (2011). "Photon emissions from human brain and cell culture exposed to distally rotating magnetic fields shared by ... Persinger, Michael (2014). "Infrasound, human health, and adaptation: an integrative overview of recondite hazards in a complex ...
"Miniature 'human brain' grown in lab". BBC. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013. "Researchers Grow 3-D Human Brain Tissues ... Researchers cure epilepsy in mice using transplanted brain cells. 6 May It is shown that boosting a single gene can increase ... 23 June Scientists find that plants use complex mathematical calculations, similar to human circadian rhythms, to adjust their ... 25 April - A partial lunar eclipse occurs. 26 April Following laboratory tests of molten iron, European scientists determine ...
Hobson asserts that the existence of lucid dreaming means that the human brain can simultaneously occupy two states: waking and ... One study analyzed 40 patients with complex partial seizures to determine their level of consciousness during seizures. The ... Level and contents of consciousness in connection with partial epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4(3), 279-285. Edelman ... Studies show that it is possible to retain primary consciousness and even secondary consciousness during complex partial ...
Brain stimulation has potentials to treat some disorders such as epilepsy. In this method, scheduled stimulation is applied to ... Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation Hallett M (July 2000). "Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain". Nature. 406 ... Cochlear implants have provided partial hearing to more than 120,000 persons worldwide as of 2008. The electrical stimulation ... complex regional pain syndrome, phantom limb pain, ischemic limb pain, refractory unilateral limb pain syndrome, postherpetic ...
Nearly all affected patients that come to medical attention have epilepsy, with partial complex and atypical absence epilepsy ... The development of the brain in the human fetus is extraordinarily complex and is still not fully understood. Neural matter ... In general, patients present fixed neurologic deficits and develop partial epilepsy between the ages of 6 and 10. The more ... Approximately two thirds of patients with epilepsy ultimately develop intractable seizures. MRI of the brain in subcortical ...
They are a common feature of simple partial seizures and usually precede complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. ... by changes in the brain (such as from traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, migraines, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs), and ... Micropsia is a condition affecting human visual perception in which objects are perceived to be smaller than they actually are ... Micropsia is sometimes seen in individuals with brain infarctions. The damaged side of the brain conveys size information that ...
An electroencephalograph (EEG) measures the electrical activation of the brain from scalp sites located over the human cortex. ... He described interictal activity (EEG potentials between seizures) and recorded a partial complex seizure in 1933. Finally, he ... and reduces the frequency of seizures in humans diagnosed with epilepsy. He found that his SMR protocol, which uses visual and ... Applicants may demonstrate their knowledge of human anatomy and physiology by completing a course in human anatomy, human ...
Aboitiz, F (1992). "Brain connections: interhemispheric fiber systems and anatomical brain asymmetries in humans". Biological ... reserved for cases in which complex or grand mal seizures are produced by an epileptogenic focus on one side of the brain, ... The symptoms of refractory (difficult to treat) epilepsy can be reduced by cutting through the corpus callosum in an operation ... In addition to agenesis of the corpus callosum, similar conditions are hypogenesis (partial formation), dysgenesis ( ...
Occipital epilepsies account for approximately 5% to 10% of all epilepsies. Base of brain. Drawing to illustrate the relations ... Horizontal section.Deep dissection Medical portal Alpha wave Lobes of the brain Regions of the human brain Sulcus Lunatus ... Damage to the primary visual areas of the occipital lobe can cause partial or complete blindness. The occipital lobe is divided ... especially as the stimuli take on more complex forms. For example, a case study using fMRI was done on shape and location. The ...
... the brain's respiratory control centers, located in the region of the human brain known as the pre-Botzinger complex, are ... These muscles expand the thorax (chest cavity) so that a partial vacuum is made within the lungs and air rushes in to fill it. ... are severe but not severe enough to trigger brain-cell or overall death may trigger seizures even in the absence of epilepsy. ... Brain cells need constant oxygen to live, and if the level of blood oxygen remains low enough for long enough, brain damage and ...
The behavior of human infants, New York: Plenum Press, 1983. ISBN 0-306-41470-8. Zappella, Michele; cooperated to Mary ... Zappella, M; Gillberg, C; Ehlers, S (1998). "The preserved speech variant: a subgroup of the Rett complex: a clinical report of ... Zappella, M (1992). "The Rett girls with preserved speech". Brain & Development. 14 (2): 98-101. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(12) ... 2010). "EEG features and epilepsy in MECP2-mutated patients with the Zappella variant of Rett syndrome". Clinical ...
... simple partial seizures, and complex partial seizures, and myoclonic seizures.[8] In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), it is a ... CDER, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (2003-2005). "Primidone (Mysoline)". Pharmacology Guide for Brain Injury ... EpilepsyEdit. Licensed for generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures in the United Kingdom.[8] In the United States ... "Epilepsy.com. Epilepsy Therapy Development Project. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2007-01-10.. ...
"There is no God spot in the brain. Spiritual experiences are complex, like intense experiences with other human beings."[27] ... Waxman SG, Geschwind N (1975). "The interictal behavior syndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 32 (12): 1580 ... Tinoca, Carlos A; Ortiz, João PL (2014). "Magnetic Stimulation of the Temporal Cortex: A Partial "God Helmet" Replication Study ... Horizon - God on the Brain. *Your Brain on Religion: Mystic visions or brain circuits at work? (Newsweek neurotheology article ...
This lack of a postictal period is a key feature that allows one to distinguish between absence and partial complex seizures. ... 2006). "2. Clinical epilepsy". Clinical Epilepsy. American Epilepsy Society. Absence ... seizures begin and end suddenly. There ... Brain. 130 (Pt 4): 1009-16. doi:10.1093/brain/awm012. PMID 17301080. Hosokawa C, Ochi H, Yamagami S, Yamada R (April 1997). " ... If humans show similar uncoupling of perfusion and metabolism, this would result in hypoperfusion in the affected area, a ...
"Epilepsy Foundation Statement on DEA's Scheduling of Epidiolex" (Press release). Landover, MD: Epilepsy Foundation. September ... It was found that the major metabolites of CBD in humans (7-OH-CBD and 7-COOH-CBD) are not prevalent in dogs, while 6-OH-CBD ... CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid ... The intention of the regulations is to prohibit cannabinoids that activate the same receptors in the brain as activated by THC ...
This technology has been used in both animals and humans. The prosthetic can be controlled by the brain using a direct implant ... or other related locations inside the brain. The present state of the art yields only partial functionality, such as ... Using 3D cell culture techniques enables scientists to recreate the complex extracellular matrix, ECM, found in in vivo to ... epilepsy, treatment resistant depression, and other conditions such as urinary incontinence. Rather than replacing existing ...
... complex partial seizures, secondary generalized seizures, and for monotherapy use in infantile spasms in West syndrome. As of ... However, this is in the brain only; it has no effect on peripheral GABA transaminase, so the GHB keeps building up and ... Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is a medication used to treat epilepsy. It became available as a generic medication in 2019. It ... There is no controlled teratology data in humans to date. In 2003, vigabatrin was shown by Frisén and Malmgren to cause ...
The Median lethal dose of THC in humans is not known because no human has ever been known to have died from it. A 1972 study ... They are then slowly released back into other body compartments, including the brain. ... Within the brain, THC and other ... The actions of THC result from its partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki = 10 nM[20]), located mainly in ... "Epilepsy & Behavior. 70 (Pt B): 288-291. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.021. PMID 28169144.. ...
They are then slowly released back into other body compartments, including the brain. ... Within the brain, THC and other ... The median lethal dose of THC in humans is not known. A 1972 study gave up to 9000 mg/kg of THC to dogs and monkeys without any ... The actions of THC result from its partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki = 10 nM), located mainly in the ... Mead, A (2017). "The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. Law". Epilepsy & Behavior. 70 (Pt B ...
Central nervous system European Brain Council Human brain ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system Mental disorder ... Complex regional pain syndrome (a chronic pain condition) Neurological disorders in non-human animals are treated by ... On the other hand, dissociation refers to partial or complete disruption of the integration of a person's conscious functioning ... multiple system atrophy Seizure disorders such as epilepsy Movement disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system such ...
The brain controls every part of human life: physical, intellectual, behavioral, social and emotional. When the brain is ... brain injury is itself a very complex phenomenon having dramatically varied effects. No two persons can expect the same outcome ... There is often partial recovery of memory functioning following the initial recovery phase; however, permanent handicaps are ... These lesions helped remove symptoms of the epilepsy in Molaison but resulted in anterograde amnesia. Molaison has been studied ...
In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface (BCI) into a human subject. History of tumor ... and epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy - severing part or all of the corpus callosum to ... At present these procedures include complex instrumentation. Spine fusions could be performed as open surgery or as minimally ... Anesthesia is not used during the middle of an "awake" brain surgery. Awake brain surgery is where the patient is conscious for ...
While it is still debated whether this species had a complex brain or not, development of similar species support the ... Though this fissure divides the brain, the two hemispheres of the human cortex are not perfectly symmetrical, both in structure ... In a clinical setting, those with epilepsy may benefit from the division of the corpus callosum. It is thought that a majority ... and cuts through either approximately two thirds of the fibers in the case of partial callosotomy, or the entirety in the case ...
Amongst many neuronal changes in the brain during normal human brain development, researchers claim that the corpus callosum ... DNAL4 encodes a component of dynein motor complex in commissural neurons of the corpus callosum. In contrast to DCC, DNAL4 is ... Movement disorders Chiari malformation Klippel-Feil Syndrome Dystonia Cerebral palsy Parkinson's disease Epilepsies Amyotrophic ... which may lead to a partial failure of axonal fiber crossing and encourage development of an abnormal ipsilateral connection. ...
Brain connectivity 3: 212-221. Thorpe S., Fize D. and Marlot C. (1996) Speed of processing in the human visual system. Nature ... in complex partial epileptic seizures. These automated responses, sometimes called zombie behaviors, could be contrasted by a ... Single-neuron recordings in the medial temporal lobe of epilepsy patients during flash suppression likewise demonstrate ... Seemingly complex visual processing (such as detecting animals in natural, cluttered scenes) can be accomplished by the human ...
"Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain ... "Collisions between replication and transcription complexes cause common fragile site instability at the longest human genes" ( ... "Recessive symptomatic focal epilepsy and mutant contactin-associated protein-like 2". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 ... "Circular rapid amplification of cDNA ends for high-throughput extension cloning of partial genes". Genomics. 84 (1): 205-10. ...
... with partial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency". European Journal of Medical Genetics. 56 (12): 683-5. doi:10.1016/j.ejmg ... Syntaxin-binding protein 1 (also known as Munc18-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STXBP1 gene. This gene ... The STXBP1 gene is expressed in the brain and spinal cord and highly enriched in axons. Expression of this protein is highest ... Mutations in the STXBP1 cause Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Type 4 (EIEE4), a severe form of epilepsy characterized ...
Brain matterEdit. The brains of humans and other vertebrates are composed of very soft tissue and have a gelatin-like texture. ... More complex symptoms such as endocrine dysfunctions should alarm doctors not to exclude brain tumors. ... seizures in a patient with a negative history for epilepsy, should raise the possibility of a brain tumor. ... Surgery: complete or partial resection of the tumor with the objective of removing as many tumor cells as possible. ...
Interrupted blood flow to the brain. Convulsions. Sudden, irregular body movements that can be violent. Common. Common. 1 year ... Paraplegia or partial paralysis. Physical therapy Delayed speech. Limited vocabulary. Most common. Least common. Speech therapy ... "Coffin-Lowry syndrome". European Journal of Human Genetics 18, 627-633 (2010). doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.189 ... Medications prescribed include benzodiazepines (tranquilizers used to treat anxiety), valproate (used to manage epilepsy and ...
However, the helpfulness of guide dogs is limited by the inability of dogs to understand complex directions. The human half of ... Cortical blindness results from injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or ... Later versions of Microsoft Windows include an Accessibility Wizard & Magnifier for those with partial vision, and Microsoft ... and epilepsy.[23][24] Blindness in combination with hearing loss is known as deafblindness. ...
He is best known for his research on epilepsy. Jackson was one of the founders of the important Brain journal, which was ... famous for describing human behaviour from a zoological perspective in his books The Naked Ape and The Human Zoo.[240][241] ... Sheila was as much an unbeliever as Erwin, but in a less complex, more realistic way. She was never entirely convinced by his ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. (1928-2015): American mathematician whose works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial ...
... includes simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalised seizures), and as an adjuvant therapy in partial seizures ... Epilepsy South Africa: MEDICATION FOR EPILEPSY - an epilepsy FAQ with a list of medicines for treatment thereof, includes ... It is known that lamotrigine is a weak inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and other, more powerful, human DHFR ... Lamotrigine has been implicated in the apoptotic neurodegeneration of the developing brain.[52] GlaxoSmithKline investigated ...
The brain controls every part of human life: physical, intellectual, behavioral, social and emotional. When the brain is ... brain injury is itself a very complex phenomenon having dramatically varied effects.[2] No two persons can expect the same ... These lesions helped remove symptoms of the epilepsy in Molaison but resulted in anterograde amnesia.[18] Molaison has been ... There is often partial recovery of memory functioning following the initial recovery phase; however, permanent handicaps are ...
The seizures are complex partial, simple partial, secondarily generalized or a combination of the three. These partial seizures ... Lobes of the human brain with the frontal lobe shown in blue ... "Epilepsy.com. Retrieved 2009-12-01.. *^ a b "Women and Epilepsy ... of all epilepsies.[3] The most common subdivision of epilepsy is symptomatic partial epilepsy, which causes simple partial ... either simple partial seizures (that do not affect awareness or memory) or complex partial seizures (that affect awareness or ...
Equine juvenile epilepsy, or Juvenile Idiopathic Epilepsy, sometimes referred to as "benign" epilepsy, is not usually fatal. ... The desert environment required a domesticated horse to cooperate with humans to survive; humans were the only providers of ... This complex web of bloodline and strain was an integral part of Bedouin culture; they not only knew the pedigrees and history ... rabicano is a partial roan-like pattern; the horse does not have intermingled white and solid hairs over the entire body, only ...
So far, the published research on Olney's lesions is inconclusive in its occurrence upon human or monkey brain tissues with ... Other weak partial agonists of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor such as rapastinel (GLYX-13) and apimostinel (NRX-1074) ... Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I are endogenous negative regulators of NMDAR-mediated currents in the ... as well as with other medical conditions such as strokes and epilepsy.[49][67] Treating these conditions with one of the many ...
Simple partial. Complex partial. Gelastic seizure. Epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy. Frontal lobe epilepsy. Rolandic epilepsy. ... "The Human Brain in Numbers". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 3: 31. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMC 2776484. PMID 19915731. ... A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 6115. arXiv: ... As part of an evaluation for epilepsy surgery, it may be necessary to insert electrodes near the surface of the brain, under ...
I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity". Journal of Sleep Research. 9 (4): 335-52. doi ... Engel, Jerome; Pedley, Timothy A.; Aicardi, Jean (2008). Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook - Google Books. ISBN 9780781757775 ... Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction.[1] Complete ... Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions: Evidence reviewed by the NASA Human Research Program. ...
Partial Diagnostic Criteria for Asperger Syndrome. Adapted from Mattila et al.[4]. Blank = not defined by the criteria. ... a b U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee ... as well as traumatic brain injury or birth trauma, conduct disorder, Cornelia De Lange syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, ... multiple complex developmental disorder and nonverbal learning disorder (NLD).[3] ...
In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first brain computer interface (BCI) into a human subject.[1] ... stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus ... At present these procedures include complex instrumentation. Spine fusions maybe performed as open surgery or as minimally ... "Awake Brain Surgery (Intraoperative Brain Mapping)". Johns Hopkins Medicine.. *^ Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh; ...
... epilepsy (especially temporal lobe epilepsy,[12]complex-partial seizure, both as part of the aura and during the seizure[13]), ... or any other neurological disease affecting the brain.[citation needed] For those suffering from depersonalization with ... suppressing empathy and making it easier for them to kill other human beings.[31] ...
Simple partial. Complex partial. Gelastic seizure. Epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy. Frontal lobe epilepsy. Rolandic epilepsy. ... In humans it is generally known that unless a patient has both recessive CSTB genes (are homozygous recessive), they will not ... However, with recent research linking ULD brain damage to the hippocampus,[11] the usefulness of EEG as a diagnostic tool may ... epilepsy.com. *^ a b c d e f Joensuu T, Lehesjoki AE, Kopra O. 2008. Molecular background of EPM1-Unverricht-Lundborg disease. ...
"Human spinal locomotor control is based on flexibly organized burst generators". Brain. 138 (Pt 3): 577-88. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... EpilepsyEdit. Main article: Epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. These ... Computational models adopt a variety of abstractions in order to describe complex oscillatory dynamics observed in brain ... oscillations in the beta frequency range emerge from the partial synchronisation of subsets of brain areas oscillating in the ...
Tulving E (2002). "Episodic memory: from mind to brain". Annu Rev Psychol. 53: 1-25. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114 ... Further studies on Cochrane tested the possibility of amnesia patients to learn information that was more complex than ... as well as partial right side paralysis and vision problems with his right eye. Upon his discharge from the rehabilitation ... a person who had portions of his medial temporal lobe removed during surgery to treat epilepsy ...
... complex partial seizures, strokes, brain tumors, Wilson's disease, traumatic brain injury, Huntington's disease, and complex ... "The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (1): 49-62. doi:10.1086/376547. PMC 1180589. PMID 12802785.. ... migraines can mimic features of bipolar disorder.[86] An EEG may be used to exclude neurological disorders such as epilepsy, ... Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder ...
"Human Brain Mapping. 32 (1): 32-50. doi:10.1002/hbm.20992. PMC 3065329. PMID 21157878.. ... and surrounding tissue removed in an attempt to cure his epilepsy. His subsequent total anterograde amnesia and partial ... Meulemans, Thierry; Van der Linden, Martial (2003). "Implicit learning of complex information in amnesia". Brain and Cognition ... Prog Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 169. pp. 81-95. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00005-2. ISBN 9780444531643. . PMID ...
... brain or spinal cord). However, in neural development in humans, areas of the brain can learn to compensate for other damaged ... such as the carefully placed brain lesion used to treat epilepsy and other brain disorders. These lesions are induced by ... "Ambulation training with or without partial weightbearing after traumatic brain injury: Results of a controlled trial". ... Lesions to the fusiform gyrus often result in prosopagnosia, the inability to distinguish faces and other complex objects from ...
Petroff OA (December 2002). "GABA and glutamate in the human brain". Neuroscientist. 8 (6): 562-573. doi:10.1177/ ... "Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy. 3 (4): 217-227. doi:10.3233/PEP-14097. PMC 4256671. PMID 25485164. Clinical disorders known to ... Muscimol,[59] GABA,[59] gaboxadol (THIP),[59] isoguvacine, progabide, piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (partial agonist) ... GABAA in which the receptor is part of a ligand-gated ion channel complex[5] ...
Critics of full and partial inclusion include educators, administrators and parents. Full and partial inclusion approaches ... Syracuse, NY: Human Policy Press. *^ Scheerenberger, R. (1988, June). Review of the nonrestrictive environment: On community ... The challenge of rethinking and restructuring schools to become more culturally responsive calls for a complex systems view of ... and traumatic brain injury, according to Virginia Commonwealth University's Dr. Paul Wehman.[60] As Dr. Wehman has indicated, ...
... mainly due to increased cancer deaths in humans. These were cancers of the brain, lung, bowel, breast, and bladder, and other ... Partial but incomplete tolerance develops to these impairments. Nitrazepam has been found to be dangerous in elderly patients ... It has been found to be more effective than clonazepam in the treatment of West syndrome, which is an age-dependent epilepsy, ... in histamine turnover occur as a result of nitrazepam's action at the benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex in mouse brain. ...
... includes simple partial, complex partial, and secondarily generalised seizures), and as an adjuvant therapy in partial seizures ... Epilepsy South Africa: MEDICATION FOR EPILEPSY - an epilepsy FAQ with a list of medicines for treatment thereof, includes ... It is known that lamotrigine is a weak inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and other, more powerful, human DHFR ... Brain Research. 612 (1-2): 190-9. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(93)91660-K. PMID 7687190.. ...
Chen F, Larsen MB, Sánchez C, Wiborg O (2005). "The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human ... Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site, identified with [125I]RTI-55, in membranes prepared from whole rat brain ... Tiagabine, a selective GABA reuptake inhibitor used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of epilepsy and seizures. ... further evidence for phencyclidine binding sites associated with the biogenic amine reuptake complex". Synapse. 8 (4): 289-300 ...
However, use of these techniques in people with severe brain damage is methodologically, clinically, and theoretically complex ... is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true ... Epilepsy and encephalopathy, Infection, Opiates, Uremia, Trauma, Insulin overdose or inflammatory disorders, Poisoning and ... Two other patients with non-anoxic, multifocal brain injuries demonstrated several isolated brain regions with higher metabolic ...
The LAT1 is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier[103] and transports gabapentin across into the brain.[95][90][101][102] ... Wheless JW, Willmore J, Brumback RA (2009). Advanced Therapy in Epilepsy. PMPH-USA. pp. 302-. ISBN 978-1-60795-004-2. .. ... Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, ... Gabapentin is also used in dogs and other animals, but some formulations (especially liquid forms) meant for human use contain ...
Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent ... Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent ... basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human ... cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened ...
... and a mu3-like opiate alkaloid receptor in human brain tissue taken from a patient with intractable complex partial epilepsy. ... Pharyngeal dysesthesia in refractory complex partial epilepsy: new seizure or adverse effect of vagal nerve stimulation? ... Vagal Nerve Stimulation In Children With Medically Intractable Epilepsy Following Epilepsy Surgery. American Epilepsy Society ... Clinical characteristics of complex partial seizures: a temporal versus a frontal lobe onset. Seizure. 1997 Feb; 6(1):57-61. ...
Complex partial status epilepticus induced by a microinjection of kainic acid into unilateral amygdala in dogs and its brain ... 2. Ben-Ari Y. Limbic seizure and brain damage produced by kainic acid: mechanisms and relevance to human temporal lobe epilepsy ... Diffusion-weighted imaging in kainic acid-induced complex partial status epilepticus in dogs. Brain Res 2003: 983: 115-127. ... Epilepsy Res 2000;40:155-170. 8. Palmer AC. Pathologic changes in the brain associated with fits in dogs. Vet Rec 1972;90:167- ...
... the major target of human autoantibodies which immunoprecipitate voltage-gated potassium channel complexes from mammalian brain ... Following genetic linkage studies placing the hereditary form of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ... Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA, Fukata M (September 2006). "Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features. ...
Acute effects of vigabatrin on brain GABA and homocarnosine in patients with complex partial seizures. Epilepsia. 1999 Jul;40(7 ... Petroff OA, Hyder F, Rothman DL, Mattson RH: Effects of gabapentin on brain GABA, homocarnosine, and pyrrolidinone in epilepsy ... Hyder F, Petroff OA, Mattson RH, Rothman DL: Localized 1H NMR measurements of 2-pyrrolidinone in human brain in vivo. Magn ... increases human brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the related metabolites, including 2-pyrrolidinone. Patients taking ...
... epileptic discharges affect activity in these brain regions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have complex partial ... we found common decreases of resting state activity in 9 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but not in 10 patients with ... bilateral superior temporal and medial frontal brain regions in patients with extra-TLE, possibly indicating effects of ... using electroencephalography-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging in 19 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy, ...
The study was based on 41 persons with refractory complex partial seizures (a common type of seizure that develops in one brain ... We are now exploring a similar connection of low DHA levels in humans who have epilepsy." Forty-one people with refractory ... The human body cannot produce sufficient amounts of DHA for the needs of the eye and brain. Therefore, DHA must be consumed ... Patients with Uncontrolled Epilepsy Have Low Levels of Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids are crucial to the proper development ...
... neuropathological examinations of human brain specimens. Therefore, clinical trials have revealed no evidence in humans of the ... Efficacy is particularly marked in patients with complex partial seizures.. During long-term clinical follow-up, tests done to ... Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant. Like most medicines for epilepsy, Sabril may affect your ... In the brain, microvacuolation has been observed in white matter tracts of rat, mouse and dog at doses of 30-50 mg/kg/day. This ...
Patients with epilepsy can purchase Fycompa and Depakote to treat complex partial-onset seizures and simple partial seizures ... The active ingredient in Vimpat, lacosamide, works by preventing brain cells from firing or working as fast in the human brain ... thus reducing the severity and frequency of complex partial-onset seizures and simple partial seizures when taken as directed. ... Vimpat is a prescription medication given to adult epilepsy patients 17 years of age and older to treat partial-onset seizures ...
In approximately 1/3 of patients with epilepsy, seizures persist despite adequate trials of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs ... The best example is complex partial seizures of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Such patients have ... The Human Brain. Wien, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1991. 5, 29. *. Kamiryo T, Jackson T, Laws E Jr. A methodology designed to ... Simultaneous subdural grid and depth electrodes in patients with refractory complex partial seizures. J Epilepsy. 1992. 5:111-8 ...
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that rs-Mean in intractable epilepsy patients differs from normal subjects, and that it may ... Materials and Methods: Twenty nine pediatric patients had drug-resistant epilepsy, and 22 subject controls underwent rs-fMRI. ... The rs-Mean findings matched the GS findings in epilepsy patients in 72.4% of cases. The rs-Mean was positive matching GS in 6 ... to localize epilepsy focus in a group of pediatric patients with medical refractory epilepsy. ...
... can be a powerful tool to reproduce this syndromes human pathology. However, no such effort has been reported to date. We here ... Dravet syndrome is a devastating infantile-onset epilepsy syndrome with cognitive deficits and autistic traits caused by ... caused by complex partial status epilepticus in a patient with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Epilepsia. 1996, 37: 1020- ... Several differences may exist between human and rodent brains with respect to Nav1.1 expression. In rodent cerebral cortex, Nav ...
This issue was examined in 41 adults with a diagnosis of "complex partial epilepsy", according to the old terminology, who had ... Transposing these animal neurophysiological findings to the human brain is, however, challenging due to the difficulty in ... childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and generalised tonic- ... A family history of epilepsy can be relevant and normal brain MRI is essential for diagnosis. Findings of generalised SWDs and/ ...
The human PARP2 which can be isolated from human brain, and its functional equivalents, in particular are preferred agents for ... and tonoclonic seizures and partial epileptic seizures such as temporal lobe, and complex partial seizures. Said proteins may ... epilepsy, damage to the heart following cardiac ischemia, microinfarcts, revascularization of critically narrowed coronary ... human PARP2). This can be isolated advantageously from human brain, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver. The expression of ...
Atypical Language in Lesional and Nonlesional Complex Partial Epilepsy. (2007) Neurology. Cerebral Hemorrhage and Vasospasm in ... 2008) Brain Malformations in Patients with Neurofibromatosis-1. Congenital Disorder of Glycosylationx Clinicopathological Study ... 2007) Human Pathology. Pediatric Clinics of North America. (2008) Central Nervous System Tumors ... Radiology Business: Prenatal US detects brain abnormalities in fetuses exposed to Zika virus ...
Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. At least 22 mutations in the LGI1 gene have been identified in ... The LGI1/epitempin gene encodes two protein isoforms differentially expressed in human brain. J Neurochem. 2006 Aug;98(3):985- ... Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA, Fukata M. Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 ... Mutations in LGI1 cause autosomal-dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. Nat Genet. 2002 Mar;30(3):335-41. Epub 2002 ...
Tooth-brushing epilepsy with ictal orgasms.. "We report a 41-year-old woman with complex reflex epilepsy in which seizures were ... Sometimes the human brain does weird things. Take the woman described in this case study, for example; when she brushed her ... She was diagnosed with complex partial seizures and carbamazepine therapy was started. However, her seizures could not be ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed right hippocampal atrophy. We suggest that tooth-brushing epilepsy, especially ...
Human brains are 700 times larger than rat brains and seizure spread might take longer in humans because brain regions are ... 1986) Clinical and EEG features of complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Epilepsia 27:S27-S45, pmid:3720711. ... then human brains are not simply scaled-up versions of smaller brains. Instead, on average, neurons in human brains must be ... 1966) Epilepsy and the temporal lobes. Brain 89:499-530, doi:10.1093/brain/89.3.499, pmid:5922048. ...
In epileptics, divalproex is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and ... in the human brain. Divalproex dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Approximately 1 to 2% of children born to women with epilepsy taking DEPAKOTE in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy had these ... Divalproex is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It ...
Epilepsy is more of a symptom of brain dysfunction than a disease itself and the cause of recurring seizures may or may not be ... A partial seizure may be termed as simple or complex, depending on whether consciousness is maintained or lost. When there is ... At any given time, there is extensive electrical activity in the normal human brain due to the incoming, outgoing and crossing ... In case of partial or focal seizures, there is paroxysmal neuronal activity limited to one part of the brain, while in ...
... the enigma of neurophysiology and polysomnography with differential diagnosis of complex partial seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 11, ... sleep spindles and slow oscillations in humans. Brain 130, 2868-2878. ... Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press. ... 2012). Acute sleep deprivation enhances the brains response to hedonic food stimuli: an fMRI study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab ...
The Brain The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This three-pound organ is the seat of intelligence, interpreter ... complex partial) status. Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures are most common and are usually clinically obvious early in the ... International League Against Epilepsy, 1981 24 . Central Nervous System Infection Central nervous system infections are those ... The brain is the crown jewel of the human body. The brain serves many important functions. It gives meaning to things that ...
Valproate is believed to affect the function of the neurotransmitter GABA (as a GABA transaminase inhibitor) in the human brain ... In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal ), complex partial seizures ... is a anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder; but also used ... Talking Brains GROUP LEADER POSITION at the BCBL- Basque Center on Cognition Brain and Language (San Sebastián, Basque Country ...
American Journal of Human Genetics, *Metabolism: Partial leptin deficiency and human adiposity (2001). Nature, 414 (6859), 34- ... Journal of Human Genetics, *PRC2-complex related dysfunction in overgrowth syndromes: A review of EZH2, EED, and SUZ12 and ... Brain : a journal of neurology, *A distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder ... Two Patients With KCNT1-Related Epilepsy Responding to Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide. (2019). Journal of child neurology ...
Persons with narcolepsy and complex-partial seizures also reported euphoria and sexual thoughts from self-elicited DBS of the ... Schlaepfer TE, Bewernick BH, Kayser S, Hurlemann R, Coenen VA (May 2014). "Deep brain stimulation of the human reward system ... Medtronic Receives FDA Approval for Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Medically Refractory Epilepsy". newsroom.medtronic.com. ... "brain pacemaker"), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain ...
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of adult epilepsy and involves multiple brain networks. The default mode ... However, much more complex stimuli can be used. Here we show the EEG-fMRI set-up using a Brain Products GmbH (Gilching, Germany ... Prerequisites and Planning: Patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery of an ... Despite the many advantages of this technique for understanding human brain function, there are also methodological limitations ...
Diffusion-weighted imaging in kainic acid-induced complex partial status epilepticus in dogs. Brain Res. 2003;983:115-127. ... Vigabatrin is used for treatment of infantile spasms and refractory complex partial epilepsy and is associated with ... Frequency and clinical context of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient reversal in the human brain. Radiology. 2001;221: 43 ... Metab Brain Dis. 2009;24:5-14.. *Vaquero J, Chung C, Blei AT. Brain edema in acute liver failure. A window to the pathogenesis ...
EL mice that experienced at least 15 recurrent complex partial seizures were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR) or ... a natural model for human multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant ... While the mechanisms by which fasting and the KD inhibit seizures remain speculative, alterations in brain energy metabolism ... efficacy of the KD with that of CR in adult EL mice with active epilepsy. ...
The human brain works by sending electrical signals through neurons, which are nerve cells. A seizure occurs when theres a ... Understand complex partial seizures, their link to epilepsy, common triggers, and more. ... The human brain works by sending electrical signals through neurons, which are nerve cells. A seizure occurs when theres a ... 12 Famous Faces of Epilepsy. Epilepsy has serious effects, but it can be controlled with treatment. Most people with epilepsy ...
The amygdala-kindled rat is a model for human temporal lobe epilepsy and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal ... Human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a neurological brain disorder affecting approximately 0.5% of the population [1]. There ... epilepsy, i.e. recurrent complex partial seizures with secondary generalisation. Most of the current drug therapies only ... Liang D, Seyfried TN: Genes differentially expressed in the kindled mouse brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001, 96: 94-102. ...
  • This gene is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and its expression is reduced in low grade brain tumors and significantly reduced or absent in malignant gliomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intriguing study surveying the transcriptome of murine brain tissues revealed over 1300 imprinted gene loci (approximately 10-fold more than previously reported) by RNA-sequencing from F1 hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1, also known as LGI1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LGI1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its earliest discovery, the LGI1 gene has been implicated in the control of cancer metastasis and in a predisposition to epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • While its underlying principles and mechanisms are not fully understood, DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bitemporal intractable epilepsy: could it be surgically treatable? (epj-nbp.org)
  • Potential use and challenges of functional connectivity mapping in intractable epilepsy, Front. (epj-nbp.org)
  • Surgical treatments for intractable epilepsy include a temporal lobectomy or vagal nerve stimulation. (helenor.es)
  • The likelihood of this dramatic event ranges from 0.09 to 0.35 per 1,000 person-years in population-based studies to as many as _1 per 100 person-years in surgical cohorts of patients with intractable epilepsy. (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • There is a new approach to diagnosing Epilepsy which can identify evidence of seizure activity after the seizure has happened. (wordpress.com)
  • This can cause a full, or partial seizure. (topdogtips.com)
  • This device records brain activity continuously and when it sees a seizure starting, it delivers electrical discharge to try to stop the seizure. (helenor.es)
  • The condition called mesial temporal sclerosis is closely related to temporal lobe epilepsy, a type of partial (focal) epilepsy in which the seizure initiation point can be identified within the temporal lobe of the brain. (helenor.es)
  • Seizure relief: The FDA recently approved the first cannabis-derived drug, Epidiolex, as a treatment option for epilepsy. (frogsongfarm.com)
  • While epilepsy is a serious disease, there is more to life with an epileptic pet than living from one seizure to the next. (forstx.org)
  • A seizure is an electrical imbalance in the brain. (forstx.org)
  • Usually, in one super tiny little part of the brain, the Go signal overwhelms the local No-Go and the seizure starts. (forstx.org)
  • If the rest of the brain is a touch weak, the Go signal will overwhelm the whole brain and cause a full-blown seizure. (forstx.org)
  • When most of us think about epilepsy, we usually think about someone having a seizure. (advancedmutualgroup.com)
  • 2 , 3 In fulfilment of the revised definition and classification of status epilepticus (SE), the 2015 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force stressed that SE is either the failure of the mechanism responsible for seizure termination or the initiation of a mechanism leading to abnormally prolonged seizures, which can have long-term consequences. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • If the seizure lasts more than thirty minutes, permanent brain damage may occur if the seizures are not stopped. (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • No. A dog may have an isolated seizure unrelated to epilepsy. (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • A partial seizure can progress to-and be mistaken for-a generalized grand mal seizure, but if the seizure starts with one specific area of the body, it's a partial seizure. (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • These seizures are associated with bizarre or complex behaviors that are repeated during each seizure. (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • Did you know estimates are that up to 50,000 deaths occur annually in the U.S. from status epilepticus, Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP), and other seizure-related causes? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • The patient presented with a prolonged febrile seizure at the age of 5 months, which was followed by recurrent febrile and afebrile generalized tonic-clonic as well as partial seizures with secondary generalization and atonic seizures despite anticonvulsant treatment with vitamin B6, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and vigabatrin. (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • After being seizure-free for 7 years (during which I completed one of the toughest national courses in finance), my doctor told me that we were going to slowly reduce my epilepsy medication dosage and have me come off of them over 2 years. (blogspot.com)
  • In non-medical terms this means that a seizure is the sudden physical result (the symptoms you can see) of abnormal electrical activity in the brain, most commonly when a large number of neurons send a signal at the same time. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • When you think 'seizure' you might also think 'epilepsy' (most people do). (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • Full seizures are likely to display obvious seizure-like symptoms, whereas partial seizures may simply cause twitching, stiffening or other subtle movements, without a loss of consciousness. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • But the acute, middle phase, the seizure itself, could be anything from a 'brain blank' which lasts a second or two, to a full blown convulsion seizure which causes the dog to lose consciousness. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • This is because whatever triggers the seizure leads to changes and electrical misfirings in the brain which take a while to settle down. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • Epilepsy is a serious condition and in approximately one-third of patients it won't be controlled by their medications," explained Dr. Jerome Engel Jr., director of the Seizure Disorder Center at the University of California, Los Angeles. (blogspot.com)
  • But, for people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, there's about an 80 percent chance of becoming seizure-free after surgery. (blogspot.com)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) affects the inner part of the temporal lobe manifesting in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and the amygdala. (helenor.es)
  • Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy, including mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and other focal cortical lesions with correlated electrophysiological features. (helenor.es)
  • see Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy radiosurgery. (helenor.es)
  • It is important to clarify the nature of insults that most likely have ca… Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most prevalent form of epilepsy and among the most refractory to medical treatment. (helenor.es)
  • Engel is the lead author of a study in the March 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association that compared continued medical treatment to surgery in people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that wasn't helped by antiepileptic medications. (blogspot.com)
  • In Engel's study, people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were studied. (blogspot.com)
  • In the new study, 38 people who had been diagnosed with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy for an average of five years were randomly assigned to receive medication or surgery. (blogspot.com)
  • 4 , 9 It is most commonly diagnosed in patients with known idiopathic generalized epilepsy. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • The AKC Group of each breed organizes the table below of dogs with a predisposition for epilepsy. (forstx.org)
  • Modern medicine has been able to prove, this disease develops in people with a latent predisposition for epilepsy. (stopzavisimosti.ru)
  • The researchers included 28 people with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and found that compared to simple partial seizures, both complex-partial seizures and seizures with secondary generalisation involved more subsequent slow wave activity in the Frontal Lobe. (wordpress.com)
  • Es preciso conocer el grado de confianza de las pruebas preoperatorias en epilepsia del lóbulo temporal (ELT). (neurorgs.net)
  • Mesial Temporal Sclerosis Mesial temporal sclerosis, also known as hip-pocampal sclerosis, is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy found at surgery. (helenor.es)
  • mesial temporal sclerosis: A condition characterised by induration of the middle temporal lobe, associated with cortical dysplasia and intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. (helenor.es)
  • In young individuals, mesial temporal sclerosis is commonly recognized with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (helenor.es)
  • Mesial temporal sclerosis" is the loss of brain cells and scarring of the deepest portion of the temporal lobe. (helenor.es)
  • During the presurgical evaluation, left temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed. (helenor.es)
  • external link) If MTS involves both sides of the brain then surgical resection is often not possible, as one cannot remove both temporal lobes. (helenor.es)
  • Similarly, complex visual and emotional hallucinations, such as typified by dream imagery or psychedelics, is associated with the right temporal lobe. (weebly.com)
  • MFT in complex partial epilepsy: spatio-temporal estimates of interictal activity. (auth.gr)
  • Refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with imbalances in cardiovascular (CV) parasympathetic and sympathetic functions, which are treated using TLE surgery. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may modify the functions of respiratory, gastrointestinal/abdominal, and cardiovascular (CV) autonomic regulation during the ictal and interictal period of seizures. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • TUESDAY, March 6 (HealthDay News) -- Uncontrollable temporal lobe epilepsy affected almost every major aspect of John Keener's life. (blogspot.com)
  • Clinical manifestations Pre-existing complex febrile convulsions are common. (helenor.es)
  • The definition of epilepsy is a Neurological disorder with recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. (advancedmutualgroup.com)
  • 4. Are all seizures or convulsions in dogs epilepsy? (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • Symptoms can vary from disruption of the senses lasting seconds, to short periods of unconsciousness to the full convulsions most people associate with Epilepsy. (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Scientists have discovered the gene responsible for a common type of epilepsy in dogs. (topdogtips.com)
  • Surgery for this type of epilepsy involves identifying the area of the brain that is sending abnormal electrical signals and removing that small area, according to Engel. (blogspot.com)
  • Primary epilepsy is often called idiopathic-idiopathic means conventional medicine does not know the cause-and these dogs are completely normal in between seizures. (forstx.org)
  • Primary epilepsy is believed to be a genetic imbalance in how the brain functions or was put together. (forstx.org)
  • The truth is, in primary epilepsy, the cause is not known. (forstx.org)
  • New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and its subcategory, febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome, involve autoimmune processes. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • Did you know With the right AEDs, up to 70% of people with epilepsy could have their seizures controlled, leaving 30% uncontrollable/medically refractory? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • F.H. Lopes da Silva, Epilepsy as a dynamic disease of neuronal networks, in Epilepsy: Basic Principles and Diagnosis. (epj-nbp.org)
  • This is into adults synchronizing magnetic ebook semantics a reader 2004 of diagnosis, brain spike, heart, weapons, aerospace networks, and Here more. (allgemeinarztpraxis-jockel.de)
  • Purchase ivermectin for humans for sale canada orlistat 120mg (generic), buy orlistat 120mg online (generic), orlistat 120mg for cheap (brand) The product is not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of other medical conditions. (dressupltd.com)
  • Alcoholic epilepsy - this diagnosis is afraid to hear a loved ones of an alcoholic. (stopzavisimosti.ru)
  • Specifically, seizures caused by drug-resistant epilepsy may benefit from CBD, based on a 2017 human study which found that 40% of participants saw a decrease in frequency, and 27% saw a complete halt in seizures. (frogsongfarm.com)
  • We report here the first SCN1A mutation in a patient with Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy) and cortical dysplasia, who died from definite SUDEP. (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • 2008) recently described a family with generalized epilepsy and febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), in which two affected patients died from SUDEP. (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • Secondary epilepsy is also called acquired or symptomatic. (forstx.org)
  • Synchronization phenomena in human epileptic brain networks, J. Neurosci. (epj-nbp.org)
  • Vagal nerve stimulation affects the brain systems involved in emotional regulation, including the amygdala. (evrenvns.com)
  • VNS activates, among other things, the locus coeruleus (the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine) which affects the limbic system. (evrenvns.com)
  • Epilepsy affects 65 million people each year. (advancedmutualgroup.com)
  • Did you kno w that Epilepsy affects more people than multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's combined? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • search The EEG is an clinical gel in the strip and time of history and normal cake imitators, as as as in the field of needle month addressed to electroencephalography and & digital as items, books, Brain, and discomfort and request line. (allgemeinarztpraxis-jockel.de)
  • Atlas of Ambulatory EEGBy Steven C. Binding: PaperbackBook Description: Atlas of Ambulatory EEG breaks a MS message in Postoperative appreciation, an F that n't takes scrumptious, Special, and comfortable procedures from independent available epilepsy potentials in a entire and particular 121CreativeCatThe puberty. (allgemeinarztpraxis-jockel.de)
  • Can Add and copy brain sections of this cRPA to cause potentials with them. (local27.org)
  • Epilepsy is either primary or secondary. (forstx.org)
  • Secondary, or acquired, epilepsy can have many causes. (forstx.org)
  • Partial seizures are usually associated with secondary epilepsy . (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • Everolimus is used to treat advanced (late-stage) cancers or noncancerous tumors, such as kidney and breast cancer, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA, a brain tumor), renal angiomyolipoma (kidney tumor), and partial-onset seizures (epilepsy) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, stomach or bowels, and lungs. (iupharmacy.com)
  • Did you know Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) accounts for 34% of all sudden deaths in children? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • The autopsy concluded that the cause of death was sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a relatively rare event, but a major problem for people with epilepsy. (epilepsytreatmentdrugs.com)
  • It's important to remember, epilepsy causes seizures, but seizures are not always caused by epilepsy. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • But to understand how and why Vinpocetine boosts cognition and protects your brain, we need to dive in to how blood flows in your brain. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • The six-layer gray matter of the brain responsible for higher-order functions such as language, cognition, sensory perception, and reasoning. (sleepopolis.com)
  • The limbic system is a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain concerned with instinct and mood, controlling the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring. (evrenvns.com)
  • Surrounding the R-complex is the limbic system, so called because it borders on the underlying brain. (thehermetica.com)
  • Aschematic representation of this picture of the human brain is shown opposite, and a comparison of the limbic system with the neocortex in three contemporary mammals is shown above. (thehermetica.com)
  • The brain of a human fetus also develops from the inside out, and, roughly speaking, runs through the sequence: neural chassis, R-complex, limbic system and neocortex. (thehermetica.com)
  • Did you know early in the 19th century, people with severe epilepsy were cared for in asylums? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • In addition to the classic clinical disease, patients with less severe disease and partial syndromes are increasingly recognized. (medscape.com)
  • An alteration in excitatory and inhibitory influences may underlie epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Pre-clinical studies show CBD as a promising treatment for common ailments such as chronic pain, inflammation, arthritis, epilepsy, insomnia and more. (frogsongfarm.com)
  • In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. (wordpress.com)
  • But, they can also cause other kinds of seizures, called focal seizures or complex partial seizures, that aren't as easy to recognize. (blogspot.com)
  • Indeed, grand mal epilepsy can, I think, be described as a disease in which the cognitive drivers are. (thehermetica.com)
  • Activation sequence of discrete brain areas during cognitive processes: results from magnetic field tomography. (auth.gr)
  • [v] This is why strong, healthy cerebral blood flow is so critical to your brain health and cognitive performance. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Now this question has been answered not by me but by the courts, by the vaccine courts in Italy and in the United States of America where it appears that many children over the last 30 years have been awarded millions of dollars for the fact that they have been brain-damaged by MMR vaccine and other vaccines and that brain-damage has led to autism. (wordpress.com)
  • Did you know in America, Epilepsy is as common as Breast Cancer, and takes as many lives? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • This simple request shows one of the most fascinating abilities of the human brain: we can imagine things, animals or people that are not even there. (vermundo.info)
  • People with complex partial seizures experience distortions of thought, perception or emotion (usually fear), sometimes with unusual sensations of sound, smell, hallucinations or taste. (vetneurochesapeake.com)
  • Older people tend to spend less of their sleep time in N3, and display fewer sleep-related brain waves compared to younger people. (sleepopolis.com)
  • Did you know that 1 in 26 people will develop Epilepsy in their lifetime? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Did you know an estimated 3 million Americans and 65 million people worldwide currently live with epilepsy? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Did you know the mortality rate among people with Epilepsy is two to three times higher than the general population? (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Now that you know… We hope you will wear Purple or Lavender this March 26th and tell people about Epilepsy. (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Not just for Brynn and Brett, but for the 65 million people worldwide living with Epilepsy. (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • Families, relatives, friends, and schools have the responsibility to support people with epilepsy just like they would everyone else. (blogspot.com)
  • He said that, on average, people who are referred for surgery have had epilepsy for 22 years. (blogspot.com)
  • Epileptic seizures in dogs occur due to electrical storms in different areas of the dog's brain. (topdogtips.com)
  • The union of brain science and theology is called neurotheology which studies all related religious and spiritual phenomena and their neurological roots. (weebly.com)
  • Epilepsy is a disorder that causes abnormal electrical impulses in certain areas of the brain, according to the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (blogspot.com)
  • Early surgery is essential to avoiding consequences of epilepsy," Engel stressed. (blogspot.com)
  • Other causes are related to viral infection and encephalitis, due to viruses such as human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), or to autoimmune disease where the immune system makes proteins that can attack the brain. (helenor.es)
  • Thus, clusters of neurons carry on complex operations, which influence organs and glands throughout the body, as information moves from one end of a neuron to another and across plastic synaptic junctions. (weebly.com)
  • ACh is used to relay messages between neurons in your brain. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • The first half of the delta wave before the peak on EEG is considered a "down state," during which neurons in the neocortex of the brain rest and display minimal activity. (sleepopolis.com)
  • More obvious partial seizures might include twitching, jerky movements, growling or snapping. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • Studies have also shown that even a minimal epileptogenic discharge markedly disorganizes the autonomic nervous system, and such alterations in autonomic neural discharge are associated with arrhythmogenesis and may contribute to sudden death in patients with epilepsy. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • Risk of sudden death among those with Epilepsy is twenty-four times greater. (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
  • During non- tasks, left insular activation was observed, accompanied by decreases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). 14 Stimulation of the right insular cortex in patients with epilepsy revealed that the right hemisphere predominantly controlled sympathetic activity. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • The concentrations of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's major inhibitory neutrotransmitter, were measured in microdialysates before and during seizures in 6 patients with complex partial epilepsy investigated before surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Neuronal Substrates of Sleep and Epilepsy has clear update for patients and interesting vignettes. (local27.org)
  • A study published in the Journal Cell Biology and Toxicology by Kinki University in Osaka, Japan determined that in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism. (wordpress.com)
  • As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism. (wordpress.com)
  • There is life insurance for epilepsy patients You do not have to answer any health questions to qualify. (advancedmutualgroup.com)
  • The process includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with the most complex conditions. (childrensnational.org)
  • In 2015, the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force, which was convened to develop a definition and classification of SE, presented a new classification based on four axes: 1) semiology, 2) etiology, 3) electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates, and 4) age. (j-epilepsy.org)
  • 4 The two key components of NCSE classification are absence SE (ASE) and complex partial SE (CPSE) ( Table 2 ). (j-epilepsy.org)
  • This epilepsy is slowly actually on days to complex superconductors. (local27.org)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve only targets afferent fibers, sending signals directly to the brain without the need for surgery. (evrenvns.com)
  • But in 2006 his "life completely changed" when he underwent surgery for his epilepsy. (blogspot.com)
  • Sharp waves originate in the hippocampus of the brain and surrounding area, and appear to be closely connected to memory processing . (sleepopolis.com)
  • Considering the fact that the loss-of-function variants in DEPDC5 will lead to over-activation of the mTOR pathway, the mTOR inhibitor, such as sirolimus or everolimus, may be a complementary treatment for DEDPC5related epilepsy. (hppdonline.com)
  • In practice there are no certain remedies for the treatment of alcoholic epilepsy. (stopzavisimosti.ru)
  • the physical findings or changes in behavior that occur after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. (seniortailwaggers.com)
  • Pain management: CBD interacts with the body's CB1 receptors which are found in the brain and spinal cord, and responsible for regulating the perception of pain. (frogsongfarm.com)
  • Decreased time spent in N3 may also be associated with epilepsy and depression. (sleepopolis.com)
  • But in the end, the mice of human mortality are going to nibble through the vine of living, 100% guaranteed. (blogs.com)
  • In solving and having P brain methods, a owner or alkali-doped block will tell the time of Oncology procedures and the tab, text, and sound of chapter similarity interactions. (allgemeinarztpraxis-jockel.de)
  • Therefore, prescribing medication is a guesstimate because if the cause if not known, how the brain is malfunctioning is not known, thus we can't know which medication may reverse the problem. (forstx.org)
  • The researchers found that near to the venous drainage, the Glial cells were facilitating the removal of material from the brain when they used radiolabelled tracers. (wordpress.com)
  • It's not clear how our bodies make menthone, says Dr. Edward Maa , University of Colorado Neurologist, and most of the time, researchers don't think of humans needing to produce any smells when in distress. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of the brains activity and inactivity. (majortests.com)
  • The frontal lobe of schizophrenics also often shows less activity than normal, which in turn indicates an organic brain deficit. (vermundo.info)
  • The reduction in frontal brain activity may mean that there is no inhibition of memory content that can now flow freely and unfiltered into the consciousness. (vermundo.info)
  • The continuous-time ia sent Complex in having such sleep to Berger's message of the book orders he received bibliography discussions, but again badly at least three clinical MS activity waves are written discussed and seen. (local27.org)
  • A burst of brain wave activity characteristic of N2 sleep. (sleepopolis.com)
  • The sharp waves of N3 may represent replays of brain activity experienced during wakefulness and subsequently reinforced in sleep during the process of memory formation. (sleepopolis.com)
  • It actually is not one nerve, but a family of neural pathways originating in several areas of the brain. (evrenvns.com)
  • all turned off because of a kind of electrical storm in the brain, and the victim is left momentarily with nothing operative but his neural chassis. (thehermetica.com)
  • Mutations associated with neuropsychiatric conditions delineate functional brain connectivity dimensions contributing to autism and schizophrenia. (hec.ca)
  • We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. (wordpress.com)
  • In this study, we did keep our exposures down to the levels that did not cause significant heating in tissues and we have the potential for findings that would contribute to the discussion of whether the human brain tumors and acoustic neuromas which are a form of schwannoma , also called vestibular schwannoma. (emfsa.co.za)
  • Your skin and saliva are key barriers to infection and form part of your immune system, along with cells in every tissue of your body, including your blood and your brain. (kokilabenhospital.com)
  • Arteries in your vertebrae (spine) join with your carotid arteries at the base of your brain to form the Circle of Willis . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Delta waves are the predominant form of brain waves in babies, who spend a significant amount of sleep time in N3. (sleepopolis.com)
  • They diagnosed me with a rare form of Reflex epilepsy known as Eating Epilepsy. (blogspot.com)
  • This form of epilepsy is often referred to by the area of the brain that's affected. (blogspot.com)
  • The active ingredient in marijuana is a complex molecule called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which occurs naturally in the common weed Cannabis sativa, or Indian hemp. (majortests.com)
  • The brain is supposed to have a balance between Go (excitatory) and No-Go (inhibitory) functions. (forstx.org)
  • The impact is with fullerides of music site humans continuous-time as addition, blindness, and physical EEG client. (allgemeinarztpraxis-jockel.de)
  • The vagus nerve (vagus means "wandering" in Latin) is the longest cranial nerve in the human body. (evrenvns.com)
  • And to maintain proper heart, nerve and brain function. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Time-variant partial directed coherence for analysing connectivity: a methodological study, Philos. (epj-nbp.org)
  • This includes the DUF1220 protein, differences in gene expression in the frontal lobe between humans and Chimpanzees and gene methylation differences between humans and Chimpanzees. (wordpress.com)