Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Mediterranean SeaGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)FiresWeather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.BrazilPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.EuropeNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

Global climate change. (1/299)

Most of the last 100,000 years or longer has been characterized by large, abrupt, regional-to-global climate changes. Agriculture and industry have developed during anomalously stable climatic conditions. New, high-resolution analyses of sediment cores using multiproxy and physically based transfer functions allow increasingly confident interpretation of these past changes as having been caused by "band jumps" between modes of operation of the climate system. Recurrence of such band jumps is possible and might be affected by human activities.  (+info)

Clinical characteristics of unexplained sudden cardiac death in Korea. (2/299)

In Western countries, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is closely related to coronary artery disease, but in Korea the clinical characteristics of SCD are not well determined. Over a 4-year period (June 1995 to May 1999), 186 cases of SCD, ranging in age from 16 to 75 years, were admitted to the Chonnam National University Hospital. In 82 (44.1%) of these, neither symptoms nor evidence of structural heart disease was found and so their clinical characteristics were investigated. There were 66 (80.5%) men and 16 (19.5%) women (male/female ratio = 4.1:1). The mean age was 50 +/- 14 years: 19 (23.2%) were in their 40s, 21 (25.6%) in their 50s, and 17 (20.7%) in their 60s. The time of circulatory collapse witnessed in 68 cases of SCD showed 2 peaks: between midnight and 03.00h (n=16, 23.5%) and between 09.00h and midday (n=15, 22.1%). Unexplained SCD occurred at home in 48 (64.9%) cases and on the street in 12 (16.2%); it occurred during normal daily routine activity in 23 (39.6%) and during sleep in 15 (25.9%). Thirty-three patients (40.2%) experienced various prodromal symptoms, including chest discomfort (n=13, 15.9%) and dyspnea (n=8, 9.8%). The electrocardiogram taken on arrival recorded asystole in 65 (79.3%) and ventricular fibrillation in 17 (20.7%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was diagnosed in 14 (10 men, 4 women; 45 +/- 11 years) of 21 patients who recovered spontaneous circulation. Five (6.1%) patients were discharged alive, and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted in 2. Unexplained SCD is common in Korea and develops predominantly in middle-aged males around midnight or in the late morning usually with no prodromal symptoms (59.8%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation is thought to be one of the important causes.  (+info)

A genetic analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in 1560 World War II male veteran twins in the NAS-NRC Twin Registry. (3/299)

Responses to the eight-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) obtained from 1560 World War II male veteran twin pairs [818 monozygotic (MZ), 742 dizygotic (DZ)] were analysed to determine the extent to which genetic influences are involved in self-reported daytime sleepiness in the elderly. Average ESS score (+/- SD) in this sample was 7.1 +/- 3.9, range 0--24. More than half of the twins (65%--67%) reported a moderate to high chance of falling asleep while lying down to rest; fewer than 3% admitted that this would occur while sitting and talking to someone or while stopped in traffic. Daytime sleepiness was not associated with age but was significantly and positively associated with obesity. The intraclass twin correlation on ESS scores was 0.39 in MZ pairs and 0.21 in DZ pairs (both P < 0.001). Structural equation modeling of the observed variance-covariance matrices for MZ and DZ twins estimated the heritability of ESS to be 38% (95% confidence interval 33%--44%). Environmental influences not shared by twin brothers accounted for the remaining variance in daytime sleepiness. A reasonable interpretation of the heritability of ESS in this healthy cohort of elderly male twins is a genetic susceptibility for disordered breathing during sleep.  (+info)

Health-related quality of life in narcolepsy. (4/299)

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterised by symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. The aim of this study was to describe the health-related quality of life of people with narcolepsy residing in the UK. The study comprised a postal survey of 500 members of the UK narcolepsy patient association, which included amongst other questions the UK Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS). A total of 305 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. The results showed that the subjects had significantly lower median scores on all eight domains of the SF-36 than normative data, and scored particularly poorly for the domains of role physical, energy/vitality, and social functioning. The BDI indicated that 56.9% of subjects had some degree of depression. In addition, many individuals described limitations on their education, home, work and social life caused by their symptoms. There was little difference between the groups receiving different types of medication. This study is the largest of its type in the UK, although the limitations of using a sample from a patient association have been recognised. The results are consistent with studies of narcolepsy in other countries in demonstrating the extensive impact of this disorder on health-related quality of life.  (+info)

Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. (5/299)

It is generally perceived that biodiversity is better protected from human activities after an area is designated as a protected area. However, we found that this common perception was not true in Wolong Nature Reserve (southwestern China), which was established in 1975 as a "flagship" protected area for the world-renowned endangered giant pandas. Analyses of remote sensing data from pre- and post-establishment periods indicate that the reserve has become more fragmented and less suitable for giant panda habitation. The rate of loss of high-quality habitat after the reserve's establishment was much higher than before the reserve was created, and the fragmentation of high-quality habitat became far more severe. After the creation of the reserve, rates of habitat loss and fragmentation inside the reserve unexpectedly increased to levels that were similar to or higher than those outside the reserve, in contrast to the situation before the reserve was created.  (+info)

Differential effects of activity and climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (6/299)

Conflicting findings of the effect of climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may result from the influence of strenuous activities which can trigger aneurysmal rupture independent of climatological factors. The effect of climate and patient activities on onset of SAH were analyzed. The clinical records of 786 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to our hospital for 10 years were reviewed. Activities at onset were categorized according to the intensity of strain at onset. Seasonal variation, circannual cyclic trend, and association with 90 meteorological factors were examined in each category and the results were compared between categories. Bimonthly occurrence in the light strain group showed a significant seasonal variation and cyclic trend with two peaks in early spring and fall, whereas no significant trend was detected in the overall patients and in the heavy strain group. The significant meteorological factors were global solar radiation, sunshine hours, changes in mean and minimum temperature and mean vapor pressure from the previous day, and minimum pressure in the previous 7 days. Lower global solar radiation in the light strain group was associated with onset with the lowest p value (p = 0.0046). No factors were significant in the heavy strain group. There is some evidence of the possible influence of climatological factors on onset of SAH without strenuous activity. Strenuous activity seems to affect onset more strongly, which masks any effect of climate.  (+info)

A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. (7/299)

A computer simulation of North American end-Pleistocene human and large herbivore population dynamics correctly predicts the extinction or survival of 32 out of 41 prey species. Slow human population growth rates, random hunting, and low maximum hunting effort are assumed; additional parameters are based on published values. Predictions are close to observed values for overall extinction rates, human population densities, game consumption rates, and the temporal overlap of humans and extinct species. Results are robust to variation in unconstrained parameters. This fully mechanistic model accounts for megafaunal extinction without invoking climate change and secondary ecological effects.  (+info)

Energy costs of standard activities among Indian adults. (8/299)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the energy cost of resting (RMR), sitting and standing for urban Indian adults and compare these estimates with the reported values. DESIGN: Energy costs were measured using oxylog while body fat was estimated using equipment (HBF300, OMRON Corporation, Japan) that works on the principle of bioelectrical impedance, for 24 men and 40 women, aged 20-50 y, engaged in sedentary activities. SETTINGS: Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India. RESULTS: Mean energy cost (kJ/min) of resting (RMR), sitting and standing were significantly (P<0.01, for all) higher for men (4.01+/-0.42, 5.0+/-0.72 and 5.74+/-0.69, respectively) than women (3.54+/-0.28, 4.03+/-0.41 and 4.35+/-0.52, respectively). Gender difference increased with the level of activity, from 13% for RMR to 32% for standing. These differences reduced when adjusted (using analysis of covariance) for body weight and became non-significant on adjusting for fat-free mass (FFM) in the case of RMR and sitting activity. The measured values of energy cost (absolute and per kg weight) for these activities were similar to African subjects but lower compared to Asian or European subjects for both sexes. The stepwise regression analysis done separately by sexes showed weight (29%) in men and body mass index (44%) in women to be the best predictors of RMR, while regression analysis for combined sexes indicated FFM and height as predictors of RMR (r(2)=56%, P<0.01). If means to estimate body fat were not available, RMR could best be predicted with BMI and sex as predictors (r(2)=55%; P<0.01). This was mainly due to the fact that the sex differences in our population were more prominent in FFM than that in BMI. Our observations thus indicate the need to develop prediction equations separately for different populations owing to differences in their body compositions, especially in fat mass (FM) or FFM. CONCLUSION: The energy costs of activities were associated with body composition, especially with absolute fat-free mass, which may vary even with the same body fat percentage. Therefore, there is a need to develop separate prediction equations for different communities.  (+info)

  • Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a subdiscipline of environmental assessment, specially targeting the collective effects resulting from diverse human activities and in combination with natural processes. (
  • In the last ten years, a body of mathematical techniques, known as high-resolution EEG, was developed to estimate more precisely the cortical activity from non-invasive EEG measurements. (
  • As a result of all these computational approaches, it is possible to estimate the cortical activity with a spatial resolution of few millimeters and with a temporal resolution of milliseconds from non-invasive EEG measurements. (
  • Using magnetoencephalography, we recorded the cortical activity of human participants while they observed actions performed by another person. (
  • and provided more physical activity opportunities for children in afterschool programs. (
  • Physical activity will be possible for more residents of La Crosse, as the county quadruples the number of bike lanes and works to make streets safe for all users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, and transit riders. (
  • La Crosse County also implemented other initiatives to make healthy living easier, including increasing access to nutritious foods and beverages in vending machines, convenience stores, and school cafeterias, and increasing physical activity opportunities for children in afterschool programs. (
  • The role of exercise and physical activity is also discussed, and the conclusion addresses paradigm shifts in the field and envisions the future. (
  • Research studies aim to identify risk factors for obesity, including diet, physical activity and growth patterns during early life. (
  • 1 edition of Physical activity in human experience found in the catalog. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Physical Activity in Human Experience from your list? (
  • Defined as any bodily movement generated by skeletal muscles that produces energy expenditure ( Caspersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985 ), physical activity is inherently constrained to the individual mover. (
  • Yet, physical activity is a behavior that is socially and culturally embedded. (
  • Kinesiology Review Volume 8 (2019): Issue 1 (Feb 2019): The Academy Papers Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Independent or Interrelated Public Health Issues? (
  • Physical activity is important for the prevention of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, and the lack of adequate levels of physical activity represents a growing public health burden around the world. (
  • The purpose of this report is to introduce the concept of the "Physical Activity Transition" and to explore the potential effects that declining physical activity levels may play on health and life expectancy as countries undergo economic and demographic changes. (
  • Physical activity is related to mortality rates in humans, and the available evidence suggests that the adoption of a lifestyle characterized by lower levels of physical activity will attenuate the expected gains in life expectancy associated with the epidemiological transition. (
  • Advances in the measurement of physical activity at work, in the home, for transport, and in leisure time in a wide variety of populations will be integral to advancing the current understanding of how macro-level factors shape physical activity patterns and patterns of morbidity and mortality. (
  • The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (the guidelines) outlines recommendations for the amount and types of physical activity necessary for good health based on the current scientific evidence. (
  • To effectively estimate energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity in children, Ridley et al 1 developed the Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth (CEEY). (
  • Participation in regular physical activity is associated with the reduction of chronic diseases such as breast and colon cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, stroke, depression, and obesity. (
  • Physical activity has well-documented health benefits across the lifespan from young childhood 1 through adulthood. (
  • Physical activity is one of the most effective strategies to promote healthy aging. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the association of habitual physical activity, insulin resistance, and adiponectin with IHF content. (
  • IHF content was assessed in a quantitative fashion and noninvasively as a continuous variable by means of 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and habitual physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -This study demonstrated that a higher level of habitual physical activity is associated with a lower IHF content and suggested that this relationship may be due to the effect of exercise per se. (
  • The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the association of habitual physical activity, insulin resistance, and plasma adiponectin concentration with the IHF content in a population of 191 nonalcoholic, healthy individuals using a cross-sectional approach. (
  • The rationale of a multimodal approach is that neural activity, modulating neuronal firing and generating EEG/MEG potentials, increases glucose and oxygen demands. (
  • Ecological restoration refers to the process of repairing damage caused by humans to biodiversity and the dynamics of natural ecosystems. (
  • According to the IUCN, the biggest threats to biodiversity are those related to human activity. (
  • CHIÈVRES, Belgium -- It is well-known that human structures have a significant impact on wildlife and biodiversity. (
  • Human activities have impacted the environment more than any other species, including deforestation, natural resource depletion, reduced biodiversity, and pollution of the air, land and water. (
  • Technology negatively affects the environment by compromising human health and safety, endangering natural ecosystems and biodiversity, having a cumulative. (
  • Our research provides evidence of human activity in Madagascar more than 6,000 years earlier than previously suspected-which demonstrates that a radically different extinction theory is required to understand the huge biodiversity loss that has occurred on the island. (
  • Humans seem to have coexisted with elephant birds and other now-extinct species for over 9,000 years, apparently with limited negative impact on biodiversity for most of this period, which offers new insights for conservation today. (
  • Fisheries group layer contains data on pressures from fishing activity (effort (2009-2013) and intensity (2009-2016) based on VMS/logbook data. (
  • The session is organized by the ICES Ecosy​​​​​​​stem Processes and Dynamics Steering Group (EPDSG) and the Human Activities, Pressures and Impacts Steering Gr​​oup (HAPISG). (
  • Note that these pressures are also because of human activity. (
  • By establishing how marine habitats will respond to human pressures, our research leads to recommendations for conservation and management strategies to ameliorate human impacts. (
  • AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), a pernicious infectious agent that attacks the immune system , leading to its progressive destruction. (
  • The protein is evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag proteins: it contains large N- and C-terminal domains that form a bi-lobar architecture similar to the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein. (
  • 2. Let students know that they will be watching a video segment from the PBS program, The Human Spark, which explores how the human brain develops. (
  • CYP2B was also expressed in human brain, intestine and kidney, and at a lower level in the lung. (
  • NIST's atom-based magnetic sensor, about the size of a sugar cube, can measure human brain activity. (
  • A miniature atom-based magnetic sensor developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has passed an important research milestone by successfully measuring human brain activity. (
  • The study results indicate the NIST mini-sensor may be useful in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a noninvasive procedure that measures the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain. (
  • The brain experiments were carried out in a magnetically shielded facility at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Berlin, Germany, which has an ongoing program in biomagnetic imaging using human subjects. (
  • According to a report published in the current issue of the journal Science, there is more genetic activity in the human brain than there is in the chimpanzee brain. (
  • According to the group, these results indicate that the rate of evolutionary change of genetic activity in the brain is more pronounced in humans than in chimpanzees. (
  • However, previous attempts to decode speech directly from the human brain typically consider listening or speaking tasks in isolation. (
  • Such techniques include the use of a large number of scalp electrodes, realistic models of the head derived from magnetic resonance images (MRIs), and advanced processing methodologies related to the solution of the so-called "inverse problem," that is, the estimation of the brain activity (i.e., electromagnetic generators) from the EEG/MEG measurements. (
  • The concept of brain connectivity is viewed as central for the understanding of the organized behavior of cortical regions beyond the simple mapping of their activity. (
  • Possible applications of this promising technology are in the fields of the study of human behavior and cognition and in the brain computer interface area. (
  • As a result we know a lot about which areas of the human brain are active when we observe an action, but very little about how this activity changes across time. (
  • Solar flares can affect the Central Nervous System, all brain activity, along with human behaviour and all psycho-physiological (mental-emotional-physical) response. (
  • In both, whole blood and peripheral mononuclear cells oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde was significantly higher, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in hypertensive patients when compared with normal subjects. (
  • The results demonstrated that exposure to 12% O 2 in the placebo group increased urinary 8-isoprostane and plasma malondialdehyde levels and decreased plasma total antioxidant content and superoxide dismutase activity, but did not alter plasma complement-C3a desArg/C4a desArg/C5a concentrations. (
  • Van Damme MP, Robertson DM, Marana R, Ritzen EM, Diczfalusy E. A sensitive and specific in vitro bioassay method for the measurement of FSH activity. (
  • A. Leyva, H. Appel, P. Smith, J. Lankelma, and H.M. Pinedo, Inhibition of cell growth by N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate in human and murine cells in vitro, Cancer Lett. (
  • We determined that Fc domain variants that were capable of selectively engaging activating FcγRs substantially enhanced the in vitro and in vivo activity of anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Fc domain variants of 19D9 hIgG1 with differential binding capacity for the various classes of human FcγRs were generated and their neutralization activity was assessed both ( A ) in vitro and ( B and C ) in vivo. (
  • How macrophages restrict growth of pathogens is one of many aspects of human phagocyte biology whose study relies largely on macrophages differentiated from monocytes in vitro. (
  • This study examined the ability of human PAMs to kill primary human tumor cell cultures and control normal fibroblasts in vitro . (
  • In a 2012 study in the Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , researchers wrote that "the increase in Ebola outbreaks since 1994 is frequently associated with drastic changes in forest ecosystems in tropical Africa," and went on to note that "extensive deforestation and human activities in the depth of the forest may have promoted direct or indirect contact between humans and a natural reservoir of the virus. (
  • For historical context on the virus and the role that deforestation and human activity may have played in the current outbreak, BU Today spoke with James C. McCann, a scholar on the history of the food, ecology, and agriculture of Africa. (
  • Studies such as this one are crucial for identifying important habitats for humpback whales and how to best protect these populations from potential impacts associated with hydrocarbon exploration and production, shipping, and other forms of coastal and offshore activities. (
  • This technology allows the science and conservation communities to discover detailed seasonal migration routes, timing and destinations, so we can characterize these important habitats and reduce potential impacts of human activities, even in the harshest possible marine environments," said Dr. Bruce Mate , who pioneered the satellite-monitored radio tagging of large whales. (
  • Human impacts in the marine environment are extensive and, unfortunately, Australia is home to some of the world's best known examples of large-scale habitat loss, especially of seagrass ecosystems. (
  • Regulates synaptic plasticity by promoting endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in response to synaptic activity: this endocytic pathway maintains levels of surface AMPARs in response to chronic changes in neuronal activity through synaptic scaling, thereby contributing to neuronal homeostasis. (
  • Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals acquired directly from the surface of the human cortex have a high signal-to-noise ratio ideal for single-trial analysis and provide a better spatial sampling of neuronal populations than scalp EEG. (
  • The change in absorbance of the pNA in the reaction solution at 405 nm is directly proportional to the uPA enzymatic activity. (
  • J.D. Laskin, R.M. Evans, H.K. Slocum, D. Burke, and M.T. Hakala, Basis for natural variation in sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in mouse and human cells in culture, Cancer Res. (
  • We performed multiple regressions of each group's SR on environmental, human and spatial variables, to determine the amounts of variation explained by these factors. (
  • Results For marsupials, human activity explains the greatest part of the variation in SR. The purely environmental and purely human influences on all mammal SR explain a similarly high proportion of the variation in SR, whereas the purely spatial influence accounts for a smaller proportion of it. (
  • In the remaining placental groups, pure spatial autocorrelation explains a small proportion of the variation in SR. Main conclusions Environmental factors explain most of the variation in placental SR, while Marsupials seem to be mainly affected by human activity. (
  • Variation in human activities that may impact inadvertently but positively on both the enzootic cycles and the degree of human exposure to those cycles, provide more robust explanations for recent upsurges in tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. (
  • However, for edentates, carnivores, and ungulates the pure human influence is more important than the pure spatial and environmental influences. (
  • Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. (
  • Once natural influences, in particular the impact of El Niño and La Niña, are removed from the recent termperature record, there is no evidence of a significant change in the human contribution to climate change. (
  • ROS (reactive oxygen species) generated by hypoxia facilitate the vascular inflammatory response, but whether systemic hypoxia influences leucocyte bactericidal activity by modulating circulatory redox status remains unclear. (
  • The results of a study conducted by researchers of the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Laboratory of Computational Engineering (Jaakko Kauramäki, Iiro Jääskeläinen and Mikko Sams) indicate that selective attention has significant effects on the activity of the human auditory cortex. (
  • The effects of selective attention have previously been explained by a simple gain model suggesting that the amplitude of signals measured in the human auditory cortex is increased to the same extent regardless of the type of auditory stimuli. (
  • Contrary to previous findings, the results of this study indicate that during selective attention, in addition to signal amplification, the neurons in the human auditory cortex tune into the frequency band attended to by the subjects. (
  • The human auditory cortex is engaged in monitoring the speech of interlocutors as well as self-generated speech. (
  • During vocalization, auditory cortex activity is reported to be suppressed, an effect often attributed to the influence of an efference copy from motor cortex. (
  • Single-unit studies in non-human primates have demonstrated a rich dynamic range of single-trial auditory responses to self-speech consisting of suppressed, nonsuppressed and excited auditory neurons. (
  • However, human research using noninvasive methods has only reported suppression of averaged auditory cortex responses to self-generated speech. (
  • We addressed this discrepancy by recording electrocorticographic activity from neurosurgical subjects performing auditory repetition tasks. (
  • Although many of the single-unit responses showed a marked suppression in activity, a large population of auditory neurons exhibited an excited response to self-generated vocalization. (
  • Although speech suppression in human auditory cortex is well accepted, the temporal dynamics of suppression and its stability at the level of single-trials remains unknown. (
  • Here, human participants listened to questions and responded aloud with answers while we used high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings to detect when they heard or said an utterance and to then decode the utterance's identity. (
  • Here we demonstrate real-time decoding of perceived and produced speech from high-density ECoG activity in humans during a task that mimics natural question-and-answer dialogue (see Supplementary Movie 1 ). (
  • Forest change in West Africa may have brought humans closer to forest primates, which are natural reservoir of the Ebola virus. (
  • The findings suggest that this acceleration of gene expressionthe rate at which a gene generates the messenger RNA and proteins that carry out its orders could be the most significant change to occur during the evolution of humans from simpler primates. (
  • Expression levels in chimpanzees and other primates remained within the same range, but the human samples registered much more activity. (
  • By using such methods, it is possible to infer the information flows between the cortical areas in human during particular motor and cognitive tasks. (
  • Human DNA polymerase η (pol η) can replicate across UV-induced pyrimidine dimers, and defects in the gene encoding pol η result in a syndrome called xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V). XP-V patients are prone to the development of cancer in sun-exposed areas, and cells derived from XP-V patients demonstrate increased sensitivity to UV radiation and a higher mutation rate compared with wild-type cells. (
  • Here, we developed a mouse model by inserting a full-length human PRSS1R122H gene, the most commonly mutated gene in human HP, into mice. (
  • Until now, gene activation in human brains could be detected only in dead ones. (
  • R.K. Johnson, Reversal of toxicity and antitumor activity of N-(phosphonacetyD-L-aspartate by uridine or carbamyl-DL-aspartate in vivo, Biochem. (
  • Therefore, to achieve a balance between genomic integrity and cell survival, the in vivo activity of pol η needs to be tightly regulated in the cell. (
  • 10 Assessment of antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation byproducts in hypertensive subjects indicates an excessive amount of ROS and a reduction of antioxidant mechanism activity in both blood as well as in several other cellular systems, 11 including not only vascular wall cells 12 but also those found in circulating blood. (
  • We conclude that exposure to 12% O 2 promotes the chemotactic, phagocytic and oxidative burst activities of PMNs, possibly by increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidative capacity. (
  • Human CYP2B6: expression, inducibility and catalytic activities. (
  • The first involves anchoring one end of a double-stranded RNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. (
  • Furthermore, this 'small CAK' activity resembled Cak1p rather than MO15 in terms of substrate specificity, reactivity to antibodies against MO15 and Cak1p, and sensitivity to 5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, an irreversible inhibitory ATP analog. (
  • Here we found that human macrophages could survive infection, kill Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and severely limit the replication of M. tuberculosis for several weeks if differentiated in 40% human plasma under 5%-10% (physiologic) oxygen in the presence of GM-CSF and/or TNF-α followed by IFN-γ. (
  • We believe that the new culture method will enable inquiries into the antimicrobial mechanisms of human macrophages. (
  • The functions of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) have been relatively little studied compared with those of their circulating counterparts, blood monocytes. (
  • Activities within this module are aimed at content courses for pre-service teachers, but they also could be adapted to other undergraduate introductory geoscience or environmental science courses. (
  • We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. (
  • As some of the areas in humans that are active during action observation are believed to be the human homologues of areas of the macaque monkey where mirror neurons have been found, this network is sometimes referred to as the mirror neuron system. (
  • However, given that the presence of mirror neurons in humans remains controversial, and that not all areas active have been shown to have mirror neurons, we will refer to this network as the action observation network (AON). (
  • ARC protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of ARC mRNA into new target cells, where ARC mRNA can undergo activity-dependent translation. (
  • In whole blood and in mononuclear cells from hypertensive subjects, there was an increase in oxidative stress and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant mechanisms that appeared to be independent of the blood pressure values. (
  • In humans, hypertension is also considered a state of oxidative stress that can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis 9 and other hypertension-induced organ damage. (
  • These experimental findings suggest that EEG activity under exposure to EMF 0.174mT (8.33Hz) sinusoidal low intensity EMF exhibited a substantial decrease in delta and theta bands and prove that there is a slight transition from beta to alpha band from beta-alpha ratio calculations of the Energy Spectral Density. (
  • The specific attributes of activities pursued at work exposure, guardianship, attractiveness-were all related to victimization in ways predicted by activity theory. (
  • Provide assistance in the implementation of assessment mechanisms for student activities to measure achievements in meeting the defined learning outcomes at an office level. (
  • Utilizing managed care organization electronic data, we evaluated the incidence of adverse outcomes of sexual activity among vaccinated preteenage girls and found little difference between those who received HPV vaccine and those who did not. (
  • Immunoblot analysis revealed that the CYP2B6 protein was expressed in 43 of the 48 human liver samples tested, with levels ranging from 0.4 to 8 pmol/mg of microsomal protein with a mean of 1.7 pmol/mg protein. (
  • To this end, we have utilized a novel method exploiting the differences in charge-based protein separation between isoelectrofocusing and ion exchange chromatography for the purification to homogeneity of the isoforms of human pituitary FSH. (
  • Our findings suggest the presence of at least two different CAK activities in human cells. (
  • Telomerase activity is repressed in almost all normal human somatic cells. (
  • The data show that human melanoma cells contain high levels of Urd Phosphorylase which may determine the cellular capacity for Urd degradation. (
  • Leyva A., Kraal I., Lankelma J., Pinedo H.M. (1984) High Uridine Catabolic Activity in Cultured Human Melanoma Cells. (
  • Anticancer activities of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells. (
  • These observations demonstrate proapoptotic and anti-invasion activities of MG132 on human MPM cells and lead to the suggestion that MG132 may be a useful reagent for clinical treatment of human MPM. (
  • Cells were incubated in RPMI-40% human plasma for periods ranging from 0 to 28 days (D-0 to D-28) before infection with BCG (MOI of 0.3). (
  • Although these complications were shown to be related to the presence of tissue factor in human islet preparations, the contribution of duct cells, which represent a major contaminant of clinical islet isolates, has not been specified so far. (
  • Herein, we used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and functional coagulation assays to demonstrate that duct cells exert a potent factor VII-dependent procoagulant activity related to their expression of tissue factor. (
  • The demonstration that endocrine cells express tissue factor (TF) provided a plausible cause for the thrombotic reaction elicited by human islet suspensions ( 5 ). (
  • Human pancreatic duct cells were isolated from pancreata obtained from adult heart-beating organ donors as previously described ( 9 ). (
  • Svante Pbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany and colleagues compared the expression levels of genes in tissue and blood samples from humans and several primate relatives: chimpanzees, orangutans and rhesus macaque monkeys. (
  • CAK from humans contains p40MO15 (cdk7), cyclin H and MAT1, which are also subunits of transcription factor IIH where they phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. (
  • These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human microRNA biogenesis. (
  • This means that land use had a major impact as many as 4000 years ago, when the human population was much lower than it is today. (
  • What is the impact of human activities on the environment? (
  • A positive human impact on the environment occurs when a person takes action to improve society, nature and its resources. (
  • Human impact on the environment may be partially to blame for the deadliest-ever Ebola outbreak spreading through West Africa, researchers say. (
  • Much of our research at CMER attempts to determine the thresholds of human impact beyond which marine ecosystems will show change or may be unable to recover. (
  • between 1988 and 2010, federal investment in genomic research generated an economic impact of $796 billion, which is impressive considering that Human Genome Project (HGP) spending between 1990-2003 amounted to $3.8 billion. (
  • Criminologist Lynch (1987), using "domain-specific" models, demonstrates that occupation-related activities generally have a stronger impact on the risk of victimization at work than sociodemographic characteristics. (