The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Diseases of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.
Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include: AAAS, AAMP, AHI1, AMBRA1, APAF1, ARPC1A, ARPC1B, ATG16L1, BOP1, ... According to the initial analysis of the human genome WD40 repeats are the eighth largest family of proteins. In all 277 ... February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 409 (6822): 860-921. doi:10.1038/35057062 ... and their involvement in human diseases". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (14): 2085-97. doi:10.1007/PL00000838. PMID 11814058. S2CID ...
Human AAMP genome location and AAMP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Beckner ME, Krutzsch HC, Stracke ML, Williams ... Angio-associated, migratory cell protein, also known as AAMP, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the AAMP gene. This ... "Entrez Gene: AAMP angio-associated, migratory cell protein". Beckner ME (March 2012). "AAMP (angio-associated, migratory cell ... large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Research. 16 (1): 55- ...
Complete information for AAMP gene (Protein Coding), Angio Associated Migratory Cell Protein, including: function, proteins, ... Additional Disease Information for AAMP. Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator (HuGE) ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in ... Genes that share ontologies with AAMP: view Phenotypes for AAMP Gene. GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for AAMP: *Decreased ... Evolution for AAMP Gene. ENSEMBL:. Gene Tree for AAMP (if available). TreeFam:. Gene Tree for AAMP (if available). Aminode:. ...
Human AAMP genome location and AAMP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Beckner ME, Krutzsch HC, Stracke ML, Williams ... Angio-associated, migratory cell protein, also known as AAMP, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the AAMP gene. This ... "Entrez Gene: AAMP angio-associated, migratory cell protein". Beckner ME (March 2012). "AAMP (angio-associated, migratory cell ... large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Research. 16 (1): 55- ...
Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include: AAAS, AAMP, AHI1, AMBRA1, APAF1, ARPC1A, ARPC1B, ATG16L1, BOP1, ... According to the initial analysis of the human genome WD40 repeats are the eighth largest family of proteins. In all 277 ... February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 409 (6822): 860-921. doi:10.1038/35057062 ... and their involvement in human diseases". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (14): 2085-97. doi:10.1007/PL00000838. PMID 11814058. S2CID ...
... variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro.. Frequency: Frequency in which ... Full data view for gene AAMP. All transcript variants in gene AAMP. The variants shown are described using the NM_001087.3 ... Whole genome datasets. AAMP (angio-associated, migratory cell protein) LOVD v.3.0 Build 20a [ Current LOVD status ]. Log in ... DB-ID: Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol ...
Order AAMP plasmids, CDNA clones, ORF clones and more genomics products. ✅ Wide variety of Top suppliers ✅ High-quality ... Entry clone of human cDNA (ORF) without STOP codon in Gateway pDONR223 Vector. ... Genome Editing with Engineered Nucleases (GEEN) * 3 Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) ... AAMP AAMP (Angio-Associated, Migratory Cell Protein, AAMP). Short Description: The gene product is an immunoglobulin-type ...
Now, researchers have sequenced the first complete Himalayan marmot genome, which may help them to better explain how the ... The shift in ψAamp affects the stability of RNA encoding the gene Aamp, which may be a protective strategy to prevent the ... known for being highly susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus and is a natural host and transmitter of the plague to humans. ... The RNA sequencing data show that gene-expression changes occur in the liver and brain during hibernation. These include genes ...
In the present study effects of CLA supplementation on genome wide gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies from 11 Ala12Ala ... After each intervention biopsies were taken, whole genome expression microarrays were applied, and genes of interest were ... The following genes of lipid metabolism were regulated by CLA: LDLR, FASN, SCD, FADS1 and UCP2 were induced, while ABCA1, CD36 ... The CLA effect on expression of PPARγ and leptin genes depends on the PPARγ2 genotype. The data suggest that the isomer ...
Have Humans Stopped Evolving? * Mammalian Gene Families: Humans and Chimps Differ by 6% ... Whats the compressed size of an E. coli genome? (using UCSC genome browser database figures, which I seem to have trouble ... http://www.evolutionnews.org/2005/10/500_years_ago_geocentrism_aamp_astrology001085.html. I really dont see what your problem ... The human ecosystem concept is grounded in the deconstruction of the human/nature dichotomy. and the premise that all species ...
... found within the promoters of its target genes. Negatively regulates its own expression and the expression of DBP and BHLHE41/ ... in the regulation of the circadian rhythm by negatively regulating the activity of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes. ... Genome annotation databases. Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project. More...Ensembli. ENST00000256495; ENSP00000256495 ... AAMP. C9JG97. 3. EBI-711810,EBI-10176499. AANAT. Q16613. 6. EBI-711810,EBI-7451846. ...
The mission of the Public Health Genomics is to integrate advances in human genetics into public health research, policy, and ... 0 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with AAMP gene. [Click to re-sort the table] ...
ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to ... derived from rabdomayosarcoma cells of humans) and L20B cell line (mouse lymphoma cells expressing the human poliovirus ... The sequence similarity of cluster B in VP1 gene ranged from 0.1% to 9.1%. The isolates under lineage g (Figure 3) has a ... The viral RNA of wild type 1 polioviruses was extracted from 140 μl of infected tissue culture fluid using the QI Aamp viral ...
AAMP, ACADL, 510 more genes. nsv4359574. copy number variation. 1. nstd102. human. Pathogenic. NCBI36 chr2: 189,391,166- ... Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Datasets. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles. *Genome Workbench ... AAMP, ACADL, 933 more genes. nsv4359516. copy number variation. 1. nstd102. human. Pathogenic. NCBI36 chr2: 219,654,586- ... AAMP, ATIC, 585 more genes. nsv4356729. copy number variation. 1. nstd102. human. Pathogenic. NCBI36 chr2: 181,086,765- ...
... and a list of all the identified antimicrobial resistance genes. . . . ... Whole Genome Sequencing. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has ushered in a new age in infectious disease science, with the power ... This is the first time this important class of resistance gene was detected in the U.S. This ESBL gene causes resistance to β- ... New research examining link between antibiotic use in farm animals and antibiotic resistance in humans leads to more questions ...
Conclusions: PPARs can be used for estimating the potential to achieve elite status in human physical performance in strength ... some genes, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), have not been fully described in terms of their role ... Gly/Gly , Ser/Ser genotypes: anaerobic alactic maximum power (AAMP) in endurance and power athletes (p = 0.024). C allele: ... genome-wide association study. PRISMA. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. ...
Unlike Celera, The Human Genome Project posts its findings for free on the Internet every 24 hours. Since Celera is a private ... Roger Lo, Victor Ugaz (Texas Aamp;M University) The ability to perform DNA electrophoresis in miniaturized microfluidic systems ... they are messing with childrens lives and there genes and chromosones and their offsprings and the next generation. ... Dr Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, a public health research facility funded mostly ...
EUGENE A. SHINN, BS 57, recently published his memoir/autobiography, Bootstrap Geologist (University Press of Florida). UM ... The da Vinci Scholars are encouraged to rethink the map of human knowledge through the emphasis of connections between ... Using DNA sequencing technology, Uy analyzed the same sequence of base pairs of the flycatcher genome across several different ... Aamp Smag_F2013_web Archive asu02420000320001001.pdf Description Title Page 1 Full Text FALL 2013 UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI A&S ...
... mapping and characterization of a novel human gene, MTA1-L1, showing homology to a metastasis-associated gene, MTA1. J Hum ... Kanehisa M, Goto S: KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000, 28: 27-30. 10.1093/nar/28.1.27. ... G1-proteins with roles in angiogenesis included the gene products of MAPK14 (mitogen activated protein kinase), AAMP (angio- ... the human gene integrator. Database. 2010, 2010: 1-16. Article ID baq020, doi:10.1093/database/baq020 ...
The genes encoding three other C. neoformans antigens with T-cell-stimulating capacity have been cloned. One gene, DHA1, ... neoformans genome project and the University of Oklahomas Advanced Center for Genome Technology C. neoformans strain H99 and ... The three deduced proteins, which we have called MP-A (401 aa), MP-B (444 aa), and MP-C (421 aa), are predicted to be about the ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ...
AAMP Q13685 VAR_037061 p.Ile250Val Polymorphism rs2305835 - AANAT Q16613 VAR_048168 p.Arg15Cys Polymorphism rs34470791 - AANAT ... Human polymorphisms and disease mutations: index Name: humsavar.txt Release: 2020_04 of 12-Aug-2020 ... Type of gene name AC FTId change variant dbSNP Disease name ... Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes. *. Annotation ... This file lists all missense variants annotated in human UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries. It provides a variant classification ...
Human Genome Project. *Immunoglobulins A, D, G, and M. *model organism. *nutritional yeast ... The research required the identification of over 13,000 genes encoded in approximately 34.5 million base pairs, and builds on ... DSMs involvement in previous genomics programmes, including the sequencing of the Bacillus subtilis and bakers yeast genomes. ...
... of known human genes in the genome sequence and prediction of additional genes with supporting evidence. ... Sino Biological: New service provider, with links to proteins (see ACE2 ) and clones (see AAMP ) in the Proteins, Gene Function ... Improved disease genes curation and processing. 26 November 01: release of version 2.23 * 27,612 genes and 51 gene clusters, ... Variants: Gene Damage Index (GDI) Score shows what percent of genes are more intolerant to gene damage, and therefore more ...
... in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common ... It is a view shared among many researchers that this gene variation has an impact on human physical characteristics [1, 5, 7, ... and AAMP than the mixed group (P , 0.006) (Table 3). Average muscle mass, handgrip strength, and AAMP values were also ... According to the 1000 Genomes project, the polymorphism of the AMPD1 was found at a frequency of 11% in European Caucasians (11 ...
The mission of the Public Health Genomics is to integrate advances in human genetics into public health research, policy, and ...
Currently, APADB provides information for chicken, human and mouse polyadenylation sites and potential loss of microRNA binding ... Gene_Symbol. PolyA Sites. Sites In UTR3. Sites In Intron. Sites In Exon. Sites In UTR5. Sites In Extension. Total_Reads_Gene. ... AAMP. 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 281. AAR2. 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 56. ... Genome Browser * Download * Help To see PA sites, click on the ...
AAMP offers coronavirus guidance to members​​. The American Association of Meat Processors (AAMP) has issued guidance to its ... CRISPR genome editing to address food security and climate change: Now more than ever we are looking to science for solutions ... Gene editing, like genetic modification, is a technology that has attracted a fair amount of skepticism from European ... Mitsubishi Electrics new robot, the MELFA ASSISTA, has been developed to work alongside human operators while meeting ...
Since pure culture had proven difficult, previous studies have used genome analyses of co-cultures consisting of ... Table 3. Result from psi-Blastp comparison of gene products encoded by a gene cluster in the genome of S. lithotrophicus ES-1 ... PCR amplicons were subsequently purified using the Ultra Clean PCR Clean-Up Kit (MoBio) and ligated into the pSC-A-amp/kan ... urease activity has been known for some time to enable human pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori (Eaton et al., 1991) and ...
The work of the HGNC is supported by National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) grant U41HG003345 and Wellcome Trust ... AAMP angio associated migratory cell protein. 2q35. AHI1 Abelson helper integration site 1. FLJ20069, ORF1, JBTS3. 6q23.3. ... This family contains the genes listed in PMID: 27991561 and 12 additional genes that may not meet the strict criteria laid out ... Genes contained within the family: 274 Approved Symbol. Approved Name. Previous Symbols. Synonyms. Chromosome. ...
... activation-induced genes. [0314]While most CKR genes lack introns, the genes for human CCR2 and mouse CXCR4 (fusin) both ... Stanford Human Genome Center). Co-localized STSs were identified on the human physical map using the Entrez server (National ... TECK exhibits one glycosylation site, and several AAMP, PKC, and CK2 phosphorylation sites. [0190]B. MIP-3α [0191]The MIP-3α ... 0309]While human CKR genes have been localized to several different chromosomes, the β-CKR genes CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5 all ...
RNAseq of individual clones defined gene fingerprints relevant to this correlation. This study identified a donor-dependent ... Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBM MSCs) have multiple functions, critical for skeletal formation ... correlation between osteogenic and vascular supportive potential of hBM MSCs and important gene signatures that support these ... against the human genome assembly (NCBI build37 (hg19) UCSC transcripts). Non-uniquely mapped reads were discarded using ...
  • AAMP (Angio Associated Migratory Cell Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Angio-associated, migratory cell protein, also known as AAMP, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the AAMP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product is an immunoglobulin-type protein of 434 amino acids and 49 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product is an immunoglobulin-type protein. (genomics-online.com)
  • After each intervention biopsies were taken, whole genome expression microarrays were applied, and genes of interest were verified by realtime PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report FDA also includes, for the first time, whole-genome sequencing data for Salmonella as a new component of routine NARMS surveillance practices and has placed all the isolate-level data on its website. (provisioneronline.com)
  • Isolation attempts undertaken in this study resulted in the microaerophilic enrichment culture ADE-12-1 which, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, consisted of at least three to four distinct Gallionellaceae strains that appear to be closely related to the neutrophilic iron oxidizer S. lithotrophicus ES-1. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the past 12 years, there has been rapid development of genome-editing strategies that make it possible to directly target regions of genes in a DNA sequence-specific manner. (plantphysiol.org)
  • the diploidy of the genome, a high-quality genome sequence ( Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012 ), and its economic importance (fresh and processed), which in the United States alone accounts for more than $2 billion ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/vegetables-pulses/tomatoes.aspx#.U85tkoBdVSY ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Typically, Ets proteins directly bind to regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers that contain a GGAA/T core sequence motif thereby regulating target gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last 2 decades, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli O25b:H4 sequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged worldwide among human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • According to the initial analysis of the human genome WD40 repeats are the eighth largest family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Although the scientific literature regarding sports genomics has grown during the last decade, some genes, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), have not been fully described in terms of their role in achieving extraordinary sports performance. (mdpi.com)
  • The research required the identification of over 13,000 genes encoded in approximately 34.5 million base pairs, and builds on DSM's involvement in previous genomics programmes, including the sequencing of the Bacillus subtilis and bakers yeast genomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gene is located on the second human chromosome, near the end of the chromosome's arm (2q35), between the codons 85-87 and 1387-1389. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the 1000 Genomes project, the polymorphism of the AMPD1 was found at a frequency of 11% in European Caucasians (11% in Finland, 14% in England and Spain, and 8% in Italy), 1% in Africans, and 8% in Americans surveyed but was not present in any Asian populations ( http://www.1000genomes.org/ ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • CYP27B1-1260 gene polymorphism by D yielded sensitivity 79%, specificity 58%, PCR-RFLP method. (who.int)
  • 000000 is used for variants where DNA was not analysed (change predicted from RNA analysis), variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro. (lovd.nl)
  • Washington DC, USA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Description: Human polymorphisms and disease mutations: index Name: humsavar.txt Release: 2020_04 of 12-Aug-2020 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- This file lists all missense variants annotated in human UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries. (uniprot.org)
  • ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer by competing for the binding to E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') found within the promoters of its target genes. (uniprot.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental block in Elf5 null mammary glands are beginning to be unraveled, this investigation has been hampered by limited information about the identity of Elf5-target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequencing and genomic localization of cis -regulatory regions bound by Elf5 in vivo has identified several potential target genes covering broad functional categories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A subset of these target genes demonstrates higher expression levels in Elf5-null mammary glands suggesting a repressive functional role for this transcription factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AAMP helps to regulate vascular endothelial cell migration regulation and angiogenesis, with other signaling pathway like RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the smooth muscle cells, if AAMP is overexpressed, it activates RhoA, which activates Rho-kinase (this one generates GTP) and it finally leads to increased smooth muscle cell migration and division, causing atherosclerosis and restenosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CRISPR /Cas9 is rapidly becoming the tool of choice for gene editing in plants, but further testing is needed to determine whether efficacy will be universal. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To test the efficacy of CRISPR /Cas9 in tomato, we chose to target a gene that, when function was disrupted, would result in a distinctive, immediately recognizable phenotype early in the plant tissue culture phase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • CRISPR /Cas9-mediated gene editing in stable transgenic tomato plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol, followed by an underscore (_) and a six digit number (e.g. (lovd.nl)
  • Indeed, the receptor plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and regulates insulin sensitivity by transcriptionally activating adipocyte-specific genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose uptake, fatty acid uptake and lipid-storage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include heparin binding . (genecards.org)
  • a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • Note : In all these diseases we can observe the expression of the AAMP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, RNA sequencing was done to compare gene-expression differences between marmots in a state of torpor and awake marmots. (eurekalert.org)
  • The RNA sequencing data show that gene-expression changes occur in the liver and brain during hibernation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study effects of CLA supplementation on genome wide gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies from 11 Ala12Ala and 23 Pro12Pro men were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CLA effect on expression of PPARγ and leptin genes depends on the PPARγ2 genotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge this is the first human study using a microarray based genome wide gene expression screening to evaluate isomer specific CLA effects in human adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include genes in the fatty acid metabolism pathway as well as blood clotting and stem cell differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • A mannoprotein antigen, MP98, that stimulated one of the hybridomas was purified, and the gene encoding MP98 was cloned. (asm.org)
  • The gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (genecards.org)
  • The gene encoding this isoform ( AMPD1 ) is located on chromosome 1 (1p13). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with AAMP gene. (cdc.gov)
  • NARMS was established in 1996 as a partnership between the FDA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to track antibiotic resistance in foodborne bacteria for drugs that are considered important in human medicine, including whether they are multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics). (provisioneronline.com)
  • This is particularly the case since complete genome sequences of the neutrophilic strains G. capsiferriformans ES-2 and S. lithotrophicus ES-1 permit the direct comparison of the metabolic capacity of neutrophilic and acidophilic members of the same genus and, thus, the detection of biochemical features that are specific to acidophilic strains to support life under acidic conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Being dietary PPARγ ligands, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) received considerable attention because of their effects on body composition, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and inflammation, although some effects were only demonstrated in animal trials and the results in human studies were not always consistent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A search of C. neoformans genomic databases revealed that MP88 shares this feature with at least 11 other genes, including MP98 . (asm.org)
  • Does osteogenic potential of clonal human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells correlate with their vascular supportive ability? (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study identified a donor-dependent correlation between osteogenic and vascular supportive potential of hBM MSCs and important gene signatures that support these functions that are relevant to their bone regenerative properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overhauled gene-centric ncRNA compendium, amalgamated via transcripts from RNAcentral and its 20 primary sources. (genecards.org)
  • Gene inactivation experiments showed that the H 30- fimB and ibeART genes were associated with in vivo virulence. (asm.org)
  • RNAseq of individual clones defined gene fingerprints relevant to this correlation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common chronic herpesvirus found in humans and numerous other mammalian species. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human AAMP genome location and AAMP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional repressor involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm by negatively regulating the activity of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes. (uniprot.org)
  • The retail meat arm of the NARMS program collects samples of grocery store chicken, ground turkey, ground beef and pork chops, and tests for non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, to determine whether such bacteria are resistant to various antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. (provisioneronline.com)
  • Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBM MSCs) have multiple functions, critical for skeletal formation and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subclinical viral infections (SVI), including cytomegalovirus (CMV), are highly prevalent in humans, resulting in lifelong persistence. (bvsalud.org)
  • All these findings strongly suggest that clade C evolution includes a progressive loss of virulence involving multiple genes, possibly enhancing overall strain fitness by avoiding severe infections, even if it comes at the cost of a lower colonization ability. (asm.org)
  • Now, researchers have sequenced the first complete Himalayan marmot genome, which may help them to better explain how the marmots live in such extremes. (eurekalert.org)
  • To begin, they sequenced and assembled a complete draft genome of a male Himalayan marmot. (eurekalert.org)
  • No article was found for Hepatitis and AAMP[original query] . (cdc.gov)

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