The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
The type species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting pigs. The resulting infection is an acute febrile disease which is clinically indistinguishable from FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Transmission is by contaminated food.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.

Characterization of two host-specific genes, mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (mshA) and uridyl phosphate dehydrogenase (UDPDH) that are involved in the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna tasmanica mutualism. (1/413)

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Mutualism favours higher host specificity than does antagonism in plant-herbivore interaction. (2/413)

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Ecological factors driving the long-term evolution of influenza's host range. (3/413)

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Evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different Asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine. (4/413)

Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. A Cathay topotype isolate of FMDV serotype O from the 1997 epizootic in Taiwan (O/TAW/97) demonstrated restricted host specificity, only infecting swine. Methods used to evaluate infectivity and pathogenicity of FMDV isolates in cattle are well-documented, but there has been less progress studying transmission and pathogenicity of FMDV isolates in pigs. In previous studies designed to examine pathogenicity, various chimeric viruses derived from O/TAW/97 were intradermally inoculated in the heel bulb of pigs. Subsequent quantitative scoring of disease and evaluation of virus released into nasal secretions and blood was assessed. Here we prove the usefulness of this method in direct and contact inoculated pigs to evaluate infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission of different Asian FMDV isolates. Virus strains within the Cathay topotype were highly virulent in swine producing a synchronous disease in inoculated animals and were efficiently spread to in-contact naive pigs, while virus strains from the PanAsia topotype displayed more heterogeneous properties.  (+info)

Soil-strain compatibility: the key to effective use of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculants? (5/413)

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Unique arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities uncovered in date palm plantations and surrounding desert habitats of Southern Arabia. (6/413)

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Alternate mechanisms of initial pattern recognition drive differential immune responses to related poxviruses. (7/413)

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Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver? (8/413)

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The ATCC Virology Collection has more than 2,000 viruses and associated reagents, including type strains from different host species. Our seed stock system ensures that every preparation made by ATCC is as close as possible to the original culture deposit.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tropical insect diversity: evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils. AU - Peguero, Guille. AU - Bonal, Raúl. AU - Sol, Daniel. AU - Muñoz, Alberto. AU - Sork, Victoria L.. AU - Espelta, Josep M.. PY - 2017/8/1. Y1 - 2017/8/1. N2 - © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America Host specialization has long been hypothesized to explain the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects in the tropics. However, addressing this hypothesis has proved challenging because of the risk of over-looking rare interactions, and hence biasing specialization estimations, and the difficulties to separate the diversity component attributable to insect specialization from that related to host diversity. As a result, the host specialization hypothesis lacks empirical support for important phytophagous insect clades. Here, we test the hypothesis in a radiation of seed-feeding insects, acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), sampled in temperate and tropical regions (California and ...
Chagas is a potentially fatal chronic disease affecting large numbers of people across the Americas and exported throughout the world through human population movement. It is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted by triatomine vectors to humans and a wide range of alternative host species. The database described here was compiled to allow the risk of vectorial transmission to humans to be mapped using geospatial models. The database collates all available records, published since 2003, for prevalence and occurrence of infection in humans, vectors and alternative hosts, and links each record to a defined time and location. A total of 16,802 records of infection have been extracted from the published literature and unpublished sources. The resulting database can be used to improve our understanding of the geographic variation in vector infection prevalence and to estimate the risk of vectorial transmission of T. cruzi to humans ...
Looking for online definition of broad host range in the Medical Dictionary? broad host range explanation free. What is broad host range? Meaning of broad host range medical term. What does broad host range mean?
Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Barberry. List of various diseases cured by Barberry. How Barberry is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Names of Barberry in various languages of the world are also given.
Fusarium oxysporum is a fungus hat occurs frequently in soils worldwide and an cause wilt disease and root rot in various plant species. An interesting aspect of the biology of this fungus is the fat that every individual strain is restricted to causing disease in only one or a few plant species. Peter van Dam studies this aspect of host specificity, asking what determines the fact that one strain is capable of infecting tomato plants, whereas another strain specifically causes disease in melon pants. To find the answer he looks at the DNA of many different fungal strains, and specifically at the role of small proteins known as effectors, which can deregulate the pants defence responses.
The main goal of the AP4 will be the development of a data retrieval web interface for port authorities and public administrations that are not directly involved in the development of the MSW. This interface can be also employed for the interconnection of Port Community Systems in case that private Hellenic ports are willing and they are interested to develop it. Furthermore, the hardware required for the implementation will be used as part of the disaster recovery planning of the MSW, since the hardware infrastructure can be used as alternative host of the main MSW application. Also, in this pilot the exploitation of the EMSA IMP demonstration project will be examined and implemented in case of compatibility.. ...
Barberries tolerate dry soil well but need at least some water during the hottest months, including August. If you provide water the wrong way, however, you could see adverse effects. Plants do best when they develop deep roots, which occurs when the plants are watered thoroughly but infrequently. If plants are watered often but shallowly, such as the way a sprinkler provides water, then they grow surface roots that arent good at tapping water reserves deeper in the ground and, therefore, the plants suffer during droughts. If your barberries leaves are scorched along their edges and falling off, then take a close look at your watering schedule, and revise it if necessary to help the shrubs develop deep roots.. ...
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The Sunjoy Golden Pillar Barberry Shrub is a brilliant addition to your garden or landscape. In summer its bright golden foliage provides interest and contrast against the green leafy plantings you already may have. In the springtime the new growth is red, then it changes to golden yellow. Bright orange-red autumn foliage rounds out the seasons.
Garcia-Perez R, Ibáñez C, Godinez JM, Arechiga N, Garin I, Perez-Suarez G, de Paz O, Juste J, Echevarria JE, Bravo IG (2014). Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging. Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity and hints for recombination. Genome Biology and Evolution 6: 94-104 ...
Human IgG (H&L), 0.5 mg. This secondary antibody is specifically designed for the detection of multiple primary antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) of different host species in experiments where cells are simultaneously labeled without unwanted cross
Its time fofr BET to pick the new hosts of 106 and Park! Paigion and Shorty da Prince have to be the new hosts of 106 & Park.
Microbial diseases cause considerable economic losses in aquaculture and new infection control measures often rely on a better understanding of pathogenicity. However, disease studies performed in fish hosts often require specialist infrastructure (e.g., aquaria), adherence to strict legislation and do not permit high-throughput approaches; these reasons justify the development of alternative hosts. This study aimed to validate the use of larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) to investigate virulence of the important fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum. Using 11 wild-type isolates of V. anguillarum, these bacteria killed larvae in a dose-dependent manner and replicated inside the haemolymph, but infected larvae were rescued by antibiotic therapy. Crucially, virulence correlated significantly and positively in larva and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) infection models. Challenge studies with mutants knocked out for single virulence determinants confirmed conserved roles in larva and fish
Solidago virgaurea and Solidago canadensis bare the most common. Some have their preference in which variety they use. Most find them interchangeable. I refer to her most often as Solidago. For me the name conjures Sol or sun or soul. As many things are starting to fade in the garden she is just coming into her own. This represents one of her healing qualities a kidney or chi deficiency. It is an emotional state. In this case it used when you have a lack of endurance, a lack of strength to persevere through difficulty, an inability to process what is necessary to get to the end. Matthew Wood states that it can be a covenants broken frame of mind. A tea made from the flowers and leaves sipped for a few days should help ...
Barberry shrubs are susceptible to a variety of pest infestations that cause cosmetic to severe injury. Though barberries are not extremely vulnerable to problems, keeping your plants healthy ensures their ability to resist and heal from infestations. Identify different types of barberry pests, their symptoms and ...
The thornless barberry shrub (Berberis thunbergii Thornless) is an anomaly among the barberry varieties. While most have thorns, the thornless barberry is essentially barbless. Its bright green summer foliage changes to a dramatic red-orange in the fall.
Curing virus infected plant is difficult because antiviral chemicals are not available presently. Hence, the current approaches employed to control virus diseases of chilli are, use of resistant cultivars, cultural measures, crop hygiene or eradication of diseased plants and alternative hosts, biological control using mild strain cross protection and insecticides to control the vectors. A number of research strategies have been initiated over the last decades to combat virus diseases of chilli. These include understanding virus pathosystem, preventing or delaying virus infection through ecological engineering and breeding for resistance by both conventional and pre-emptive breeding strategies. Several chilli accessions that are virus resistant have been identified. Our current research focuses on the introgression of this ...
Bacterial virulence can only be assessed by confronting bacteria with a host. Here, we present a new simple assay to evaluate Aeromonas virulence, making use of Dictyostelium amoebae as an alternative host model. This assay can be modulated to assess virulence of very different Aeromonas species.. ...
The vertebrate gut is home to one of the densest populations of life on Earth. This microbial community has a profound effect on host health, nutrition, development, behavior, and evolution. However, very little is known about how these microbes have evolved with their vertebrate hosts, how and whether they select hosts or how they remain associated with their hosts. Recent work identified Lactobacillus reuteri as an organism that is composed of host-specific sub-populations, each population associated with a different host animal. Representatives from each host-associated population were tested for their ability to colonize gnotobiotic mice, which only rodent strains could accomplish. To determine the genetic source of these differences, genome sequences from representative strains (from humans, pigs, chickens, and rodents) and genomic microarrays were used to identify host-specific genes tied to ecological success in vivo. Many of the rodents pecific genes were essential to the ecological success of
Based on the original research of 2017-2018, also reference data, four aphid species and five species complexes of the family Adelgidae listed for Lithuanian fauna. Pineus ( Pineus) strobi(Hartig,...
Learn more about Barberry at Medical City Dallas Uses Principal Proposed Uses None Other Proposed Uses Allergies ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Nemo the Magnificent writes with this excerpt from the University of Arizona: A new study (paywalled) published in the journal Nature provides the most comprehensive analysis to date of the evolutionary relationships of influenza virus across different host species over time... In the 1870s, an imm...
Olly Murs and Caroline Flack will host The X Factor, following the departure of host Dermot OLeary. OLeary hosted the show for seven years before he announced his shock exit earlier in 2015.
This article from SR Mamatha describes how you can get multiple instances of eDirectory into the same tree name with the same host. +read more. ...
Find help and information on Berberis x stenophylla Etna Golden barberry Narrow-leaved barberry, including varieties and pruning advice. Click here to find out more.
Natures Answer Barberry Root 1 fl Oz-Enjoy Natures Answer Barberry Root - 1 fl oz every day at these amazing prices! Natures Answer Barberry Root Description: Organic Alcohol Fluid Extract (1:1) Berberis vulgaris ....Learn More At Kalyx.com.
The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and ...
Barberry is an herb, also called Agracejo, Berberidis, Berbéris, Berberis, Berberitze, Berberry, Berbis, Épine-Vinette, Espino Cambrón, Jaundice Berry, Mountain Grape, Oregon Grape, Pipperidge, Piprage, Sauerdorn, Sow Berry, Vinettier, and other names. The fruit, bark, and roots of the barberry plant are used to make an...
Combinations: In gall-bladder diseases Barberry combines well with Fringe Tree Bark and Culvers Root.. Caution! Avoid during pregnancy; Barberry may stimulate the uterus. In high doses, it can cause nausea, vomiting, convulsions, drop in blood pressure, and lowered heart rate and breathing. If you suffer from heart disease or chronic respiratory problems, do not take large doses of this herb and use only with the approval of your physician. ...
Gregory L. Tilford writes that the species within the Solidago genus may be used more or less interchangeably. He writes the greens can be eaten a cooked potherb, with variable palatibility, and the flowers make a nice sweetened tea. Dried leaves and flowers may be used as a styptic agent, and an infusion to reduce mucus production in the bronchi during a cold or flu. The tea is diuretic and regarded by him as a kidney tonic.[4] ...
Berberis thunbergii Rose Glow This larger Barberry can be a formidable barrier plant as well as a beautiful focal point. Leaves on new shoots create a luminous glow from unique rose pink mottling on the dark purple background. Older leaves are dark purple, turning bright shades of red, yellow and orange in fall. Tiny
GCEID will focus on three distinct programs within the One Health approach: Improved understanding of the EID threat through studies in pathogenesis and pathobiology Host pathogen interactions and comparative immunology Underlying pathogen and host factors that influence emergence and host switching Factors governing virulence and host specificity Research to mitigate the risks of EID entry…
Blastocystis is a unicellular, anaerobic protist which lives in the intestinal tract of diverse animals, including humans. It was found that the host specificity and the pathogenic potential of different isolates are correlated with sequence variations in the SSU-rRNA gene. Identification of...
Rat IgG (H&L), 0.1 mg. This secondary antibody is specifically designed for the detection of multiple primary antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) of different host species in experiments where cells are simultaneously labeled without unwanted cross
When a pathogen infects a species that it does not normally infect, it is often unable to spread effectively from that host, this situation ...
When a pathogen infects a species that it does not normally infect, it is often unable to spread effectively from that host, this situation ...
00, vol. 47: Antoni Werner, Piotr Łakomy Host specialization of IS-group isolates of Heterobasidion annosum to Scots pine, Norway spruce and common fir in field…
Regular use of phage therapy occurs primarily in the Republic of Georgia, due to the presence of the Eliava Institute, which has research phage therapy since the 1920s. However, synthetic biology has enabled entirely new approaches to phage therapy, such as engineering new abilities into the phage. One such ability is the degradation of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacteria during infections[2]. Production of the EPS results in a biofilm, which protects the bacteria within from external harm, such as antibiotics and bacteriophages, limiting the damage to the cells on the surface. To break through this barrier, researches inserted the gene for DspB, an enzyme that degrades one of the key components of EPS. After bacteria on the surface of the biofilm are infected, they produce DspB along with new phage. After the cells lyse, the DspB can degrade the EPS, which exposes more bacteria to infection. One concern of phage therapy is the rapid lysing of pathogenic cells which may ...
2017 The Author(s). Rhizoctonia solani is a fungal pathogen causing substantial damage to many of the worlds largest food crops including wheat, rice, maize and soybean. Despite impacting global food security, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms employed by R. solani. To enable prediction of effectors possessing either broad efficacy or host specificity, a combined secretome was constructed from a monocot specific isolate, a dicot specific isolate and broad host range isolate infecting both monocot and dicot hosts. Secretome analysis suggested R. solani employs largely different virulence mechanisms to well-studied pathogens, despite in many instances infecting the same host plants. Furthermore, the secretome of the broad host range AG8 isolate may be shaped by maintaining functions for saprophytic life stages while minimising opportunities for host plant recognition. Analysis of possible co-evolution with host plants and in-planta up-regulation in particular, aided ...
A former R&D director of a private diagnostics company that focuses on bacterial tests, Drew Smith, has responded in online Q&As on why phage therapy has not taken off in most parts of the world. He listed lack of interest from pharma companies and financial backup as the top reasons for phage therapys absence in the modern western market. There is also the issue of regulation; regulating antibiotic use is easy because every pill of a given drug is chemically identical to the next. Phages, however, are dynamic entities whose populations will change (naturally or artificially) to target specific bacterial species. Current FDA-like regulations therefore make it difficult to manage so-called dynamic therapies, and the introduction of phage therapy to a western market would require novel policy considerations. But on a brighter note, almost two years ago the EU funded a clinical trial on phages to assess its international standards. The PhagoBurn project is the largest phage project today and ...
Phage therapy is a medical approach for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases which makes use of the natural ability of some viruses, known as bacteriophages, to kill specific bacteria that they recognize. Phage therapy was first proposed nearly a century ago at the Institut Pasteur by the French-Canadian scientist Félix dHerelle. Although the technique was initially used worldwide, from the 1940s onwards it was particularly developed in Eastern Europe, while Western countries gradually lost interest in the approach and preferred to focus their attention on antibiotics, thought to be more promising. Medical use of phage therapy is currently hindered by the viral nature of this antibacterial treatment and the lack of precise knowledge about how bacteriophages work.. However, given the rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the worrying prospect of a potential therapeutic impasse, scientists are once again beginning to explore the possibilities of bacteriophages. This field has ...
BACKGROUND: The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) is an important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae. Isolates of R. solani AG-3 are taxonomically related based on the composition of cellular fatty acids, phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and beta-tubulin gene sequences, and somatic hyphal interactions. Despite the close genetic relationship among isolates of R. solani AG-3, field populations from potato and tobacco exhibit comparative differences in their disease biology, dispersal ecology, host specialization, genetic diversity and population structure. However, little information is available on how field populations of R. solani AG-3 on potato and tobacco are shaped by population genetic processes. In this study, two field populations of R. solani AG-3 from potato in North Carolina (NC) and the Northern USA; and two field populations from tobacco in NC and Southern Brazil were examined using sequence analysis of two cloned ...
Barberry is an herb, also called Agracejo, Berberidis, Berbéris, Berberis, Berberitze, Berberry, Berbis, Épine-Vinette, Espino Cambrón, Jaundice Berry, Mountain Grape, Oregon Grape, Pipperidge, Piprage, Sauerdorn, Sow Berry, Vinettier, and other names. The fruit, bark, and roots of the barberry plant are used to make an...
Laboulbeniales exhibit three types of specialization: high specificity to host species (host specificity), growth restricted to certain areas of the host body (position specificity), and speciation resulting from co-habiting hosts (ecological specificity) [43, 47-49].. Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae is known from species of Basilia, Cyclopodia, Eucampsipoda, Nycteribia and Penicillidia bat flies (Additional file 1: Table S1). Arthrorhynchus nycteribiae has been found on species of Nycteribia, Penicillidia and Phthiridium. In our study, we found only Nycteribia schmidlii, Penicillidia conspicua and P. dufourii infected by Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae. These three species, together with Phthiridium biarticulatum, are most commonly encountered with Laboulbeniales [21]. Except for being seemingly restricted to Eastern Hemisphere species of Nycteribiidae, there is no strict host specificity, as previously reported [21].. Nycteribia schmidlii was host for both A. eucampsipodae and A. ...
Host tropism is the infection specificity of certain pathogens to particular hosts and host tissues. This type of tropism explains why most pathogens are only capable of infecting a limited range of host organisms. Researchers can classify pathogenic organisms by the range of species and cell types that they exhibit host tropism for. For instance, pathogens that are able to infect a wide range of hosts and tissues are said to be amphotropic. Ecotropic pathogens, on the other hand, are only capable of infecting a narrow range of hosts and host tissue. Knowledge of a pathogens host specificity allows professionals in the research and medical industries to model pathogenesis and develop vaccines, medication, and preventative measures to fight against infection. Methods such as cell engineering, direct engineering and assisted evolution of host-adapted pathogens, and genome-wide genetic screens are currently being used by researchers to better understand the host range of a variety of different ...
A liver herb, relieves jaundice and diseases of the liver and gall bladder because it increases the secretion of bile. In ancient Ayurvedic medicine, Barberry and Turmeric are combined to regulate liver energy a blood purifier. Contains Berberine an alkaloid that dilates blood vessels, thereby lowering blood pressure.
Physicians are turning to phage therapy as a treatment, which is seen as one of the more promising frontiers in the war on superbugs.
Glutamic acid producing strains collected from factories were identified by the host specificity of phage. For the 7338 strain, one was sensitive to the phages of T6-13 strain and insensitive to 7338 strain phages In order to prevent the invading by the phages factories took turn to use different strains. According to the evidence presented here, it is suggested that the strain must be known in their sensitivity to the different phages so as to avoid infection.
[Based on specimens collected in the western Mediterranean, a redescription is provided of Brementia balneolensis Chatton & Brément, notodelphyid copepod parasitic in the ascidian Polysyncraton canetensis Brément. In the same host lives another species of Notodelphyidae new to science, whose general morphology is similar to that of B. balneolensis, from which it differs definitely by numerous characteristics. Our present knowledge of the phylogeny of ophioseidimorph Notodelphyidae refrained the authors to establish a new genus for this new species, described under the name of Brementia illgi. A discussion on phylogenetic trends in the genus Brementia and its relationships with other Notodelphyidae, together with some remarks on the host specificity of both species of Brementia conclude the paper., Based on specimens collected in the western Mediterranean, a redescription is provided of Brementia balneolensis Chatton & Brément, notodelphyid copepod parasitic in the ascidian Polysyncraton canetensis
Dont let the short rows keep you from working this cute reversible asymmetrical garter stitch shawlette. It is a great pattern to learn to work short rows.
For more information on copyright or permissions for this image, please contact Honnold/Mudd Library Special Collections at http://libraries.claremont.edu/sc ...
Creative Peptides offers VACV (Host range protein 2, MVA018L) for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
(March 16, 2020)A Global Force to Handle COVID-19 with Flu Control Protocols is RequiredAs COVID-19 is becoming a global issue, most people seem too nervous to notice that the virus is actually showi
The Cytoskeleton Collection includes 250 mAbs recognizing the supportive structural filaments and associated proteins that facilitate cell shape and motility
Host specificity. *Interactions between factors. Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[edit]. In the molecular chain between the ...
... species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to non-target hosts being parasitized. This in turn can ... To locate host eggs, adult females use chemical and visual signals, such as egg shape and colour. After she finds a suitable ... In addition, some hosts can evolve with a dependency on Wolbachia for core reproductive functions, such as oogenesis, so that ... A single female can parasitize one to ten host eggs a day. Trichogramma are small and very uniform in structure, which causes ...
Dussoix D, Arber W (Jul 1962). "Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. II. Control over acceptance of DNA from ... The host cell, in this example E. coli K, is known as the restricting host and appears to have the ability to reduce the ... HsdM is necessary for adding methyl groups to host DNA (methyltransferase activity), and HsdS is important for specificity of ... are a powerful tool for host genome editing due to their enhanced sequence specificity. ZFN work in pairs, their dimerization ...
2004). "Host specificity, plant communities". The European and North-American species of Sarcoscypha. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ... 2005). "[Purification and study of carbohydrate specificity of lectin from Sarcoscypha coccinea (Fr.) Lambette]". Ukrainskii ...
How to measure host specificity. Vie et Milieu (Life and Environment) 58, 121-124. 2010 Marine parasite diversity and ... In: S Morand and B Krasnov (eds.). The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions. Oxford University Press, pp. 73-88. ...
Hernandez-Bello, M.A.; M. I. Chilvers; H. Akamatsu; T. L. Peever (2006). "Host Specificity of Ascochyta spp. Infecting Legumes ... These can also overwinter in infected plant debris and release their ascospores in the spring to infect new hosts as primary ... That is, each species only causes symptoms on their respective hosts and not on another. Areas where rainfall and/or high ... The asexual conidia travel short distances to new hosts via water splashes from rain.[citation needed] Crop rotation: Since ...
It has low host specificity. Captive fish are especially susceptible due to the confined space of aquariums and accumulation of ... Symbiotic relationships with host plants also allow for improved growth performance and plant survival rate in drought ...
Life history and host specificity of Urophora sirunaseva (Herng)(Dipt., Tephritidae), an agent for biological control of yellow ... The larvae develop in leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, fruits, and roots of the host plant, depending on the species. Some ... Adult tephritid fruit flies are often found on the host plant and feeding on pollen, nectar, rotting plant debris, or honeydew ... starthistle, with remarks on the host plant. J. Appl. Entomol. 116: 381-390. ...
In 1966, Cyril Garnham proposed separating Plasmodium into nine subgenera based on host specificity and parasite morphology.[17 ... Hosts[edit]. All Plasmodium species are parasitic and must pass between a vertebrate host and an insect host to complete their ... Insect hosts are most frequently mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Anopheles. Vertebrate hosts include reptiles, birds, and ... This can sometimes be severe, rapidly followed by death of the host (e.g. P. falciparum in humans). In other hosts, Plasmodium ...
While the plant hosts exhibit low specificity, EcM fungi exhibit various levels of specificity, and the costs and benefits to ... 1999). "Diversity and host specificity of ectomycorrhizal fungiforest sites by five host species". Canadian Journal of Botany. ... However, many other fungal groups exhibit a very broad host-range more akin to host lineages. Host plants that are ... Across most EcM host lineages, there appears to be low levels of specificity, as EcM plants tend to form symbioses with many ...
Host Specificity in Plant Diseases. Volume 1: Prokaryotes (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-08-098473-5. , ...
Yan, Z. (1990). Host Specificity of Lysiana exocarpi subsp. exocarpi and Other Mistletoes in Southern South Australia. ... No host species were herbaceous. Every host family and genus recorded contained species which were not documented as mistletoe ... Seven mistletoe species commonly parasitised exotic host species including L. exocarpi. The commonly recorded exotic host ... Attachment to the host plant is by means of one or more woody absorbing organs (haustoria). This organ effectively replaces the ...
Larval feeding behaviour and host specificity. Can Entomol 105:985-990 Howard, Russell "Insects and Arthropods" Diagnostic ... Once the host worm begins to decompose and is no longer useful to the larvae, the larvae can either leave to find another host ... If a first instar larva decides to move to another host, it must penetrate its new host quickly in order to survive. Towards ... It is important that they find their host quickly, because larvae must penetrate a worm within three days in order to survive. ...
In some cases, there is specificity between host and Symbiodinium clade. More often, however, there is an ecological ... The primary endosymbionts are thought to help the host either by providing nutrients that the host cannot obtain itself or by ... by escaping the host and entering a new host). Attacking obligate bacterial endosymbionts may present a way to control their ... It is presumed that some of these genes are not needed in the environment of the host insect cell. A complementary theory ...
"Molecular phylogeny of Myricaceae: a reexamination of host-symbiont specificity". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34(3): ...
The presence of heterophyid infection in humans is generally caused by a lack of host specificity by the parasites, as seen in ... "Classification and host specificity of Metagonimus spp. from Korean freshwater fish." Korean Journal of Parasitology. Vol. 34: ... Definitive hosts include humans and various fish-eating mammals, primarily dogs, cats, and pigs. Fish-eating birds may also be ... One is to control the intermediate host (snails). This can be done through use of molluscidals. Another is to use education to ...
2016). "Host specificity of Asian Chrysochus Chevr. in Dej. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) and their potential use for ...
Beaver, R. A. (September 1979). "Host specificity of temperate and tropical animals". Nature. 281 (5727): 139-141. Bibcode: ...
He also examined host specificity of species. Hale found that there are different communities at the base of the tree compared ...
Host specificity is not yet fully understood. Originally pathovar groups were documented according to the hosts from which they ... Important host families and species economically affected include: There are also many significant hosts for D. dadantii ... dadantii can survive in potting media with or without a host plant for a year or more and in the leaves of host or nonhost ... The host range of D. dadantii continues growing as new susceptible species are continuously being documented. It has also been ...
1 type complexation reaction between a host molecule and a guest molecule to form a host-guest complex. To achieve advanced ... Jehle H. Intermolecular forces and biological specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1963;50(3):516-524. doi:10.1073/pnas.50.3. ... In the case of dynamic molecular recognition the binding of the first guest to the first binding site of a host affects the ... The host and guest involved in molecular recognition exhibit molecular complementarity. Exceptions are molecular containers, ...
Kistler HC (2001). "Evolution of host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum". In Nelson PE, Summerell BA (eds.). Fusarium: Paul E. ... The host range of these fungi is broad and includes animals, ranging from arthropods to humans, as well as plants, including a ... Because the hosts of a given forma specialis usually are closely related, many have assumed that members of a forma specialis ... In this case, any further changes in the host or parasite could disturb the relationship, in a way that fungal activities or a ...
The tight targeting patterns seen for the Ty elements are thought to be a means to limit damage to its host, which has a very ... Sandmeyer SB, Hansen LJ, Chalker DL (1990). "Integration specificity of retrotransposons and retroviruses". Annu. Rev. Genet. ... Lesage P, Todeschini AL (2005). "Happy together: the life and times of Ty retrotransposons and their hosts". Cytogenet. Genome ... retrotransposons are hypothesized to target gene poor chromosomal targets in order to reduce the chance of inactivating host ...
Dussoix, D.; Arber, W. (1965). "Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. IV. Host specificity of infectious DNA ... Arber, W.; Dussoix, D. (1962). "Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. I. Host controlled modification of ... Arber W, Dussoix D (1962). "Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli: I. Host controlled modification of ... Arber, Werner; Dussoix, Daisy (1962). "Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. I. Host controlled modification of ...
Novotny, V.; Basset, Y. (7 June 2005). "Host specificity of insect herbivores in tropical forests". Proceedings of the Royal ... L is the average infection time of the host, and S is the density of the host population. By decreasing any one of the ... This is an example of "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" and it has been shown that the potential of host-specific insects to ... Through these observations, Connell suggests that each tree species has host-specific enemies that attack it and any of its ...
While cone snail venom is primarily utilized to paralyze the host of the snail, the venom has shown to provide relief to human ... An example of this phenomenon is ω-MVIIA which targets Ca2+ channels and has a specificity for N-type calcium channels. There ... The peptides and proteins are released through the venom gland of the cone snail and target the membrane proteins of the host. ... The conotoxins contain target specificity and short sequences. ...
Heed, William B. (1971). "Host Plant Specificity and Speciation in Hawaiian Drosophila". Taxon. 20 (1): 115-121. doi:10.2307/ ... The major ancestral host plant for members of plantibia subgroup is Clermontia, with derived species like D. silvestris ... Feral pigs, goats, and other mammals will eat host plants like Clermontia and trample on terrain, threatening the habitat and ... D. silvestris females deposit their eggs on the decaying or fermenting bark of principal host plant Clermontia, a large, ...
... a novel virophage with Mimiviridae host specificity". PLOS ONE. 9 (4): e94923. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...994923G. doi:10.1371/journal ... Amoeba and other protists serve as natural hosts. The family is divided in up to 4 subfamilies. Viruses in this family belong ... Amoeba serve as the natural host. Within the genome of Lentille virus integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2) and a ... However, the mimivirus Cafeteria roenbergensis virus was isolated and partially characterized in 1995, although the host was ...
Munshi, G.H.; & Moiz, S.A. (1967). Host plant specificity of the black swallowtail butterfly. Polydorus aristolochiae ( ...
In November 1965, Saloth Sâr flew from Hanoi to Beijing, where his official host was Deng Xiaoping, although most of his ... The Cambodian population were officially known as "Kampuchean" rather than "Khmer" to avoid the ethnic specificity associated ...
A particularly telling case of this effect is host specificity in pathogenic ascomycetes and specifically, in venturia, the ... These parasitic fungi each adapts to a host, and are only able to mate within a shared host after obtaining resources.[17] ... Since a single toxin gene or virulence allele can grant the ability to colonize the host, adaptation and reproductive isolation ...
The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. Vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are fecal- ... Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ...
Database of all known LDLR mutations (maintained by Leiden University Medical Centre, hosted by University College London) ... 98% specificity)[6]. 1st degree relative general population age cholesterol mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L ...
viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • osteoblast development. • innate immune response. • ... Ebner S, Sharon N, Ben-Tal N (October 2003). "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... "CLEC2 and CLEC5A: Pathogenic Host Factors in Acute Viral Infections". Frontiers in Immunology. 10: 2867. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ...
Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... Phagocytosis of the hosts' own cells is common as part of regular tissue development and maintenance. When host cells die, ... Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense and a cell's ... They may also mimick host cells so the immune system does not recognize them as foreign. Staphylococcus aureus inhibits the ...
... geographic isolation and host-symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Coffroth MA, Santos SR, Goulet TL (2001) Early ontogenic expression of specificity in a cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Mar Ecol ...
In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species decreases. Another factor is the opportunities available ... In many species, fleas are principally a nuisance to their hosts, causing an itching sensation which in turn causes the host to ... A large, long-lived host provides a stable environment that favours host-specific parasites.[27] ... the eggs are laid on the host itself and can easily fall off onto the ground. Because of this, areas where the host rests and ...
... ic specificity[edit]. Antigenic specificity is the ability of the host cells to recognize an antigen specifically as a ... Antigen specificity is due primarily to the side-chain conformations of the antigen. It is measurable and need not be linear or ... "Antigen specificity - Medical Terms". Steadyhealth.com. 2010-12-17. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2012-07 ... Sometimes antigens are part of the host itself in an autoimmune disease.[14] ...
"Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest". Nature. 416 (6883): 841-844. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..841N. ...
Suppression of damping-off disease in host plants by the rhizoplane bacterium Lysobacter sp. Strain SB-K88 Is linked to plant ... Purification, bacteriolytic activity, and specificity of β-lytic protease from Lysobacter sp. IB-9374. Journal of Bioscience ... as well as the various plant hosts and plant parts it is capable of colonizing. For example, L. enzymogenes strain C3 ( ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... recently that SERS enhancement can occur even when an excited molecule is relatively far apart from the surface which hosts ...
... and therefore the virus is required to disperse to new hosts before it is destroyed by immunological resistance or host death.[ ... Because of this specificity, medical microbiologists must consider the effectiveness of certain antimicrobial drugs when making ... but viruses differ in that they must also enter into the host's actual cells. Once the virus has gained access to the host's ... For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts. In these forms of ...
Host cell invasion and replication by the influenza virus. The steps in this process are discussed in the text. ... and specificity of 90-95% when compared with viral culture.[30] ... Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of ... These sudden large changes allow the virus to infect new host species and quickly overcome protective immunity.[68] This is ... Parrish CR, Kawaoka Y (2005). "The origins of new pandemic viruses: the acquisition of new host ranges by canine parvovirus and ...
"Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". Current Opinion in Virology. Viral ... absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody specificities ...
A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ...
"Plasmodium knowlesi: Reservoir Hosts and Tracking the Emergence in Humans and Macaques". PLoS Pathog. 7 (4): e1002015. doi: ... Rapid diagnostic tests kits may or may not recognize P. knowlesi because of their specificity. ... This may be because there are neither long-tailed nor pig-tailed macaques (the reservoir hosts of P. knowlesi) in Africa, and ... P. malariae is characterized by a compact parasite (all stages) and does not alter the host erythrocyte's shape or size or ...
The manipulation of the gut microbiota is complex and may cause bacteria-host interactions.[5] Though probiotics are considered ... Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... Second, probiotics must have undergone controlled evaluation to document health benefits in the target host. Only products that ... Fuller described probiotics as a "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its ...
Upon infection with chikungunya, the host's fibroblasts produce type-1 alpha and beta interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β).[44] In ... "A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e201. doi ... E2 binds to cellular receptors in order to enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. E1 contains a fusion ... The type-1 interferon response seems to play an important role in the host's response to chikungunya infection. ...
The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ... PHI-base (Pathogen-Host-Interaction database). *Phytopathology. *Plant disease forecasting. ReferencesEdit. *^ Interaction of 2 ...
Elfenbein, H. A.; Ambady, N. (2002). "On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis". ... It has also been implicated in a host of disorders including major depression.[26] ... Aldao, A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). "Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: a transdiagnostic examination". ...
In order to establish infection, the bacteria need to escape the host immune response, and in streptococci, a varied arsenal of ... The correlation of group carbohydrate specificity with the proposed species S.dysgalactiae and S.equisimilis, however, were not ... The first pivotal step in infectious pathogenesis is the attachment to the host tissues. The M-protein, the most extensively ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae can infect a range of animal hosts, and both subspecies are of importance. However, the bacterium is ...
The rotavirus A parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses ... Rotarix is a monovalent, human, live attenuated rotavirus vaccine containing one rotavirus strain of G1P[8] specificity. ...
Immature thymocytes undergo a process of selection, based on the specificity of their T-cell receptors. This involves selection ... Autoimmune diseases are caused by a hyperactive immune system that instead of attacking pathogens reacts against the host ... It effectively protects the host from various infections. An improperly functioning immune system can cause discomfort, disease ... a graft-versus-host-like disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 57 (4): 683-9. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.02.027. PMID 17433850. Kumar, ...
Dogs and rodents serve as the primary animal reservoir hosts in the sylvatic cycle, but people with chronic PKDL can also serve ... Newer PCR based tools have higher sensitivity and specificity. Emergence of PKDL has been reported in HIV affected individuals ... as important reservoir hosts for cutaneous leishmaniasis.[23] The most common vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old ...
However, the market forces that are dictated by an excess supply cannot fully explain the geographical specificity of ... where others events of the Fuorisalone are hosted),[106][107] Bicocca and Bovisa (in which universities have contributed to the ... Zona Tortona is nowadays the mecca of Italian design and annually hosts some of the most important events of the Fuorisalone ...
In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... and production of large amounts of antibodies of varying specificities, some of which may be self-reactive (see below). ... The putative mechanism is that the parasite attenuates the host immune response in order to protect itself. This may provide a ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, any antibody ...
This is caused by the acidic conditions which occur inside the host cell's lysosome.[9] ... "Application of a theory of enzyme specificity to protein synthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 44 (2): 98-104. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
The massive toxicity seen with the use of cytotoxics is due to the lack of cell specificity of the drugs. They will kill any ... chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self ...
The enzyme pGluDH does not occur in the host red blood cell and was recommended as a marker enzyme for Plasmodium species by ... "Specificity and inhibitory activity of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum aldolase". J Immunol. 144 (4): 1497-503. PMID ... A substantial amount of the HRP II is secreted by the parasite into the host bloodstream and the antigen can be detected in ... The host produces antibodies against the parasitic enzyme indicating a low sequence identity.[1] ...
Host Specificity and Survival Outside the Host. Klaus Rohde Host specificity Some aspidogastreans have been recorded from few ... Page: Tree of Life Host Specificity and Survival Outside the Host Authored by Klaus Rohde. The TEXT of this page is licensed ... host species, but most have a low degree of host specificity, i.e., they infect a wide range of host species. Thus, ... Survival outside the host Digenean trematodes have been cultured in various, complex, media. However, their parasitic stages ...
Using a new measure of phylogenetic host specificity, we find that most primate parasites with more than one host are ... Phylogenetic host specificity and understanding parasite sharing in primates.. Cooper N1, Griffin R, Franz M, Omotayo M, Nunn ... Host ecology and geographical distribution emerged as key additional factors that influence contacts among hosts to facilitate ... Evolutionary models suggest that phylogenetic host generalism is driven by a mixture of host-parasite cospeciation and lower ...
Structural basis for promiscuity and specificity during Candida glabrata invasion of host epithelia. Manuel Maestre-Reyna, Rike ... Structural basis for promiscuity and specificity during Candida glabrata invasion of host epithelia ... The reduced Epa6 specificity and tendency to biofilm formation may thus promote host persistence due to improved resistance to ... CBL2-covering region for controlling specificity (15). Specificity of the inner subsite for galactose is dictated by ...
Peter van Dam studies this aspect of host specificity, asking what determines the fact that one strain is capable of infecting ... Host specificity in fusarium oxysporum. Life Sciences. 08Dec2017 14:00 - 15:00 ... Peter van Dam studies this aspect of host specificity, asking what determines the fact that one strain is capable of infecting ...
Host Specificity and Plaque Morphology Student Guide 1. Included. Exploring Bacteriophages: Host Specificity and Plaque ... Exploring Bacteriophages: Host Specificity and Plaque Morphology Digital Resources Item # 124316EBK New Online Only This ... Exploring Bacteriophages: Host Specificity and Plaque Morphology Whiteboard Resources 1. Included. Sterile Technique Video ... Exploring Bacteriophages: Host Specificity and Plaque Morphology Teachers Manual and Student Guide 1. Included. ...
However, classical mathematical models of host-parasite coevolution account neither for the hosts use of bacterial symbionts ... In this article we address both challenges by simulating a large number of models of host-symbiont-parasite coevolution based ... Author Summary Coevolution between hosts and parasites is believed to be central to a number of biological phenomena, most ...
Pasteurella multocida is a highly versatile pathogen capable of causing infections in a wide range of domestic and wild animals as well as in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite over 135 years of research, the molecular basis for the myriad manifestations of P. multocida pathogenesis and the... ...
... have received little attention host specificity and local adaptation, and these form the central theme of this thesis. Host ... Arising from these host specificity studies was the discovery that G. lomi, a parasite of chub, could persist as long-term ... Whereas G. turnbulli migrates away from a dead host at high burdens, G. bullatarudis stays with a dead host, even though ... Contrary to the expectation that G. turnbulli is a strict specialist, this parasite can infect a range of hosts under both ...
Specificity between lactobacilli and hymenopteran hosts is the exception rather than the rule.. McFrederick QS1, Cannone JJ, ... Specificity between Lactobacilli and Hymenopteran Hosts Is the Exception Rather than the Rule ... Specificity between Lactobacilli and Hymenopteran Hosts Is the Exception Rather than the Rule ... Specificity between Lactobacilli and Hymenopteran Hosts Is the Exception Rather than the Rule ...
PhD thesis: Engineering of Toxoplasma gondii restricted in their host-cell specificity. Einrichtung:. Tierärztliche Fakultät ( ... PhD thesis: Engineering of Toxoplasma gondii restricted in their host-cell specificity ... is to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and to translate this knowledge into engineering of host- ... and parasitology who want to work on fundamental biological aspects of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host ...
In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more ... We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and ...
... and the heredity of host and parasite. Thus host-specificity, like host-resistance and host-susceptibility, becomes ... One host may habor one or many species of even a single genus of parasite. The factors known to bear upon host-specificity are ... The number of hosts in nature ranges from one to many. (2) A particular host may harbor few or many parasites whether they may ... the physiologic state of the host, the immunity mechanism, incompatibility of protoplasm, the food of the host, the sensory ...
... in the determination of host specificity, a series of experiments was performed on influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. We ... The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses Virology. 1985 Dec;147(2 ... In an attempt to assess the importance of the nucleoprotein (NP) in the determination of host specificity, a series of ... which seem to have a broader host range concerning the compatibility of the NP gene in reassortants. ...
The Nature of Plasmodium Gallinaceum Host Specificity I. Apparent Site of Sporozoite Arrest in the Non-Susceptible Species* * ...
Host specificity indices of parasites and their application. Experientia, 36, 1369-1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... High host specificity of obligate ectoparasites. Ecological Entomology, 32, 446-450. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2006.00836.x. ... Geographical distribution and host specificity of ectoparasites of Australian bream, Acanthopagrus spp. (Sparidae). Folia ... Parasite specialization from a phylogenetic perspective: a new index of host specificity. Parasitology, 126, 473-480. DOI: ...
... divergence between the obligate luminous symbionts of flashlight fishes demonstrates specificity of bacteria to host genera. ... divergence between the obligate luminous symbionts of flashlight fishes demonstrates specificity of bacteria to host genera. ...
... lines may provide a tool to help characterize specific DENV serotypes as well as an in vitro platform for the study of host- ... Dengue serotypes 1-4 exhibit unique host specificity in vitro Kelli L Barr, Benjamin D Anderson, Gary L Heil, John A Friary, ... lines may provide a tool to help characterize specific DENV serotypes as well as an in vitro platform for the study of host- ...
No-choice host specificity testing of Stomphastis sp. has been completed for 40 test plant species, with at least five ... into quarantine in Australia, establish a colony and complete host specificity testing of the agent. If suitably specific, an ... Biological Control of Bellyache Bush: host-specificity testing of the Jatropha leaf-miner. ... is highly host specific and is suitable for release in Australia. It is expected that like other Gracillariidae, Stomphastis sp ...
Evidence of Diversity, Site, and Host Specificity of Sea Turtle Blood Flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea: "Spirorchiidae"): A ... In many examples, genotypes exhibited host and site specificity. Our findings indicate considerable diversity of parasites ... and Host Specificity of Sea Turtle Blood Flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea: "Spirorchiidae"): A Molecular Prospecting Study," ... and Host Specificity of Sea Turtle Blood Flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea: "Spirorchiidae"): A Molecular Prospecting Study," ...
... albida are shown to have highly selective oviposition behaviour and the species is physiologically restricted to very few hosts ... Host Specificity of Epiplema albida: A Potential Biological Control Agent for Sri Lankan Privet in the Mascarene Islands. ... Host Specificity of Epiplema albida: A Potential Biological Control Agent for Sri Lankan Privet in the Mascarene Islands. ... "Host Specificity of Epiplema albida: A Potential Biological Control Agent for Sri Lankan Privet in the Mascarene Islands." ...
Host Specificity Trials. The large number of individuals of R. leguminana reared from P. aculeata in the field indicated that ... along with comments on their host range, damage, and geographic distribution. The results of host specificity trials for ... In a host specificity test, oviposition, development, and adult emergence of P. stultana occurred on all test plant species ( ... "No-choice" host specificity trials were performed in 2006. Three females and 4 males were placed in bags covering tips of 6 ...
The host specificity was evaluated by cross infection. The ecological impact of phage addition on the structure of the ... have only a moderated impact on the overall bacterial community structure and the desired specificity for host pathogenic ... The host specificity was evaluated by cross infection. The ecological impact of phage addition on the structure of the ... Bacteriophages with Potential for Inactivation of Fish Pathogenic Bacteria: Survival, Host Specificity and Effect on Bacterial ...
Research Article , Host-Microbe Biology. RNA Structure Duplication in the Dengue Virus 3′ UTR: Redundancy or Host Specificity? ... RNA Structure Duplication in the Dengue Virus 3′ UTR: Redundancy or Host Specificity? ... RNA Structure Duplication in the Dengue Virus 3′ UTR: Redundancy or Host Specificity? ... RNA Structure Duplication in the Dengue Virus 3′ UTR: Redundancy or Host Specificity? ...
The mechanism of this change in host specificity... ... The mechanism of this change in host specificity is discussed. ...
To determine whether the observed host specificity of rodent associated L. reuteri in mice extended to other host-associated ... Together, these experiments demonstrated the host-specificity of the species and identified the molecular mechanisms by which ... suggesting that host-specificity of L. reuteri extends to other lineages as well. ... how and whether they select hosts or how they remain associated with their hosts. Recent work identified Lactobacillus reuteri ...
Identification and characterization of host specificity factors of a lethal human influenza H5N1 isolate Influenza A viruses ... Host-specific differences in the membrane fusion activity of influenza A viruses von: Baumann, Jan Veröffentlicht: (2016) ... In a genetic analysis of the KAN-1 virus, we identified further mutations crucial for adaptation to the mammalian host. ... was analyzed to examine mechanisms of H5N1 viruses to overcome host range restriction. • We were able to identify an adaptive ...
Chemical mimicry and host specificity in the butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a social parasite of Myrmica ant colonies. T. Akino, J ... Chemical mimicry and host specificity in the butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a social parasite of Myrmica ant colonies ... Chemical mimicry and host specificity in the butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a social parasite of Myrmica ant colonies. ... Chemical mimicry and host specificity in the butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a social parasite of Myrmica ant colonies ...
We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and ... We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and ... species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with ... species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with ...
Host specificity tests of Gratiana graminea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a poteneial biological control agent of tropical soda ... Host-Feeding Specificity Tests Plant-host speciicity tests with Gratiana graminea adults and first instars were conducted from ... The high specificity shown by this beetle in the host range feeding tests and development only on the target weed, indicated no ... MLA style: "Host specificity tests of Gratiana graminea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a poteneial biological control agent of ...
In addition to host specificity, species with preferences for leaf laminae or petioles were found. We also detected ... Due to its dominance on F. excelsior, V. fraxini is unlikely to go extinct in case of reduced host densities. A majority of ... Due to its dominance on F. excelsior, V. fraxini is unlikely to go extinct in case of reduced host densities. A majority of ... Endophytic fungi are known to modulate their hosts resistance against pathogens. To understand possible consequences of ash ...
  • Some aspidogastreans have been recorded from few host species, but most have a low degree of host specificity, i.e., they infect a wide range of host species. (tolweb.org)
  • Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. (springer.com)
  • Results of behavioural bioassays and chemical analyses confirmed all three hypotheses, and explained the high degree of host specificity found in this type of highly specialized myrmecophile. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 2004), are of particular interest to ornithologists because of their high degree of host-specificity and their relatively benign effects on hosts as compared to other parasitic birds. (indigobirds.com)
  • Phylogenetic host specificity and understanding parasite sharing in primates. (nih.gov)
  • Using a new measure of 'phylogenetic host specificity', we find that most primate parasites with more than one host are phylogenetic generalists, infecting less closely related primates than expected. (nih.gov)
  • Evolutionary models suggest that phylogenetic host generalism is driven by a mixture of host-parasite cospeciation and lower rates of parasite extinction. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and phylogenetic distance. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings, taken together with lack of phylogenetic association to host, suggest that the HEV host specificity is a heritable and convergent phenotypic trait achievable through variety of genetic pathways (abundance), and explain a broad host range for HEV3 and HEV4. (cdc.gov)
  • Host specificity of Neotropical hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) was analyzed by using the number of hosts species for each tick species and the index of host specificity STD*, which integrates phylogenetic and ecological information. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • This feature has mostly been attributed to phylogenetic relatedness of hosts, as - indeed - it will be great and exciting to find congruent phylogenies of hosts and parasites, but the challenging research will be to explain how morphologically similar Laboulbeniales can occur upon phylogenetically unrelated hosts. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • However, it is still unclear why some parasites are shared by many species, while others have only one host. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this research project is to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and to translate this knowledge into engineering of host-cell-type specific parasites. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 2) A particular host may harbor few or many parasites whether they may be far removed or closely related taxonomically, according to the milieu and opportunities for entrance it provides. (ajtmh.org)
  • Although it has always been assumed that chemical mimicry and camouflage play a major role in the penetration of ant societies by social parasites, this paper provides the first direct evidence for such a mechanism between the larvae of the parasitic butterfly Maculinea rebeli and its ant host Myrmica schencki . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. (frontiersin.org)
  • In hyperspecialized parasites, the ability to grow on a particular host relies on specific virulence factors called effectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early research suggested that there is a different Myrmica host species for each of the five European Phengaris social parasites, but more recent studies have shown that this was an oversimplification. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The helminth parasites recovered from sheep, cattle, impala and blesbok during several surveys conducted in the Republic of South Africa are listed as definitive, occasional or accidental parasites of their respective hosts. (eurekamag.com)
  • Observed host-specificity arose from lower establishment, reduced per capita fecundity and more rapid expulsion of parasites from mice relative to rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Dans une localité tropicale de Río La Antigua, Veracruz, au Mexique, onze espèces de poissons, représentées par 244 individus appartenant à 6 familles de poissons d'eau douce vivant en sympatrie et en synchronie, ont été examinées pour détecter les helminthes parasites. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Nos résultats fournissent un soutien empirique à l'idée que des faibles niveaux de partage des parasites favorisent la coexistence des animaux et une richesse élevée en espèces, parce que des grandes différences phylogénétiques permettent aux animaux potentiellement concurrents de consommer les mêmes ressources sans être sensibles aux parasites d'un autre. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Within the realm of biotic interactions that we can observe in nature, host-parasite relationship is one of the strongest due to the dependence of parasites on their hosts and the high virulence of many parasites. (psu.edu)
  • However, some generalist parasites have successfully overcome this limitation and can very effectively parasite multiple hosts. (psu.edu)
  • Geographical distribution and host specificity of ectoparasites of Australian bream, Acanthopagrus spp. (springer.com)
  • Summarized information on the distribution and host specificity of adelgid species in Lithuania is presented. (springer.com)
  • Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. (ehu.es)
  • The conclusion reached in this work indicates that strict host specificity is not common among Neotropical hard ticks and suggests that the influence of tick ecology and evolution of habitat specificity, tick generation time, phenology, time spent off the host and the type of life-cycle could be more important than hosts species. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • This model is contrasted with resistance that results from hosts evolving to resist challenge by their pathogens, either as a result of coevolution with a persistent pathogen or as the result of one-sided evolution by the host against pathogens that are not self-sustaining on those hosts. (nih.gov)
  • Most pathogens are able to infect multiple hosts but some are highly adapted to a single-host species. (elsevier.com)
  • A detailed understanding of the basis of host specificity can provide important insights into molecular pathogenesis, the evolution of pathogenic microbes, and the potential for pathogens to cross the species barrier to infect new hosts. (elsevier.com)
  • This review will examine host specificity of bacterial pathogens with a focus on generalist and specialist serovars of Salmonella enterica. (elsevier.com)
  • The host specificity of microsporidian pathogens of Lepidoptera was studied in Bulgaria where native populations of Lymantria dispar and their endemic microsporidia occur. (illinois.edu)
  • To determine the genetic source of these differences, genome sequences from representative strains (from humans, pigs, chickens, and rodents) and genomic microarrays were used to identify host-specific genes tied to ecological success in vivo . (unl.edu)
  • Determining the host specificity of the biological control agent Trichomalus perfectus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): the importance of ecological host range. (gc.ca)
  • Ecological host range surveys in Europe corroborated the prediction that T . perfectus would attack C . cardariae at similar rates to C . obstrictus . (gc.ca)
  • These results demonstrate the value of ecological host range studies in the area of origin to validate hypotheses generated through laboratory host range experiments. (gc.ca)
  • This species is outstanding for its ecological strategy as it modifies host ants' behavior in order to favor its own dispersion ("death grip," i.e. infected ants climb into vegetation, bite vegetal materials then hang themselves upside down until death, and considered as an extended phenotype from the fungus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results are discussed in relation to competing theoretical models of ecological specialization, host immunology and previous attempts to experimentally alter the host-specificity of parasitic nematodes. (elsevier.com)
  • Both no-choice and choice tests failed to predict that eggs of the acacia feeding beetle Dicranosterna semipunctata (Chapuis) would not be within the ecological host range of E. nassaui and N. insectifurax. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • There are two major approaches to determine specificity, the field based (ecological) approach and the physiological (experimental) approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guo, Qiang Q., "Genetic Diversity, Host and Tissue Specificity of Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus and DNA Extraction from Norton Grape" (2013). (missouristate.edu)
  • Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. (plantcell.org)
  • To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. (biochemj.org)
  • Perturbations in the surface structure of A22 Iraq foot-and-mouth disease virus accompanying coupled changes in host cell specificity and antigenicity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mycoplasmas have evolved from a common gram-positive ancestor ( Razin and Yogev, 1998 ) and the evolutionary path of genome reduction has led to an obligatory parasitic lifestyle which presumably has selected for those bacteria that best manipulate their hosts and make optimal use of their specific niche with a minimal set of genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic analysis of host species determinants in the blast fungus resulted in the cloning of avirulence genes PWT3 and PWT4 , whose gene products elicit defense in wheat cultivars containing the corresponding resistance genes Rwt3 and Rwt4 . (sciencemag.org)
  • RNA sequencing was used to characterize transcriptomic differences among these four Globodera species and to identify genes associated with host specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, we demonstrated that the determinant of host specificity resides in the regulation of essential effector gene expression that could be under the control of a single or of very few regulatory genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This transition to parasitism has followed morphological adaptation, but also the acquisition of genes coding for excreted proteins giving them the ability to feed and survive on their host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through the sequencing and annotation of Ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata , a species in the O. unilateralis species complex specific to the ant Polyrhachis furcata , comparative analyses on genes involved in pathogenicity and virulence between this fungus and other fungi were undertaken in order to gain insights into its biology and the emergence of host specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative analyses in regard of the host ranges of insect fungi showed a tendency toward contractions of various gene families for narrow host-range species, including cuticle-degrading genes (proteases, carbohydrate esterases) and some families of pathogen-host interaction (PHI) genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The loss of various genes involved throughout the pathogenesis for O. unilateralis would result in a reduced capacity to exploit larger ranges of hosts and therefore in the different level of host specificity, while the expansions of other gene families suggest an adaptation to particular environments with unexpected strategies like oral toxicity, through the production of bacterial-like toxins, or sophisticated mechanisms underlying pathogenicity through retrotransposons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lsa genes in GBS show distinct host specificities and modes of transfer. (pasteur.fr)
  • Besides, several defense- and pathogenesis- related genes together with plant hormone-response genes showed host-specificity, supporting the idea that pathways involved in plant defense/pathogenesis and hormone response can be used by the parasite during the parasitic process. (psu.edu)
  • Following these initial findings, the research team focused on genes for adhesin proteins, which play a key role in the interaction between bacteria and host. (scienmag.com)
  • Analyzing 15 genes in 580 strains of Typhimurium, they found a high degree of variation and evidence of positive selection and strong evidence that the variation was associated with the particular strains' host specificity. (scienmag.com)
  • Our observations are compatible with the idea that human H3N2 strains might not be able to cross the species barrier to birds directly, and possibly also not the other way around, without prior reassortment in pigs, which seem to have a broader host range concerning the compatibility of the NP gene in reassortants. (nih.gov)
  • Representatives from each host-associated population were tested for their ability to colonize gnotobiotic mice, which only rodent strains could accomplish. (unl.edu)
  • Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis was applied to 276 Campylobacter jejuni strains and 87 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, pigs, cattle, poultry, and retail meats to investigate whether certain FAFLP genotypes of C. jejuni and C. coli are associated with a particular host and to determine the degree of association between FAFLP-defined genotypes and heat-stable serotypes and/or phage types. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, no evidence of host specificity was detected among C. jejuni strains. (asm.org)
  • While C. coli strains show host specificity by FAFLP genotyping, C . jejuni strains that are genotypically similar appear to colonize a range of hosts, rather than being host adapted. (asm.org)
  • An analysis of the host specificity and geographic distribution of all Avipoxvirus strains known worldwide finds that these viruses are usually host generalists (particularly those in the fowlpox clade), and that many closely related strains are found on multiple continents. (csic.es)
  • Toxoplasma gondii strains may vary in their pathogenicity in a given host. (alpfmedical.info)
  • lsa variants were systematically identified by BLAST searches in the genomes of 531 GBS strains from different hosts and geographical origins. (pasteur.fr)
  • BN models for individual proteins and domains of the nonstructural polyprotein detected the host origin of HEV strains with accuracy of 74-93% and 63-87%, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The serotype-specific susceptibility for certain cell lines may provide a tool to help characterize specific DENV serotypes as well as an in vitro platform for the study of host-pathogen interactions and the co-circulation of DENV serotypes in a specific region or individual. (dovepress.com)
  • Understanding the contrasting evolutionary origins of resistance is critical for studies on the genetics and evolution of host-pathogen interactions in human, agricultural, and natural populations. (nih.gov)
  • The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. (flu.org.cn)
  • In this Review, we examine the host barriers that influenza A viruses of animals, especially birds, must overcome to initiate a pandemic in humans and describe how, on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. (flu.org.cn)
  • This knowledge is used to inform risk assessments for future pandemics and to identify virus-host interactions that could be targeted by novel intervention strategies. (flu.org.cn)
  • These effectors are responsible for most of the interactions with their host and given their importance in the infection mechanisms, substantial research efforts have been put on these molecules in recent years [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, parasitoid ovigeny and behavioural interactions with other parasitoids were recognised as key characteristics having the potential to influence host acceptance in the laboratory and the successful biological control of P. charybdis in the field. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Developing general principles of host-microorganism interactions necessitates a robust understanding of the eco-evolutionary processes that structure microbiota. (cdc.gov)
  • For parasite species that infect multiple host species (i.e. generalists) these intimate interactions are challenging due to the wide variety of hosts physiologies they may encounter. (psu.edu)
  • In our attempts to control this pest, it would be beneficial to have a better understanding of the molecular basis of host-specific interactions in natural S. hermonthica populations. (psu.edu)
  • Specifically, our results highlighted the role that nutrient transporters have in host-parasite interactions and the probable importance of gene regulation in aboveground organs in the specificity of the parasitic process. (psu.edu)
  • Overall, our work pointed out that signals of host-specific processes in S. hermonthica can be detected aboveground, expanding the focus of host-parasite interactions beyond the haustorial connection. (psu.edu)
  • In the latter case, the amplification of the sequence changes leads to differences, between the monolayer- and suspension-cell-adapted viruses, in host-cell interactions and antigenicity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Further detailed structural and functional characterization of subtype-switched Epa1 variants shows that specificity is governed by two inner loops, CBL1 and CBL2, involved in calcium binding as well as by three outer loops, L1, L2, and L3. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to this host specificity, Laboulbeniales often exhibit remarkably morphological adaptions to exact positions on the host body. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • We are looking for highly motivated PhD students with interest in cellular biology and parasitology who want to work on fundamental biological aspects of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host cell. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an outstanding insect fungus for its biology to manipulate host ants' behavior and for its extreme host-specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diversity, Prevalence, and Host Specificity of Avi. (buteobooks.com)
  • We examined the prevalence, host specificity and evolutionary relationships of Avipoxvirus causing skin lesions in birds in two megadiverse and unexplored geographical regions of South America: an elevational gradient in the south Ecuadorian Andes, and a lowland Amazon rainforest in French Guiana. (csic.es)
  • High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. (parasite-journal.org)
  • In this Review, we summarize the prevalence of phylosymbiosis across the animal kingdom on the basis of the current literature and explore the microbial community assembly processes and related host traits that contribute to phylosymbiosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Next, we analyzed the host specificity and distribution of the worldwide Avipoxvirus diversity in order to understand their invasion potential. (csic.es)
  • PhdThesis{ČTVRTEČKA2014thesis, AUTHOR = "ČTVRTEČKA, Richard", TITLE = "Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea [online]", YEAR = "2014 [cit. (theses.cz)
  • Diversity, host-specificity and stability of sponge-associated fungal communities of co-occurring sponges https://t.co/oB7YgNMtEe #Fungi #Sponges By Mary Nguyen & Torsten Thomas. (peerj.com)
  • The relevance of HEV genetic diversity to host adaptation is poorly understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Welsh B, Mohamed KI (2011) Genetic diversity of Striga hermonthica populations in Ethiopia: evaluating the role of geography and host specificity in shaping population structure. (psu.edu)
  • Host specificity tests of Gratiana graminea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a poteneial biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The leaf-galling nematode, Ditylenchus phyllobius was screened against 118 taxa of plants in host specificity tests to determine its suitability as a biological control agent of silver-leaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (weedinfo.com.au)
  • Host-symbiont specificity determined by microbe-microbe competition in an insect gut. (natureindex.com)
  • In a symbiosis between a larger organism such as a plant or an animal (called host) and a microorganism (called symbiont) specificity can be looked at both from the perspective of the host i.e. how many different species of symbionts does the host associate with (symbiont specificity), as well as from the perspective of the symbiont i.e. how many different host species can a symbiont associate with (host specificity). (wikipedia.org)
  • High host specificity of obligate ectoparasites. (springer.com)
  • The Epa family recognizes host glycans and discriminates between target tissues by their adhesin (A) domains, but a detailed structural basis for ligand-binding specificity of Epa proteins has been lacking so far. (pnas.org)
  • Host penetration, the establishment of a feeding site and suppression of host defenses are key stages of the infection process and are highly dependent on their set of specific secreted proteins called effectors, used by PPNs to manipulate the host to their benefit [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN_2, Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity IL_2, Target Species Human, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • and by testing selected scabies mite proteins (both those isolated from mite extracts and expressed as recombinant proteins) for their ability to modulate the innate immune response of cultured skin cells and/or to be recognized by antibodies in the serum of scabies-infested hosts. (grantome.com)
  • Now, research by a team led by University of Pennsylvania scientists has shown, using genomic techniques, that slight variations in the coding sequence of proteins that bind Salmonella to host cells can determine what type of animal a particular strain infects. (scienmag.com)
  • We saw this huge variation in proteins on the surface of bacteria or in secretions, which are really the first lines of interaction with the host,' Schifferli said. (scienmag.com)
  • Both cultivation and amplicon sequencing revealed characteristic endophytic fungal communities dominated by several strictly host specific Venturia species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Host shifts of species of the genus Laboulbenia ( L. davidsonii W.Rossi) have been suggested to occur between Cicindelinae (tiger beetles) and other Carabidae living in the same habitat, resulting in variation in fungal morphology or nutritional requirements. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • This study is the first to investigate tropical fungal endophytes in an Australian context and will specifically address elucidating their biodiversity and host specificity in the forests of the Wet Tropics. (edu.au)
  • Contrary to the expectation that G. turnbulli is a strict specialist, this parasite can infect a range of hosts under both laboratory and semi-natural conditions. (bl.uk)
  • Furthermore, the congener species, G. bullatarudis, can infect and reproduce on a temperate fish host, the three-spined stickleback. (bl.uk)
  • Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to infect and transmit between these new hosts. (flu.org.cn)
  • Inoculations showed that the majority of these fungi could also co-infect hosts other than those from which they were isolated. (up.ac.za)
  • Based on field data, we know that Laboulbeniales with the capacity to infect several host species, will only be found on cohabiting hosts. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • Analysis of large new South African dataset using two host-specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals. (coralcoe.org.au)
  • In conclusion, V. parahaemolyticus and A. salmonicida phages show good survival time in marine water, have only a moderated impact on the overall bacterial community structure and the desired specificity for host pathogenic bacteria, being potential candidates for therapy of fish infectious diseases in marine aquaculture systems. (mdpi.com)
  • Manipulating bacteria in this way allowed us to show a cause and effect relationship between a SNP in an adhesin gene and the bacteria's host specificity,' Schifferli said. (scienmag.com)
  • The human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata harbors more than 20 surface-exposed, epithelial adhesins (Epas) for host cell adhesion. (pnas.org)
  • This resistance has been called "nonhost resistance" because it is exhibited by species that are considered not to be part of the normal host range of the pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • A conceptual model is presented suggesting that failure of infection on nonhosts may be an incidental by-product of pathogen evolution leading to specialization on their source hosts. (nih.gov)
  • This study provides a concise overview of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species, which can be used as a basis to further understand host-pathogen interaction or to design synthetic minimal life. (frontiersin.org)
  • This bacterial pathogen is distributed throughout the Western Hemisphere, has a very wide host range, and causes diseases with two basic types of symptomology (leaf scorch or stunt) in a number of economically important hosts (Table 2). (apsnet.org)
  • ODUOR, G. I. Host specificity of the cassava green mite pathogen Neozygites floridana. (usp.br)
  • What determines host specificity in hyperspecialized plant parasitic nematodes? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although different plant-parasitic nematodes within a group (e.g. root-knot nematodes, cyst nematodes) have a common arsenal of effectors, it is not yet known exactly how this arsenal differs among species and especially among closely related species showing different host ranges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The host specificity of insect parasitoids and herbivores is thought to be shaped by a suite of traits that mediate host acceptance and host suitability. (umn.edu)
  • Host specificity was examined for two tropical parasite species infecting the guppy Gyrodactylus turnbulli and G. bullatarudis. (bl.uk)
  • The dual conception that a particular parasite species is limited to a single host species and that a particular host species may harbor but one species of a particular general group is obsolete. (ajtmh.org)
  • one parasite species lives in association with only one single or a few host species. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. (plos.org)
  • The water mite U. formosa (Acarina: Unionicolidae) exhibits positive phototaxis when free of any chemical influence of its molluscan host, Anodonta imbecilis. (eurekamag.com)
  • Bollback JP, Huelsenbeck J. Phylogeny, genome evolution, and host specificity of single-stranded RNA bacteriophage (Family Leviviridae). (ist.ac.at)
  • We considered the host range and distribution of these fungi by sampling diseased ornamental and forest trees and shrubs in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, spanning a Mediterranean and a Continental climatic region. (up.ac.za)
  • Miracidia of the Egyptian strain significantly preferred their suitable host B. alexandrina versus the other snail species with their behavior patterns of host location and their responses after contact with the host. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most indigobirds show remarkably precise mimicry of the species-specific mouth patterns of their respective hosts (Figure 1). (indigobirds.com)
  • Phylosymbiosis, or patterns of microbiome composition that can be predicted by host phylogeny, is a unique framework for interrogating these processes. (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty species of aphids were exposed to B. communis females in microcosms, and detailed observations and rearing studies of 15 of these species were done to determine whether patterns of host use resulted from variation in factors such as host acceptance or variation in host suitability. (umn.edu)
  • Immature stages tend to use a broader taxonomic range of hosts than adults, and the interpretation of both measures of host specificity used in this study led to the conclusion that the impact of non-endemic hosts does not alter the patterns of host specificity in Neotropical hard ticks. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Indeed, the researchers' analysis showed that different host species tended to share patterns of these so-called non-synonymous SNPs, which create different protein sequences and structures. (scienmag.com)
  • Co-evolutionary theory predicts that if beneficial microbial symbionts improve host fitness, they should be faithfully transmitted to offspring. (nature.com)
  • To determine whether the observed host specificity of rodent associated L. reuteri in mice extended to other host-associated lineages, a crossover human experimental trial was conducted. (unl.edu)
  • A human-associated strain of L. reuteri , as well as a related species isolated from humans reached higher populations than a non-associated strain, suggesting that host-specificity of L. reuteri extends to other lineages as well. (unl.edu)
  • First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. (ehu.es)
  • The most frequent values of STD* were between 2.5 and 3.5, which shows that the host species more frequently used by Neotropical hard tick species belong to different families or different orders. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Isolates of rhizobia originating from crotalaria (C. junceae), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were studied in relation to population density, host specificity and the interaction between rhizobial occurrence, climatic conditions and soil properties. (scielo.br)
  • Factors constraining the evolution of host-specificity were investigated using a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode, Strongyloides ratti. (elsevier.com)
  • More recently, the hologenome theory of evolution predicts resemblance between parent and offspring microbiomes and high partner fidelity between host species and their vertically transmitted microbes. (nature.com)
  • Nevertheless, infectivity to nontarget hosts in the laboratory may set the stage for understanding the evolution of closely related microsporidia found in different host species. (illinois.edu)
  • These include the ability to bind and enter cells, to replicate the viral RNA genome within the host cell nucleus, to evade host restriction factors and innate immune responses and to transmit between individuals. (flu.org.cn)
  • The BN models show genome-wide epistatic connectivity among aa sites (a structural coefficient threshold = 2.0) and association to host variable (a structural coefficient threshold = 0.95). (cdc.gov)
  • In laboratory experiments, the levels of parasitism (acceptance) of Ceutorhynchus turbatus Schultze, C . cardariae Korotyaev, C . omissusFall and C . querceti (Gyllenhal) by T . perfectus were not significantly different than of the target host C . obstrictus . (gc.ca)
  • In North America, the recent discovery of T . perfectus in a C . omissus population suggests that laboratory findings predicting that C . omissus is a preferred host may be the case in the field. (gc.ca)
  • An established host-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid system was used to investigate how the physiological and behavioural characteristics of parasitoids influence the outcomes of laboratory-based host specificity tests. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • We conducted laboratory experiments to identify mechanisms shaping the host specificity of the aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis. (umn.edu)
  • These investigations strengthen previous laboratory predictions of narrow host ranges for the Nosema and Vairimorpha microsporidia recovered from L. dispar in Europe. (illinois.edu)
  • The results from our study indicate that laboratory testing may considerably underestimate the host specificity of many terrestrial microsporidia. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, although caterpillars biosynthesized many of the recognition pheromones of their host species (chemical mimicry), they later acquired additional hydrocarbons within the ant nest (chemical camouflage), making them near-perfect mimics of their individual host colony-s odour. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Together, these experiments demonstrated the host-specificity of the species and identified the molecular mechanisms by which rodent-associated L. reuteri colonize their host. (unl.edu)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT MOUSE TNF ALPHA, Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity TNF ALPHA, Target Species Mouse, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN_2, Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity IL_2, Target Species Human, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The scientists first focused their analyses on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which is a leading cause of food poisoning but for which the molecular basis for host preferences is still a mystery. (scienmag.com)
  • A combination of studying the frequency distribution of Phengaris occurrence and morphometrics on adult butterflies were used to test whether use of different host species is reflected in larval development. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the fatal human case isolate A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1) (KAN-1) was analyzed to examine mechanisms of H5N1 viruses to overcome host range restriction. (uni-marburg.de)
  • We determined the host range of the parasitoid Trichomalus perfectus (Walker), a candidate for classical biological control of cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), an important pest of canola in Canada. (gc.ca)
  • feeding onBrassicaceae and does not attack species outside of that host range. (gc.ca)
  • It was previously showed that the sequence polymorphism of the pectate lyase 2 effector among two potato cyst nematode species and one tobacco cyst nematode species can be associated to some extent to their host range variation [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In total, ten Botryosphaeriaceae species were identified in the Western Balkans and with the exception of Sphaeropsis visci and Phaeobotryon cupressi, which occurred on one host, all the species had a broader host range. (up.ac.za)
  • The results suggest that most of the species have broad host ranges and can potentially cause disease on a broad range of tree species under certain conditions. (up.ac.za)
  • Additionally, this fungus also differs from those previously cited regarding its host range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Host-specificity tests indicated that a host range expansion of A. tenebrosus to include any of the crops, and native Solanaceae, and non-solanaceous plants tested is highly unlikely. (fcla.edu)
  • Second, if different hosts are "evenly good" for attachment and feeding, one host may be safest from enemies, possibly narrowing down the range of hosts. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • Specificity in symbiosis refers to the taxonomic range with which an organism associates in a symbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field based approach specificity is assessed by determining the natural range of hosts or symbionts an organism associates with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially for ectoparasites, as are Laboulbeniales, living attached to their host can be quite a challenge: physiological changes can occur within the host (e.g. because of the parasite's feeding behavior), predators can chase the host, and so on. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • In an attempt to assess the importance of the nucleoprotein (NP) in the determination of host specificity, a series of experiments was performed on influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified at least six mechanisms that this parasite uses to protect itself from the host's inflammatory and immune defense systems until it gets established in the host. (grantome.com)
  • 1998, 2000) have demonstrated that male village indigobirds ( V. chalybeata ) imprint on the songs of their foster parents as juveniles and mimic the songs of their host species as adults. (indigobirds.com)
  • The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Parasite genotypes that are not removed by selection during early developmental stages (i.e., germination and haustorial connection) can be selected later by pressures that the host, as an environment, imposes on the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • The number of hosts in nature ranges from one to many. (ajtmh.org)
  • We examined the suitability of two populations of the psyllid Aphalara itadori from Japan as biological control agents by comparing their impact on the target weeds and assessing their fundamental host ranges. (oregonstate.edu)
  • All four were found to be within the physiological host ranges of E. nassaui and N. insectifurax, but their quality as hosts, as indicated by the percent parasitised and offspring sex ratios, varied. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • This study ascertained that Hebridean host populations were no more susceptible to G. gasterostei than their mainland counterparts. (bl.uk)
  • Recent work identified Lactobacillus reuteri as an organism that is composed of host-specific sub-populations, each population associated with a different host animal. (unl.edu)
  • Myrmica scabrinodis was found to host Microdon myrmicae in 26 out of 31 populations investigated. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Four other Myrmica species were identified to the host Microdon myrmicae: Myrmica gallienii (eight populations), Myrmica rubra (four), Myrmica vandeli (one), and Myrmica sabuleti (one). (nerc.ac.uk)
  • However, no study has yet examined the transcriptomic profile of this parasite across hosts in natural populations. (psu.edu)
  • Our results revealed that despite high gene flow between S. hermonthica populations there are transcripts specifically associated with each host. (psu.edu)
  • Arising from these host specificity studies was the discovery that G. lomi, a parasite of chub, could persist as long-term infections on isolated fish, and two new gyrodactylid species, G. zebrae n. sp. (bl.uk)
  • This plurivory may have three causes: 1) a similar body chemistry of the cohabiting hosts, 2) incidental infections, and 3) adaptation to exploit other host species. (dannyhaelewaters.com)
  • isolated from a noctuid host produced heavy infections in L. dispar larvae. (illinois.edu)
  • Host ecology and geographical distribution emerged as key additional factors that influence contacts among hosts to facilitate sharing. (nih.gov)
  • Since sycamore maple is not affected by an epidemic, this could point toward an influence of ash dieback on ash communities, although firm conclusions are not possible because of host preferences and climatic differences. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fig. 6: Conspecific adults and larvae do not share more vertically transmitted taxa than heterospecific hosts. (nature.com)