The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of thin-shelled freshwater mussels in the family UNIONIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.

Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (1/3339)

Scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of Myxobolus cerebralis. The results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. The triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithelium and the buccal cavity of trout and used them as portals of entry. Exposure experiments of the triactinomyxon spores of M. cerebralis to non-salmonid fish, such as goldfish Carassius auratus, carp Cyprinus carpio, nose Chondrostoma nasus, medaka Oryzias latipes, guppy Poecilia reticulata and also the amphibian tadpole Rana pipiens as well as to rainbow trout fry indicated a specificity for salmonids. Attempts to activate the triactinomyxon spores by exposure to mucus prepared from cyprinid and salmonid fish showed no significant differences from those conducted in tap water. The results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both mechano- and chemotactic stimuli was required for finding the salmonid fish host.  (+info)

Nosema notabilis (Microsporidia), its ultrastructure and effect on the myxosporean host Ortholinea polymorpha. (2/3339)

Nosema notabilis Kudo, 1939 produces chain-forming meronts with a dense cell coat in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic microtubules and membranaceous whorls could be observed in meront cytoplasm. Sporonts differ in that they have a thicker cell wall and more conspicuous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. Sporoblasts have an externally ridged cell wall. Spores have an apically located anchoring disc, an isofilar polar tube with 6 to 9 turns and polyribosomal strands in the sporoplasm. Diplokarya occur in all stages. Heavily infected plasmodia of Ortholinea polymorpha (Davis, 1917) reveal marked pathological signs. The most prominent are reduction of surface projections and/or pinocytosis, inflated mitochondria with altered inner structures, affected vegetative nuclei, damage to generative cells and occurrence of various anomalous formations in the plasmodium cytoplasm. The damage may result in complete disintegration of the plasmodium. However, the development of the microsporidian is affected by a remarkably high percentage of teratological stages revealing membranaceous and tubular structures.  (+info)

Identification of Cryptosporidium felis in a cow by morphologic and molecular methods. (3/3339)

Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parasites infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. While some species are limited to a single host group, such as Cryptosporidium baileyi, which infects chickens, other species of this genus, such as C. parvum, infect a wide range of mammalian species from mice to humans. During an investigation of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle on a farm in northern Poland, we identified an infection caused by C. felis, in addition to known infections with C. muris and C. parvum. This new infection was identified based on the size of the oocysts (mean size, 4.3 +/- 0.4 micrometer; range, 3.5 to 5.0 micrometer), as well as by analysis of the molecular sequence of the variable region of the small-subunit rRNA. This finding demonstrates the complex host specificity and circulation in the environment of Cryptosporidium species.  (+info)

Karyotypes on three species of Chinese mesogastropod snails, Semisulcospira libertina, S. dolichostoma and Viviparus rivularis. (4/3339)

Three species of the families Viviparidae and Pleuroceridae, the first intermediate host of paragonimiasis, metagonimiasis and echinostomiasis were studied cytologically. The observed diploid chromosome number was as follows: Semisulcospira libertina 36, S. dolichostoma 34, and Viviparus rivularis 64. The mitotic chromosome complement of S. libertina has nine metacentric pairs and nine submetacentric pairs, and S. dolichostoma has three metacentric pairs and 14 submetacentric pairs of chromosomes. Viviparus rivularis showed two metacentric pairs and 30 submetacentric pairs of chromosomes.  (+info)

Growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C3H/HeN mice. (5/3339)

The growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi were studied in C3H/HeN mice and effects of immunosuppression of the host on the worm development were observed. Two hundred metacercariae of G. seoi were orally administered to each mouse, and worms were recovered on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 post-infection (PI). The worm recovery rate was significantly higher in immunosuppressed (ImSP) mice than in immunocompetent (ImCT) mice except on days 1 and 3 PI. The worms attained sexual maturity by day 3 PI with eggs in the uterus, and worm dimensions and the number of uterine eggs continuously increased until day 14 PI in ImSP mice. Worms recovered from ImSP mice were significantly larger in size than those from ImCT mice on days 1 and 3 PI, and the number of uterine eggs was significantly larger in ImSP mice on days 5 and 7 PI. Genital organs such as the ovary, testes, and vitellaria, that were already developed in the metacercarial stage, grew a little in size until day 14 PI. The results show that the C3H/HeN mouse is, though not excellent, a suitable laboratory host for G. seoi.  (+info)

Age-dependent resistance to Cryptosporidium muris (strain MCR) infection in golden hamsters and mice. (6/3339)

An age-dependent aspect of resistance to Cryptosporidium muris (strain MCR) infection was monitored in Syrian golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, at 1-, 5- and 10-week of age and in ICR mice. Mus musculus, at 3-, 12-, and 15-week of age orally inoculated with a single dose of 2 x 10(6) oocysts, respectively. The prepatent periods for both animals were similar, independent of age, but the patency was significantly longer in younger hamsters (P < 0.001) and a long tendency in younger mice. Hamsters infected at 1-week of age excreted about 10 times higher oocysts than those at 5- and 10-week of age. However, the total oocyst output was similar among mice of different ages. There was a good correlation between the length of the patency and the total oocyst output in hamsters (R = 0.9646), but not in mice (R = 0.4561). The immunogenicity of the parasite to homologous challenge infections was very strong in hamsters and relatively strong in mice. These results indicate that acquired resistance to C. muris infection is age-related and the innate resistance is independent of age of hamsters, and that both innate and acquired resistance, on the contrary, are irrespective of age of mice.  (+info)

A 54 kDa cysteine protease purified from the crude extract of Neodiplostomum seoulense adult worms. (7/3339)

As a preliminary study for the explanation of pathobiology of Neodiplostomum seoulense infection, a 54 kDa protease was purified from the crude extract of adult worms by sequential chromatographic methods. The crude extract was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, and protein was eluted using 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 M NaCl in stepwise elution. The 0.2 M NaCl fraction was further purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography and protein was eluted using 20 mM sodium acetate (pH 6.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl, respectively. The 0.1M NaCl fraction showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE carried out on a 7.5-15% gradient gel. The proteolytic activities of the purified enzyme were specifically inhibited by L-trans-epoxy-succinylleucylamide (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and iodoacetic acid. The enzyme, cysteine protease, showed the maximum proteolytic activity at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M buffer, and degraded extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin with different activities. It is suggested that the cysteine protease may play a role in the nutrient uptake of N. seoulense from the host intestine.  (+info)

Infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (Islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea. (8/3339)

During the period from October 1996 to November 1998, the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (islet). Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, which is known for an endemic area of P. westermani in Korea, were examined. The average infection rate of Paragonimus metacercariae in crayfish was 88.6%, and mean number of metacercariae per infected crayfish was 30.2. This metacercarial density was the highest in the group of weight in 7.1-9.0 g. These results suggest that the natural life cycle of P. westermani is still well-preserved in Bogildo.  (+info)

Gilbert, Michael A., Epidemiology and host -parasite interactions between Myxobolus cerebralis the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease and its oligochaete host Tubifex tubifex (2002). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 9441 ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. Partitioning the coevolutionary dynamics yields testable predictions. The density of defensive microbes influences the strength of selection resulting from host - defensive microbe - parasite coevolutionary interactions. We find that they lessen
This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death processes analysis. This model reveals and corrects an error in similar models studied recently by various authors. Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes may depend on the initial conditions. We also present biological implications of our findings.
Temporal changes in the relative abundances of host-parasite populations can influence the magnitude of the effects of corresponding interspecific interactions. When parasite populations are at relatively low abundance, the negative effects on host populations may be insignificant, but when parasite abundance increases beyond critical thresholds, they can have population limiting effects on the host. Here, we used data from a 40‐yr demographic study on breeding Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and avian brood parasitic Brown‐headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the mid‐Atlantic United States to disentangle host-parasite interactions. The relative abundance for these two species has changed both locally and regionally over this time period with a reduction in host abundance coincident with an increase in the parasite population. We detected a fivefold increase in Brown‐headed Cowbird parasitism rates of Wood Thrushes over the 40‐yr time period leading to a reduction in Wood Thrush ...
Author Summary Coevolution between hosts and parasites is believed to be central to a number of biological phenomena, most notably the observed patterns of biodiversity and the origins of sexual reproduction. However, classical mathematical models of host-parasite coevolution account neither for the hosts use of bacterial symbionts for protection from parasites, nor for the potential and observed complexity of genetic interactions between the coevolving species. In this article we address both challenges by simulating a large number of models of host-symbiont-parasite coevolution based on randomly generated genotype interaction patterns. We demonstrate that the degree of
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
wptabs style=ui-lightness mode=vertical type=accordion]. [wptabtitle]10. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Nicolas Rode, Florence Débarre[/wptabtitle]. [wptabcontent]. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Understanding how species adapt to heterogeneous environments is a major challenge of evolutionary biology. In host-parasite systems, antagonistic coevolution generates highly heterogeneous selective pressures, both in time and space.. Recently, much progress has been made to characterize the process of coevolution in natural (e.g., plant-pathogen, invited speaker ALL) and laboratory (e.g., phage-bacteria, invited speaker AH) populations, showing that the strong and changing selective pressures generated by antagonistic coevolution can play an important role in the dynamics and maintenance of genetic diversity.. Yet, several conceptual challenges and limitations remain. First, transfers of populations ...
Study Jackson: Host-Parasite Relationships flashcards from Andrew Kumar's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
The state of antileishmanial chemotherapy is strongly compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania. The evolution of drug-resistant phenotypes has been linked to the parasites intrinsic genome instability, with frequent gene and chromosome amplifications causing fitness gains that are directly selected by environmental factors, including the presence of antileishmanial drugs. Thus, even though the unique eukaryotic biology of Leishmania and its dependence on parasite-specific virulence factors provide valid opportunities for chemotherapeutical intervention, all strategies that target the parasite in a direct fashion are likely prone to select for resistance. Here, we review the current state of antileishmanial chemotherapy and discuss the limitations of ongoing drug discovery efforts. We finally propose new strategies that target Leishmania viability indirectly via mechanisms of host-parasite interaction, including parasite-released ectokinases and host epigenetic regulation, which
Host-parasite interactions are often influenced by environmental factors through multiple mechanisms. For example, changes in host food resources may affect multiple host traits (e.g., body size, behavior, immunocompetence), which may increase or decrease infection levels and the impact of parasites on host fitness. We often lack an understanding of which traits are most important for parasite tra ...
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
Trypanosoma brucei, i.e. the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and of nagana in cattle can undergo apoptosis in the mammalian bloodstream form (BSF) [20, 21] and the procyclic form within the midgut of the tsetse fly [22, 23]. In the mammalian bloodstream, parasitemia of T. brucei increases and decreases periodically and this is partially due to effective antibody-mediated immune responses of the host and antigenic variation of the major surface glycoprotein of the parasite. However, the cell density of T. brucei is also regulated in axenic cultures in the absence of any host-derived immune effectors. After reaching a cell density-dependent threshold, further expansion of the cell population is restricted by differentiation from the replicating long slender (LS) form to the non-dividing short stumpy (SS) form [24]. Subsequently, the parasite density even decreases and this is accompanied by the occurrence of morphological and biochemical markers for apoptosis [20]. Likewise, ...
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The spatial ecology of host-parasite communities. Parasite transmission occurs through contacts between susceptible individuals and the infective stages of parasites. Standard models of the epidemiological spread of infections typically assume random mixing of these contacts (the mass action assumption) typical of density-dependent transmission, which assumes contacts and transmission simply increase with the density of infected individuals in the total population (McCallum et al 2001; Begon et al 2002; Fenton et al 2002). In reality, however, these contacts are likely to show varying degrees of non-random structure, arising from the spatial arrangement of individuals, environmental heterogeneity and social or behavioural constraints that restrict individual movement.. Obviously, the mode of transmission of a parasite will affect its spatial dynamics of transmission. Many parasites transmit either via long-lived infective stages in the environment (e.g., many parasitic helminths) or via ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Anna Davies.. Tea and biscuits available from 12, talk will start at 12.15. Understanding the within-host dynamics of acute bacterial infections is vital for the development of optimised treatment and the management of drug resistance. A major hurdle has been the limited resolution of data that can be obtained during infection, especially when dealing with low numbers of bacteria. For the last 10 years, a multi-disciplinary research programme at the Department of Veterinary Medicine has developed a pioneering approach, combining wild-type isogenic tagged strains (WITS) of Salmonella enterica in mice with mathematical models, to quantitate the key processes that drive the early stages of infection. In this talk, I will present the latest analytical methods that our group has been exploring in order to improve statistical inference and, ultimately, help optimise experimental design. I will cover likelihood-based and likelihood-free ...
Investigations of how the global Cold War shaped national scientific and technological practices in fields from biomedicine to rocket science. The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and .
We have examined genetic variability in parasites in the context of ecological interactions with the host. Recent research on Echinococcus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been used to illustrate: (i) the problems that parasite variability and species recognition pose for understanding the complex and often controversial relationship between parasite and host occurrence; (ii) the need for accurate parasite characterization and the application of appropriate molecular techniques to studies on parasite transmission if fundamental questions about zoonotic relationships and risk factors are to be answered; (iii) our lack of understanding about within-host interactions between genetically heterogeneous parasites at the inter- and intraspecific levels, and the significance of such interactions with respect to evolutionary considerations and the clinical outcome of parasite infections. If advances in molecular biology and mathematical ecology are to be realized, we need to give serious consideration to ...
Author Summary Contrary to the traditional view that immunity in invertebrates is limited to innate mechanisms, recent studies have shown that these several species of protostome invertebrates express putative immune receptors that can be somatically diversified in a way resulting in an analogy with Immunoglobulins or T Cell Receptors of vertebrate species. Other studies have shown the existence of putative antigenic variant counterparts in their specific parasite, as would be expected in an
Bacteriophages are believed to be the most abundant lifeform on earth, with estimates ranging up to 1031 particles. These different particles contain huge amounts of genetic variability that is greater than any other group of organisms and arises from the ability of phages to horizontally transfer elements of their genomes. In order to replicate, phages bind to and infect their host organism before subverting the hosts transcription machinery. Unlike other host-parasite systems, phages have developed different levels of virulence, resulting in either the destruction of the host organism (lytic) or the incorporation of the phage genome into the host (lysogenic) as the primary forms of replication. It should also be noted that other minor types of phage replication can occur in which the phage can exist as plasmid DNA with the host or can be released from the host by budding rather than lysis.. Our group studies the complex host-parasite relationship between host and phage as well as the ...
The aim of the research is to understand the molecular and cellular immunological basis of host parasite interaction with particular emphasis on chronic helminth infections and more recently malaria. Read more ...... Head of the group ...
Our data provide a rare demonstration of the impact that circadian rhythms have on fitness. Specifically, we reveal that parasites forced out of synchrony with the hosts schedule paid substantial costs, as a single phase shift reduced both in-host replication and the production of transmission stages by around 50 per cent. These costs are likely to have broad implications for parasite survival and reproduction. Malaria parasites must optimize the trade-off between investment in replication for in-host survival and the production of gametocytes for between-host transmission. Parasites with low replication rates are vulnerable to clearance by the immune system, anti-malarial drugs and are poor competitors in genetically mixed infections [33-37]. For example, subtle differences in the replication rate of co-infecting strains can lead to substantial competitive suppression in mixed infections [33,38,39]. Replication rate is also a key factor in determining the production of transmission stages ...
While standard evolutionary algorithms employ a static, absolute fitness metric, co-evolutionary algorithms assess individuals by their performance relative to populations of opponents that are themselves evolving. Although this arrangement offers the possibility of avoiding long-standing difficulties such as premature convergence, it suffers from its own unique problems, cycling, over-focusing and disengagement.. Here, we introduce a novel technique for dealing with the third and least explored of these problems. Inspired by studies of natural host-parasite systems, we show that disengagement can be avoided by selecting for individuals that exhibit reduced levels of virulence, rather than maximum ability to defeat coevolutionary adversaries. Experiments in both simple and complex domains are used to explain how this counterintuitive approach may be used to improve the success of coevolutionary algorithms.. ...
There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, inc..
Hosts exhibit a variety of defence mechanisms against parasites, including avoidance. Both host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics and the host mating system can alter the evolutionary trajectories of populations. Does the nature of host-parasite interactions and the host mating system affect the mechanisms that evolve to confer host defence? In a previous experimental evolution study, mixed mating and obligately outcrossing Caenorhabditis elegans host populations adapted to either coevolving or static Serratia marcescens parasite populations. Here, we assessed parasite avoidance as a mechanism underlying host adaptation. We measured host feeding preference for the coevolved and static parasites vs preference for Escherichia coli, to assess the evolution of avoidance behaviour within our experiment. We found that mixed mating host populations evolved a preference for E. coli relative to the static parasite strain; therefore, the hosts evolved parasite avoidance as a defence. However, mixed mating ...
Synopsis: Parasitology: An Integrated Approach, provides a concise, student-friendly account of parasites and parasite relationships that is supported by case studies and suggestions for student projects. The book focuses strongly on parasite interactions with other pathogens and in particular parasite-HIV interactions, as well as looking at how host behaviour contributes to the spread of infections. There is a consideration of the positive aspects of parasite infections, how humans have used parasites for their own advantage and also how parasite infections affect the welfare of captive and domestic animals. The emphasis of Parasitology is on recent research throughout and each chapter ends with a brief discussion of future developments. This text is not simply an updated version of typical parastitology books but takes an integrated approach and explains how the study of parasites requires an understanding of a wide range of other topics from molecular biology and immunology to the ...
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Invasion of erythrocytes has long been an attractive target for vaccines but is increasingly viewed as a potential druggable target. Invasion involves a sequence of events, including initial attachment, reorientation of the apical end of the parasite toward the host cell, formation of a tight junction, and then invasion with concomitant formation of the PV. This is orchestrated through a series of receptor-ligand interactions whose timing is determined by protein release and processing events in conjunction with signaling cascades (Gaur and Chitnis, 2011). For example, the Plasmodium homologue of calcineurin, a calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, has recently been shown to play a critical role in merozoite attachment and invasion by regulating specific merozoite-host cell binding interactions (Paul et al., 2015; Philip and Waters, 2015), as well as roles in other stages of parasite development (Philip and Waters, 2015). The earliest described host receptor for invasion is the Duffy antigen ...
In vivo infection routes of parasites have remained something of a black box, in which only snapshot views of fixed tissues are available. Clearly, there exists a strong need for imaging approaches to visualise living parasites within intact organs and animals. In vivo imaging of fluorescent Plasmodium parasites now provides us with exciting insights into the infection process, from the bite of the infected mosquito to the invasion of liver cells, and alternative approaches using luciferase-expressing parasites have been used to monitor their dissemination in mice. This rapidly developing field will go a long way towards deepening our understanding of host-parasite interactions at different levels.. Keywords: Host-Parasite Interactions. Note: Discussion p. 195-6. ...
The @JohnsHopkinsSPH Malaria Research Institute - founded in 2001 with a gift from @MikeBloomberg - is working in Baltimore and Macha, Zambia to lead innovations in understanding, preventing and controlling the disease. #WorldMalariaDay https://t.co/ETuQg4jxPE ...
After receiving my degree in Mathematics from the University of Trento (Italy) in 1994 (title of the M.Sc. thesis: Modelli di epidemia da macroparassiti) I was granted a fellowship in Mathematical Biology at the Centre for Alpine Ecology (Trento), ranked among the best 10 research institute in Italy. After that fellowship, I continued to work as research collaborator at the Centre for Alpine Ecology in the field of mathematical and statistical modelling applied to host-parasite interactions. Afterwards, thanks to the funded project ECODIS (Ecology and control of some zoonotic wildlife diseases) I obtained a PhD grant at the University of Stirling (Scotland, UK) where I received my PhD in Biology in 2003 defending the thesis The importance of aggregation in the dynamics of host-parasite interaction in wildlife: a mathematical approach. From 2003 to 2007 I worked as post-doc researcher at the Centre for Alpine Ecology as Principal Investigator of the project Modelling the spatio-temporal ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Parasite species assemblages currently are thought to range from isolationist to interactive, their dynamic properties being related to the number of species and types of hosts involved. The literature contains few experimental tests of this concept, however, and many of the host/parasite systems studied to date are not amenable to experimental manipulation. In this review, the presence of a parasite species, in a sample of host individuals, is considered to be an evolutionary phenomenon, but the parasites population structure is considered to be an ecological one. Studies that allow evaluation of these two influences are comparative in nature and include data from a series of homogeneous samples of host populations. A lottery model is presented, in which hosts acquire their assemblages of parasites by Monte Carlo type sampling from multiple kind arrays; the major structuring influence is the relative probability of becoming infected by various parasite species. Claims of parasite species interaction
We present a simple unscaled, quantitative framework that addresses the optimum use of resources throughout a hosts lifetime based on continuous exposure to parasites (rather than evolutionary, genetically explicit trade-offs). The principal assumptions are that a hosts investment of resources in growth increases its survival and reproduction, and that increasing parasite burden reduces survival. The host reproductive value is maximised for a given combination of rates of parasite exposure, host resource acquisition and pathogenicity, which results in an optimum parasite burden (for the host). Generally, results indicate that the optimum resource allocation is to tolerate some parasite infection. The lower the resource acquisition, the lower the proportion of resources that should be devoted to immunity, i.e. the higher the optimum parasite burden. Increases in pathogenicity result in reduced optimum parasite burdens, whereas increases in exposure result in increasing optimum parasite burdens. ...
The edition is collected scientific papers contributed to IX International Symposium of Russian Society of Nematologists (27 June 1 July, 2011, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia). The papers cover issues of fundamental and applied nematology: ecology of populations, assessment of species diversity, nematode phylogenetics and taxonomy, estimation of nematode role in bioindication of transformation or contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, actual problems of monitoring, nematode pest management and study on host-parasite interactions ...
The genetic basis of infection determines the dynamics of host-parasite coevolution and associated phenomena such as local adaptation and the evolution of sex and recombination. Here, we present parasite resistance as a two-step process in which hosts must first detect parasites and then eradicate them; failure at either step results in infection. The model incorporates -matching-allele- (MA) genetics for detection and -gene-for-gene- (GFG) genetics for eradication. We found that the oscillatory dynamics were similar to pure GFG genetics when the cost of virulence alleles was low, but resembled pure MA genetics when the cost was high. The magnitude of the cost that switched the dynamics from GFG dominated to MA dominated depended on the genetic architecture of defence (i.e. the number of GFG and MA loci).. ...
The dialogue of host-parasite interactions, and of parasite virulence far more particularly, has thus far, using a couple exceptions, not focused A lot consideration on the accumulating proof that immune evasion by parasites is not only Pretty much common and also frequently associated with pathogenesis, i.e. the looks of virulence. Now, the immune evasion hypothesis provides a further Perception in the evolution of virulence than earlier hypotheses. Sensitivity Examination for parasite Health and life-historical past concept reveals guarantee to crank out a far more typical evolutionary theory of virulence by which includes A serious aspect, immune evasion to forestall parasite clearance from your host ...
WP1 (Host-parasite interactions) will advance the scientific knowledge base for WP2 to WP7, will develop and optimise in vivo and in vitro models, decipher the mechanisms by which parasites, hosts and intermediates interact in order to allow development of targeted therapy strategies, and elucidate poorly understood parasite life-cycles. Technologically, WP1 will cover transcriptomics and proteomics.. WP2 (Wild-farmed fish parasite transfer) will investigate reciprocal parasite transfers between wild and farmed fish. The objectives are to assess suspected transfers of key parasites, with respect to hosts and geographical areas, using epidemiological and molecular tools. WP2 will use next generation sequencing bioinformatics tools to identify the most reliable parasite gene markers for differentiation between wild and farmed parasite populations.. WP3 (Prophylactic measures) will develop prophylactic measures for prevention of disease that may be incorporated into an integrated pest management ...
Free Online Library: Real-Life Zombies: Parasites invaded these four animals and turned them into the living dead.(life science) by SuperScience; Science and technology, general Education Family and marriage Host-parasite relationships Physiological aspects
Parasite infections are caused by living organisms that have taken up residence in the host body. The organism can be single-celled multiplying inside of the host body. Others are multi-celled with the ability to live in or on the body. The most common method of entering the body is through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Other situations pass the infection by direct (physical) contact since viruses can live on objects such as doorknobs or in substances like soil, or blood. Insects and animals are also carriers of parasites. For example, one of the deadliest parasitic diseases in the world is transmitted by a mosquito in a single bite. ...
International journal that covers all branches of parasitology, including morphology, taxonomy, molecular biology, host-parasite relationships, parasite evolution, biochemistry, physiology and immunology. ...
International journal that covers all branches of parasitology, including morphology, taxonomy, molecular biology, host-parasite relationships, parasite evolution, biochemistry, physiology and immunology. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking the coevolutionary and population dynamics of host-parasitoid interactions. AU - Fellowes, M D E AU - Travis, J M J PY - 2000/8. Y1 - 2000/8. N2 - The interplay between coevolutionary and population or community dynamics is currently the focus of much empirical and theoretical consideration. Here, we develop a simulation model to study the coevolutionary and population dynamics of a hypothetical host-parasitoid interaction. In the model, host resistance and parasitoid virulence are allowed to coevolve. We investigate how trade-offs associated with these traits modify the systems coevolutionary and population dynamics. The most important influence on these dynamics comes from the incorporation of density-dependent costs of resistance ability. We find three main outcomes. First, if the costs of resistance are high, then one or both of the players go extinct. Second, when the costs of resistance are intermediate to low, cycling population and coevolutionary dynamics are ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. The study provides new information about molecular events during the parasitic plant - host interaction. Inhibition of cuscutain cysteine proteinase
Root-knot nematodes are serious economic pathogens of horticultural and crop plants in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world including Australia. The nematodes invade the roots and are able to induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate feeding cells called giant cells. These feeding cells form by repeated mitosis without cytokinesis and develop wall ingrowths typical of transfer cells.. It is clear that the pronounced morphological and physiological changes associated with the formation of these specialised feeding cells are caused by altered gene expression in host cells. For this reason, the study of molecular responses induced in host cells by the pathogen will not only provide new information to the host-parasite relationship but could provide better options for control strategies.. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used as a tool to study changes in gene expression during the compatible interaction between ...
Some parasites may modify the behavior of their hosts. Altered behaviors may: 1) benefit the host in that they defend against the pathogen, 2) benefit the pathogen and represent manipulations of the host response, and 3) benefit neither the host or the pathogen and simply be a product of the host response to infection. In this thesis I examine four host/parasite systems. For each system, I explore host/parasite behavioral interactions, and examine them with regard to selective pressures that may be acting on both the host and the parasite. I test the Hamilton and Zuk hypothese in 26 species of lizards. I find an inverse relationship between a lizard species brightness and parasite prevalence. My result lend credence to criticisms of the Hamilton and Zuk Hypothesis. If infection does occur, animals may alter their behavior to impair the growth and reproduction of the parasite. To test this prediction, I examine behavioral thermoregulation in two strains of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, one ...
Live Imaging of Host-Parasite Interactions in a Zebrafish Infection Model Reveals Cryptococcal Determinants of Virulence and Central Nervous System Invasion.
No one can doubt that disease played a major role in human history and still continues to impact human health. Also, many human diseases, such as HIV, Ebola and malaria, have been acquired from our close primate relatives. The potential transmission of infectious agents from monkeys and apes to humans is why the study of primate parasites is so significant. The present work, which is divided into several Parts, consists of 25 chapters authored by one or more of 62 contributors.. Part 1 deals with methods used in studying primate parasite interactions. It begins with a chapter on collecting and diagnosing primate parasites. This is followed with a chapter on extracting and identifying minute nematodes, mostly pin worms, recovered from fecal samples. The next chapter discusses the use of molecular methods for comparing populations of stomach worms (Oesophagostomum). This is followed by a discussion on the use of endocrinological analyses to interpret social relationships, anthropogenic ...
Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is a mode of parasite transmission in which the parasite manipulates the behavior of its host to increase transmission success to higher trophic levels. Parasites that use PITT have complex life cycles, requiring more than one host species to procreate. Sexual reproduction is typically limited to a definitive host, high in the trophic levels. Parasite progeny sequentially infect one or more intermediate hosts, inside which they may undergo asexual reproduction and physiological changes. Trophic transmission often relies on predator-prey relationships, where the parasite can only be transmitted if the host is eaten by a later stage host. Parasitic manipulation of the intermediate host can involve adaptations that make it an easier prey for predators, thereby increasing the transmission rate of the parasite. For complex life cycles to emerge in parasites, the addition of intermediate host species must be beneficial, e.g., result in a higher fitness. ...
Imaging Infection and Immunity in vivo.. My research applies advanced imaging techniques to enhance our understanding of the basic biology of the immune system in real time, in vivo. Working with my long term collaborator Paul Garside, we have applied these approaches to understand how cellular interactions govern the magnitude and phenotype of developing immune responses. We apply these approaches to understanding the host parasite interaction in immunity to infection as well as the host immune response against self in autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. To enable this work, we have established state of the art, multiphoton microscopy at the University of Glasgow, which allows us to image on more channels, faster and deeper than previously possible. We collaborate with physicists, mathematicians and chemists to continue development of novel, non-invasive and translational cell-imaging approaches.. For an 11 minute video describing my research see my recent talk at TEDx ...
Trachipleistophora hominis was isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient and is a member of a highly successful group of obligate intracellular parasites. Here we have investigated the evolution of the parasite and the interplay between host and parasite gene expression using transcriptomics of T. hominis-infected rabbit kidney cells. T. hominis has about 30 % more genes than small-genome microsporidians. Highly expressed genes include those involved in growth, replication, defence against oxidative stress, and a large fraction of uncharacterised genes. Chaperones are also highly expressed and may buffer the deleterious effects of the large number of non-synonymous mutations observed in essential T. hominis genes. Host expression suggests a general cellular shutdown upon infection, but ATP, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar production appear enhanced, potentially providing the parasite with substrates it cannot make itself. Expression divergence of
Mark Armitage wrote: , , Dear All, , Does anyone have any references on parasites which alter intermediate , host behavior in order to increase chances of predation upon the , host? This is not very detailed, but I did hear that there was some type of parasite that would enter a pill bug (rolly polly), cause it to lose its adversion to light, and thusly increase the chances of it being comsumed by a bird. hope this helped a little, teresa ...
Parasitism is s form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). This host-parasite association may eventuate to the injury of the host. Parasites can cause harm or disease to their host. They are generally much smaller than their hosts. Examples of parasites are tapeworms, flukes, lice, ticks, etc. Parasites may be classified into different categories. For instance, parasites may be macroparasites or microparasites based on their size. Macroparasites are those that are bigger in size and visible to an unaided eye. Microparasites are those that are small and can be detected through microscopy. Parasites may also be obligate or facultative depending on their interaction with their hosts. Obligate parasites are those that require a host to complete their life cycle. Facultative parasites are those that do not depend on a host to complete its life cycle. Certain parasites require only one host and they ...
My research interests are in the broad area of parasite ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment. A parasites lives on, or in, a living host during some part of its life. A host, therefore, is both another organism and the parasites environment. Consequently, there are many fascinating ecological questions to be addressed surrounding host-parasite relationships. Both hosts and parasites vary widely in their biological characteristics. Some parasites have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts while others have direct life cycles. In any case, one of the main challenges to success as a parasite is successful transmission of offspring into new hosts. I am interested in how various aspects of host and parasite biology, as well as environmental factors, interact to structure parasite assemblages in host individuals, populations, and communities. This has led me to work with communities of larval trematodes in freshwater snails and ...
Parasitology links of interest to Centre members have been compiled in the following pages. Presently there are 2 main pages; Parasite genomes and Parasitology web sites. If you would like to contribute a link to any of these pages please forward the link by email Christiane Trudeau
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Read Social context alters host behavior and infection risk, Behavioral Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Cytoadherence and the resulting sequestration of infected red blood cells are a hallmark of P. falciparum malaria. Previous studies have emphasized the major co...
Citation: Kutz, S.J., Hoberg, E.P., Polley, L., Jenkins, E.J. 2005. Global warming is changing the dynamics of arctic host-parasite systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 272:2571-2576. Interpretive Summary: Climate change has the potential to cause sweeping changes in the distribution of parasites and their hosts by altering abiotic conditions and dissolving ecological barriers. However, Determining how long-term climatic changes will affect the distributions of different parasites and pathogens at first seems a daunting task that almost defies quantification29. The U. pallikuukensis model has allowed us to identify and quantify the effects of climate warming on rates of development for critical life history stages in a pathogenic parasite. Additionally, it has indicated critical thresholds of warming (i.e., 1C) where transmission rates are likely to shift in a non-linear manner. Such models and their empirical foundations serve as powerful baselines8;10;30 that will allow ...
Research in my lab centers on organismal-level biology of invertebrates, involving ecology, behavior and evolution. Many of the projects have dealt with predator/prey or parasite/host interactions involving mites feeding on insects. These projects include searching behavior, the use of chemical cues in host or prey location, and the impact of mites on their insect prey/hosts. Potentials for research on reproductive behavior include studying mate-seeking and mate-selection behavior, and chemical communication among mites. Summer-based research can involve studies on host-parasite interactions in naturally-occurring populations (i.e., field studies), most academic year studies are laboratory based. However, if you are interested in field-oriented ecological research, I can suggest projects involving aquatic invertebrates. Please look at my web page for additional information about research in my lab ...
Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic meals borne parasite that may infect nearly all warm-blooded animals together with individuals, and ranks 4th amongst 24 most vital international mealsborne parasites listed by the World Health Organization/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO/WHO, 2014). Exposure to T. gondii has been reported in wildlife and individuals in the Canadian North, regardless of low densities of feline definitive hosts. The ecology of this host-parasite system could … Read more. ...
Dispersal is key to many evolutionary processes. Host-parasite systems are unique in that the host often represents the parasites habitat, as well as its transportation. The interaction can be combative, and so specialisation is often extreme in parasitic species. Arguably one of the most impressive examples of parasitic adaptation is a terrestrial parasite that exploits a marine host. Penguins disperse by swimming but are bitten by terrestrial ectoparasites when they come ashore to breed. The most common of these is the tick (Ixodes spp.).
Some disease-causing parasites are known to favor one sex over the other in their host species, and such differences between the sexes have generally been attributed to differences in immune responses or behavior. But in a new article, published February 28 in the magazine section of the online, open-access journal PLoS Biology, David Duneau from Cornell University and Dieter Ebert from the University of Basel now propose that all sorts of characteristics that differ between the sexes of the host species can influence a parasites adaptation.. These characteristics, such as morphology, physiology, behavior, diet and life history traits can, in fact, pose very different challenges and opportunities to the parasites, and may result in the parasite adapting more to one host sex than the other. Sex-specific adaptations in parasites may also occur when parasites routinely encounter one host sex more frequently than another. Parasites that adapt to male or female hosts may help explain why we find ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does elevated testosterone result in increased exposure and transmission of parasites?. AU - Grear, Daniel A.. AU - Perkins, Sarah E.. AU - Hudson, Peter J.. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Male-biased infection is a common phenomenon in vertebrate-parasite systems and male-biased transmission has been experimentally demonstrated. One mechanism that is hypothesized to create male-biased transmission is the immuno-suppressive effect of testosterone because it increases susceptibility to infection. Testosterone also influences host behaviour and, consequently, may increase exposure to parasites. To test how testosterone could increase exposure and transmission, we undertook a longitudinal mark-recapture study where we experimentally elevated testosterone levels in wild male rodents. Individuals in control populations reduced the average number of contacts over the treatment period, while populations with experimentally elevated testosterone levels maintained the number of ...
Male-biased infection is a common phenomenon in vertebrate-parasite systems and male-biased transmission has been experimentally demonstrated. One mechanism that is hypothesized to create male-biased transmission is the immuno-suppressive effect of testosterone because it increases susceptibility to infection. Testosterone also influences host behaviour and, consequently, may increase exposure to parasites. To test how testosterone could increase exposure and transmission, we undertook a longitudinal mark-recapture study where we experimentally elevated testosterone levels in wild male rodents. Individuals in control populations reduced the average number of contacts over the treatment period, while populations with experimentally elevated testosterone levels maintained the number of contacts between hosts. As a result, the transmission potential was higher in testosterone treated populations compared to controls. Our results indicated that males with high-testosterone levels alter the ...
Free Online Library: Study of intestinal parasite of stray dog in Lorestan province of Iran.(Report) by Advances in Environmental Biology; Environmental issues Dogs Health aspects Feral dogs Host-parasite relationships Statistics Prevalence studies (Epidemiology)
Detritivore - feed on dead matter so dont directly affect populations of resources. The ability to perceive predation risk is widespread in the animal world and has a strong effect on the behavior and habitat selection, as well as on the demography, of prey organisms - these responses have been strongly selected over the evolutionary history of the c-r interaction.. Defense mechanisms of prey can affect population growth.. It is believed that many mutualistic relationships have evolved from host-parasite interactions and perhaps vice versa.. Virulence is the measure of the capacity of a parasite to invade host tissues and may be reduced by actions of the hosts immune system (e.g. inflammation responses and production of antibodies). Cross-Resistance - when a host is able to resist a new parasite that is closely related to another parasite that a host has built antibodies for in the past.. Plants often develop mechanisms to discourage their consumption - low nutrition in their tissues or ...
Australian researchers are working on a technique that will allow them to starve to death parasites which are proving increasingly difficult to destroy using existing drugs.. The parasite they used in the study was Leishmania, which is transmitted by the bite of the Phlebotominae sandfly. After a period of incubation, the parasite causes huge skin sores, fever, anaemia and damages the spleen and liver.. It affects 12 million people worldwide and has become more resistant to current drugs.. The scientists exposed the parasite to a large variety of food sources. Using highly sensitive equipment, they tracked how these nutrients were broken down and absorbed into the bodies of the parasites.. Using this technique we found that Leishmaniaparasites are very dependent on the use of sugars for energy and growth. This was surprising as previous studies suggested that these parasites may be able to use a range of other nutrients for growth (such as amino acids and fats), says lead author Dr Malcolm ...
Mixed infections with more than one genus of blood parasite were rare and most infections encountered were of low intensity. The results of this study suggest an important role of ecologically diverse conditions determining composition, transmission, and prevalence of a blood parasite fauna, presumably through host interaction population density. Some new host parasite relationship records are presented ...
Artemesia & Clove™ is used as a broad spectrum herbal for parasites. It is carefully buffered for long term use with sensitive digestive tracts, while still maintaining its strength of action.. During 4 years of stool testing every patient for parasites at either Dowell Labs or the Institute of Parasitic Diseases 99.9% of all people had at least one and as many as five different parasites, fungi or yeast infections.. What are parasites?. A parasite is an organism that lives off a host. Parasites enter our body and continue to feed off our energy, our cells and the food we eat. There are two categories of parasites; large and microscopic. The large parasites are worms which are easy to see. The small parasites cannot be seen without a microscope. Small parasites can spread throughout the body in the bloodstream, while the large parasites usually are contained to the gastrointestinal tract. Both types of parasites rapidly reproduce.. What are longterm effects of untreated parasites?. Bloated ...
Co-requisite: BIO 424.. Microscopic study of the structure and function of cells and tissues and their integration into organs. Three hours of lecture per week.. BIO 424 Histology Laboratory (1).. Co-requisite: BIO 422.. Microscopic study of the structure and function of cells and tissues and their integration into organs. Three hours of laboratory per week.. BIO 425 Medical Bacteriology (2).. Prerequisites: BIO 324, BIO 325, CHE 310, CHE 311 or CHE 316, CHE 317. Co-requisite: BIO 435.. Characteristics of bacterial agents in human disease emphasizing host-parasite relationships, epidemiology and infection control. Two hours of lecture per week.. BIO 426 Immunology (3).. Prerequisites: BIO 320 or BIO 340; BIO 342 is recommended. Co-requisite: BIO 436.. Principles of immunology. Emphasis on the cellular and molecular nature of antigens and immunoglobulins; immunobiology; laboratory immunoassays. Three hours of lecture per week.. BIO 428 Virology (3).. Prerequisites: BIO 324, BIO 325 and CHE 310, ...
Host-Parasite Evoution The Balenger Lab at the University of Mississippi is seeking a PhD student to join our research group beginning Fall 2018. The student would develop an independent research focus in line with ongoing lab projects. Curren...
Paul Kaye is Professor of Immunology at the University of York. He has worked for over 30 years on the immunology and immunopathology of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. He is internationally recognized for his research on macrophages and dendritic cells, contributing to a fundamental understanding of their biology in health and disease, and for his work on lymphoid tissue remodeling and granulomatous inflammation during chronic infection. Paul is a Welcome Trust Senior Investigator and an elected Fellow of the UK Academy of Medical Sciences. His research tackles leishmaniasis from a holistic viewpoint, rooted in the immunology of the host-parasite interaction, but employing tools and approaches spanning mathematics, ecology, vector biology and neuroscience. He is currently leading a Phase II therapeutic vaccine trial in Sudan and developing a digital pathology platform to facilitate a greater understanding of disease pathogenesis through data sharing and collaboration across ...
Utility of Potent Anti-viral MicroRNAs in Emerging Infectious Diseases. By Zhabiz Golkar, Donald G. Pace and Omar Bagasra. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNA provides intracellular immune defense when the body is faced with challenges from transgenes, viruses, transposons, and aberrant mRNAs. miRNA molecules trigger gene silencing in eukaryotic cells. To date, more than 3,000 different human miRNAs (hsa-miRs) have been identified, and it is generally agreed that cellular gene regulation is significantly impacted by the presence of miRNAs. A single miRNA has the complex capacity to target multiple genes simultaneously. In a viral infection context, miRNAs have been connected with the interplay between host and pathogen, and occupy a major role in the host-parasite interaction and pathogenesis. While numerous viral miRNAs from DNA viruses have been identified, characterization of functional ...
Corresponding author. Mailing address: Division of Host-Parasite Interaction, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Phone: 81-3-5449-5730. Fax: 81-3-5449-5449. E-mail: iba{at}ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp ...
social parasite definition - a parasite that benefits from the hosts usual behaviour, e.g. a cuckoo, which lays its eggs in the nest of another bird who then brings up the cuckoos ...
Women who are infected with a common parasite may be more likely to hurt themselves or attempt suicide, a new study of over 45,000 new moms in Denmark suggests.
Biotic stressors could be pathogenic, parasitic, or predatory in nature and originate from living organisms. Both pathogenic and parasitic stressors have effect on the health of the entity hosting the pathogen/parasite. This effect starts at a molecular level, with the host radiating into a whole ecosystem level - especially if the host is a keystone species. For most pathogens, there is a positive relationship between the dose (the quantity of pathogens) and the response (reaction from the host) such that the occurrence and severity of the stressor (effect of the pathogens) on the host are proportional to the number of pathogens to which a host organism is exposed to. The above relationship holds true for parasite-host relationship. The commonality between pathogen and parasite relationships with their host is that in both situations the response could be observed at molecular, cellular, organ, and whole-organism level. Predation in an ecosystem is somewhat similar to the above description ...
There are over 1000 different species of parasites that can invade the bodies of our pets where they can cause pain, discomfort, disease and sometimes even death. What is a parasite you may ask? The dictionary states that a parasite is a plant or animal that lives in or on another plant or animal at the expense of that host. We most commonly think of parasites as worms, and there are many kinds, but parasites may also include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, which are single celled organisms. The list of parasites also include lice, ticks, fleas, and even insects. Parasites can invade every part of the bodies of our pets, including every organ, the muscles, the intestinal tract, and even the brain. Many parasites consume the food in the digestive tract that was intended for the pet, which leaves the scraps for the pet. Obviously this can cause a serious nutritional deficiency in the animal in some cases and a drain on the bodies of all infested pets. Some of the symptoms of parasite ...
Epidemics publishes papers on infectious disease dynamics in the broadest sense. Its scope covers both within-host dynamics of infectious agents and...
08 August 2005. Pandemic Hx and Progression of H5N1. Mankind has a long history of pandemics. The CDC and WHO have even defined the stages of pandemic development. Stages 1 through 3 are pre-human-to-human transmission stages and don t matter for our discussion. Stage 4: Small cluster(s) with limited human-to-human transmission but spread is highly localized, suggesting that the virus is not well adapted to humans. Stage 5: Larger cluster(s) but human-to-human spread still localized, suggesting that the virus is becoming increasingly better adapted to humans, but may not yet be fully transmissible (substantial pandemic risk). Stage 6: Pandemic: Increased and sustained transmission in general population.. It is obvious that H5N1 is at least into Stage 4. Due to the Chinese attempts to cover up the spread of this disease, we are not sure if it has passed into Stage 5. However, the spread to other countries is continuing and some official opinions have been mentioning Stage 6 ...
HIV; AIDS; Modelling; Evolution; Within-host dynamics; Applications to game theory and mathematical economics; Computational biology; Infection course; ...
Malaria remains a major cause of mortality in the world, especially in Africa. The disease is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted by mosquitoes.
There are various products for anti-parasite treatment for dogs to keep ticks, fleas or lice off your dog. Can be used as a preventive measure or in cases of actual infestation.TRIXIE has been focussing on pets for over 40 years, with now 6,500 products on offer and lots of ideas and information on your pet.
Buy now a great natural anti-parasite, anti-microbial herb-based supplement. Extremely powerful formula, absolutely harmless and highly recommended. Che...

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A sensible disturbance of such host-parasite relationship has to... ... Seeliger H.P.R., Patzelt C. (1991) Host-Parasite Interaction-Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. In: Tümbay E., Seeliger H.P.R., Anǧ Ö ... A sensible disturbance of such host-parasite relationship has to occur to make this opportunist a microbial aggressor. While ... J.B.Epstein Oral candidiasis: Pathogenesis and host defense, Rev.Infect.Dis., 6: 96 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Centre for Host-Parasite Interactions. Institute of Parasitology. 21,111 Lakeshore Road. Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Quebec, Canada ... The Centre for Host-Parasite Interactions (CHPI) was created in 2003 with funding from the Fonds de recherche du Québec - ... Areas of focus for CHPI research include the host-parasite interface, drug discovery, drug resistance, immunology, and the ... Nature et technologies (FRQNT). CHPI brings together more than 30 scientists who study parasites to form new research and ...
Centre for Host-Parasite Interactions. Institute of Parasitology. 21,111 Lakeshore Road. Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Quebec, Canada ...
... can affect the association that is beneficial to the host whereas evasion of the hosts immune response favours the parasite. ... can influence parasitic-host interaction. The outcome of these associations will hinge on susceptibility and resistance. ... The hosts age, behaviour, immunological status, and environmental change ... Host-parasite interactions are complex, compounded by factors that are capable of shifting the balance in either direction. ...
... we discuss host-parasite interactions at the different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle within the mammalian host and the ... Expanding the antimalarial toolkit: Targeting host-parasite interactions.. Langhorne J1, Duffy PE2. ... New research approaches have highlighted host as well as parasite molecules or pathways that could be targeted for ... or egress from host cells, as well as parasite-induced pathology. ... Host-Parasite Interactions*/drug effects. *Host-Parasite ...
Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors ... Articles highlighting social and economic issues around the impact of parasites are also encouraged. As an international, Open ... Possible Roles of Ectophosphatases in Host-Parasite Interactions. Marta T. Gomes,1,2 Angela H. Lopes,3 and José Roberto Meyer- ... are important for host-parasite interactions [7, 8]. In the case of an ectoenzyme other criteria can be included as: (1) the ...
This study of rodent malaria is one of the first tests for host-by-parasite interactions in any vertebrate disease; host-by- ... parasite burden) and transmission potential. Host-by-parasite interactions were of limited influence, but nevertheless had ... we tested for host-by-parasite interactions in a medically relevant vertebrate disease model: the rodent malaria parasite ... but instead depends on host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. If such genetic interactions largely determine ...
Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes ... This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death ... Host Extinction Dynamics in a Simple Parasite-Host Interaction Model. Tzy-Wei Hwang 1, and Yang Kuang 2, ... Keywords: host extinction, global stability., Parasite-host interaction. Mathematics Subject Classification: 34C25, 34C35, 92D2 ...
The interplay between host haemostatic systems and Leptospira spp. infections Vieira, Monica L LU ; Herwald, Heiko LU and ...
The fact that they are on this host-parasite interface suggests that they might be involved in some host interaction that is ... we discuss host-parasite interactions at the different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle within the mammalian host and the ... Parasite calcineurin regulates host cell recognition and attachment by apicomplexans. Cell Host Microbe. 18:49-60. doi:10.1016/ ... Host scavenger receptor SR-BI plays a dual role in the establishment of malaria parasite liver infection. Cell Host Microbe. 4: ...
brood parasitism, Brown‐headed Cowbird, host-parasite interactions, Hylocichla mustelina, Molothrus ater, population dynamics, ... Long-term dynamics in local host-parasite interactions linked to regional population trends ... Atlantic United States to disentangle host-parasite interactions. The relative abundance for these two species has changed both ... When parasite populations are at relatively low abundance, the negative effects on host populations may be insignificant, but ...
... Author(s). Wiegertjes, G.F.; Steinhagen, D.; Nielsen, M.E.; Hoole, D.; ...
Host-Vector-Parasite-Environment Interactions in Neglected Tropical Diseases due to Trypanosomatids : Neglected tropical ... Host-Vector-Parasite-Environment Interactions in Neglected Tropical Diseases due to Trypanosomatids. Unit website ... Host-Vector-Parasite-Environment Interactions in Neglected Tropical Diseases due to Trypanosomatids ... Eliminating these diseases therefore means knowing more about parasites-vectors-hosts interactions and climate, environmental ...
Host-parasite protein interactions (HPPI) are those interactions occurring between a parasite and its host. Host-parasite ... Host-parasite protein interactions (HPPI) are those interactions occurring between a parasite and its host. Host-parasite ... Keywords:Host-parasite protein interactions (HPPI), machine learning, Plasmodium falciparum parasite, human host, computational ... Keywords: Host-parasite protein interactions (HPPI), machine learning, Plasmodium falciparum parasite, human host, ...
Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of host-parasite interaction and may contribute ... Lectin activation in Giardia lamblia by host protease: a novel host-parasite interaction ... Lectin activation in Giardia lamblia by host protease: a novel host-parasite interaction ... Lectin activation in Giardia lamblia by host protease: a novel host-parasite interaction ...
A Pack of Thieves: the oldest parasite-host interaction in the fossil record. 4 June 2020 ... Parasites can increase the energy requirements of infected organisms because host organisms need to generate enough energy to ... Our paper suggest that parasite-host systems were well established by the early Cambrian period. It pushes back the origins of ... Professor Brock commented, "This new discovery reveals that intimate parasite-host animal systems arose in early Cambrian ...
Host-symbiont-pathogen interactions in blood-feeding parasites: nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange - Volume 145 ... 2017) Parasite microbiome project: systematic investigation of microbiome dynamics within and across parasite-host interactions ... 2011) Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions. Parasites & Vectors 4, 187. ... Parasites & Vectors 6, 182.. Carrillo-Araujo, M, et al. (2015) Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host ...
... This posting is no longer ... News and events , Save the Date - 6th International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry ... The 6th International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry ...
To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in ... TgGRA2 was successfully purified by HPLC and attempts have been made to study its role in host-parasite interactions using a ... A comparison of host-parasite interactions between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum ... Due to the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and multiple protein complexes (MPCs) in host-parasite ...
... This political download the biogeography of host-parasite arose taken ... What is it enact for download the biogeography of host-parasite to save? One would pack that therefore you are applies to ... One Design Scoring He is how resorting download the biogeography of host-parasite between the police of a complainant and ... Starting The download the biogeography of host-parasite offender has, under newspaper murderous) of the Code, a effect whether ...
Analyzing parasite-host specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy can provide otherwise cryptic details about ... A Checklist of Host-Parasite Interactions of the Order Crocodylia * by Marisa Tellez (Author) ... Analyzing parasite-host specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy can provide otherwise cryptic details about ... This volume meets this need by delivering the first checklist of crocodilians and their parasites for researchers and scholars ...
Host-parasite interactions revealed by Plasmodium falciparum metabolomics. Cell. Host Microbe. 2009;5:191-199. [PMC free ... Eating at the Table of Another: Metabolomics of Host/Parasite Interactions. Björn F.C. Kafsack1 and Manuel Llinás1,2,* ... It takes two to tango: Metabolomics of host/parasite systems By its very nature, parasite metabolism cannot be understood ... metabolite analysis is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of protozoan parasites and host/parasite interactions. In ...
Obligate social parasites of Hymenoptera, known as inquilines, have received enormous attention due to the elaborate ... Sex Ratios in a Socially Parasitic Bee and Implications for Host-Parasite Interactions. *Nahid Shokri Bousjein. 1. , ... Sex Ratios in a Socially Parasitic Bee and Implications for Host-Parasite Interactions. J Insect Behav 30, 130-137 (2017). ... Smith JA, Schwarz MP (2008) Decisions, decisions, decisions: the host colony choices of a social parasite. J Ethol 27:385-389 ...
Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite entre ... S.v. Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite ... Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite entre ... "Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite entre ...
Q fever and Coxiella burnetii: a model for host-parasite interactions. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Q fever and Coxiella burnetii: a model for host-parasite interactions.. O G Baca, D Paretsky ...
In some cases, the aim was targeting parasite-derived orthologues of mammalian cytokines and growth factors known to have ... For decades molecular helminthologists have been interested in identifying proteins expressed by the parasite that have roles ... molecular evidence for roles in host-parasite interactions versus parasite development Int J Parasitol. 2010 Jun;40(7):761-73. ... Often, the role parasite-derived growth factors play in worm development was ignored. Here, we review growth factors and ...
Prada Jimenez de Cisneros, Joaquin M. (2014) Quantification of host-parasite interactions: sheep and their nematodes. PhD ... Parasite resistance in adults sheep at low levels of infection was also studied, especially since the most common ... To expand the knowledge of the host immune response against infection, Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on immunoglobulin ... and extends the model by including other evidence of parasite resistance to discriminate between exposed and unexposed animals. ...
... of the hosts in urban and forest areas hosting ticks and around 60% of hosts presenting fleas, and only 20-40% of hosts ... Season, trapping location, host species and sex of the host species also had an influence on the prevalence and mean intensity ... Nearly 90% of the small mammals analyzed were infested with ectoparasites, with an average of 7.3 specimens per host. Hosts ... Trapping location, season and host characteristics had significant influences on some-but not all-of the investigated species. ...
... and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, inc.. ... Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite Infections ... 2015) Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite ... The relationships between parasites and hosts are complex and there is substantial interaction, communication and biochemical ...
... the host erythrocytes (RBC) via multiple adhesive interactions of several protozoan ligands with the target receptors on the ... During an asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites in a natural host, the extracellular merozoites invade (i.e., attach to, ... The detailed molecular interactions between Babesia merozoites and the host RBC are incompletely understood. In this review, ... During an asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites in a natural host, the extracellular merozoites invade (i.e., attach to, ...
  • Initially, the parasite attempts to establish itself in the host while the latter resists the infection via its defense mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, host susceptibility and resistance will determine whether or not the infection becomes established. (hindawi.com)
  • Other associations can exist in a harmonious compromise whereas host avoidance of the parasite to prevent an infection or evasion by the parasite of the host's immune system can occur. (hindawi.com)
  • The interaction and survival of pathogens in hostile environments and in confrontation with host immune responses are important mechanisms for the establishment of infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Global dynamics of a vector-host epidemic model with age of infection. (aimsciences.org)
  • Basic stochastic models for viral infection within a host. (aimsciences.org)
  • An in-host model of HIV incorporating latent infection and viral mutation. (aimsciences.org)
  • The interaction plays an important role in initiating infections, although it is not all host-parasite interactions that result in infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of host-parasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site. (sciencemag.org)
  • phosphopeptide enrichment, combined with LC MS/MS has been used to study the global response in the host signalling pathway through protein phosphorylation and signal transduction in response to infection with T. gondii and N. caninum. (bl.uk)
  • about one-third of the phosphoproteomes of the host cell in response to infection by T. gondii and N. caninum was different. (bl.uk)
  • Approximately 21 % of the phospho-motifs were found differentially enriched between host cells infected with T. gondii compared to N. caninum infection and finally the pathway analysis showed that a few pathways were differentially enriched between infections with these parasites, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and mTOR signalling pathway in infection with T. gondii Abstract vi but not with N. caninum. (bl.uk)
  • As a means of understanding the broader host response to infection with these parasites at the systems biology level, integrated data analyses were performed on quantitative data from the transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome of host cells infected with the two parasites. (bl.uk)
  • Data analyses showed that host cells produce more proteins in response to infection with T. gondii than with N. caninum after 36 hours post infection (p.i. (bl.uk)
  • To expand the knowledge of the host immune response against infection, Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on immunoglobulin A (IgA), an antibody that binds nematode molecules, and its transfer through the body from the abomasal mucus (i.e. site of infection, where it is produced) to the blood plasma, where it is typically measured. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Parasite resistance in adults sheep at low levels of infection was also studied, especially since the most common parasitological marker of disease is the faecal egg count (i.e. number of nematode eggs in the animals faeces) which is subject to substantial measurement error, among other limitations. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Chapter 4 analyses a dataset of adult animals with low infection levels using a zero inflated binomial model (ZINB) and extends the model by including other evidence of parasite resistance to discriminate between exposed and unexposed animals. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Key Results Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. (csic.es)
  • Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host-parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. (csic.es)
  • From a series of controlled infection experiments that manipulate competition among the parasites we can show that, although both species occur in the same section of the mussel gut, competition between the parasites is weak and shows similar impact on host condition in either simultaneous or sequential infections. (awi.de)
  • However, my work demonstrates that infection with common avian malaria parasites is primarily a function of environmental heterogeneity and is not a predictor of time since introduction for house sparrows that are currently expanding their range in Kenya (Chapter 1). (usf.edu)
  • In sum, this dissertation research implies that house sparrows respond to parasite infection differently than many other known vertebrates, most likely in an effort to maximize efficient use of resources and, in so doing, augment competitive ability and invasion success. (usf.edu)
  • Host expression suggests a general cellular shutdown upon infection, but ATP, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar production appear enhanced, potentially providing the parasite with substrates it cannot make itself. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study underlines the importance of resolving the infection process in order to better understand host-parasite interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After attachment and entering its host, the next step of infection is proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The host defenses may be of such a degree that infection can be prevented entirely. (microbenotes.com)
  • T. gondii can only multiply within cells of its host, and repeated cycles of host cell invasion, parasite multiplication and host cell lysis are a major cause of the tissue damage that occurs during acute infection. (uvm.edu)
  • Motility Parasite motility is important for parasite movement into and out of host cells, for crossing biological barriers and for dissemination through the body during infection. (uvm.edu)
  • Using tachypleginA and other motility-inhibiting compounds as chemical probes, together with parasites containing mutations in proteins of the motility apparatus and a variety of assays we have developed to study motor function, we are attempting to develop a detailed mechanistic understanding of how T. gondii and related parasites move over, around and into cells of their hosts during infection. (uvm.edu)
  • The pathogenesis of tissue remodelling, particularly regarding cardiomyocyte behaviour after parasite infection and the molecular mechanisms that occur immediately following parasite entry into host cells are not yet completely understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this review, we summarise findings achieved by intravital microscopy of the skin and adipose tissues upon infection with various parasites, and we present a view into possible future applications of this method. (unibas.ch)
  • We find that they lessen the negative effects of infection on hosts and reduce infectivity by directly competing with parasites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To understand the sequential interactions between B. besnoiti and the host cell, transmission electron microscopic examinations were carried out on infected Vero cells fixed at various time intervals following infection with Besnoitia merozoites. (ac.ke)
  • The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Principles of chemotherapy in infections and infectious diseases The principles of interaction between host immune responses and establishment of infection. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Recent ecological studies in invertebrates show that the outcome of an infection is dependent on the specific pairing of host and parasite. (duhnnae.com)
  • By measuring the expression of putative bumblebee homologues of antimicrobial peptides in response to infection by their gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi, we demonstrate that expression differences are associated with the specific interactions. (duhnnae.com)
  • In males, parasite infection reduced the fish's ability to produce 11-ketotestosterone which resulted in reduced reproductive behaviour and sexual development. (core.ac.uk)
  • The meeting then focused on the modelling of Theileria parva infection within the host and a simple model for the cytotoxic T. lymphocyte (CTL) response was outlined. (fao.org)
  • Intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide range of strategies to not only escape from the immune systems of their hosts, but also to directly exploit a variety of host factors to facilitate the infection process. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent research has highlighted that the human serine/threonine kinase PAK, or p21-activated kinase, is a central component of host-pathogen interactions in many infection systems involving viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance one common definition of parasite virulence is the reduction in host fitness due to infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed a controlled cross inoculation experiment confronting six lines of the host plant with seven strains of the parasite in order to evaluate genetic variation for phenotypic traits of infection among hosts, parasites, and distinct combinations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parasite infection intensity and transmission were highly variable among parasite strains and host lines but depended also on the interaction between particular genotypes of the protagonists, and genetic variation for the infection phenotype of parasites from natural populations was found even at a small spatial scale within population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent successes in malaria control are threatened by drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites and insecticide-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes, and first generation vaccines offer only partial protection. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we discuss host-parasite interactions at the different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle within the mammalian host and the potential for therapeutics that prevent parasite migration, invasion, intracellular growth, or egress from host cells, as well as parasite-induced pathology. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we tested for host-by-parasite interactions in a medically relevant vertebrate disease model: the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi in laboratory mice. (nih.gov)
  • The exo-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium comprise the sporozoites injected into the mammalian host by the mosquito and the developing forms within the hepatocyte ( Fig. 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the wall of the plasmodium was a single membrane in direct contact with the host cells and contained pinocytic canals that extended into the plasmodium. (unicamp.br)
  • Host-parasite interactions Plasmodium sp. (menards.club)
  • Uncovering the essential genes of the human #Malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by saturation mutagenesis. (ankarklevlab.com)
  • A) RBC invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (tufts.edu)
  • A distinctive feature of Plasmodium falciparum , the most lethal human malaria parasite, is the adhesion of infected RBCs (iRBCs) to organs such as the brain and placenta. (tufts.edu)
  • Here, using a rodent Plasmodium yoelii malaria model, we show that sterile protection mediated by anti- P. yoelii CSP humoral immunity depends on the parasite inoculation into the host skin, where antibodies inhibit motility and kill P. yoelii SPZs via a characteristic 'dotty death' phenotype. (nature.com)
  • Circumsporozoite proteins of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax . (nature.com)
  • Eliminating these diseases therefore means knowing more about parasites-vectors-hosts interactions and climate, environmental and socioeconomic factors. (cirad.fr)
  • It is also working on longer-term studies of the mechanisms by which parasites, vectors and symbionts, and host mammals (man and animals) co-evolve as a result of global change. (cirad.fr)
  • Many parasites induce the secretion of molecules that influence the physiological and immunological responses in hosts, including intermediaries and vectors. (omicsonline.org)
  • These parasites are transmitted by insect vectors in a wide range of geographic areas. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • In contrast, a largely nonoverlapping body of theory on coevolution assumes that the fitness effects of parasites on hosts is not stable across host genotype, but instead depends on host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia - Pasteuria coevolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Host-parasite coevolution is the result of multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolving in concert within the constraints of a particular system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The evolution of myxoma virus in rabbits in Australia shows how quickly coevolution of parasites and hosts can proceed to a new outcome, in this case intermediate virulence. (britannica.com)
  • TgGRA2 was successfully purified by HPLC and attempts have been made to study its role in host-parasite interactions using a pull-down assay. (bl.uk)
  • The surface of animal parasitic nematodes has been well studied with respect to its immunological role in host-parasite interactions. (brillonline.com)
  • These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions. (lcsciences.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Defensive microbes might thus play a central role in host-parasite interactions, by outright replacing host-based defences, engaging in within-host competition with parasites, and ultimately driving tripartite coevolutionary dynamics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Balancing traditional approaches in parasitology with modern studies in parasite ecology and evolution, the authors present basic ecological principles as a unifying framework to help students understand the complex phenomenon of parasitism. (cambridge.org)
  • Combining the classical approach of presenting a summary of the biology of the major groups of parasites, with a broad overview of parasite ecology and evolution, this new edition will be a wonderful resource for teachers of undergraduate parasitology courses. (cambridge.org)
  • Parasitism gives the student both the systematic and zoological background to understand parasitology and the ecological and evolutionary context to understand why it is important to understand parasites. (cambridge.org)
  • This is a wonderful and tractable text well suited for the undergraduate taking survey-type parasitology courses and those senior undergraduates enrolled in specialized courses on the ecology and evolution of parasites. (cambridge.org)
  • Seeliger H.P.R., Patzelt C. (1991) Host-Parasite Interaction-Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Some parasites can also avoid their host's defence mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In the process of adapting to their host niche, these organisms have evolved reduced metabolic capacity, often drastically so, while expanding mechanisms for avoiding host defense and utilizing metabolites from their hosts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some, like the African trypanosome are so adept at avoiding the host defense mechanisms that they grow freely in the blood stream, where they are bathed in nutrients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Thus, understanding the mechanisms involved in immunoendocrine modulation and its effects on parasites is essential for developing new drugs, finding vaccine targets and devising new therapies for several infectious diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The goal of my dissertation research has been to investigate whether invasive species have distinctive interactions with parasites, and some of the mechanisms that may underlie that variation. (usf.edu)
  • We finally propose new strategies that target Leishmania viability indirectly via mechanisms of host-parasite interaction, including parasite-released ectokinases and host epigenetic regulation, which modulate host cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, respectively, to establish permissive conditions for intracellular Leishmania survival. (pasteur.fr)
  • Hosts use diverse defence mechanisms that coevolve with the offensive mechanisms of the parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade host responses, ranging from antigenic modulation of surface proteins to direct immunosuppressive action on specific cellular subsets. (microbenotes.com)
  • In the ongoing evolution of host-parasite relationships between humans and their infections, infectious organisms have developed ingenious ways to avoid immune defense mechanisms. (microbenotes.com)
  • Organisms may locate in niches (privileged sites) not accessible to immune effector mechanisms (protective niche) or hide by acquiring host molecules (masking). (microbenotes.com)
  • A better understanding of the mechanisms of host cell invasion by T. gondii is therefore important to the development of new approaches to treating toxoplasmosis. (uvm.edu)
  • The small molecule work has also led us to study the molecular mechanisms underlying parasite motility . (uvm.edu)
  • In addition to providing new insights into the mechanisms of host cell invasion, this work has clear drug development implications for T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites. (uvm.edu)
  • Mechanisms concerning life or death decisions in protozoan parasites are still imperfectly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally the mechanisms of the trypanosomatids response to environmental changes in their host are also analyzed. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Mechanisms of disease development and evasion mechanisms employed by the parasites in response to the activated immune mechanisms. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • In this review we highlight recent metabolomic approaches to protozoan parasites, including metabolite profiling, integration with genomics, transcription, and proteomic analysis, as well as the use of metabolic fingerprints for the diagnosis of parasitic infections. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The role of certain hormones in parasitic infections has been demonstrated, and there are documented direct effects of hormones on parasites. (omicsonline.org)
  • iii) our lack of understanding about within-host interactions between genetically heterogeneous parasites at the inter- and intraspecific levels, and the significance of such interactions with respect to evolutionary considerations and the clinical outcome of parasite infections. (edu.au)
  • Fatalities caused by parasitic infections often occur as a result of tissue injury that results from a form of host-cell death known as apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A better understanding of how parasitic nematodes locate and infect hosts may lead to the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. (searlescholars.net)
  • The double expresser model for immune response-driven antigen variation in trypanosome infections, presented in the Host-Parasite Interaction session, was discussed in relation to rates of development and possible differences in responses between N'Dama and Boran cattle. (fao.org)
  • Such control requires knowledge of which traits of infections are adaptive for the host or the parasite as well as the associated trade-offs between traits and constraints on their evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parasite motility is therefore essential for virulence and pathogenesis. (uvm.edu)
  • Interactions between parasite and host proteins are important in understanding the pathogenesis of this deadly form of malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work links key host-parasite, parasite-parasite and host-host protein-protein interactions to key processes of cerebral malaria and generates hypotheses for disease pathogenesis based on a filtered interaction dataset. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Small mammals are important maintenance hosts of ectoparasites as well as reservoir hosts for many arthropod-borne pathogens. (springer.com)
  • They are highly successful pathogens that are able to infect a diverse range of hosts, including species of economic significance, and can also cause disease in immunocompromised humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This resulted in a vast list of examples and case-studies ranging from obligate mutualists of plants to animal parasites and human pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some pathogens may rely on a single determinant of virulence, such as toxin production while others maintain a large repertoire of virulence determinants and consequently are able to produce a more complete range of diseases that affect different tissues in their host. (microbenotes.com)
  • Understanding the selection that human activities impose on parasites and pathogens is of crucial importance, not only in terms of human and animal health, but also because of the links between disease and biodiversity. (uib.no)
  • PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. (plos.org)
  • Parasites and pathogens can induce or inhibit these programmes in ways that may determine the outcome of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intravital microscopy allows the visualisation of how pathogens interact with host cells and tissues in living animals in real time. (unibas.ch)
  • malaria), Wuchereria bancrofti (lymphatic filariasis), dengue fever virus, and other mosquito-borne pathogens undergo complex developmental, migrational and/or propagative processes inside two obligate hosts: humans (or other compatible animals) and mosquitoes. (menards.club)
  • Students will learn basic principles of host-parasite interactions with focus on some pathological properties and examples of particular pathogens that play an important role in major human diseases. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • John Von Freyend S, Kwok-Schuelein T, Netter HJ, Haqshenas G, Semblat J-P, Doerig C. Subverting Host Cell P21-Activated Kinase: A Case of Convergent Evolution across Pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Areas of focus for CHPI research include the host-parasite interface, drug discovery, drug resistance, immunology, and the environment. (mcgill.ca)
  • Evolutionary ecology of insect host-parasite interactions : an ecological immunology perspective. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, this interrelationship between hosts and parasites has evolved some associations resulting in host specificity, latitudinal gradients, and diversity in communities and siblings within one species [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Xenomas of microsporans such as Loma branchialis in salmonids, species of Sarcocystis in birds and mammals, and cysticercoids of tapeworms as Taenia saginata in cattle and Trichinella spiralis in pigs use this strategy to infect new hosts following ingestion. (hindawi.com)
  • The relative abundance for these two species has changed both locally and regionally over this time period with a reduction in host abundance coincident with an increase in the parasite population. (usda.gov)
  • This study looks at various computational methods used in literature for host-parasite/inter-species protein-protein interaction predictions with the hope of getting a better insight into computational methods used and identify whether machine learning approaches have been extensively used for the same purpose. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tabulations of studies that carried out host-parasite/inter-species protein interaction predictions were performed, analyzing their predictive methods, filters used, potential protein-protein interactions discovered in those studies and various validation measurements used as the case may be. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We also argue that extremely female-biased sex ratios of the host species, combined with overall sex ratio parity in the parasite, may help ameliorate disparity in effective population sizes between these two species which are locked in an evolutionary arms race. (springer.com)
  • Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite entre crustaceos de seis especies de peixes da Amazonia brasileira. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2015). Moreover, some crustacean species may affect fish breathing when they parasitize their gills, with negative influence on hosts' swimming and growth (Semmens et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Besides the lack of information on the parasite species that occur in these fish species, the variables that influence the parasite assemblage structure are also unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hosts were infested with up to six species of ectoparasites simultaneously. (springer.com)
  • Trapping location, season and host characteristics had significant influences on some-but not all-of the investigated species. (springer.com)
  • Season, trapping location, host species and sex of the host species also had an influence on the prevalence and mean intensity of certain, but not all, ectoparasite species. (springer.com)
  • In addition, glochidia were highly virulent on the less suitable host species, resulting in high mortalities of infested hosts (Chapter 4). (uib.no)
  • The results showed that glochidia from a population that uses salmon as its principal host were able to infest both species, but some mothers displayed a bias for either salmon or trout. (uib.no)
  • Here, we study gene-for-gene relationships governing the outcome of plant-parasite interactions in a spatially structured system and, in particular, investigate the population genetic processes which maintain balanced polymorphism in both species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polymorphism at host and parasite loci is thus predicted to be ancient [ 2 ] with substantial phenotypic and molecular diversity within species at population and metapopulation levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within parasite communities infecting the same host, ecological theory predicts that two species occupying the same niche should evolve distinct niche use to avoid direct competition. (awi.de)
  • Biological invasions can however create situations, where competition could not select for different niche occupancy and closely related parasites species find themselves competing for the same host resources for the first time since their lineages split. (awi.de)
  • Such novel interactions cannot only alter the evolutionary trajectories of both parasite species, but will also feed back on the immune response of the host. (awi.de)
  • Host preference is either strict as exemplified by flies parasitizing fruit bats, or more relaxed as found on some insectivorous bat species, possibly because of roost site sharing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More generally, biogeography is the science that attempts to document and understand patterns of biodiversity, which means that biogeographers seek to understand the interactions between populations, species and ecological communities with their environment, in space and time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Astonishingly, consideration of population and species health and viability is still rare in biogeography whereas the role of parasites in regulating host population abundance and in exterminating local species - thus what can make one species common and even abundant, and what can make another species rare - has received much attention over the past decade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biogeography of some hosts may be influenced by the distribution of parasites, quite apart from the abiotic influences and, in contrast, the biogeography of parasites is determined by host suitability and availability and therefore by the geographical distribution of their host species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • My main current focus is on the global change of species interactions, and more specifically on the anthropogenic evolution of infectious organisms (see here ). (uib.no)
  • In this communication we review the interactions between trypanosomatid parasites, their hosts and thoughts about their impact on environmental health, especially in those regions where hosts are natural reserves of many species. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The Trypanosomatidae are a diverse family of protozoan parasites that are predominately monoxenous (development restricted to one host species). (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Until 2001, monoxenous trypanosomatids had been identified from roughly 350 insect species only, while more than 900 vertebrate hosts had been identified for the dixenous genera [ 4 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Invertebrate hosts of monoxenous trypanosomatids may become infected via multiple routes including ingestion of cyst-like amastigotes from the faeces of other infected hosts [ 6 ], food sharing, predating other infected insect species, or cannibalism [ 7 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Trypanosoma species employ one of two methods of development within their invertebrate host, termed Salivaria and Stercoraria. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The impact of natural enemies is another important selective force which may influence the evolu- tion of interactions between species and the structure of communities. (springer.com)
  • I'm currently involved in projects using species distribution and extinction probability models to identify causal agents and outcomes of decline, identifying habitat use and occupancy patterns for habitat creation initiatives, investigating population and meta-population dynamics for viability models and management scenario projections, trialling the manipulation of social cues to alter distributions and investigating relationships between amphibian hosts, the chytrid fungus and the environment for the purpose of identifying management strategies. (edu.au)
  • Morand, S and Krasnov, B.R . The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While some parasitic lineages are possibly asymbiotic and manage to supplement their diet from other food sources, other lineages are either loosely associated with extracellular gut symbionts or harbour intracellular obligate symbionts that are essential for the host development and reproduction. (cambridge.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells. (bl.uk)
  • Trachipleistophora hominis was isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient and is a member of a highly successful group of obligate intracellular parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immune defense against pathogenic organisms is tailored to meet the broad range of their extracellular and intracellular lifecycles within the host environment. (microbenotes.com)
  • Four intracellular parasites visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. (uvm.edu)
  • Such interactions are known to trigger intracellular signaling cascades within the EC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article presents the ultrastructural dynamics of host cell invasion and intracellular survival of Besnoitia besnoiti. (ac.ke)
  • Further studies should investigate factors that influence host-parasite interactions, for example the diversity of the genes of the host major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (uib.no)
  • Genomic and pathology analysis has revealed enormous diversity in genes involved in disease, including those encoding host resistance and parasite effectors (also known in plant pathology as avirulence genes). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that such studies should be developed to investigate the generality of this mechanism for the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity at host and parasite genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disease is a major driving force of evolution, generating natural selection which acts both on host defences and on genes enabling parasites to overcome those defences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Triplet transcriptomics of matching host (M. edulis) and parasite samples (M. intestinalis and M. orientalis) however revealed that the novel interaction of the invader with the host changes the transcriptional activity of many more genes and processes than the interaction with the established and coevolved parasite. (awi.de)
  • Expression divergence of duplicated genes, including transporters used to acquire host metabolites, demonstrates ongoing functional diversification during microsporidian evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, highly expressed T. hominis genes of unknown function include a cohort that are shared among all microsporidians, indicating that some strongly conserved features of the biology of these enormously successful parasites remain uncharacterised. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. (plos.org)
  • Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of genes and pathways essential for parasite development and survival within the host. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A mutualism-parasitism system modeling host and parasite with mutualism at low density. (aimsciences.org)
  • This review examines the surfaces of both the plant cell and the nematode, specifically their composition, and how this changes during parasitism, and their functional roles, which are relevant to the understanding of both compatible and incompatible interactions. (brillonline.com)
  • Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between two organisms: a parasite, usually the smaller of the two, and a host, upon which the parasite is physiologically dependent. (microbenotes.com)
  • Parasitism is the association of two organisms where one, the parasite, lives at the expense of the other, the host ( Roberts and Janovy, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • During the associations of many insect endoparasites, including gregarious braconid wasps of the genus Cotesia , with their lepidopteran larval hosts, the effects of parasitism are initially mediated by a variety of parasite-derived factors. (biologists.org)
  • Records of parasitism in crocodilians date back to the early 1800s, distributed among published works, unpublished manuscripts, and international parasite catalogs. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • This unique approach, presented clearly and with a minimum of jargon and mathematical detail, encourages students from diverse backgrounds to think generally and conceptually about parasites and parasitism. (cambridge.org)
  • Cysticerci of Taenia solium which infect the human brain, a site impervious to the immune response, are protected from destruction by the host. (hindawi.com)
  • Host-parasite protein interaction enhances the understanding of how parasite can infect its host. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Identifying the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that allow a parasite to infect its host has a lot do in discovering possible drug targets. (eurekaselect.com)
  • What is perhaps even more diverse are the pathogenic lineages that infect blood-feeding parasites. (cambridge.org)
  • This microbial diversity not only puts the host into a complicated situation - distinguishing between microorganisms that can greatly decrease or increase its fitness - but also increases opportunity for horizontal gene transfer to occur in this environment. (cambridge.org)
  • In this review, I first introduce this diversity of mutualistic and pathogenic microorganisms associated with blood-feeding animals and then focus on patterns in their interactions, particularly nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange. (cambridge.org)
  • Previous research in the house sparrow suggested that loss of parasite diversity may contribute to invasion success. (usf.edu)
  • We present information on Nycteribiidae flies parasitizing the bat families Pteropodidae, Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae from the Malagasy Region, contributing insight into their diversity and host preference. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. (plos.org)
  • It stands out in this group of parasites its ubiquity in the different continents and the enormous diversity of hosts. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The presence of these parasites generates in their hosts a great diversity of clinical manifestations ( Leishmania ). (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Richly illustrated with over 250 figures, the text is accompanied by case study boxes designed to help students appreciate the complexity and diversity of parasites and the scientists who study them. (cambridge.org)
  • In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An important question is whether this specificity is due to the immune response rather than some other interplay between host and parasite genotypes. (duhnnae.com)
  • For decades molecular helminthologists have been interested in identifying proteins expressed by the parasite that have roles in modulating the host immune response. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, several components located on the surface of the RBC, such as sialic acid residues, protease-sensitive proteins, or sulphated glycosaminoglycans, are identified or suspected as the host receptors of erythrocyte invasion by Babesia parasites. (nih.gov)
  • AMA1 Proteins secreted onto the parasite surface from apical organelles, the micronemes, are thought to play an important role in invasion. (uvm.edu)
  • Proteins of the parasite's motility apparatus, including the myosin motor protein, MyoA, are highly conserved across apicomplexan parasites but absent or divergent in higher eukaryotes, suggesting that they may be useful drug targets. (uvm.edu)
  • effect of parasite proteins in TGF-β regulation and the role of albumin in astrocyte dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, interactions between the parasite protein PfEMP1 and human proteins such as CD36 and inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expressed in endothelial cells (EC) are critical for sequestration [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions (PPI) between host and parasite proteins are thus crucial to studying the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work integrates PPI from a multitude of sources to create an integrated PPI landscape, and links some of these interactions to key processes and events of CM. The landscape also includes upstream PPI involving only parasite proteins as well as downstream PPI involving only host proteins that are necessary to understand the triggers and outcomes of these processes and events, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of the malaria parasite proteins (ligand) and their cognate host proteins (receptor) is essential for the development of an effective multi-subunit vaccine. (tufts.edu)
  • The host's age, behaviour, immunological status, and environmental change can affect the association that is beneficial to the host whereas evasion of the host's immune response favours the parasite. (hindawi.com)
  • A host age dependent immune response was observed, i.e. the 0+ hosts displayed a resistant strategy, whereas the 1+ hosts displayed a tolerant one. (uib.no)
  • Here, we show how the invasion of the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis creates competition with the established congeneric parasite Mytilicola intestinalis, and how this novel menage a trois feeds back on the immune response of the blue mussel host Mytilus edulis. (awi.de)
  • The most likely alternative for anthelmintics would be a vaccine, but this requires an improved understanding of the immune response, together with a more detailed knowledge of the host-parasite interactions. (uu.nl)
  • To counteract parasite growth, the host adapts physiologically (for example, iron-withholding [ 9 ]) or actively defends itself with an immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analyzing parasite-host specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy can provide otherwise cryptic details about crocodilian ecology and evolution, as well as their local food web dynamics. (ucpress.edu)
  • Professor Brock commented, "This new discovery reveals that intimate parasite-host animal systems arose in early Cambrian benthic communities and their emergence may have played a key role in the evolutionary and ecological innovations associated with the Cambrian radiation. (edu.au)
  • We have examined genetic variability in parasites in the context of ecological interactions with the host. (edu.au)
  • i ) Historical Biogeography, ( ii ) Ecological Biogeography and Macroecology, ( iii ) Geography of Interactive Populations, ( iv ) Invasion, Insularity, and Interactions, and ( v ) Applied Biogeography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mathematical model for within-host Toxoplasma gondii invasion dynamics. (aimsciences.org)
  • Several interesting complexes were identified in N. caninum tachyzoites and include mitochondrial complexes, proteasome, glideosome and moving junction molecules that play an important role in the physiology and invasion of host cells. (bl.uk)
  • T. gondii is also a powerful model for studying the invasion of related apicomplexan parasites, including those that cause malaria and cryptosporidiosis. (uvm.edu)
  • We are currently studying two aspects of T. gondii AMA1 critical to its role in mediating invasion: (a) the function of its cytosolic tail and (b) why and how its extracellular domain is cleaved and shed from the parasite surface during invasion. (uvm.edu)
  • Intriguingly, over 90% of the invasion inhibitors identified in our small molecule screens affect parasite motility. (uvm.edu)
  • Life history shifts in an exploited African fish following invasion by a castrating parasite. (uib.no)
  • Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified an essential role of RBC membrane complex containing Band 3 (anion exchanger-1) and Glycophorin A (GPA) during the parasite invasion of RBCs (Fig.1A). (tufts.edu)
  • Cuscuta reflexa invasion induces Ca release in its host. (semanticscholar.org)
  • If such genetic interactions largely determine virulence, it becomes difficult to predict the strength and direction of selection on virulence. (nih.gov)
  • The variation in host suitability has been linked to environmental conditions, host age and/or size, genetic composition of the host and parasite, or a combination of these factors. (uib.no)
  • The use of high quality hosts will also minimise the possible selection and genetic drift effects. (uib.no)
  • Our recent wok has demonstrated the natural occurrence and genetic origin of an exclusive and rather abundant phospholipid phosphatidylthreonine (PtdThr) in two widespread eukaryotic parasites Toxoplasma gondii (Arroyo-Olarte RD et al, PLoS Biology 2015) and Eimeria falciformis (Kong P et al, Cell Discovery - Nature 2018). (phdposition.com)
  • Parasites are able to produce disease because they possess certain structural or biochemical or genetic traits that render them pathogenic or virulent. (microbenotes.com)
  • This variation may result from genetic differences in the host or parasite population, co-evolutionary processes or reflect differences in the environmental conditions experienced by populations. (core.ac.uk)
  • The interplay between host haemostatic systems and Leptospira spp. (lu.se)
  • Here we have investigated the evolution of the parasite and the interplay between host and parasite gene expression using transcriptomics of T. hominis -infected rabbit kidney cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects of superinfection and cost of immunity on host-parasite co-evolution. (aimsciences.org)
  • These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fig. 1: Sterilizing anti- P. yoelii CSP humoral immunity is dependent on the host skin inoculation with SPZs. (nature.com)
  • Host-parasite interactions for virulence and resistance in a malaria model system. (nih.gov)
  • We found that parasite and particularly host main effects explained most of the variance in virulence (anaemia and weight loss), resistance (parasite burden) and transmission potential. (nih.gov)
  • on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. (csic.es)
  • Environmental variation is manifested by different coefficients of natural selection, the costs to the host of resistance and to the parasite of virulence, the cost to the host of being diseased and the cost to an avirulent parasite of unsuccessfully attacking a resistant host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Balanced polymorphism occurs preferentially if there is heterogeneity for costs of resistance and virulence alleles among populations and to a lesser extent if there is variation in the cost to the host of being diseased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the four fitness costs control the natural frequency of oscillation of host resistance and parasite avirulence alleles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the GFG system a host can resist attack by a parasite if it has a resistance ( RES ) gene which enables recognition of a specific parasite avirulence ( AVR ) gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A parasite is not detected by a host and resistance is ineffective if the host has a susceptibility allele ( res ) or the parasite has a virulence allele ( avr ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, even though the unique eukaryotic biology of Leishmania and its dependence on parasite-specific virulence factors provide valid opportunities for chemotherapeutical intervention, all strategies that target the parasite in a direct fashion are likely prone to select for resistance. (pasteur.fr)
  • The host has various degrees of resistance to the parasite in the form of the host defenses. (microbenotes.com)
  • Engineering host resistance against parasitic weeds with RNA interference. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This volume meets this need by delivering the first checklist of crocodilians and their parasites for researchers and scholars in biology, herpetology, and ecology in order to further the knowledge and study of crocodilian-parasite dynamics and improve our understanding of human impacts on ecosystems. (ucpress.edu)
  • Research advances over the past decade have opened the door for a systems biology approach to protozoan parasites with metabolomics providing a crucial readout of metabolic activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • From a systems biology perspective, studying parasitic disease is particularly enticing as it inherently involves the complex interplay of two interconnected biological systems with a net flow of energy and nutrients between the host and the parasite. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Their population biology can be difficult to infer as they are both rare and difficult to extract from host nests. (springer.com)
  • PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this cross journal series, BMC Biology , BMC Evolutionary Biology and Biology Direct bring together a collection of articles exploring how evolutionary principles applied across the spectrum of biology can shed light on a diverse range of topics from molecules to ecosystems, and with a particular emphasis on human genetics, interactions with the environment, and health and disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Oestrid Flies: Biology, Host-parasite Relationships, Impact and Management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reflecting the enormous advances made in the field over the past ten years, this text synthesizes the latest developments in the ecology and evolution of animal parasites against a backdrop of parallel advances in parasite systematics, biodiversity and life cycles. (cambridge.org)
  • Temporal changes in the relative abundances of host-parasite populations can influence the magnitude of the effects of corresponding interspecific interactions. (usda.gov)
  • When parasite populations are at relatively low abundance, the negative effects on host populations may be insignificant, but when parasite abundance increases beyond critical thresholds, they can have population limiting effects on the host. (usda.gov)
  • M. margaritifera populations are very host specific, and they are able to metamorphose only on the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), sea trout (Salmo trutta f. trutta) or brown trout (S. trutta f. fario). (uib.no)
  • As such, the findings of Chapter 1 inspired two studies in which my collaborators and I showed that house sparrows from two non-native populations seem capable of maintaining normal health, performance and behavior during immune challenge, a response often referred to as parasite tolerance. (usf.edu)
  • Identification depends on the employed method, e.g. zymodemes (parasite populations with common isoenzyme patterns identified electrophoretically) or schizodemes (parasite populations defined by shared 'fingerprint patterns' obtained by a process involving digestion of kinetoplast DNA by restriction enzymes). (heraldopenaccess.us)
  • We also wanted to emphasize that the introduction of these parasites has had devastating consequences on the local host populations of some communities (Trypanosomatids in emerging environmental health situations). (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Obligate social parasites of Hymenoptera, known as inquilines, have received enormous attention due to the elaborate adaptations they exhibit for exploiting their hosts, and because they have frequently been used to infer sympatric speciation. (springer.com)
  • Here we report sex ratio patterns in the allodapine bee Inquilina schwarzi, which is an obligate social parasite of another allodapine, Exoneura robusta . (springer.com)
  • It has a complex life cycle which involves an obligate parasitic stage on a suitable host. (uib.no)
  • New research approaches have highlighted host as well as parasite molecules or pathways that could be targeted for interventions. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these molecules are involved in triggering specific signaling pathways both in the parasite and the host cell, which are critical for parasite entry and survival [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We are now investigating the neural circuits and signaling pathways that mediate CO2 response in free-living and parasitic nematodes to gain insight into how parasites respond to hosts and how the nervous systems of parasites have evolved to support parasitic behaviors. (searlescholars.net)
  • One such strategy is to subvert host cell signalling pathways to the advantage of the pathogen. (mdpi.com)
  • Small mammals are important reservoir hosts for the maintenance of developmental and adult stages of ectoparasites. (springer.com)
  • Together, the larger nutrient pool and maintenance of nutrient allocation patterns in challenged house sparrows suggests that no physiological trade-offs occurred and that house sparrows experienced a lower cost of parasite exposure. (usf.edu)
  • This method has enabled key advances in our understanding of host-parasite interactions under physiological conditions. (unibas.ch)
  • The results indicated that the parasite reduced host reproduction and the physiological basis behind this was established. (core.ac.uk)
  • These stages of the life cycle in the mammalian host are clinically silent but offer great potential for malaria prevention. (rupress.org)
  • Using a calcium biosensor, we observed that loss of PtdThr causes a dysregulation of cytosolic calcium, which in turn translates into a defective egress from the mammalian host cells (Kuchipudi A et al, Microbial Cell 2016). (phdposition.com)
  • Currently, we are employing the phage-display cDNA libraries to identify additional components of the parasite protein complex for new drug/vaccine targets against malaria. (tufts.edu)
  • That means the first group was constantly re-exposed to malaria parasites, which acted as a vaccine booster. (iayork.com)
  • The host and parasite are in dynamic interaction, the outcome of which depends upon the properties of the parasite and of the host. (microbenotes.com)
  • Significant improvement in understanding of the role of a modelling approach and its potential for investigating and explaining biological problems at a molecular or cellular level was an important outcome of the workshop and a closer interaction between biologists and modellers was encouraged by all participants. (fao.org)
  • The chapter on the evolution of host-parasite interactions does a very nice job of integrating micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to this topic. (cambridge.org)
  • Therefore, information on the variables affecting the assemblage structure is important for in-depth knowledge of the host-parasite interaction (Fontana et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • host-by-parasite interactions typical of those assumed in coevolutionary models were present, but were by no means pervasive. (nih.gov)
  • Our results therefore not only show the utility of biological invasions of parasites to study coevolutionary processes, but also shows that responses to novel host-parasite interactions can lead to massive reactions on the molecular level that are not reflected in host or parasite phenotypes. (awi.de)
  • We suggest that this one step can explain host population structure and could be a key force behind coevolutionary cycles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discuss how different steps can explain different aspects of the coevolutionary dynamics of the system: the properties of the attachment step, explaining the rapid evolution of infectivity and the properties of later parasite proliferation explaining the evolution of virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The evolutionary and coevolutionary consequences of defensive microbes for host-parasite interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The density of defensive microbes influences the strength of selection resulting from host - defensive microbe - parasite coevolutionary interactions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review focuses on the potential for therapeutics that exploit host-parasite interactions as a strategy to develop new antimalarials, highlighting recent discoveries that illustrate this approach. (rupress.org)
  • Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. (lcsciences.com)
  • We propose that different levels of compatibility dependent on genotype by genotype interactions might lead to different amounts of resources available for host and parasite reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The application of metabolomics, the global analysis of metabolite levels, to the study of protozoan parasites has become an important tool for understanding the host/parasite relationship and holds promise for the development of direly needed therapeutics and improved diagnostics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Application of metabolomics to the study of protozoan parasites, while still in its infancy, is rapidly emerging as a fertile approach to better understand the host/parasite interaction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During an asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites in a natural host, the extracellular merozoites invade (i.e., attach to, penetrate, and internalize) the host erythrocytes (RBC) via multiple adhesive interactions of several protozoan ligands with the target receptors on the host cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • It is more than 25 years since the first report that a protozoan parasite could die by a process resulting in a morphological phenotype akin to apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are protozoan metacaspases potential parasite killers? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their analyses indicate that the tube-dwelling organisms reduced the biological fitness of the host brachiopod. (edu.au)
  • In combination with the growth orientation of the encrusting tubes, this indicates that the interaction between the tube-dwelling organisms and the brachiopods was parasitic or more specifically, kleptoparastitic. (edu.au)
  • Parasites can increase the energy requirements of infected organisms because host organisms need to generate enough energy to satisfy their own requirements plus the nutrients lost to the parasite. (edu.au)
  • Parasites comprise a group of organisms that cause a massive infectious disease problem for humans and several animals of veterinary importance. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this volume, we try to synthesize aspects of both disciplines and will concen- trate on how the interactions between organisms depend on their life-history strategies. (springer.com)
  • The first group discussed modelling of three biological processes involved in vector-borne and other parasitic diseases, namely immunogenetics, parasite transmission and livestock production and ecology. (fao.org)
  • These interactions are related to the virulence and transmission strategy of the parasites and so are potentially associated with the biological differences between these parasites. (bl.uk)
  • Histopathological analysis revealed that the development of the parasite was intralamellar and caused stretching of the epithelium, with accentuated deformation, as well as compression of the capillary and adjacent tissues. (unicamp.br)
  • The development of the parasite was asynchronous, with the earliest stages at the periphery and mature spores in the central region. (unicamp.br)
  • When increased parasite virulence results in increased parasite transmission, modifying transmission may influence the evolutionary trajectory of virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It therefore becomes important to understand the workings of host-parasite interactions which are the major causes of most infectious diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Virtually all classes of infectious agents have devised ways to avoid host defenses. (microbenotes.com)
  • Coursesfocused on the 'Host-vector-parasite interactions and infectious diseases' theme, available at the heart of the scientific community of Montpellier and Occitanie area. (agropolis.org)
  • Interest in the ecology of infectious disease is exploding, often drawing in researchers with little background in the zoology of parasites. (cambridge.org)
  • Understanding the selective forces driving parasite evolution is crucial in the fight against infectious diseases, both in agriculture and human health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ortiz S, Solari A (2019) Excavata-Kinetoplastea Trypanosomatidae Parasites and the Interaction with their Hosts. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Blood metabolite levels supporting the greatest parasite burden and biomass of emerged and non-emerged parasites occupy a region of two dimensional space corresponding to approximately 60-200 mg per insect of protein nitrogen and 60-100 mg per insect of trehalose. (biologists.org)
  • One source of negative effects of parasites on their hosts, adaptive to the parasites themselves, is the consumption of host resources by parasite growth and reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vertebrates, the parasite presence also has a major influence on the host's endocrine status and the normal suite of processes governed by hormones. (omicsonline.org)
  • It is thought that trypanosomatids had a single origin as exclusively insect-borne parasites and later become digenetic parasites when vertebrates emerged since the Mesozoic era 230 mya [ 13 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • This kind of interaction may in turn decouple the relationship between parasite transmission and its negative effect on host fitness, altering theoretical predictions of parasite evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, parasites themselves are phylogenetically diverse, target a range of different tissues, and have evolved numerous alternative strategies to evade or inhibit protective immune responses by strategies, such as antigenic variation, molecular mimicry or affecting antigen processing and presentation. (omicsonline.org)
  • After the activation step, endoparasites need to enter the host tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For many parasites, including the one studied here, this occurs through the attachment of the parasites to the host tissues but hosts may evolve to prevent this attachment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The book combines a comprehensive and balanced presentation of parasite biodiversity with an insightful treatment of the various aspects of the ecology of host/parasite interactions. (cambridge.org)
  • This raises the possibility that host heterogeneity may affect the rate of any parasite response to selection on virulence. (nih.gov)
  • We use Cas9 genome editing technologies to for loss and gain of function studies related to host parasite interactions in humans, plants, and insects. (montana.edu)