The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of plants.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.

Respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background: an experimental murine model. (1/5992)

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading respiratory viral pathogen in young children worldwide. RSV disease is associated with acute airway obstruction (AO), long-term airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and chronic lung inflammation. Using two different mouse strains, this study was designed to determine whether RSV disease patterns are host-dependent. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were inoculated with RSV and followed for 77 days. RSV loads were measured by plaque assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and whole lung samples; cytokines were measured in BAL samples. Lung inflammation was evaluated with a histopathologic score (HPS), and AO and AHR were determined by plethysmography. RESULTS: Viral load dynamics, histopathologic score (HPS), cytokine concentrations, AO and long-term AHR were similar in both strains of RSV-infected mice, although RSV-infected C57BL/6 mice developed significantly greater AO compared with RSV-infected BALB/c mice on day 5. PCR detected RSV RNA in BAL samples of RSV infected mice until day 42, and in whole lung samples through day 77. BAL concentrations of cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and chemokines MIG, RANTES and MIP-1alpha were significantly elevated in both strains of RSV-infected mice compared with their respective controls. Viral load measured by PCR significantly correlated with disease severity on days 14 and 21. CONCLUSION: RSV-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background.  (+info)

Genetic variation in response to an indirect ecological effect. (2/5992)

Indirect ecological effects (IEEs) are widespread and often as strong as the phenotypic effects arising from direct interactions in natural communities. Indirect effects can influence competitive interactions, and are thought to be important selective forces. However, the extent that selection arising from IEEs results in long-term evolutionary change depends on genetic variation underlying the phenotypic response-that is, a genotype-by-IEE interaction. We provide the first data on genetic variation in the response of traits to an IEE, and illustrate how such genetic variation might be detected and analysed. We used a model tri-trophic system to investigate the effect of host plants on two populations of predatory ladybirds through a clonal aphid herbivore. A split-family experimental design allowed us to estimate the effects of aphid host plant on ladybird traits (IEE) and the extent of genetic variation in ladybird predators for response to these effects (genotype-by-indirect environmental effect interaction). We found significant genetic variation in the response of ladybird phenotypes to the indirect effect of host plant of their aphid prey, demonstrating the potential for evolutionary responses to selection arising from the prey host.  (+info)

Poor maternal environment enhances offspring disease resistance in an invertebrate. (3/5992)

Natural populations vary tremendously in their susceptibility to infectious disease agents. The factors (environmental or genetic) that underlie this variation determine the impact of disease on host population dynamics and evolution, and affect our capacity to contain disease outbreaks and to enhance resistance in agricultural animals and disease vectors. Here, we show that changes in the environmental conditions under which female Daphnia magna are kept can more than halve the susceptibility of their offspring to bacterial infection. Counter-intuitively, and unlike the effects typically observed in vertebrates for transfer of immunity, mothers producing offspring under poor conditions produced more resistant offspring than did mothers producing offspring in favourable conditions. This effect occurred when mothers who were well provisioned during their own development then found themselves reproducing in poor conditions. These effects likely reflect adaptive optimal resource allocation where better quality offspring are produced in poor environments to enhance survival. Maternal exposure to parasites also reduced offspring susceptibility, depending on host genotype and offspring food levels. These maternal responses to environmental conditions mean that studies focused on a single generation, and those in which environmental variation is experimentally minimized, may fail to describe the crucial parameters that influence the spread of disease. The large maternal effects we report here will, if they are widespread in nature, affect disease dynamics, the level of genetic polymorphism in populations, and likely weaken the evolutionary response to parasite-mediated selection.  (+info)

Cytokine responses of bovine macrophages to diverse clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains. (4/5992)

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic variation exists among MAP, evidence for the correlates that associate specific MAP genotypes with clinical or sub-clinical disease phenotypes is presently unknown. Thus we studied strain differences in intracellular MAP survival and host responses in a bovine monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) system. RESULTS: Intracellular survival studies showed that a bovine MAP isolate (B1018) and a human MAP isolate (Hu6) persisted in relatively higher numbers when compared with a sheep MAP isolate (S7565) at 24-hr, 48-hr and 96-hr post infection (PI). MDMs stimulated with B1018 up-regulated IL-10 at the transcript level and down-regulated TNFalpha at the protein and transcript levels compared with stimulations by the S7565 and Hu6. MDMs infected with Hu6 showed a down regulatory pattern of IL-10 and TNFalpha compared to stimulations by S7565. Cells stimulated with B1018 and Hu6 had low levels of matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP3) and high levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP1) at 96-hr PI relative to MDMs stimulated by S7565. CONCLUSION: Taken together, results suggest that the bovine (B1018) and the human (Hu6) MAP isolates lead to anti-inflammatory and anti-invasive pathways in the macrophage environment whereas the sheep (S7565) MAP isolate induces a pro-inflammatory pathway. Thus the infecting strain genotype may play a role in polarizing the host immune responses and dictate the clinicopathological outcomes in this economically important disease.  (+info)

Compositional discordance between prokaryotic plasmids and host chromosomes. (5/5992)

BACKGROUND: Most plasmids depend on the host replication machinery and possess partitioning genes. These properties confine plasmids to a limited range of hosts, yielding a close and presumably stable relationship between plasmid and host. Hence, it is anticipated that due to amelioration the dinucleotide composition of plasmids is similar to that of the genome of their hosts. However, plasmids are also thought to play a major role in horizontal gene transfer and thus are frequently exchanged between hosts, suggesting dinucleotide composition dissimilarity between plasmid and host genome. We compared the dinucleotide composition of a large collection of plasmids with that of their host genomes to shed more light on this enigma. RESULTS: The dinucleotide frequency, coined the genome signature, facilitates the identification of putative horizontally transferred DNA in complete genome sequences, since it was found to be typical for a certain genome, and similar between related species. By comparison of the genome signature of 230 plasmid sequences with that of the genome of each respective host, we found that in general the genome signature of plasmids is dissimilar from that of their host genome. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the genome signature of plasmids does not resemble that of their host genome. This indicates either absence of amelioration or a less stable relationship between plasmids and their host. We propose an indiscriminate lifestyle for plasmids preserving the genome signature discordance between these episomes and host chromosomes.  (+info)

Protein synthesized by dengue infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. (6/5992)

The main objective of this study was to compare protein profiles of whole mosquitoes of Malaysian Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus after infection with virus and to investigate whether dengue virus would induce protein secretion in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Using SDS -PAGE, it was shown that in uninfected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the protein bands were within the range of 14 - 80 kDa with most of the bands overlapping for the two species. Comparison of the protein profile of infected and uninfected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed five distinct molecular weight grouping at 73 - 76 kDa (Group 1), 44 - 50 kDa (Group 2), 28 - 31 kDa (Group 3), 20 - 25 kDa (Group 4) and 14 - 17 kDa (Group 5). Predominant bands for both species (infected and uninfected) were between 21 - 25 kDa and 44 - 50 kDa. Protein bands having a molecular weight of 70 kDa were only present in infected Ae. albopictus and those bands having molecular weight of 21 kDa were observed only in infected Ae. aegypti. The rate of digestion of blood meals was more rapid in Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti. Uninfected Ae. albopictus completed the blood digestion 2 days after ingestion of a blood meal whereas Ae. aegypti needed 3 days to complete the digestion. The rate of digestion for blood meals was slower for both mosquito species when fed with dengue virus infected blood. The digestion processes were completed 3 and 4 days after blood ingestion for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. This could be due to the presence of dengue virus in the blood, which slow down the digestion process. Appearance and disappearance of new protein bands was also observed even after the digestion has completed for both infected mosquito species. In conclusion, dengue virus was shown to induce specific proteins in both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.  (+info)

Association and host selectivity in multi-host pathogens. (7/5992)

The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens.  (+info)

Is adipose tissue a place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence? (8/5992)

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long periods of time. However, little is known about the location of the bacilli in latently infected individuals. Long-term mycobacterial persistence in the lungs has been reported, but this may not sufficiently account for strictly extra-pulmonary TB, which represents 10-15% of the reactivation cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied in situ and conventional PCR to sections of adipose tissue samples of various anatomical origins from 19 individuals from Mexico and 20 from France who had died from causes other than TB. M. tuberculosis DNA could be detected by either or both techniques in fat tissue surrounding the kidneys, the stomach, the lymph nodes, the heart and the skin in 9/57 Mexican samples (6/19 individuals), and in 8/26 French samples (6/20 individuals). In addition, mycobacteria could be immuno-detected in perinodal adipose tissue of 1 out of 3 biopsy samples from individuals with active TB. In vitro, using a combination of adipose cell models, including the widely used murine adipose cell line 3T3-L1, as well as primary human adipocytes, we show that after binding to scavenger receptors, M. tuberculosis can enter within adipocytes, where it accumulates intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions and survives in a non-replicating state that is insensitive to the major anti-mycobacterial drug isoniazid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the abundance and the wide distribution of the adipose tissue throughout the body, our results suggest that this tissue, among others, might constitute a vast reservoir where the tubercle bacillus could persist for long periods of time, and avoid both killing by antimicrobials and recognition by the host immune system. In addition, M. tuberculosis-infected adipocytes might provide a new model to investigate dormancy and to evaluate new drugs for the treatment of persistent infection.  (+info)

Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms, including manipulation of the host cell epigenetic machinery and host cell gene expression rewiring, to parasitize and thrive inside host phagocytes. A new study in The EMBO Journal (Yaseen et al, 2018) reports that, conversely, host macrophages can use epigenetic modulators to modify the cell surface of invading pathogens and counteract infection. This study opens new avenues to better understand host-pathogen interactions and to develop novel, more effective antimicrobial strategies.. See also: I Yaseen et al (January 2018) ...
Bacterial pathogens represent a major health problem worldwide. In developing countries they are one of the major killers (notably M. tuberculosis) particularly for immuno-compromised patients (aging people, HIV-infected patients, grafted patients) or people suffering from specific diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis patients). One aggravating factor is the rise of new strains of bacteria resistant to one or several antibiotics, and the very limited number of newly developed antibiotics. This has led to a renewed interest in understanding how pathogenic bacteria can cause diseases.. Bacteria are defined as virulent (or pathogenic) based on their ability to mount a harmful infection in a host. Virulent bacteria can infect a host, non-virulent bacteria cannot. A successful infection relies on a series of specific bacterial traits, such as the ability to secrete toxins, to escape the host immune system, to replicate within host cells or to inhibit phagocytic engulfment. For any given pathogenic ...
Using DNA Microarrays to Study Host-Microbe Interactions, info about Medicine: Medical Specialties: Microbiology: Using DNA Microarrays to Study Host-Microbe Interactions
Over the millennia, pathogens have coevolved with their hosts and acquired the ability to intercept, disrupt, mimic, and usurp numerous signaling pathways of those hosts. The study of host/pathogen interactions thus not only teaches us about the intricate biology of these parasitic invaders but also provides interesting insights into basic cellular processes both at the level of the individual cell and more globally throughout the organism. Host/pathogen relationships also provide insights into the evolutionary forces that shape biological diversity. Here we review a few recent examples of how viruses, bacteria, and parasites manipulate tyrosine kinase-mediated and Rho guanosine triphosphatase-mediated signaling pathways of their hosts to achieve efficient entry, replication, and exit during their infectious cycles.. ...
Deborah Hung Laboratory. We are facing an incredible challenge in the realm of infectious diseases that has been brought on by the convergence of three current phenomena - newly emerging infectious organisms, a global crisis in antibiotic resistance, and the threat of bioterrorism. A response to this challenge requires a renewed devotion to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in infection and an increased commitment to the discovery of new antibiotics.. The goal of research in the Hung Lab is to understand in vivo mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis by studying pathogen-host interactions. By merging the fields of chemical genetics and bacterial genetics/genomics, we hope to provide insight into possible new paradigms for addressing infectious diseases.. Despite recent, largely genetic, technical advances in the field of in vivo pathogen-host interactions, many important questions related to the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis remain unanswered, in part because of the inability ...
Our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis is dominated by the cell biology of the host-pathogen interaction. However, the majority of metabolites that are used in prokaryotic and eukaryotic physiology and signalling are chemically similar or identical. Therefore, the metabolic crosstalk between pathogens and host cells may be as important as the interactions between bacterial effector proteins and their host targets. In this Review we focus on host-pathogen interactions at the metabolic level: chemical signalling events that enable pathogens to sense anatomical location and the local physiology of the host; microbial metabolic pathways that are dedicated to circumvent host immune mechanisms; and a few metabolites as central points of competition between the host and bacterial pathogens.
Disease-causing microorganisms that find their way into feeds and foods or farms and homes can pose a threat to the health of the animal and human hosts. The Host - Pathogen Interface research cluster seeks to uncover both the common and unique ways that micro-organisms act to gain entry and produce disease in their hosts, and understand how protective barriers and defense mechanisms in animal tissues and cells work to combat bacterial, viral, and parasitic infectious agents. Through their discoveries, our investigators develop innovative approaches to prevent or ameliorate outbreaks of infectious diseases in humans, companion animals, and livestock. ...
We fund basic, clinical and translational research into pathogens implicated in human infectious diseases. This includes understanding of the pathogen at the molecular and cellular level through to host pathogen interactions and into epidemiology of infectious diseases. We are also keen to fund research to inform novel strategies for preventing and controlling infectious and immune disease control, including research on human behaviour and lifestyle.. ...
Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) family members are serine/threonine protein kinases ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms. They are involved in a wide range of important cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, or vesicular transport in organisms from yeast to humans. Due to its broad spectrum of action, CK1 activity and expression is tightly regulated by a number of mechanisms, including subcellular sequestration. Defects in CK1 regulation, localisation or the introduction of mutations in the CK1 coding sequence are often associated with important diseases such as cancer. Increasing evidence suggest that the manipulation of host cell CK1 signalling pathways by intracellular pathogens, either by exploiting the host CK1 or by exporting the CK1 of the pathogen into the host cell may play an important role in infectious diseases. Leishmania CK1.2 is essential for parasite survival and released into the host cell, playing an important role in host pathogen interactions. Although Leishmania CK1.2 has
Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, super-resolution microscopy. The extraordinary temporal and spatial precision of human infectious processes relies on the exact and specific interactions of host and pathogen. Research into these processes requires sophisticated analytical methods. The small size of most infectious agents (bacteria, viruses) and the subcellular compartments in the host requires imaging with a spatial resolution close to electron microscopy to obtain insights into the molecular structure and organization of host pathogen interactions. The project of Markus Sauer aims to develop refined localization microscopy methods (dSTORM and PALM) capable of providing quantitative information on the distributions and densities of molecules with unmatched spatial resolution. For example, the sub-cellular localization of bacterial proteins secreted by Chlamydia (Thomas Rudel), Salmonella (Jörg Vogel) and Campylobacter (Cynthia Sharma) and their interacting host proteins ...
In this study, comprehensive analyses of murine 65-kDa GBPs in host defense were performed. In addition to the five known mGBPs, five novel murine 65-kDa GTPases were identified by microarray and in silico analyses. Interestingly, all 10 mGBPs were up-regulated in vitro by IFN-γ, selected proinflammatory stimuli, and TLR agonists as well as in vivo upon infection with L. monocytogenes or T. gondii. Importantly, a set of mGBPs were found to enclose intracellular T. gondii parasites, defining them as key effector molecules at the interface of host pathogen interaction. Strikingly, virulent T. gondii interfered with the accumulation of mGBPs around the PV.. GBPs are characterized by their distinct GTP-binding motives G1-G4. The known 65-kDa mGBPs have canonical G1 and G3 GTP binding sites, but possess an RD in G4 instead of the N/T KXD motif found in other GTPases, such as Rab, Ras, and 47-kDa GTPases (12, 15). Mutational analysis of hGBP1 revealed that in the G4-binding motif of GBPs the amino ...
The editors of Pathogens and Disease aim to publish outstanding primary Research Articles, Short Communications, and MiniReviews reporting on hypothesis- or discovery-driven studies relating to pathogens, the host pathogen interaction, the host response to infection, and their molecular and cellular correlates.
GCEID will focus on three distinct programs within the One Health approach: Improved understanding of the EID threat through studies in pathogenesis and pathobiology Host pathogen interactions and comparative immunology Underlying pathogen and host factors that influence emergence and host switching Factors governing virulence and host specificity Research to mitigate the risks of EID entry…
[email protected] Research Focus: Host pathogen interaction, trafficking of AAV and VACV in multiple cell lines with emphasis on cytokines/ chemokines mediated inhibition of viruses, viral morphogenesis, signaling cascade and cell fate ...
Im an evolutionary biologist who studies bacteriophage life history stochasticity and the population dynamics of host/pathogen interactions Im currently affiliated with Queens College and the CUNY Graduate Center. I can be reached at john.dennehyATqc.cuny. ...
Im an evolutionary biologist who studies bacteriophage life history stochasticity and the population dynamics of host/pathogen interactions Im currently affiliated with Queens College and the CUNY Graduate Center. I can be reached at john.dennehyATqc.cuny. ...
Professor Niels Jørgen Olesen, DVM, Ph.D Head of section. Research area: Fish diseases with focus on their surveillance and control, on prophylaxis, and on development of diagnostic methods. The activities include studies on host-pathogen interactions, on serological response, vaccine development and genetic resistance, development of immunochemical methods such as immunoflourescence, ELISA, immunohistochemistry for pathogen detection. Disease pathogenesis studies. Molecular and immunological pathogen characterisation, epidemiology and health management in aquaculture and risk analysis. ...
The Jason Harris, MD, MPH and Regina LaRocque, MD, MPH Laboratory is focused on host-pathogen interactions and the innate and adaptive immune response to Vibrio cholerae, cholera vaccines, and in the area of susceptibility to cholera.
Tuberculosis kills between 2 million and 3 million people each year and continues to be a major global health concern. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent responsible, is an obligate human pathogen that has infected mankind since the dawn of time. The emergence of highly drug-resistant forms of the disease threatens to completely undermine disease-control efforts and even may be shifting the fundamental pathobiology of the host-pathogen relationship. The community of scientists engaged in studying this deadly disease has made dramatic advances in understanding the biology and biochemistry of this deadly pathogen, but many important details are only now starting to be appreciated. These three symposia in the tuberculosis theme will bring together diverse speakers struggling to understand the molecular details of the host-pathogen relationship and how the bacterium may be adapting to human attempts to bring the disease under control. The subjects were chosen so that the three symposia ...
The Merck Research Laboratories (MRL) Exploratory Science Center (ESC) Cambridge, a wholly owned subsidiary of Merck and Co., is focused on driving early discovery research.
The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behavior. In this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development. In particular, we explore the integration of human brain development with evolution, symbiosis, and RNA biology, which together represent a
The Schultz group will add chemical expertise and tool development to the consortium. The tools provided will help understanding pathogen-host interactions as well as pathogen lifecycles. Specifically, we will prepare artificial amino acids and photostable membrane-permeant dyes for non-disruptive labeling of proteins in intact pathogens and host cells. We will apply new methods to cross-link interacting proteins inside cells. We will provide photoactivatable lipids to manipulate host membranes. Finally, we will provide fluorescent reporters for monitoring relevant enzyme activities. All tools will be applied in close collaboration with other groups from the consortium including Brügger, Müller, Ruggieri, Kräusslich, Lemke, Briggs, Fackler, Urban. Specifically, we will help to visualize rare molecules such as viral particles or dsRNA by helping other consortium members tagging them with dyes suitable for single molecule microscopy (Lemke, Kräusslich) or correlative electron microscopy ...
Dept. of Infectious Diseases - Virology. Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases in humans, for two reasons. One is that Plasmodium(the causative malaria agent) has evolved efficient means to exploit cellular host mechanisms in order to proliferate. The second are the persisting gaps in our understanding of these pathogen-host interactions, especially in the clinically silent liver stage. Our two labs have recently performed a collaborative project with the aim to dissect this particular step, using a physiologically relevant in vivo mouse model of Plasmodium infection. We specifically focused on the identification of mi(cro)RNAs (small regulatory RNAs that control gene expression in many species) that are dysregulated in livers of infected mice. Interestingly, we found that Plasmodium infection triggers a significant, up to ten-fold increase of a particular miRNAknown to be a key player in innate and adaptive immunity in mammals, miR-155 (Hammerschmidt-Kamper et al., ...
Multidisciplinary has become the watchword of modern biology. The integration of several disciplines has created a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field of research, the so-called Mathematical Immunology . In simple terms, mathematical immunology attempts to uncover the biological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of pathogen-host interactions by employing mathematical, statistical, and computational models. In recent years, the field of mathematical immunology has blossomed with the availability of large and rich datasets due to the genomics revolution and increased sensitivity of laboratory and clinical tools; the development of mathematical tools capable of encapsulating complex nonlinear systems; and the advancement in computing power for large-scale calculations, simulation, and visualization. Interest in the computer simulation of biological processes to reduce complications incurred in human and animal research (such as ethical and practical considerations, costs, and risks) has also ...
The Hultquist lab specializes in the development and adaptation of high-throughput, quantitative, systems-based approaches for use in primary models of disease to better understand the host-pathogen relationship. Leveraging diverse expertise in primary cell models, proteomic profiling, and functional genomics, we work at the intersection of systems biology and infectious disease, defining host-pathogen interactions and their consequences for replication and pathogenesis. Through these efforts, we ultimately hope to strengthen the bridge from big data to targeted discovery to clinical application for the development of personalized, host-driven therapies and the advancement of human health. ...
During the course of a viral infection, viral proteins interact with an array of host proteins and pathways. Here, we present a systematic strategy to elucidate the dynamic interactions between H1N1 influenza and its human host. A combination of yeast two-hybrid analysis and genome-wide expression profiling implicated hundreds of human factors in mediating viral-host interactions. These factors were then examined functionally through depletion analyses in primary lung cells. The resulting data point to potential roles for some unanticipated host and viral proteins in viral infection and the host response, including a network of RNA-binding proteins, components of WNT signaling, and viral polymerase subunits. This multilayered approach provides a comprehensive and unbiased physical and regulatory model of influenza-host interactions and demonstrates a general strategy for uncovering complex host-pathogen relationships ...
MICROBE and HOST LIPIDS. From infections to microbiota and imaging. Microbes are found in almost every habitat present in nature and are vital to humans. For instance, the human microbiota has an influence on host physiology. In contrast, some pathogenic microbes can cause infectious diseases, which altogether claim 17 million deaths per year worldwide. Better understanding man and microbes interaction is thus a major public health issue. Indeed, a deeper knowledge of microbiota functions as well as the pathogenic mechanisms developed by microbes will pave the way for the development of new preventive or therapeutic strategies.. Lipids, via their different functions, play a key role in host-microbe interactions. They are essential components of the cell membranes. Some of them are able to modulate host cell functions, and might be used as virulence factors by pathogenic microbes. Manipulation of host lipid metabolism is among the invading strategies evolved by infectious agents, but regulation ...
Why is a wholesome person protected from attacks while people with cystic fibrosis or damaged epithelium are particularly vunerable to this opportunistic pathogen? To be able to address this issue it is vital to completely understand the powerful interplay between your web host microenvironment and host-pathogen connections within a physiologically relevant way. pathogenesis can help progress fundamental knowledge of pathogenic systems and raise the translational potential of analysis results from bench towards the patients bedside. Launch As a respected reason behind life-threatening nosocomial attacks has been thoroughly studied within the last 35 years. Zero available or super model tiffany livingston program can mimic the condition phenotype completely. Accordingly the intricacy of the web host pathogen and host-pathogen connections provides necessitated a mixed usage of different model systems to progress our knowledge of infectious disease. is certainly most commonly BRL 52537 ...
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nguyen Quang N, Goudey S, Ségéral E, Mohammad A, Lemoine S, Blugeon C, Versapuech M, Paillart JC, Berlioz-Torrent C, Emiliani S, Gallois-Montbrun S. Dynamic nanopore long-read sequencing analysis of HIV-1 splicing events during the early steps of infection. Retrovirology. 2020 Aug 17;17(1):25.. Leymarie O, Lepont L, Versapuech M, Abelanet S, Judith D, Janvier K and Berlioz-Torrent C. Contribution of the cytoplasmic determinants of Vpu to the expansion of virus containing compartments in HIV-1 infected macrophages. J Virol. 2019 May 15;93(11).. Bonnard D, Le Rouzic E, Eiler S, Amadori C, Orlov I, Bruneau JM, Brias J, Barbion J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Moreau F, Saïb A, Klaholz BP, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Zamborlini A, Benarous R. Structure-function analyses unravel distinct effects of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase on viral maturation and integration. J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 20;293(16):6172-6186.. Dejarnac O, Hafirassou ML, Chazal M, Versapuech M, Gaillard J, ...
Accepting PhD Students. PhD projects. Prof Bengoechea is keen to PhD applications from candidates with a basic or clinical background. My laboratory focus is to understand the host-pathogen interface, with major focus on multidrug reistant pathogens, to develop new therapeutics. We employ in vitro and in vivo models of disease, and exploit a multidisciplinary approach bridging Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Biology. Previous research experience is desirable although not essential. ...
TopThis module aims at providing an in-depth knowledge in the field of host-pathogen interactions, i.e how the immune system deals with pathogens, and how the pathogens deal with the hosts immune system. An introductory lecture series covers the basics in microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology), immunology, vaccinology, and general principles of host-pathogen interactions. Selected diseases illustrate host-pathogens interactions along with the consequences for vaccine and drug design. The following set of lectures covered by clinicians and professionals focus on patient management, field study, as well as safety aspects when working with pathogens in a research lab. Tutorials are broken into journal club, article write-up exercise and problem-based study and are directly related to the topics developed during the lectures ...
Infectious diseases continue to pose significant risks to human, animal and plant health. A better understanding of these threats - and the mechanisms that host cells mount to fend off the infections - is key to the diagnosing, treating and preventing the spread of disease.
Thermus and Pyrococcus Argonautes have been characterised as novel defence systems, revealing their unique property to use DNA guides for DNA interference.
Characterize at the biochemical level the molecules involved in these processes, define the way they interact and study their tridimensional structure by X-ray crystallography.
Interactions between pathogens and host immune cells are complex, dynamic, and play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. The outcome of such interactions is a reflection of the properties of the microbial agent and the ability of the host to respond to infection. This outcome may range from disease, persistent infection within the host, or even microbe elimination. Pathogenic organisms and/or their virulence factors often exploit the host immune machinery and subsequently modulate cell function, signaling, migration, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. An emerging theme in microbe-host interaction is that evolutionarily distant pathogens exploit a number of common cellular pathways. Understanding the common cellular targets and immune dysfunction elicited by various microbes may offer critical intervention to deregulate functional immunity by disseminating the impact of invading microbes and leading to novel therapeutic strategies.. Our research focuses on studying host-pathogen interactions ...
Structural biology of microbial virulence factors and their complexes with host components. Keywords: Host-pathogen interactions. Subject area(s): Microbiology, Virology & Pathogens , Proteins & Biochemistry , Structural Biology & Biophysics. ...
A new report appearing in the March 2014 issue of The FASEB Journal helps shed light on what drives the evolution of pathogens, as well as how our bodies adapt to ward them off. Specifically, the report shows that our bodies ...
Bacterial-encoded covalent adhesion is a new molecular principle in host-microbe interactions and may play a key role in host colonization by a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria.
CELL BIOLOGY. Breaking down miRNAs. Elbarbary et al. identify an endonuclease that initiates decay of microRNAs that regulate the cell cycle.. PROTEOMICS. Mapping the proteome. Thul et al. generated the Cell Atlas, an image-based collection of 12,003 proteins and 13 organelles that reveals proteins that exhibit multiple localizations and single-cell variation (see also Horwitz and Johnson).. HOST-MICROBE INTERACTIONS. Taking a look at plant-microbe relationships. Martin et al. review the evolution of plant-symbiont interactions that modulate plant signaling pathways, development, and immunity. ...
PhD Research Project: Using live-cell imaging of the immune response to investigate host-pathogen i in £30,000 - £39,999, Academic (e.g. Lecturer), Science with Global Academy Jobs. Apply Today.
Research on host-microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates as well as invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling interactions within the metaorganisms are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown.. We are particularly interested in:. ...
The Function Pillar is devoted to exploration at the molecular level of host-microbe interactions and signalling relevant to health. It should open avenues to developing new bioactive compounds, targeting in particular immunomodulation and cell proliferation and also rational modulation of the microbiota. ...
Host-pathogen interactions have critical implications for the establishment of disease and for determining adaptive immune responses of the host. This study has conducted global Aspergillus fumigatus transcriptional analyses throughout the initiation of murine infection using a wild-type and an attenuated ΔlaeA isolate. A novel data analysis protocol was applied from which three time-series datasets were generated between 4, 8 and 14 hours post infection. This approach identified distinct temporal gene expression profiles during disease initiation whereby numerous secreted enzymes, including proteases and antigens, were upregulated between 4 and 8 hours, while a striking upregulation of genes in secondary metabolism clusters and subtelomeric loci was observed between 8 and 14 hours. In order to test the role of several upregulated secondary metabolite genes on host-pathogen interactions and virulence, two isolates mutated in non-ribosomal peptide synthetase encoding genes (ΔftmA, Δpes3), and ...
Pectin lyases (PNLs) are important enzymes that are involved in plant cell wall degradation during the infection process. Colletotrichum is a diverse genus of fungi, which allows the study of the evolution of PNLs and their possible role in pathogen-host interactions and lifestyle adaptations. The phylogenetic reconstruction of PNLs from Colletotrichum and analysis of selection pressures showed the formation of protein lineages by groups of species with different selection pressures and specific patterns. The analysis of positive selection at individual sites using different methods allowed for the identification of three codons with evidence of positive selection in the oligosaccharide-binding region and two codons on the antiparallel sheet, which may influence the interaction with the substrate ...
Modeling of disease pathogenesis and immunity often is carried out in large animals that are natural targets for pathogens of human or economic relevance. Although murine mAbs are a valuable tool in identifying certain host/pathogen interactions, progress in comparative immunology would be enhanced by the use of mAbs isolated from the host species. Such antibodies would reflect an authentic host immune response to infection or vaccination, and as they are host derived, would allow the application of in vivo experiments that previously have been unrealizable in large animals because of induction of an antispecies immune response. The advent of antibody phage display technology provides a way of producing host-derived mAbs in animals where the molecular genetics of Ig formation are known. Exploiting recent advances in the molecular immunology of cattle, we report here the design of an optimized phage display vector, pComBov, for the construction of combinatorial libraries of bovine Ig ...
Phage display has become an established, widely used method for selection of peptides, antibodies or alternative scaffolds. The use of phage display for the selection of antigens from genomic or cDNA libraries of pathogens which is an alternative to the classical way of identifying immunogenic proteins is not well-known. In recent years several new applications for oligopeptide phage display in disease related fields have been developed which has led to the identification of various new antigens. These novel identified immunogenic proteins provide new insights into host pathogen interactions and can be used for the development of new diagnostic tests and vaccines. In this review we focus on the M13 oligopeptide phage display system for pathogen research but will also give examples for lambda phage display and for applications in other disease related fields. In addition, a detailed technical work flow for the identification of immunogenic oligopeptides using the pHORF system is given. The described
Subject: Lambda Lunch update To: [email protected] Lambda Lunch update, 1/29/08: 1/29/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Emily Troemel (Fred Ausubel lab, MGH) Host/pathogen interactions in C. elegans 1/29/08, 2:15 PM, 37/2041: Heather W. Pinkett, (Caltech) Structural Studies of an ABC Transporter from Haemophilus influenzae, HIF 1/31/08*: Bob Schleif (Hopkins) Pursuing a Proteins Innermost Secrets: AraC (Sankar Adhya) 2/7/08*: Christophe Penno (Cashel lab) Control of the virulence of Shigella flexneri by transcriptional slippage 2/8/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Jennifer Philips (Perrimon + Rubin labs, Harvard Med) Genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila identifies host factors that modulate Mycobacterial infection 2/8/08, 9 AM - 12 PM, Natcher (Building 45) Room E1/E2: Imaging Bacterial Structures: A Symposium in Honor of Martin Kessel. Register at 3/7/08: 12:00 PM, 32TII/Conf. room: Petra Levin (Wash ...
Researchers at the Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene aim to elucidate host pathogen interactions to provide a basis for the development of new strategies to fight infectious diseases. Current research at the Institute has evolved over decades: the nineteen-sixties through nineteen-eighties, under the leadership of P. Klein, heralded an era of pioneering studies on complement, interleukins and T-cells, with bacterial virulence factors and molecular biology of viruses emerging as additional themes in the nineteen-eighties. From 1990 until early 2012 the Institute was led by S. Bhakdi, whose research focused on bacterial pore forming toxins and complement. During these two periods, the Institute also served as an important coordinator of Collaborative Research Centers in the field of Immunology. Between September 2013 and October 2016, A. Diefenbach held the position as director of the Institute; and a new class of lymphoid cells became the main area of investigation. Thus, for more ...
We at The National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, eagerly look forward to welcoming you to our annual Host Pathogen Interactions in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases conference on the 12th of February, 2015.. We have had successful meetings in the past two years that have fostered many meaningful collaborations and have advertised novel research to the research community in the area. The focus of the meetings has been and will continue to be on interactions between pathogens and hosts following exposure to bacterial and viral agents and the applicability of the knowledge gained to design of novel diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines.. We look forward to an enriching, interesting and beneficial meeting in 2015.. View all conference details on the NCBID calendar.. ...
Bishun Deo Prasad, PhD, is an Assistant Professor and Scientist in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering at Bihar Agricultural University in Sabour, India. He has published 12 research papers in reputed peer-reviewed international journals which have been cited more than 100 times. He has also contributed to one authored book, has written several book chapters, and has submitted 10 sequences of different isolates to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). He is reviewer of International Journal of Agriculture Sciences and the Journal of Environmental Biology. Dr. Prasad has been associated with biotechnological aspects of rice, Brassica napus, Arabidopsis, linseed, lentil, vegetable (bitter guard and pointed guard), and horticultural (mango, litchi and banana) crops. He is also associated with host pathogen interaction studies in rice, B. napus and Arabidopsis as well as mutational breeding aspect in rice for abiotic stress tolerance. He is dynamically ...
The co-founders partners, all international leaders in the field of research into host pathogen interactions, provide complementary expertise with outstanding core facilities for monitoring diseases, treatments and prevention in relevant animal models of human infections. Tools already developed by the partners are extended with state-of-the-art equipments and standardized assays.. The center is also fostering research programs for the development of new models of human infection and for refinement of the use of animals and reductions of the number of animals required for experimental medicine. There are already and will be new programs on assays standardization and harmonization, non invasive methods (telemetry, in vivo imaging), animal training and in silico modeling. A Biological Resource Center has been created in partnership with our industrial partner with Bertin Pharma.. The major objective of this consortium is to provide the national and international scientific community with a highly ...
ST258-K. pneumoniae (ST258-KP) strains, the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens, belong to at least two clades differing in a 215 Kb genomic region that includes the cluster of capsule genes. To investigate the effects of the different capsular phenotype on host-pathogen interactions, we studied representatives of ST258-KP clades, KKBO-1 and KK207-1, for their ability to activate monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells from human immune competent hosts. The two ST258-KP strains strongly induced the production of inflammatory cytokines. Significant differences between the strains were found in their ability to induce the production of IL-1β: KK207-1/clade I was much less effective than KKBO-1/clade II in inducing IL-1β production by monocytes and dendritic cells. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by live cells and/or purified capsular polysaccharides was studied in monocytes and dendritic cells. We found that glibenclamide, a NLRP3 inhibitor, inhibits more ...
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also infect the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response. One of the first pathogens observed by scientists was Vibrio cholera, described in detail by Filippo Pacini in 1854. His initial findings were just drawings of the bacteria, but up until ...
The pathogens on the currency notes can lead to several skin diseases, fungal infections, respiratory disorders and even tuberculosis.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are highly contagious pathogens infecting human and numerous animals. The viruses cause millions of infection cases and thousands of deaths every year, thus making IAVs a continual threat to global health. Upon IAV infection, host innate immune system is triggered and activated to restrict virus replication and clear pathogens. Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses.
Craig Roy received his B.S. from Michigan State University in 1985 and earned his Ph.D. in Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University in 1991 in the laboratory of Dr. Stanley Falkow. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship with Dr. Ralph Isberg in the Department of Molecular Microbiology at Tufts University School of Medicine in 1996, he was appointed as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at Stony Brook University. Dr. Roy became a founding member of the Department of Microbial Pathogenesis at Yale University in 1998 and serves as Vice-Chair. He currently holds the title of Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunobiology. Research in the Roy laboratory focuses on the host-pathogen interface. Using multi-disciplinary approaches his laboratory has discovered many novel mechanisms that intracellular pathogens use to modulate host membrane transport pathways, which allow these pathogens to evade cell autonomous ...
In the context of pulmonary infection, both hosts and pathogens have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to regulate the process of host cell death. The host aims to rapidly induce an inflammatory response at the site of infection, promote pathogen clearance, quickly resolve inflammation, and return to tissue homeostasis. The appropriate modulation of cell death in respiratory epithelial cells and pulmonary immune cells is central in the execution of all these processes. Cell death can be either inflammatory or anti-inflammatory depending on regulated cell death (RCD) modality triggered and the infection context. In addition, diverse bacterial pathogens have evolved many means to manipulate host cell death to increase bacterial survival and spread. The multitude of ways that hosts and bacteria engage in a molecular tug of war to modulate cell death dynamics during infection emphasizes its relevance in host responses and pathogen virulence at the host pathogen interface. This narrative review outlines
Mycobacterial diseases, including tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy (or Hansens disease), have profoundly altered the course of human history. Yet our knowledge of the temporal evolutionary dynamics for these pathogens is remarkably limited, despite their importance for identifying links between the pathogens and signatures of adaptation in the human genome as well as for predicting future trends in the pathogen-host interaction. Here I examine the evolutionary history of tuberculosis and leprosy, focusing on the distribution of strain diversity in humans (past and present) and non-human primates in order to elucidate phylogenetic relationships, examine signals of adaptation to humans, identify the impact of human demography on their spread, and assess patterns of pathogen exchange through time. Specifically, we use new methods of DNA extraction, library construction, and targeted enrichment to obtain genetic data from prehistoric samples with characteristic lesions of mycobacterial disease. To ...
The mammalian intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of trillions of microorganisms, which have co-evolved with the host immune system for millions of years. Many of these microorganisms perform functions critical for host physiology, but the host must remain vigilant to control the microbial community so that the symbiotic nature of the relationship is maintained. To facilitate homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the diverse microbial load is tolerated and anatomically contained, while remaining responsive to microbial breaches and invasion. Although the microbiota is required for intestinal immune development, immune responses also regulate the structure and composition of the intestinal microbiota. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of these complex interactions and their implications for human health and disease.
Journal of Pathogens is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions. The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals. Articles detailing diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, as well as environmental and public health implications, will also be considered.
Journal of Pathogens is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions. The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals. Articles detailing diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, as well as environmental and public health implications, will also be considered.
MicroRNA (miRNA) is small non-coding RNA with approximate 22 nt in length. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs play significant roles in pathogen-host interactions. Brucella organisms are...
A biological process represents a specific objective that the organism is genetically programmed to achieve. Biological processes are often described by their outcome or ending state, e.g., the biological process of cell division results in the creation of two daughter cells (a divided cell) from a single parent cell. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code no data (ND), is used to indicate this.. ...
There are currently three main axes of research in the HMI lab: Deciphering the activity and functioning of the Type Three Secretion Apparatus We previously reported the development of transcriptional reporter of the Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA) in Shigella flexneri (See Figure 1) based on the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as shown in the…
Meet Global Microbiologists and Physiologists from USA (America), Europe, Middle East and Asia pacific at Microbial Physiology Conferences, Microbiology Conferences, and Genomics Conferences happening from July 16-18, 2018 London, UK
Find great deals for The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections by Taylor & Francis Inc (Hardback, 2004). Shop with confidence on eBay!
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - PathoGenetix and Applied Maths today announced a deal to integrate each others technologies into a solution for rapid pathogen strain typing.
Host-pathogen interactions are like an arms race, in which the outcome of the encounter is determined by the dynamic interplay between the bodys (the host) responses, which aim to eliminate the pathogen, and the countermeasures that pathogens employ to avoid eradication. Thus, to understand host-pathogen interactions, both sides of this war should be studied simultaneously. In the laboratory we study both the bacterial and the host adaptation strategies engaged during the course of infection, focusing on: 1) How the host spies on bacterial communication systems and what are the sensors and mechanisms involved, with a major focus is on an important host receptor recently discovered to be able to sense bacterial infection, the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). 2) How the bacteria reacts and adapts to host derived responses. ...
Background The rapid growth of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has led to the emergence of PPI network analysis. from POINT and POINeT Further development of methods to forecast host-pathogen relationships should incorporate multiple methods in order to improve level of sensitivity, and should facilitate the recognition of focuses on for drug finding and … Continue reading Background The rapid growth of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has led. ...
So they propose that differences in the populations that are coming down with the disease is due only to density-dependent host-pathogen dynamics not that some populations are resistant. They go on to provide a detailed model of persistence if the host and pathogen, chance of reinfection, and survival of the host which is derived from the long-term study data. There are many more interesting findings and models proposed in the paper. It also further reinforces (for me) the need to know more about the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interactions and more about how the fungus persists without a host, lifestyle of how it overwinters, and the details of the microbe-host interactions, and the infection dynamic when zoospores disperse from infected frogs.. The Vrendenburg et al paper adresses the dynamics of population decline in the mountain yellow-legged frogs over a periods of 1-5 and 9-13 year study in 3 different study sites at different sampling intervals. The authors were able to catalog ...
Tzfira, Tzvi and Citovsky, Vitaly, From Host Recognition to T-Dna Integration: the Function of Bacterial and Plant Genes in the Agrobacterium-Plant Cell Interaction (2000). ...
All PhD positions offered are coordinated by the Center for Infection Biology (ZIB). It was founded in September 2002 as a joint co-operation between well renowned research institu-tions: Hannover Medical School, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, the University of Hannover and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig. Students enrolled in the programme will work in one of these institutions. The programmes objective is to investigate the complex interactions between host and pathogen as well as basic research with the combined tools of immunology, cell biology and molecular biology.. 20 students from around the world are accepted each year after a rigorous selection procedure. Students enrolled in the PhD programme work on a three-year research project and attend seminars, conventions and lab courses. They are encouraged and supported by a network of supervisors and support teams and finish the programme after the PhD examination at the end of ...
[email protected] Research Interests: Research Interests: Host-pathogen interactions, vaccine development, virology, bacteriology. I grew up near Jacksonville Florida, and did my undergrad at Berry College. There I majored in both Biochemistry and Biology, and performed research in Dr. Christopher Halls Immunology and Parasitology lab. My research focus in this lab was to profile the cytokine expression of a choriocarcinoma cell line, upon infection with T. cruzi, to better understand both host-pathogen interactions and vertical transmission. During this time I also performed research at the CDC, working in the Rickettsial Zoonosis Branch of the Division of Vector Borne Disease. Here I utilized IFA to examine the prevalence of wildlife from Berry Colleges campus that was seropositive for rickettsial pathogens.. Duke was my number one choice because of how well the faculty members research matched my own interests. I also really enjoyed the sense of community I felt not only with the ...
We evaluated the fraction of variation in HIV-1 set point viral load attributable to viral or human genetic factors by using joint host/pathogen genetic data from 541 HIV infected individuals. We show that viral genetic diversity explains 29% of the variation in viral load while host factors explain 8.4%. Using a joint model including both host and viral effects, we estimate a total of 30% heritability, indicating that most of the host effects are reflected in viral sequence variation.. ...
Dr. Feng Shaos laboratory is interested in studying molecular mechanisms of bacterial infection and host innate immunity defense. Bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems such as type III/IV secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, serving as a key and universal virulence mechanism. The effectors usually harbor a unique and potent activity that modulates the function of key signaling molecules in the host, and this plays a critical role in bacterial survival and systemic infections. Using pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Legionella and Burkholderia as the model, we are working to discover and reveal some novel and common biochemical mechanisms utilized by bacterial effectors in modulating host signal transduction pathways. Our recent work has led to several interesting discoveries. 1) The OspF family of type III effectors, conserved in Shigella, Salmonella and the plant pathogen P. syringae, harbors a novel ...
Read A hypothesis explaining why so many pathogen virulence proteins are moonlighting proteins, Pathogens and Disease on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Manipulation of cell death pathways has been identified as a common feature of host-microbe interactions. We examine two examples: influenza A as a
Professor and Chair of Microbiology and Cell Science, IFAS, University of Florida - Cited by 21,597 - molecular microbial ecology - host-microbe interactions - genomics
Video created by 콜로라도 대학교 볼더 캠퍼스, 캘리포니아 샌디에고 대학교 for the course Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome. Youre more than halfway through the course! We hope youve been learning lots of new, exciting things about the human gut microbiota! In this ...
Author: Arthur C. Croft, PhD(c), DC, MSc, MPH, FACO. Title: Study Confirms Flaws in Standard MVC Defense Strategy. Summary: A new study provides further evidence that delta V is actually not a valid gauge of injury risk.
We are proud members of the G.W. Hooper Foundation, located on the 15th floor of the HSW building (HSW 1521 and 1517), Parnassus Campus, UCSF.. We started our lab in Jan 2014. We work at the cross roads of mammalian cell biology and bacterial pathogenesis. Our lab is interested in understanding how bacterial proteins subvert various cellular processes and manipulate them to their own advantage. Understanding the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions serves two main purposes. First, it provides an understanding of the mechanism of disease and thus leads to the development of better therapeutic approaches. Second, because bacteria disrupt host processes in multiple ways and often target key host proteins, studying these interactions often lead to a deeper understanding of basic mammalian cell-biological processes. Based on our recent discovery, a major focus of our lab is to understand how the host unfolded protein response pathway is manipulated in response to pathogen infection. Currently, we ...
Host genetics refers to the genetics of a person, in the context of how the host genetics may effect pathogenicity of a disease or virus. It has been argu
© Cambridge University Press 2007 and Cambridge University Press, 2009. Introduction The study of the host genetic component of infectious disease is potentially one of the most difficult areas of complex human genetic disease analysis for one major reason: the absolute requirement for a host-pathogen interaction to cause disease. Since the pathogen has its own genome, with all of its attendant potential for variability, there has been an ongoing
Cell Death and Immunity symposium will provide a unique opportunity to bring together researchers in the cell death and immunology communities, as well as scientists studying host-pathogen interactions, who are focused on understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link cell death and the immune response.. Visit the website to know more.
Cell Death and Immunity symposium will provide a unique opportunity to bring together researchers in the cell death and immunology communities, as well as scientists studying host-pathogen interactions, who are focused on understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link cell death and the immune response.. Visit the website to know more.
Yamazaki, N.; Fry, S. C.; Darvill, A. G.; Albersheim, P. (1983). "Host-pathogen interactions: XXIV. Fragments isolated from ... form and host-pathogen relations. The association of WAKs with The Plant Cell wall was first compromised by immunolocalization ... A pathogen's path to infection begins with the cell wall; the proteins that connect the cell wall to the plasma membrane are ... The interaction of pectin polyanion with the cell wall or plasmalemma could induce conformational changes in the pectin ...
Fung, To Sing; Liu, Ding Xiang (2019). "Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction". Annual Review of Microbiology. 73: 529- ...
Fung, To Sing; Liu, Ding Xiang (2019). "Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction". Annual Review of Microbiology. 73: 529- ... A Review of Virus-Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. PMC 5456285. PMID ... A Review of Virus-Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. PMC 5456285. PMID ... The virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the N-acetyl-9-O- ...
1999, with Liise-anne Pirofski, Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity , in: ... Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne (1999). "Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and ... Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne (2001). "Host-pathogen interactions: the attributes of virulence". The Journal of ... Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne (2000). "Host-Pathogen Interactions: The basic concepts of microbial commensalism, ...
Dheilly, Nolwenn Marie (2014-07-03). "Holobiont-Holobiont Interactions: Redefining Host-Parasite Interactions". PLOS Pathogens ... Examples include gut microbe or viral genomes linked to human or animal genomes for host-microbe interaction research. ... have been found with holobiont-holobiont interactions. Maturation of mammalian host immune systems has been known to involve ... hologenomics uses an integrative framework to investigate interactions between the host and its associated species. ...
Host response to bark beetle and pathogen colonization. Pages 157 - 173 in T. Schowalter, editor. Beetle-pathogen interactions ... Manipulation of host plant quality: Herbivores keep leaves in the dark. Functional Ecology 6:741 - 743. Sandberg, S. L., and M ... Host specialization in phytophagous insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:243 - 273. Mallet, J., & Porter, P. ... Polyphagy often develops when a herbivore's host plants are rare as a necessity to gain enough food. Monophagy is favored when ...
"Host-Pathogen Interaction During Bacterial Vaccination". Current Opinion in Immunology. 36: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2015.04.002 ... or in other words that the host's immune system is no longer able to recognize and eliminate a pathogen such as a virus. This ... While a host's homologous recombination can act as a defense mechanisms for fixing DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), it can ... This results in the pathogens being able to attack targets of the immune system different than those intended to be targeted by ...
"Salmonellae interactions with host processes". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 13 (4): 191-205. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3420. ISSN ... "PLOS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002776. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002776. PMC 3380943. PMID 22737074.. ... Host adaptation[edit]. S. enterica, through some of its serotypes such as Typhimurium and Enteriditis, shows signs of the ... Typhimurium from animal hosts.[75] The papA gene, which is unique to sv. Newport, contributes to the strain's fitness in ...
The applications range from understanding host-pathogen interactions and infectious diseases to understanding better chronic ... "Multi-Omics Strategies Uncover Host-Pathogen Interactions". ACS Infectious Diseases. 5 (4): 493-505. doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis. ... Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm". mBio. 2 (1): e00325-10. doi:10.1128/mbio.00325-10. ISSN 2150-7511. PMC 3034460 ... The complexity of interactions in the human immune system has prompted the generation of a wealth of immunology-related multi- ...
Doherty CP (May 2007). "Host-pathogen interactions: the role of iron". The Journal of Nutrition. 137 (5): 1341-4. doi:10.1093/ ... Skaar EP (2010). "The battle for iron between bacterial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts". PLOS Pathogens. 6 (8): e1000949 ... which are iron-binding chelators made by microorganisms.Iron serves as a key nutrient in host-pathogen interactions, and ... To evade the host defences, pathogens evolved to produce structurally varied siderophores that would not be recognized by ...
... host cell-pathogen interactions evolve during infection;[excessive citations] and, tumor cells evade therapeutic treatment and ... 2020-11-25). "Single-Cell Profiling of Ebola Virus Disease In Vivo Reveals Viral and Host Dynamics". Cell. 183 (5): 1383-1401. ... "Single-Cell Profiling of Ebola Virus Disease In Vivo Reveals Viral and Host Dynamics". Cell. 183 (5): 1383-1401.e19. doi: ... and nanotechnology to establish accessible approaches to profile and control cells and their interactions. In addition to these ...
Hovius JW, van Dam AP, Fikrig E (September 2007). "Tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis" (PDF). Trends in ... Wodecka B, Rymaszewska A, Skotarczak B (April 2014). "Host and pathogen DNA identification in blood meals of nymphal Ixodes ... Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Skotarczak, Bogumila (2013). "Host and pathogen DNA identification in blood meals of nymphal ... Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5. Cutler SJ, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Potkonjak A ( ...
She studies host and pathogen interactions and epidemiology. She won the 2018 Royal Society Africa Prize. Yeboah-Manu is from ... "NATIONAL FACULTY - West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens". Retrieved 2018-07-19. "Cell ... the National Faculty of the World Bank Centre of Excellence funded West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens ...
Clarke, Margaret (2010). "Recent insights into host-pathogen interactions from Dyctiostelium". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (3): ... Sentinel cells are present in the slug even when there are no toxins or pathogens to be removed. Sentinel cells have been ... D. discoideum is also a host for Legionella and is a suitable model for studying the infection process. Specifically, D. ... Free-living amoebae seem to play a crucial role for persistence and dispersal of some pathogens in the environment. Transient ...
"Host Recognition by Fungal Pathogens". In San-Blas, Gioconda; Calderone, Richard A. (eds.). Pathogenic Fungi: Host Interactions ... The pathogen enters hosts through developing roots, where it can infect the host. After infection, F. solani produces asexual ... The pathogen can persist in the soil for a decade, and if left unchecked can cause complete crop loss. The ubiquitous nature of ... Recently the pathogen has also done serious damage to olive trees throughout the mediterranean.[citation needed] F. solani has ...
... and their insect hosts". Parasites and Pathogens of Insects. Volume 2: Pathogens. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0120844425. Lu, D., ... Akhurst, RJ; Dunphy, GB (1993). "Tripartite interactions between symbiotically associated entomopathogenic bacteria, nematodes ... it is released into the host host through defecation. The bacteria multiply in the insect hemolymph and the infected host ... All other life stages (L1, L2, L3, L4, and adult) occur within an insect host. The IJ enters the host through natural openings ...
PHI-base: a database of multiple pathogen-host interactions.[7]. GM protest[edit]. In 2012 Rothamsted started testing ... Additions to the pathogen host interaction database". Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (Database issue): D572-D576. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
"Using the pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) to investigate plant pathogen genomes and genes implicated in ... The Pathogen-Host Interaction database was developed to utilise effectively the growing number of verified genes that mediate ... The Pathogen-Host Interaction database (PHI-base) is a biological database that contains curated information on genes ... Urban, M.; Pant, R.; Raghunath, A.; Irvine, A.G.; Pedro, H.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2015). "The Pathogen-Host Interactions ...
Kuehn, M.J.; Kesty, N.C. (2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development. 19 ... It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, ... PLOS Pathogens. 4 (1): e8. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0040008. PMC 2211552. PMID 18208324. Miserez, A; Li, Y; Waite, H; Zok, F ( ... pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells ...
Kuehn MJ, Kesty NC (November 2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development ... Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... The Hrp system in plant pathogens inject harpins and pathogen effector proteins through similar mechanisms into plants. This ... and are deployed for membrane vesicle trafficking to manipulate environment or invade at host-pathogen interface. Vesicles from ...
The transparent early life stages are well suited for in vivo imaging and genetic dissection of host-pathogen interactions. ... Meijer AH, Spaink HP (June 2011). "Host-pathogen interactions made transparent with the zebrafish model". Current Drug Targets ... "Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model". Disease ... Meijer AH, van der Vaart M, Spaink HP (January 2014). "Real-time imaging and genetic dissection of host-microbe interactions in ...
"Protozoa lectins and their role in host-pathogen interactions". Biotechnology Advances. 34 (5): 1018-1029. doi:10.1016/j. ... Anti-adhesion therapy can be used to prevent infection by targeting adhesion molecules either on the pathogen or on the host ... These molecules also control host specificity and regulate tropism (tissue- or cell-specific interactions) through their ... either through protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interactions, to host cells or fibronectins in the extracellular matrix ...
... Pathogen-Host Interaction database Ensembl Fungi Ensembl Flicek; et al. (2011). "Ensembl 2011". Nucleic Acids ... species with literature-curated information about the phenotypes of host infection available from the Pathogen-Host Interaction ... additions to the pathogen host interactions database". Nucleic Acids Research. 36: D572-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm858. PMC 2238852 ... "The Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) provides insights into generic and novel themes of pathogenicity". Molecular ...
Kumar, V.; Van De Veerdonk, F. L.; Netea, M. G. (2018). "Antifungal immune responses: emerging host-pathogen interactions and ... Trained immunity: a memory for innate host defense. Cell Host Microbe.19;9:355-61. (13.4). Bart Ferwerda, Gerben Ferwerda, Theo ... Cell Host Microbe 2018; 23:89-100 (13.4) Ter Horst R, Jaeger M, Smeekens SP, … , Wijmenga C, Notebaart RA, Joosten LA, Netea MG ... Host and Environmental Factors Influencing Individual Human Cytokine Responses. Cell. 2016;167:1111-1124 (28.7) Li Y, Oosting M ...
"Gene expression analysis of plant host-pathogen interactions by SuperSAGE". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ... The cDNA is bound to Streptavidin beads via interaction with the biotin attached to the primers, and is then cleaved using a ...
Coombes, Brain K (2002). "Cellular and Molecular Host-pathogen Interactions during Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection". Open Access ... It is an extracellular, host-associated bacterium that lacks a cell wall and is unable to survive outside of a host due to ... it is entirely dependent on energy produced by their host. Reinfection of the host with C. pneumoniae is common because the ... The injury of host epithelial cells caused by M. pneumoniae adhesion is thought to be due to the production of highly reactive ...
Gene expression analysis of plant host-pathogen interactions by SuperSAGE. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100:15718-15723. McKernan et ... ChIA-PET is an unbiased way to analyze interactions and higher-order chromatin structures because it can detect interactions ... In contrast, 3C and 4C methods are used to detect interactions involving a specific target region in the genome. ChIA-PET is ... The first ChIA-PET was developed by Fullwood et al.. (2009) to generate a map of the interactions between chromatin bound by ...
... extensive knowledge of the genetics of specific host-pathogen interaction is required. Host-pathogen interaction for M. ... Moniliophthora perniciosa can infect a number of hosts. Generally, M. perniciosa infects tropical host plants, and host plants ... This pathogen is currently limited to South America, Panama and the Caribbean, and is perhaps one of the best-known cocoa ... M. perniciosa is now known to comprise four different biotypes (C, S, L and H), each infecting different (and unrelated) host ...
These were the first findings on hosts other than Fraxinus anywhere in the world.[47] All three new hosts are in the same ... Trees now believed to have been infected with this pathogen were reported dying in large numbers in Poland in 1992,[13] and by ... "Chalara ash dieback on different ash species and non-ash hosts". Forest Research. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.. ... In the long term researchers aim to find the genes that confer resistance to the pathogen on some ash trees.[12] ...
Interaction with Haemophilus influenzae[edit]. Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, ... "Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... The ability of S. pneumoniae to repair the oxidative DNA damages in its genome, caused by this host defense, likely contributes ... As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host ...
"EBV-Positive Lymphoproliferations of B- T- and NK-Cell Derivation in Non-Immunocompromised Hosts". Pathogens (Basel, ...
Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... Captive animals have been found to be more susceptible to pathogens than wild ones.[106] A gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio ... Most species are solitary when not mating,[66] though a few are known to occur in high densities and with frequent interactions ... Pathogens and parasites. The diseases and parasites that affect octopuses have been little studied, but cephalopods are known ...
Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and pathogens,[9] with each side developing ever more sophisticated ... but rather promotes novel interactions between existing players, which then take on new moonlighting roles.[23] ... these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] ... adaptations, such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have developed to evade it. For example, the parasite ...
The ecosystems encountered by the first Americans had not been exposed to human interaction, and may have been far less ... it has to be able to sustain itself in an environment with no hosts; it has to have a high infection rate; and be extremely ... various pathogens; genetic factors; immunodeficiencies; loss of habitat; changing beekeeping practices; or a combination of ... Defaunation effects were first implied at the Symposium of Plant-Animal Interactions at the University of Campinas, Brazil in ...
... within the host, the organism is exclusively in the vegetative form. once outside the host, sporulation commences upon exposure ... Examples of bacteria having terminal endospores include Clostridium tetani, the pathogen that causes the disease tetanus. ... In the natural situation, this means the vegetative cycles occur within the low oxygen environment of the infected host and, ...
In its original habitat, the sea lamprey used co-evolution to act as a parasite without killing the host organism. However, in ... Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus ... which could have detrimental effects on the environment as new species interactions emerge. For example, Hua and Hwang proposed ... Overall, forest ecosystems in the U.S. are widely invaded by exotic pests, plants, and pathogens.[100][101] ...
MAP is recognized as a multi-host mycobacterial pathogen with a proven specific ability to initiate and maintain systemic ...
The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. Vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are fecal- ... "Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition". PLoS ... The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which include many human pathogens, such as poliovirus and coxsackie ... The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ...
... virus-host interactions and genomic features". J. Virol. 79 (14): 8677-86. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.14.8677-8686.2005. PMC 1168784 . ... No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known, but they are often mutualists or commensals. One example is the ... The well-characterized interactions between archaea and other organisms are either mutual or commensal.[184] There are no clear ... Archaea host a new class of potentially useful antibiotics. A few of these archaeocins have been characterized, but hundreds ...
An R, Tang Y, Chen L, Cai H, et al «Encephalitis is mediated by ROP18 of Toxoplasma gondii, a severe pathogen in AIDS patients ... Zhang R, Thabet A, Hiob L, Zheng W, et al «Mutual interactions of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria ... Afonso C, Paixão VB, Costa RM «Chronic Toxoplasma infection modifies the structure and the risk of host behavior» (en anglès). ... Caldas LA, de Souza W «A Window to Toxoplasma gondii Egress» (en anglès). Pathogens, 2018 Aug 14; 7 (3), pii: E69. DOI: 10.3390 ...
It is important to keep in mind with this pathogen, as with all vectored pathogens, that behavior of the vector can contribute ... Tentative testing indicates that Ipomoea hederacea (ivy leaf morning glory) may be another host of this virus, which may prove ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Whitfield, Anna; Ullman, Diane; German, Thomas (2005). "Tospovirus-Thrips Interactions". Annual ... This pathogen is an arbovirus, and therefore must be transmitted by a vector. A known vector of the virus is Sericothrips ...
... host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV- ... pathogen - pathogenesis - PBMC - PCP - PCR - Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (PACTG) - pelvic inflammatory disease - ... interaction - interferon - interleukin-1 (IL-1) - interleukin-2 (IL-2) - interleukin-4 (IL-4) - interleukin-12 (IL-12) - ... drug-drug interaction - DSMB - Duffy antigen system - dysplasia - dyspnea ...
2006). «Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions.». Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34 ... Interaction with translocation protein B23.». J. Biol. Chem. 269 (38): 23776-83. PMID 8089149. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et ... Szebeni A, Herrera JE, Olson MO (1995). «Interaction of nucleolar protein B23 with peptides related to nuclear localization ... 1995). «The cytotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev: implications for its interaction with the nucleolar ...
... influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to interactions between the carrier host ... Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of ... Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; of 1,415 pathogens known ... Many food outbreaks can be linked[by whom?] to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food that have an animal origin can ...
Interaction of CLEC5A and dengue virus also induces osteolytic activity.[8] Another pathogen is influenza virus and its ... viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • osteoblast development. • innate immune response. • ... Through this interaction is stimulated innate immune response and it leads to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.[9] ... With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ...
When a part of a plant becomes infected with a microbial or viral pathogen, in case of an incompatible interaction triggered by ... Finlay BB, McFadden G (February 2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". ... Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... Phagocytosis of the hosts' own cells is common as part of regular tissue development and maintenance. When host cells die, ...
Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the bacterium which is responsible for tuberculosis) are targeted ... The Dynamic Interaction of Ambra1 with the Dynein Motor Complex Regulates Mammalian Autophagy', J Cell Biol, 191 (2010), 155-68 ... for degradation by the same cellular machinery and regulatory mechanisms that target host mitochondria for degradation. ... able to initiate autophagy against intracellular pathogens. When galectin-8 binds to a damaged vacuole, it recruits autophagy ...
... ic specificity is the ability of the host cells to recognize an antigen specifically as a unique molecular entity and ... Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all others from a pathogen) in their ability to produce an immune ... usually present surface features that can act as points of interaction for specific antibodies. Any such feature constitutes an ... Sometimes antigens are part of the host itself in an autoimmune disease.[14] ...
... can range from harmless bacteria to pathogens with resistance to antibiotics. ... and gastrointestinal tract in the form of Helicobacter without causing disease in the host. They also have wide medicinal and ...
Houben E, Nguyen L, Pieters J (2006). "Interaction of pathogenic mycobacteria with the host immune system". Curr Opin Microbiol ... Comas, I; Gagneux, S (2009). "The past and future of tuberculosis research.". PLoS pathogens. svezak 5 (broj 10): e1000600. ... Pearce-Duvet J (2006). "The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution ... emission of respirable pathogens". J Occup Environ Hyg. svezak 2 (broj 3): str. 143.-154. PMID 15764538. doi:10.1080/ ...
Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the bacterium which is responsible for tuberculosis) are targeted ... "The dynamic interaction of AMBRA1 with the dynein motor complex regulates mammalian autophagy". The Journal of Cell Biology ... for degradation by the same cellular machinery and regulatory mechanisms that target host mitochondria for degradation.[70] ... able to initiate autophagy against intracellular pathogens. When galectin-8 binds to a damaged vacuole, it recruits an ...
"Strategies and mechanisms for host and pathogen survival in acute and persistent viral infections". Proceedings of the National ... An organism that does not cause disease itself but transmits infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another ... and therefore the virus is required to disperse to new hosts before it is destroyed by immunological resistance or host death.[ ... but viruses differ in that they must also enter into the host's actual cells. Once the virus has gained access to the host's ...
Host plant. The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the ... Chaerani, Reni; VoorripsEmail author, Roeland E. (2006). "Tomato early blight (Alternaria solani): the pathogen, genetics, and ... This was exacerbated by the interaction of the tomato's acidic juice with pewter plates.[22] The leaves and immature fruit ... Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261-275. doi:10.1007/ ...
"PLoS Pathogens. 9 (10): e1003657. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003657. PMC 3794996. PMID 24130481.. ... Host cell invasion and replication by the influenza virus. The steps in this process are discussed in the text. ... an alternative approach has been proposed where the periodic pandemics are produced by interactions of a fixed set of viral ... "PLoS Pathogens. 3 (10): 1470-76. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151. PMC 2034399. PMID 17953482.. ...
Subsequently, interaction between FcεRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE signals the eosinophil to degranulate. ... which has bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell. The most common Fc receptor on the surface of an NK cell is ...
"Gut Pathogens. BioMed Central. 1 (15). doi:10.1186/1757-4749-1-15. PMC 2718892. PMID 19602288.. ... "NOD2 MEDIATES HOST RESISTANCE TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS INFECTION" (PDF). McGill ...
However, it is more likely that diversification is driven by evasion of pathogen infection mechanism (e.g. Helicobacter ... "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". Current Opinion in Virology. Viral ...
Host-pathogen interactions in sepsis.. van der Poll T1, Opal SM. ... The outcome of this interaction determines the fate of the host ... A complex and dynamic interaction exists between pathogens and host immune-defence mechanisms during the course of invasive ... This Review summarises current knowledge of microbial pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions during sepsis and the ensuing ... Some pathogens have acquired the capacity to communicate with each other and sense the hosts vulnerabilities. Bidirectional ...
... microbiologists and immunologists will discuss in joint sessions recent progress in our understanding of host-pathogen ... Innate Immunity in Host-Pathogen Interactions Conference 28th June to 1st July 2020 Heidelberg, Germany Website: https://www. ... and immunologists will discuss in joint sessions recent progress in our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Check the ...
The disease table stores information on the diseases which are caused by a pathogen host interaction. Information on the host ... PHI-base: a new database for pathogen host interactions.. Winnenburg R1, Baldwin TK, Urban M, Rawlings C, Köhler J, Hammond- ... of which 176 are from animal pathogens, 227 from plant pathogens and 3 from pathogens with a fungal host. PHI-base is the first ... Each gene in PHI-base was tested in one or several interactions with a host. Each interaction is supported by at least one ...
... Hadi M. Yassine. ,1. ,. 2 Syed M. Moin. ,3 Farhan S. Cyprian. ,4 Adam K ... would be helpful to experts and broad audience alike in enhancing their understanding of the complex host-pathogen interactions ... On the other hand, pathogens have evolved multiple mechanisms to combat the host immune system as they establish infections. In ... LCMV is a zoonotic pathogen, of which rodents are the natural reservoir. Although the majority of persons infected with LCMV ...
... molecular events at the tick-host, host-pathogen and tick-pathogen interfaces, interactions between pathogens and the tick ... Although our understanding of tick-host-pathogen interactions remain limited, advances in this field are facilitated by the ... The elucidation of factors resulting in vector competence and tick-host-pathogen interactions broadens our understanding of ... including tick host preferences, duration of attachment, the pathogens ability to cross (epithelial) barriers raised by tick ...
... Roger P. Wise rpwise at Tue Sep 22 20:04:05 EST 1998 *Previous message: ... Molecular Biology of Host Resistance to Fungal Pathogens Postdoctoral Research Associate (Plant Molecular Geneticist) available ... gene sequences as traps in the yeast two-hybrid system to identify interacting gene products in the host and/or pathogen. These ... hosts numerous music concerts, live performances, and athletic events throughout the year. ,underline,About the Wise Lab ,/ ...
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has many morphological forms. Recent advances in genomics and cell biology are ... Candida morphogenesis and host-pathogen interactions Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004 Aug;7(4):350-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2004.06.005. ... The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has many morphological forms. Recent advances in genomics and cell biology are ...
My interest in host-pathogen interactions started during my MSc studies, where I investigated why some mice are resistant to ... Dr Musa Hassan on host-pathogen interactions. Why some individuals get sick while others dont, challenges in science, drug ... 16/01/2019 - Dr Musa Hassan on host-pathogen interactions. *18/12/2018 - Prof. Andrea Wilson on the genetics of disease and ... Dr Musa Hassan is a Chancellors Fellow working in host-pathogen interactions at The Roslin Institute. In this interview, he ...
Recent studies on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonellosis using genome sequencing, murine models, and patient studies have ... The interaction of Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like ... This can partly explain the different immune responses both serovars induce upon entering their host. Similar genome ... Primary NTS bacteremia can occur in the immunocompromised host and infants in sub-Saharan Africa. ...
Nagihan Bostanci, Nathalie Selevsek, Witold Wolski, Jonas Grossmann, Kai Bao, Asa Wahlander, Christian Trachsel, Ralph Schlapbach, Veli Özgen Öztürk, Beral Afacan, Gulnur Emingil and Georgios N. Belibasakis ...
Multi-scale modeling provides the holistic view needed in the investigation of pathogen-host molecular interactions. However, ... To this aim, systems biology approach considers the whole PHI system instead of focusing hosts or pathogens individually. ... Pathogen-Host Interactions (PHIs) play a significant role in the mechanisms of infections. Therefore, the investigation of ... Editorial: Computational Systems Biology of Pathogen-Host Interactions. Saliha Durmuş1*, Tunahan Çakır1 and Reinhard Guthke2 ...
Host-pathogen Interaction in Otitis Media Official Title Thorough Clinical Investigation of the Host-pathogen Interaction in ... Host-pathogen Interaction in Otitis Media (OMVac). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... the role of bacterial and viral pathogens, the role of recurrent infection in relation to biofilm formation, and the host ... Determination of the molecular and cellular immune response in relation to viral and bacterial pathogens [ Time Frame: 15-04-08 ...
... which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen ... Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, ... Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, ... Abrogation of host cell apoptosis is often beneficial for the pathogen and results in a successful host invasion. However, in ... Miller L K 1997 Baculovirus interaction with host apoptotic pathways;J. Cell Physiol. 173 178-182CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Interaction Hôtes Pathogènes Environnements - IHPE) research unit aims to describe the mechanisms that govern the interactions ... and also to characterise the physiological and adaptive responses of oysters and their pathogens to environmental pressures. ... between marine invertebrates (mainly the Pacific oyster, Crassostreagigas), their pathogens and the environment, ... Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions research unit The goals of the Host-Pathogen-Environment (Interaction Hôtes Pathogènes ...
Host-Pathogen Interactions in Plant Disease by J. E. Van der Plank, 9780127114200, available at Book Depository with free ... The analysis of these surveys not only explains a great deal about host-pathogen interactions that was heretofore obscure, but ... This book describes the genetics, biochemistry, and epidemiology of host-pathogen interactions in plant disease, especially as ... 5.6 Host and Pathogen Ranges as Limitations 5.7 Glossary 6 The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis. 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Biotrophy and ...
... pathogen interactions with host demography. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of the pathogen-free equilibrium and ... The effect of time delay in plant--pathogen interactions with host demography. Bruno Buonomo 1, and Marianna Cerasuolo 2, ... pathogen interactions with host demography. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of the pathogen-free equilibrium and ... The effect of time delay in plant--pathogen interactions with host demography. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2015, 12 ...
Host-pathogen interactions. Re-trafficking proteins to fight Salmonella infections Scientists including members of EMBLs Typas ... A stepwise retreat: how immune cells catch pathogens To protect us from disease our immune system employs macrophages, cells ...
... Taheri, Nayyer Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, ... The innate immune system is known for protecting the host against invading pathogens, for instance enteropathogens infecting ... Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent human pathogen and a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. In humans, C. ... Body temperature differs between human (37 °C) and avian (42 °C) hosts, and bacterial growth in 37 °C is therefore a potential ...
Host-pathogen Interactions During Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection (LTBI). Even though LTBI is estimated to affect ...
New neutrophil models for studying host-fungal pathogen interactions. Michael K Mansour, Zeina Dagher, Paige Negoro, Michelle ... New neutrophil models for studying host-fungal pathogen interactions. Michael K Mansour, Zeina Dagher, Paige Negoro, Michelle ... New neutrophil models for studying host-fungal pathogen interactions Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... New neutrophil models for studying host-fungal pathogen interactions. Michael K Mansour, Zeina Dagher, Paige Negoro, Michelle ...
Kanury Rao shared his insights with the students and faculty about his groundbreaking work on the host-pathogen interplay ... Kanury Rao shared his insights with the students and faculty about his groundbreaking work on the host-pathogen interplay ... Mtb has a set of tricks up its sleeve that help it survive and evade the host immune system. In order to find a suitable drug ... There is a pressing need to combat this pathogen since it is notorious in developing resistance, both to individual and ...
Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Host and Pathogen Copper-Transporting P-Type ATPases Function ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. SipA Activation of Caspase-3 Is a Decisive Mediator of Host ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Specific Human and Candida Cellular Interactions Lead to ... Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions , Spotlight. A Farnesylated Coxiella burnetii Effector Forms a ...
Host-symbiont-pathogen interactions in blood-feeding parasites: nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange - Volume 145 ... Cell Host & Microbe 21, 629-636.. Fontaine, A, et al. (2011) Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host- ... 2017) Parasite microbiome project: systematic investigation of microbiome dynamics within and across parasite-host interactions ... vector interactions. Parasites & Vectors 4, 187.. Geiger, A, et al. (2016) Escaping deleterious immune response in their hosts ...
... \ Most of the terminology used to define the host-microbe interaction has been in use for ... Related Conference of Host and Pathogen Interactions. November 22-23, 2018. 8th International Conference on Bacteriology and ... information about the attributes of microbes and their hosts resulted in the understanding that the host pathogen interaction ... This recognition, in turn, led to the introduction of terms to explain states in which microbes exist within hosts without ...
Sanford Burnham Prebys presents 4th Annual Host-Pathogen Interactions: Circuits to Systems Symposium - Tuesday, February 6, ... 4th Annual Host-Pathogen Interactions: Circuits to Systems Symposium at Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine 2880 ... The 4th Annual Systems Biology and Host-Pathogen Interactions Symposium is FREE to attend, but registration is required for all ... Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern host-pathogen interactions is a subject of intense research in the field of ...
Towards Data Analytics of Pathogen-Host Protein-Protein Interaction: A Survey ... Developed at and hosted by The College of Information Sciences and Technology ...
Integrated molecular imaging reveals tissue heterogeneity driving host-pathogen interactions. *View ORCID ProfileJames E. ... We focused on the competition for iron as a paradigm for critical host-pathogen interactions. Iron is one of the most important ... Integrated molecular imaging reveals tissue heterogeneity driving host-pathogen interactions. By James E. Cassat, Jessica L. ... Integrated molecular imaging reveals tissue heterogeneity driving host-pathogen interactions. By James E. Cassat, Jessica L. ...
Intravital two-photon microscopy of host-pathogen interactions in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus skin abscess formation ... Intravital two-photon microscopy of host-pathogen interactions in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus skin abscess formation ... Velazquez, P., Waite, J.C., and Dustin, M.L. (2007) Dynamics of host defense: the view at the front lines. Nat Immunol 8: 1153- ... Kielian, T., Bearden, E.D., Baldwin, A.C., and Esen, N. (2004) IL-1 and TNF-alpha play a pivotal role in the host immune ...
In Silico Designing and Analysis of Inhibitors against Target Protein Identified through Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions in ... "In Silico Designing and Analysis of Inhibitors against Target Protein Identified through Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions in ...
... Title: Host-pathogen interactions in Lyme ... Host-pathogen interactions in Lyme disease and their application in diagnostics. Leiden Repository. ... After effective transmission from the tick to the host the next challenge in B. burgdorferi infection is rapid and accurate ... B. burgdorferi has a wide variety of strategies to hide from the host immune system. Complement regulatory binding proteins ...
  • Moreover, evidence is accumulating that microbial virulence and bacterial load contribute to the host response and the outcome of severe infections. (
  • Through the set up of a new prospective cohort in a clinical setting, relevant patient characteristics, the role of bacterial and viral pathogens, the role of recurrent infection in relation to biofilm formation, and the host response at protein level will be studied in detail. (
  • Diagnostics of Lyme disease is often compromised due to specific pathogen properties combined with technical shortcomings of bacterial serology. (
  • Acute respiratory infections caused by bacterial or viral pathogens are among the most common reasons for seeking medical care. (
  • Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells. (
  • Several genome-wide screens have been conducted to identify host cell factors involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens whose virulence is dependent on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), nanomachines responsible for the translocation of proteins into host cells. (
  • While maintaining continuity in topics, the meeting concept will be evolved by introducing novel sessions on bacterial defenses against innate immunity, an area prominently covered by abstract submissions in the 2016 meeting, and on fungus host interactions, an under-researched area of great medical importance. (
  • We specifically explore their suitability for dynamic in vitro bioimaging of interactions between bacterial pathogens and host cells, and further demonstrate the facile surface functionalization of the amorphous silica layer with antibodies for selective cell targeting. (
  • This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria-host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. (
  • Neurological disorders such as bacterial meningitis, sepsis, and brain abscess formation are mostly linked to bacterial pathogens (Join-Lambert et al. (
  • This Review will discuss how several bacterial and fungal infection models in zebrafish embryos have led to new insights into the dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms at play when pathogens encounter host macrophages. (
  • Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. (
  • Gabriel Gomila's Nanoscale Bioelectrical Characterization group and that of Antonio Juárez, Microbial Biotechnology and Host-pathogen Interaction, combined their expertise on microscopic electrical measurements and bacteria respectively to come up with a way to study the response to external electrical fields of just a single bacterial cell. (
  • The Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens headed by its director Prof. Emmanuelle Charpentier is seeking a full time Project Leader with excellent skills and knowledge in the field of Infection Biology, Immunity and Host-Bacterial Pathogen Interaction. (
  • The Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens is an international research institute currently being established, whose research focuses on basic biological principles in bacterial pathogens ( ). (
  • We are particular interested in genetic and biochemical mechanisms of regulation by RNAs and proteins in bacterial pathogens causing diseases in humans, and in viruses of these pathogens. (
  • Within our research topics (Infection Biology and Immunity/Host-Bacterial Pathogen Interaction, ) we are seeking a highly motivated and talented Project Leader to join an international and collaborative team in an outstanding and competitive scientific environment. (
  • Collaboration on the part of several researchers has allowed the dissemination of these techniques to other laboratories and the creation of the NEMO network ( project no. 99-05 ), dedicated to the development of alternative models to study bacterial pathogens. (
  • In the present project no. 90-03 , supported by the 3R Research Foundation, unicellular Dictyostelium amoebae were used as alternative hosts to study bacterial pathogens. (
  • All these bacterial virulence traits are essential during the infection of a mammalian host, and all of them can be measured by using a Dictyostelium host. (
  • In an effort to extend our results to other bacterial pathogens, we defined conditions in which the virulence of various Aeromonas species could be tested against Dictyostelium . (
  • One critical parameter determining the outcome of a bacterial infection is the potency of the host defences. (
  • Replication of Salmonella typhimurium inside its host cell is a model system for studying the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections. (
  • Genome-scale modeling of bacterial metabolic networks provides a powerful tool to identify and analyze pathways required for successful intracellular replication during host-pathogen interaction. (
  • We are using structural methods to study the interactions of quorum sensing molecules with bacterial and host receptors. (
  • Bacterial pathogens adapt to their host environments predominantly by switching on complex transcriptional programs, and whole-genome microarray experiments promise to uncover this complexity. (
  • Several non-adhesin functional classes of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are known to provide protection against bacterial infections. (
  • A web server, Jenner-Predict, has been developed for prediction of PVCs from proteomes of bacterial pathogens. (
  • A web-accessible database that catalogues experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from fungal, Oomycete and bacterial pathogens, which infect animal, plant, fungal and insect hosts. (
  • It has also expanded into structural studies of RNA binding proteins from bacterial pathogens and simple eukaryotes that regulate the assembly of the ribosome. (
  • This work has seen structures determined for proteins from the bacterial periplasm responsible for metabolite transport across the inner membrane, protein folding & establishment of the outer membrane and mechanisms for avoiding the host immune system. (
  • Likewise, we now know that bacterial pathogens harness a large suite of noncoding RNA molecules to adapt to environmental stress and to precisely regulate their virulence programs. (
  • Bacterial infections of mammalian hosts are arguably among the most complex biological processes, often comprising a multitude of interacting organisms from different kingdoms. (
  • How do bacterial pathogens promote infection and what defense mechanisms do they have to overcome in order to colonize? (
  • The focus of our research is to determine the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens interact with their host, then use this information to understand the specific immune responses essential for fighting infections and maintaining immune homeostasis in the body. (
  • Given that we aim to characterise host innate immune signalling pathways that protect against bacterial gut infection, we also have a keen interest in whether these pathways play a role in maintaining homeostasis of the gut in general. (
  • Here we show that systemic infection of Drosophila adult flies with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli , the extracellular bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens or the facultative intracellular pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica results in intestinal steatosis marked by lipid accumulation in the midgut. (
  • Besides causing direct damage associated with blood feeding and in some cases through the excretion of toxins with their saliva, the main relevance of ticks lies in the wide variety of pathogens that they can transmit, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. (
  • This thesis focuses on how the Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni affect the host, either directly via type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins or via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and how host factors potentially affect their virulence. (
  • However, they are also of medical importance as they can be infected by pathogens such as bacteria, protists or viruses that take advantage of the blood-feeding nutritional strategy for own transmission. (
  • Many pathogenic bacteria, such as food-borne Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum, secrete toxins into the host to cause symptoms. (
  • This causes an immune response, resulting in common symptoms as phagocytes break down the bacteria within the host. (
  • Many of the bacteria aid in the breaking down of nutrients for the host and, in return, our bodies act as their ecosystem. (
  • Understanding of host-pathogen interactions is at the heart of fighting pathogens involved in infectious diseases (bacteria, viruses). (
  • While Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenza OmpP2 is able to target the common carboxy-terminal domain of LR to start initial interaction with brain endothelium, then invade the brain. (
  • Since he was not a microbiologist or immunologist, it took a good deal of scientific courage for Jean-Pierre Gorvel to launch himself, 18 years ago, into the study of interactions between pathogenic bacteria and the cells they infect. (
  • We also review how bacteria chat via chemical signals integrated with metabolite recognition and utilization to promote successful associations among enteric pathogens, the microbiota, and the host. (
  • After passing the mucosal layer and finding the enterocytes, EHEC expresses a T3SS, which forms a structure similar to a needle that allows the bacteria to inject secreted proteins into host cells. (
  • Pathogenic bacteria employ multiple systems to sense and respond to these cues to interact with the microbiota and the host. (
  • To mediate colonization of host and/or environmental habitats, Gram-negative bacteria encode a highly conserved family of adhesive pili called chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) pili. (
  • Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions play key roles in the ability of virulent bacteria to adapt to the host environment and cause disease. (
  • Studying the interaction of pathogenic bacteria with a host [*] necessitates the controlled infection of a host. (
  • The biofilm provides a protective microenvironment that shields the bacteria from the host immune system, and also from drug treatments. (
  • Moreover, in gene expression experiments the bacteria can be used as 'sensors' to report the environment they experience at selected phases during the infection pathogen-esis. (
  • We work from both the host side (drosophila) and the pathogen side (bacteria and fungi). (
  • Pathogens such as viruses and various vibrio bacteria have been described for their involvement in these mortalities. (
  • These pathogens are able to colonise a wide range of human and animal hosts and in humans, they can cause disease ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic disease, depending on the serovar of the bacteria. (
  • A complex and dynamic interaction exists between pathogens and host immune-defence mechanisms during the course of invasive infection. (
  • On the other hand, pathogens have evolved multiple mechanisms to combat the host immune system as they establish infections. (
  • the authors described how Taenia crassiceps -excreted/secreted antigens (TcES) can modulate proinflammatory responses in macrophages by inducing regulatory posttranscriptional mechanisms and, hence, reduce detrimental outcomes in hosts running with inflammatory diseases. (
  • Pathogen-Host Interactions (PHIs) play a significant role in the mechanisms of infections. (
  • The goals of the Host-Pathogen-Environment ( Interaction Hôtes Pathogènes Environnements - IHPE) research unit aims to describe the mechanisms that govern the interactions between marine invertebrates (mainly the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ), their pathogens and the environment, and also to characterise the physiological and adaptive responses of oysters and their pathogens to environmental pressures. (
  • The IFREMER staff belong to the "Mechanisms of interaction and adaptation in the marine environment" group ( Mécanismes d'interaction et d'adaptation en milieu marin ) of UMR 5244 which is located on the University of Montpellier campus. (
  • The research unit develops integrative approaches to the study of host-pathogen interactions by considering many influential environmental parameters at various scales (from molecular mechanisms to evolutionary processes). (
  • Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern host-pathogen interactions is a subject of intense research in the field of infectious disease. (
  • The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. (
  • In particular, various recently established zebrafish infectious disease models are contributing substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms by which different pathogens interact with macrophages and evade host innate immunity. (
  • Selective forces acting on both sides have driven the evolution of a wide variety of virulence mechanisms in pathogens and alternative control mechanisms in their hosts. (
  • Understanding how plants and pathogens modulate gene expression during the host-pathogen interaction is key to uncovering the molecular mechanisms that regulate disease progression. (
  • Viral interactions within host cells can vary based on multiple factors, including the genetic makeup of the host, and these variations can impact mechanisms of viral replication and immune evasion. (
  • Genome-wide association mapping of the pathogen showed that virulence is highly polygenic and involves a diversity of mechanisms. (
  • Breeding against this pathogen would likely require the use of diverse isolates to capture all possible mechanisms. (
  • The disease outcome is the sum of host plant susceptibility/resistance and pathogen virulence/sensitivity mechanisms. (
  • In addition to their effects on the activation of host defence, recent studies suggest that pathogenic fungi can modulate or interfere with the pattern recognition mechanisms of innate immunity, and can use pattern recognition receptors as mechanisms of escape from host defence. (
  • Mechanisms of action of Coxiella burnetii effectors inferred from host-pathogen protein interactions. (
  • Mining host-pathogen protein interactions to characterize Burkholderia mallei infectivity mechanisms. (
  • The inflammasome pathway is an important part of the host defence response to infection, and so microbes have evolved various mechanisms to evade this response. (
  • Since pathogen related disease is responsible for millions of deaths and billions of dollars in damage to crops and livestock, understanding the mechanisms employed by pathogens to infect their hosts is critical in the development of new and effective therapeutic strategies. (
  • The group of Alexander Westermann focuses on investigating molecular RNA-based mechanisms that allow infecting pathogens to outcompete the resident microbiota. (
  • In our lab, we aim to understand the virulence mechanisms of these pathogens and concurrently the host mechanisms that mediate protection against, or increased susceptibility to disease. (
  • This Review summarises current knowledge of microbial pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions during sepsis and the ensuing development of potential therapeutics. (
  • This thesis describes in molecular detail novel tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis, contributing to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this emerging zoonotic disease. (
  • Transgenic labeling of innate immune cell lineages within the larval zebrafish allows for real-time, in vivo analyses of microbial pathogenesis within a vertebrate host. (
  • mBio 9:e01003-18, 2018, ) screened a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9) knockout library for host proteins involved in the pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). (
  • Interestingly, a recent study by Pacheco and colleagues, based on the findings of a genome-wide screen for host factors involved in pathogenesis, suggests a previously unrecognized link between these two important virulence determinants that can be exploited for the development of new therapeutic interventions for this important pathogen ( 1 ). (
  • Exciting new insights into the molecular pathogenesis and host-virus interactions have been gained over the past few decades. (
  • The pathogenesis of infectious diseases depends on the interaction of host and pathogen. (
  • This review provides our current understanding of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity for the development of genetically defined efficient vaccine strains. (
  • Additionally, conditions required for an effective Brucella vaccine strain as well as the future research direction needed to investigate Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity are postulated. (
  • The University of Maryland NIH T32 training grant supported program in Host- Pathogen Interactions immerses students in interdisciplinary host-pathogen research, striving to integrate advances in pathogenesis with genomics, bioinformatics and engineering. (
  • Better prediction accuracy of Jenner-Predict web server signifies that domains involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are better criteria for prediction of PVCs. (
  • In particular, at the cellular and molecular level, interactions between a pathogen and its host play a vital role in initiating infection and a successful pathogenesis. (
  • Bidirectional signals are detectable at the critical interface between the host and microbial invaders. (
  • Recent advances in biotechnology have enhanced our knowledge of the complex interplay that occurs between the host and invading pathogens following infection, through understanding of the microbial virulence strategies as well as the host's approaches to combat the infection. (
  • This microbial diversity not only puts the host into a complicated situation - distinguishing between microorganisms that can greatly decrease or increase its fitness - but also increases opportunity for horizontal gene transfer to occur in this environment. (
  • Moreover, the microbial composition of the human GI tract varies with age, diet, host genetics, and external insults like antibiotic treatments ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • The intestinal environment hosts a diverse microbial community that modifies and shapes the composition of the metabolites and chemical signals within the gut. (
  • A better understanding of infectious diseases will come from the simultaneous analysis of microbial and host variables, which may open new avenues for treatment and prevention strategies. (
  • Antonio Juárez's Microbial Technology and Host-Pathogen Interaction lab has formed a consortium with CZV Veterinaria, a leader in the manufacture of veterinary products based in Porriño, Galicia, and Valls Companys' pharmaceutical arm MEVET in Lleida. (
  • The significance of this concept has become more and more important as the studies showing the impact of the microbial compartment on the fitness of the host and its role in many physiological functions, from reproduction to development, operation of epithelial barriers, immunity, etc. have accumulated. (
  • Another new interesting aspect highlighted by this theory is that of the interaction between a slow evolving macroorganism and a labile microbial community that can change and adapt quickly (microbiota) and from new selective traits may emerge thus influencing the adaptability of this species. (
  • Professor Pierre Cosson's research group (including Mohammed Benghezal, Laeticia Alibaud, Romain Froquet) has been using Dictyostelium as a model to study host-pathogen interactions for the past 10 years. (
  • This review discusses the significance of various pathways/steps during virus-mediated modulation of host cell apoptosis. (
  • Plant disease is mediated by complex interactions among diverse host and pathogen molecular pathways. (
  • Herbivores may allow secondary fungal infection after wounding a plant or they may alter host susceptibility by inducing changes in plant defence pathways. (
  • CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that there is a robust minimal set of metabolic pathways that is required for successful replication of Salmonella inside the host cell. (
  • First, we discuss analytical tools for studying host-pathogen networks to identify common pathways perturbed and manipulated by pathogens. (
  • WAKs are under a group of receptor-like kinases (RLK) that are actively involved in sensory and signal transduction pathways especially in response to foreign attacks by pathogens and in cell development. (
  • This observation, along with the "foamy phenotype" caused by excess production of triacylglycerols associated with infected macrophages, coupled with a unique perspective of looking at the problem on hand, helped Dr. Rao to elucidate an elegant mechanism by means of which Mtb becomes resistant to host immunity. (
  • In contrast, the pes3 gene product favours pathogen clearance, possibly by facilitating recognition of host innate immunity. (
  • In this review, we summarize the functional developments and mechanism of action of lncRNAs, in immunity and defense of host against pathogens. (
  • In forthcoming sections, we provide the basis for the subsequent functional and mechanistic analysis of individual lncRNAs under the headings of immunity and host pathogen interaction. (
  • Postdoctoral Research Associate Genetics / Molecular Biology of Host Resistance to Fungal Pathogens Postdoctoral Research Associate (Plant Molecular Geneticist) available to investigate the genetics and molecular biology of resistance to the obligate fungal pathogen, Erysiphe graminis, in barley. (
  • Interactions between plants and compatible fungal pathogens are spatially and temporally dynamic, posing a major challenge for sampling and data analysis. (
  • We outline a method for the preparation of long-term stocks of virulent fungal pathogens and for the generation of fungal inoculants for challenge of host plants. (
  • Given the significance of this system in overall defense, pathogens affect and/or manipulate immune cells and responses in favor of their own survival. (
  • Neutrophils are terminally differentiated phagocytic cells that represent the first line of defense against pathogens. (
  • and zebrafish during infection, the infection-related protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the two species and the intercellular PPI network between host and pathogen were simultaneously constructed by a dynamic interaction model, modeled as an integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection. (
  • Intracellular pathogens establish infections by interacting with host cells and suppressing innate human defense systems. (
  • The anti- T. gondii defense response of the feline host was mediated by Major Histocompatibility Complex class I, proteasomes, heat-shock proteins and fatty acid binding proteins. (
  • The conference will cover all areas of molecular and clinical research within this topic including pathogen invasion, adaptation, host defense, pathogen life cycle and immune system response. (
  • The various invertebrates studied in the IHPE laboratory indeed give us today the unique opportunity to explore the impact of the nature and dynamics of the microbiota on their health status and survival as well as their adaptive capabilities (defense against parasites or opportunistic pathogens, resistance to environmental variations). (
  • Here, we will discuss six zebrafish models for important human pathogens ( Mycobacterium , Salmonella , Burkholderia , Staphylococcus , Shigella and Candida ), emphasizing the novel insights that these models have recently provided into macrophage biology and highlighting how this could lead to the finding of new host-derived therapeutic strategies. (
  • In summary, the concepts, techniques and technologies developed as part of this thesis have the potential to contribute not only to the understanding PPI analysis between human and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but can be extended to other pathogens. (
  • The files contain predictions made for 10 human pathogens including species of Mycobacterium, Apicomplexa, and Kinetoplastida. (
  • PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. (
  • Findings were published earlier this week in PLOS Pathogens. (
  • These findings are in agreement with clinical observations of decreased transplacental transmission and less severe fetal phenotypes of viral pathogens acquired in later gestation. (
  • HIV and Hepatitis B are viral infections caused by blood-borne pathogens. (
  • The lysogenic cycle, however, is when the viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome, allowing it to go unnoticed by the immune system. (
  • Total number of 319 research papers was used to compile the information regarding drug development against viral pathogens. (
  • These studies are being extended to viral RNPs (the physiological RNA synthesis units) to understand the behaviour of the viral nucleoprotein during replication and transcription and to include host factors important for viral replication. (
  • 2018. "Modulation of the Fungal-Host Interaction by the Intra-Species Diversity of C. albicans . (
  • A post-doctoral position is available in the "Biology of Gram-positive Pathogens" Unit led by Prof. Patrick Trieu-Cuot in the Microbiology Department of the Institut Pasteur (Paris, France). (
  • In general, novel or drug-resistant pathogens will continue to emerge, but I think the fundamental questions about host-pathogen interactions, or differential susceptibility/virulence will not change. (
  • Thus, induced susceptibility to race 4 at 32(DEGREES)C was not due to inability to produce elicitors in culture, lack of activity at 32(DEGREES)C, or inability of the host to produce glyceollin at 32(DEGREES)C. Fluids recovered from the intercellular spaces of uninfected and infected soybeans were also examined for the presence of elicitors. (
  • A CREB3-ARF4 signalling pathway mediates the response to golgi stress and susceptibility to pathogens. (
  • We have identified important reliable pathogen PPI datasets that can be used for the analysis of host?pathogen PPIs studies in Chapter 2, which also enables the topological and sequence properties analysis for the first time on the pathogen side. (
  • The technical, human and laboratory resources at the unit makes it possible to analyse large (meta)genomic and transcriptomic datasets on hosts and their microorganisms or pathogens simultaneously to study their interactions in their globality, under controlled conditions or in natural populations. (
  • Animals are common hosts of mutualistic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. (
  • In this review, I first introduce this diversity of mutualistic and pathogenic microorganisms associated with blood-feeding animals and then focus on patterns in their interactions, particularly nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange. (
  • This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. (
  • Since then, many other organisms have been identified as pathogens, such as H. pylori and E. coli, which have allowed scientists to develop antibiotics to combat these harmful microorganisms. (
  • Enteric foodborne pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, or the surrogate murine infection model for EHEC, Citrobacter rodentium , are all examples of microorganisms that modulate the expression of their virulence repertoire in response to signals from the microbiota or the host, such as autoinducer-3 (AI-3), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE). (
  • Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of microorganisms by pathogen recognition receptors induces signals responsible for the activation of genes important for an effective host defence, especially those of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • In this context, the hologenome is defıned as the sum of the genetic information of the host and its symbiotic microorganisms. (
  • Potential CRASP-1 proteins will be cloned and studied for their ability to interact with host derived fluid phase regulators of complement. (
  • Understanding how pathogens interact with their hosts at molecular, cellular and whole animal levels is essential to the development of strategies to control the spread of disease. (
  • In the field, diseased host plants are likely to interact with arthropods that may substantially impact the disease by influencing spread or condition of the shared host. (
  • Post-harvest, during storage, arthropods may also interact with Fusarium pathogens, with instances of fungivory and altered behaviour by arthropods towards volatile chemicals from infected grain. (
  • Francisella tularensis , and Coxiella burnetii and the host proteins with which they interact. (
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-carrying multifunctional organelles, which might also interact with pathogens and influence the host immune response. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) rely upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate their replication. (
  • The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. (
  • Viruses can also infect the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response. (
  • this is when the virus inserts its DNA or RNA into the host cell, replicates, and eventually causes the cell to lyse, releasing more viruses into the environment. (
  • Exposure to influenza viruses is necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy human hosts to develop symptomatic illness. (
  • Background: Viruses are the most devastating pathogens of almost all life forms including humans and animals. (
  • Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. (
  • These cytoplasmically-replicating viruses includes several emerging, vector-borne human pathogens e.g. (
  • Some plasmodiophorids cause additional damage to their host by serving as vectors for viruses. (
  • So, in a nutshell, I study the biology that underpins the different outcomes of host-pathogen encounters by looking at the biological processes occurring in both the host and pathogen during an infection. (
  • To this aim, systems biology approach considers the whole PHI system instead of focusing hosts or pathogens individually. (
  • The 4th Annual Systems Biology and Host-Pathogen Interactions Symposium is FREE to attend, but registration is required for all attendees. (
  • 4 Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. (
  • To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus , we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. (
  • To study the influence of Inc proteins on host cell biology we used the method of transient expression of genes from a eukaryotic expression plasmid, followed by the analysis of the resulting host cell phenotype. (
  • An important aspect of systems biology is the elucidation of the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that control important biological processes within a cell and between organisms. (
  • The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has many morphological forms. (
  • The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. (
  • Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, encodes phospholipases of type A, B, C and D. Type B Plb2 and type D Pld1 phospholipases have been shown to contribute to virulence in this organism. (
  • We have focused on the interaction of the Ixodes tick salivary gland protein, Salp15, with both B. burgdorferi as well as the mammalian immune system. (
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs at an alarming rate among all classes of mammalian pathogens. (
  • We present the first global comparison of the host-pathogen PPI networks of 190 different pathogens and their interactions with human proteins. (
  • A formidable array of innate and acquired immune defences must be breached if a pathogen is to successfully disseminate and cause severe sepsis and septic shock. (
  • The innate immune system is known for protecting the host against invading pathogens, for instance enteropathogens infecting the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • C. jejuni OMV interactions with innate immune cells were studied by analyses of OMV-mediated inflammasome activation. (
  • Finally, we have chosen the Drosophila model organism to study the innate immune response of the host. (
  • Specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses which can function through various target interactions like RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein interaction and hence affect the immunogenic regulation at various stages of gene expression. (
  • A host transcriptional signature for presymptomatic detection of infection in humans exposed to influenza H1N1 or H3N2. (
  • Humans (an intermediate host) can be infected not only via eating meat containing parasite cysts, but also via accidental ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts [ 6 ], ingestion of oocysts in contaminated food sources [ 7 ], or via gardening or cleaning cat litter. (
  • During this week's invited talk at Amrita School of Biotechnology (ASBT) , Dr. Kanury Rao shared his insights with the students and faculty about his groundbreaking work on the host-pathogen interplay between human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis and the subsequent application of this research to drug discovery. (
  • The team now uses electron microscopy to elucidate in detail the nature of interactions between macrophages and these Mycobacteria. (
  • Strain-and host species-specific inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, and cell death in macrophages infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (
  • There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. (
  • Talks will focus on common processes, rather than particular infectious agents or host cell types, and the strategies of all major types of pathogens in their interaction with plants and animals will be covered. (
  • In this context, it is important to emphasize that "infection" does not equate "infectious disease," as for many infections it is the host response to the infection that causes disease. (
  • Infectious agents that coexist peacefully with immunocompetent hosts wreak havoc in those who lack a complete immune system. (
  • For any infectious process to occur, the pathogen and the host must first encounter each other. (
  • When ingested by intermediate hosts, infectious sporozoites are liberated from the oocysts and differentiate into tachyzoites in order to complete the life-cycle. (
  • Controlling and preventing infections require deep understanding of the complex interplay that occurs between the host and pathogen following infection. (
  • Minimal within-host dengue models highlight the specific roles of the immune response in primary and secondary dengue infections. (
  • Infections and the severity of infections are controlled by a complex interplay of the pathogen?s genetics, the host?s genetics, and the environment. (
  • There are some indications that induction of apoptosis in immune cells contribute to the suppression of the host immune system in some human coronavirus infections [10.1128/JVI.00269-12]. (
  • Such pathogens present real clinical problems in managing infections that were easily treatable just a few years ago. (
  • Some infections, most notably that caused by HIV, immunocompromise the host in and of themselves. (
  • Les travaux de recherche menés par les équipes du LPHI ont pour vocation d'apporter des connaissances nouvelles sur l'étude des membranes biologiques en particulier lors de processus infectieux parasitaires (paludisme, toxoplasmose), bactériens (tuberculose, salmonellose, infections à staphylocoque) et viraux (défenses antivirales). (
  • Using cutting-edge RNA-sequencing-based techniques, our research centers on the identification and functional characterization of noncoding RNA molecules in the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium, the important intestinal microbiota member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and the human host, to identify those RNAs that may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis or as therapeutic targets in the future. (
  • While some parasitic lineages are possibly asymbiotic and manage to supplement their diet from other food sources, other lineages are either loosely associated with extracellular gut symbionts or harbour intracellular obligate symbionts that are essential for the host development and reproduction. (
  • P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. (
  • We are seeking a PhD student to apply leading-edge bioinformatics analysis methods to decipher the interactions of the obligate intracellular human pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis , with its host cell. (
  • This is a web-accessible database that currently catalogs 405 experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from 54 fungal and Oomycete pathogens, of which 176 are from animal pathogens, 227 from plant pathogens and 3 from pathogens with a fungal host. (
  • Constraint-based analysis of metabolic capacity of Salmonella typhimurium during host-pathogen interaction. (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of the human lung in immunocompromised individuals and in particular in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. (
  • Dr. Wade Winkler and his HPI T32 Trainee Margo Gebbie recently published their exciting work in Science describing a riboswitch-containing sRNA that controls gene expression of the ethanolamine utilization locus in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis by sequestration of a two-component response regulator. (
  • These organisms would then be considered as communities of species, metaorganisms that would be the true unity of evolution resulting from the interaction of their own genome with that of their microbiota. (
  • Integrative approaches associating field sampling, controlled environment experiments and high-throughput molecular analysis methods, both at the taxonomic and functional levels (barcoding, metagenomics metatranscriptomics) should allow us to determine the importance of the microbiota in the functioning of these interactions in the light of major ecological crises affecting recurrently some of our models of interest facing global changes. (
  • Their research centers on the identification and functional characterization of noncoding RNA molecules in pathogens, microbiota members and the host, to identify those RNAs that may serve as biomarkers for diagnostics or as therapeutic targets. (
  • And what is the role of noncoding RNAs in host-microbiota-pathogen crosstalk? (
  • to reconstruct the temporal signaling network of the human host by integrating protein-protein interaction (PPI) and the phosphoproteomic data. (
  • Here, we combined genome-wide siRNA analyses with interrogation of human interactome databases to assemble a host-pathogen biochemical network containing 213 confirmed host cellular factors and 11 HIV-1-encoded proteins. (
  • Mutualism occurs when both the pathogen and the host benefit from the interaction, as seen in the human stomach. (
  • This is a crucial transition time for human genetics in general, and for HIV host genetics in particular. (
  • We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (
  • S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2. (
  • A postdoctoral fellow position is available immediately to study molecular interactions between Treponema species and the human host. (
  • Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction. (
  • Among the host-pathogen studies, most of them have focused on human-virus interactions and specifically human-HIV PPI data. (
  • The primary aim of this bioinformatics thesis was to develop a binary classifier with an appropriate feature set for host-pathogen protein-protein interaction prediction using published human-Hepatitis C virus PPI, and to test the model on available host-pathogen data for human-Bacillus anthracis PPI. (
  • Results show that five of the M-tuberculosis secretory proteins within an infected host macrophage that correspond to the mycobacterial virulent strain H37Rv were extracted from the human-M- tuberculosis PPI dataset predicted by our model. (
  • Phospholipases play an important role as virulence factors in human pathogens. (
  • We analyzed, in C. albicans, PLC2 and PLC3, two highly conserved genes coding for phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipases C with homology to the known virulence factor PlcA in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. (
  • In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first recognized.This emerging clinical entity is caused by a novel coronavirus that may have jumped from an animal niche to become a significant human pathogen. (
  • Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens. (
  • On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. (
  • In order to conduct a genome-wide loss-of-function CRISPR/Cas9-based screen of a pool of intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, Pacheco and colleagues first needed to identify infection conditions that promote significant host cell death. (
  • Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis. (
  • The immune system has evolved through the constant interplay between microbes and their multicellular hosts. (
  • Although the initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. (
  • Based on the predicted H. sapiens?M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs, we have observed some very important properties for both host and pathogen proteins involved in the host?pathogen PPIs. (
  • Supervised machine learning approaches have been applied successfully to the prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) within a single organism, i.e., intra-species predictions. (
  • However, because of the absence of large amounts of experimentally validated PPIs data for training and testing, fewer studies have successfully applied these techniques to host-pathogen PPI, i.e., inter-species comparisons. (
  • Using H. sapiens?M. tuberculosis H37Rv as a model, we have conducted a systematic computational study on host?pathogen PPIs. (
  • The second aim of the research presented here is the development of predictive models for identifying PPIs between host and pathogen proteins. (
  • Approaches may include, but are not limited to, isolation of cDNAs specific for candidate alleles, characterization of new Mla-mutant specificities, functional analyses of candidate alleles via barley and wheat transformation, or use of expressed resistance gene sequences as traps in the yeast two-hybrid system to identify interacting gene products in the host and/or pathogen. (
  • This book describes the genetics, biochemistry, and epidemiology of host-pathogen interactions in plant disease, especially as they concern the breeding of crops for disease resistance. (
  • There is a pressing need to combat this pathogen since it is notorious in developing resistance, both to individual and combinations of antibiotics commonly used in treating tuberculosis. (
  • To study how genetic variation within a crop affects plant resistance to generalist pathogens, we infected a collection of wild and domesticated tomato accessions with a genetically diverse population of the generalist pathogen Botrytis cinerea . (
  • the host attacking the pathogen (resistance) or defending and repairing itself (resilience) - the pathogen hijacking the host defences or simply hiding itself, and sometimes attacking the host. (
  • Although our understanding of tick-host-pathogen interactions remain limited, advances in this field are facilitated by the increasing number of available genomic resources, including metabolomic, transcriptomic and proteomic datasets of various ticks and TBPs, and the recently published genome sequence assembly for Ixodes scapularis, an important vector of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North America. (
  • Recent technological advances now allow us to even go beyond tissue or cell population level to measure changes in gene expression in individual cells, thereby providing new high resolution methods to answer some long-standing questions on host-pathogen encounters. (
  • Methods: The literature related to various aspects of virus-host interactions: new insights and advances in drug development was collected from several scientific research related databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, AGRICOLA, and Medline, etc. (
  • Recent advances in sequencing technologies have provided new opportunities to decode the complexity of such interactions. (
  • In addition, we show a delicate role for the host immune response in the genesis of Lyme borreliosis symptoms. (
  • Importantly, better understanding of the host immune response to Borrelia and ticks will bring us closer to the development of clear-cut diagnostic tests and therapeutic compounds that can specifically and favorably target the immune response against the bacterium. (
  • Within the host, pathogens can do a variety of things to cause disease and trigger the immune response. (
  • This process is sometimes thought to result from an aberrant host immune response. (
  • They found evidence that the immune response in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria was not necessarily dysregulated but instead an expected response to high pathogen load and also implicated neutrophils in this response. (
  • and the immune response of the host, and may help improve medical therapies and facilitate the development of new antifungal drugs. (
  • The computational prediction primarily exploits sequence information, protein structure and known interactions. (
  • Additional improvements to machine learning techniques and feature sets are important to improve the classification accuracy for host-pathogen protein-protein interactions prediction. (
  • Together with tools such as tick cell lines and the widespread adaptation of RNA interference (RNAi) to study tick gene function, this has opened possibilities to study pathogen infection and transmission by ticks in greater detail. (
  • We determined the structure and interactions of some of the 13 components of the T6SS, and we pursue the study of the system, including the trans-membrane domains. (
  • Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies have been developed. (
  • This study elucidates an unappreciated functional role for the molecular spring-like property of type 1 pilus rods in host-pathogen interactions and carries important implications for other pilus-mediated diseases. (
  • In this study, we used an RNA-based sequencing approach (RNA-seq) to assess the global expression profiles of the wheat yellow rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. (
  • The first goal of this study was to examine the role of a collection of unique chlamydial proteins, known as the Inc-proteins, in the host-pathogen interactions. (
  • In particular, this study highlights new aspects of the metabolism of amino acid Phe operative during the interaction between T. gondii and its host cell. (
  • This study revealed novel host factors, which may be critical for the successful establishment of an intracellular niche during T. gondii infection in the definitive feline host. (
  • We carry out an interdisciplinary study of amoebic diversity in the marine environment and the role of vibrios-amoeba interactions in the emergence of pathogens. (
  • In a search for factors involved in specificity, advantage was taken of the fact that the resistant interaction between soybean cv Altona and Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. (
  • It was demonstrated that expression of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) caviae IncA protects host cells from infection with C. caviae by blocking the development of chlamydiae inside of the host cells. (
  • By understanding the biological processes, both in the host and pathogen, that lead to the development or resolution of disease, I believe that my work can form the foundation for novel disease intervention strategies, including drug and vaccine development. (
  • The files contains the same information, but only for the subset of interactions that passed the biological and network-level filters. (
  • Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host. (
  • National and local thought leaders will discuss current gaps in our understanding of how pathogens manage to evade host immune surveillance and establish acute and chronic infection states. (
  • Host gene expression classifiers diagnose acute respiratory illness etiology. (
  • this contributes to shutdown of host cell gene expression. (
  • The host-pathogen interaction between wheat and yellow rust induces temporally coordinated waves of gene expression. (
  • Gene expression microarrays promise to accelerate our understanding of the host side of the host-patho gen interaction. (
  • The basic model consists of ex vivo measurement of gene expression of host cells before and after they are infected with a microorganism. (